5th century  

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The censorship of books developed by the Roman Catholic church remains an outstanding example in Christendom of long lasting and comprehensive religious censorship, at times ruthlessly acted upon by the Roman Inquisition.

In order to fend off a heretical threat to Christian doctrine, Creeds such as the Nicene Creed promulgated in AD 325, were devised. In ca. 496 AD Pope Gelasius I issued a decree containing lists of recommended as well as banned books, generally regarded as the first Roman Index. However, the church's concern for dangerous books is evident well before 496 AD. --http://www.beaconforfreedom.org/liste.html?tid=415&art_id=556 [Jan 2005]

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

The 5th century is the time period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in Anno Domini / Common Era. The 5th century is noted for being a time of repeated disaster and instability both internally and externally for the Western Roman Empire, which finally collapsed, and came to an end in 476 AD. The Western Roman Empire was ruled by a succession of weak emperors, and true power began to fall increasingly into the hands of powerful generals.

Internal instability and the pressing military problem of foreign invaders resulted in the ransacking of Rome by a Visigoth army in 410. Some recovery took place during the following decades, but the Western Empire received another serious blow when a second barbarian group, the Vandals, occupied Carthage, capital of the extremely important province of Africa.

Attempts to retake the province were interrupted by the invasion of the Huns under Attila. After Attila's defeat, both Eastern and Western empires joined forces for a final assault on Vandal North Africa, but this campaign was a spectacular failure. In the far east, a lot of nomadic barbarian tribes northern to China immigrated into the central part of China and established a series of dynasties, which launched a 300-year division of China between the north and the south and long-lasting wars.


[[File:CPN WEST COURT 01.jpg|thumbnail|Copan]]

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