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-'''Pan''' ([[Greek language|Greek]]), is the [[Greek mythology|Greek god]] of [[Pastoral|shepherds and flocks]], of [[mountain]] [[wild]]s, hunting and [[rustic music]]: ''[[paein]]'' means to pasture. He has the hindquarters, [[leg]]s, and [[horn]]s of a [[goat]], in the same manner as a [[faun]] or [[satyr]]. In the late 18th century, interest in Pan revived among liberal scholars. [[Richard Payne Knight]] discussed Pan in his ''[[Discourse on the Worship of Priapus]]'' (1786) as a symbol of creation expressed through sexuality. "Pan is represented pouring water upon the organ of generation; that is, invigorating the active creative power by the prolific element."+The word “pan” appears in many languages with many variations in the use of [[capitalization]], [[punctuation]], use of [[diacritic]]s, and use in different [[script]]s.
-'''Pan''' in [[Ancient Greek religion|Greek religion]] and [[Greek mythology|mythology]], is the companion of the [[nymph]]s, god of shepherds and flocks, of mountain wilds, hunting and rustic music. His name originates within the Greek language, from the word ''paein'', meaning "to pasture". He has the hindquarters, legs, and horns of a goat, in the same manner as a [[faun]]. With his homeland in rustic [[Arcadia]], he is recognized as the god of fields, groves, and wooded glens; because of this, Pan is connected to fertility and the season of spring. The ancient Greeks also considered Pan to be the god of theatrical criticism. +
- +
-In [[Roman mythology]], Pan's counterpart was [[Faunus]], a nature spirit who was the father of [[Bona Dea]] ([[Fauna (goddess)|Fauna]]). In the 18th and 19th centuries, Pan became a significant figure in [[Romanticism|the Romantic movement]] of western Europe, and also in the 20th century [[Neopaganism|Neopagan movement]]. +
-In his earliest appearance in literature, [[Pindar]]'s Pythian Ode iii. 78, Pan is associated with a [[mother goddess]], perhaps [[Rhea]] or [[Cybele]]; Pindar refers to virgins worshipping [[Cybele]] and Pan near the poet's house in [[Boeotia]].+
- +
-The parentage of Pan is unclear; in some [[Greek mythology|myth]]s he is the son of [[Zeus]], though generally he is the son of [[Hermes]] or [[Dionysus]], with whom his mother is said to be a [[nymph]], sometimes [[Dryope]] or, in [[Nonnus]], ''Dionysiaca'' (14.92), Penelope of [[Mantineia]] in Arcadia. This nymph at some point in the tradition became conflated with [[Penelope]], the wife of [[Odysseus]]. [[Pausanias]] 8.12.5 records the story that Penelope had in fact been unfaithful to her husband, who banished her to Mantineia upon his return. Other sources ([[Duris of Samos]]; the Vergilian commentator [[Servius]]) report that Penelope slept with all 108 suitors in Odysseus' absence, and gave birth to Pan as a result. This myth reflects the folk etymology that equates Pan's name ([[Πάν]]) with the Greek word for "[[all]]" ([[πᾶν]]). It is more likely to be [[cognate]] with ''[[paein]]'', "to pasture", and to share an origin with the modern English word "pasture". In 1924, Hermann Collitz suggested that Greek Pan and Indic [[Pushan]] might have a common Indo-European origin. In the [[Mystery cult]]s of the highly syncretic [[Hellenistic religion|Hellenistic]] era Pan is made cognate with [[Phanes (mythology)|Phanes/Protogonos]], [[Zeus]], [[Dionysus]] and [[Eros (mythology)|Eros]].+
-The [[Religion in ancient Rome|Roman]] [[Faunus]], a god of Indo-European origin, was equated with Pan. However, accounts of Pan's genealogy are so varied that it must lie buried deep in mythic time. Like other nature spirits, Pan appears to be older than the [[Twelve Olympians|Olympians]], if it is true that he gave [[Artemis]] her hunting dogs and taught the secret of prophecy to [[Apollo]]. Pan might be multiplied as the '''Panes''' (Burkert 1985, III.3.2; Ruck and Staples 1994 p 132) or the ''Paniskoi''. Kerenyi (1951 p 174) notes from [[scholia]] that [[Aeschylus]] in ''Rhesus'' distinguished between two Pans, one the son of Zeus and twin of [[Arcas]], and one a son of [[Cronus]]. "In the retinue of [[Dionysos]], or in depictions of wild landscapes, there appeared not only a great Pan, but also little Pans, Paniskoi, who played the same part as the [[Satyr]]s".+==Capitalization and punctuation==
-The goat-god [[Aegipan]] was nurtured by [[Amalthea]] with the infant [[Zeus]] in Crete. In Zeus' battle with [[Typhon]], Aegipan and [[Hermes]] stole back Zeus' "sinews" that Typhon had hidden away in the [[Corycian Cave]]. Pan aided his foster-brother in the [[Titanomachy|battle with the Titans]] by blowing his conch-horn and scattering them in terror. According to some traditions, [[Aegipan]] was the son of Pan, rather than his father.+{{top2}}
-One of the famous myths of Pan involves the origin of his [[pan flute]], fashioned from lengths of hollow reed. [[Syrinx]] was a lovely water-[[nymph]] of Arcadia, daughter of Landon, the river-god. As she was returning from the hunt one day, Pan met her. To escape from his importunities, the fair nymph ran away and didn't stop to hear his compliments. He pursued from Mount Lycaeum until she came to her sisters who immediately changed her into a reed. When the air blew through the reeds, it produced a plaintive melody. The god, still infatuated, took some of the reeds, because he could not identify which reed she became, and cut seven pieces (or according to some versions, nine), joined them side by side in gradually decreasing lengths, and formed the musical instrument bearing the name of his beloved [[Syrinx]]. Henceforth Pan was seldom seen without it. +==Other scripts==
-[[Echo (mythology)|Echo]] was a nymph who was a great singer and dancer and scorned the love of any man. This angered Pan, a [[lecherous]] god, and he instructed his followers to kill her. Echo was torn to pieces and spread all over earth. The goddess of the earth, [[Gaia (mythology)|Gaia]], received the pieces of Echo, whose voice remains repeating the last words of others. In some versions, Echo and Pan first had one child: [[Iambe]]. +===Greek===
-Pan also loved a nymph named [[Pitys]], who was turned into a pine tree to escape him.+===Japanese===
 +*[[パン]] (''bread'')
-===Erotic aspects===+==Combinations with numbers==
-Pan is famous for his sexual powers, and is often depicted with an erect [[phallus]]. [[Diogenes of Sinope]], speaking in jest, related a myth of Pan learning [[masturbation]] from his father, [[Hermes]], and teaching the habit to shepherds.+*[[pan1]]
-He was believed by the Greeks to have plied his charms primarily on maidens and shepherds. Though he failed with Syrinx and Pitys, Pan didn't fail with the [[Maenads]]—he had every one of them, in one orgiastic riot or another. To effect this, Pan was sometimes multiplied into a whole tribe of '''Panes'''.+==See also==
 +*[[Appendix:Variations of "p"]]
 +*[[Appendix:Variations of "a"]]
 +*[[Appendix:Variations of "n"]]
-Pan's greatest conquest was that of the moon goddess [[Selene]]. He accomplished this by wrapping himself in a [[Sheepskin (material)|sheepskin]] to hide his hairy black goat form, and drew her down from the sky into the forest where he seduced her.+===Reduplication===
-===Pan and music===+====Homophones====
-Once Pan had the audacity to compare his music with that of [[Apollo (god)|Apollo]], and to challenge Apollo, the god of the [[lyre]], to a trial of skill. [[Tmolus]], the mountain-god, was chosen to umpire. Pan blew on his pipes, and with his rustic melody gave great satisfaction to himself and his faithful follower, [[Midas]], who happened to be present. Then Apollo struck the strings of his lyre. Tmolus at once awarded the victory to Apollo, and all but Midas agreed with the judgement. He dissented, and questioned the justice of the award. Apollo would not suffer such a depraved pair of ears any longer, and turned Midas' ears into those of a [[donkey]].+*[[pain]]
-In another version of the myth the first round of the contest was a tie so they were forced to go to a second round. In this round, Apollo demanded that they play standing on their heads. Apollo, playing on the lyre, was unaffected, however Pan's pipe couldn't be played while upsidedown, so Apollo won the contest.+*[[pane]]
-The [[constellation]] [[Capricornus]] is often depicted as a sea-goat, a goat with a fish's tail: see [[Hecatonchires|Aigaion or Briareos, one of the Hecatonchires]]. One myth{{Fact|date=February 2007}} that would seem to be invented to justify a connection of Pan with Capricorn says that when [[Aegipan]], that is Pan in his goat-god aspect, was attacked by the monster [[Typhon]], he dove into the Nile; the parts above the water remained a goat, but those under the water transformed into a fish. 
-'''Aegocerus''' "goat-horned" was an epithet of Pan descriptive of his figure with the horns of a goat. 
-== See also == 
{{GFDL}} {{GFDL}}

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

The word “pan” appears in many languages with many variations in the use of capitalization, punctuation, use of diacritics, and use in different scripts. Template:Wikipedia


Capitalization and punctuation





Other scripts




Combinations with numbers

See also



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