7th century  

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The 7th century is the period from 601 to 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian/Common Era.



The Muslim conquests began after the death of Muhammad in 632. Islam expanded beyond the Arabian Peninsula under the Rashidun Caliphate (632-661) and the Umayyad Caliphate (661-750). The Islamic conquest of Persia in the 7th century led to the downfall of the Sassanid Empire. Also conquered during the 6th century were Syria, Armenia, Egypt, and North Africa.

The Eastern Empire continued suffering setbacks during the rapid expansion of the Arab Empire. Although life in the countryside deteriorated, Constantinople grew to become the largest and wealthiest city in the world. It is estimated that the Plague of Justinian killed as many as 100 million people across the world. It caused Europe's population to drop by around 50% between 550 and 700. It also may have contributed to the success of the Arabs.

In the Iberian Peninsula, the seventh century was the Siglo de Concilios, that is, century of councils, referring to the Councils of Toledo.

In the 7th century, Harsha united Northern India, which had reverted to small republics and states after the fall of the Gupta Empire in the 6th century. In China, the Sui Dynasty was replaced by the Tang Dynasty. Silla allied itself with the Tang Dynasty, subjugating Baekje and defeating Goguryeo to unite the Korean Peninsula under one ruler. The Asuka Period persisted in Japan throughout the 7th century.


The first surah in a handwritten copy of the Qur'an
An Anglo-Saxon helmet found at Sutton Hoo, probably belonging to Raedwald of East Anglia circa 625.

Chang'an, built in 652 AD, in modern-day Xi'an, China.]]

Significant persons

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

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