Antonello da Messina  

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-'''Vittore Carpaccio''' (c. 1460 – 1525/1526) was an [[Italy|Italian]] painter of the [[Venetian school]], who studied under [[Gentile Bellini]]. He is best known for a cycle of nine [[painting]]s, ''The Legend of [[Saint Ursula]]''. His style was somewhat conservative, showing little influence from the [[Renaissance humanism|Humanist]] trends that transformed [[Italian Renaissance painting]] during his lifetime. He was influenced by the style of [[Antonello da Messina]] and [[Early Netherlandish art]]. For this reason, and also because so much of his best work remains in Venice, his art has been rather neglected by comparison with other Venetian contemporaries, such as [[Giovanni Bellini]] or [[Giorgione]]. He is perhaps known best for his large urban scenes, such as that the painting showing a miraculous healing at the [[Rialto Bridge]] (''at right''). These canvases offer some of the best impressions of the Venice at the height of its power and wealth, illustrating the strong sense of the civic pride among its citizens. In other paintings he demonstrates a sense of fantasy that seems to look back to medieval romance, rather than sharing in the pastoral vision of the next generation.  
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-==Biography== 
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-Carpaccio was born in [[Venice]], the son of Piero Scarpazza, a leather merchant. The family background was Istrian which may explain his special association with the Dalmatian School in Venice. However, few details of his life are known. His principal works were executed between 1490 and 1519, ranking him among the early masters of the Venetian Renaissance. He is first mentioned in 1472 in a will of his uncle Fra Ilario. Upon entering the Humanist circles of Venice, he changed his family name to Carpaccio. He was a pupil (not, as sometimes thought, the master) of [[Lazzaro Bastiani]], who, like the [[Giovanni Bellini|Bellini]] and [[Antonio Vivarini|Vivarini]], was the head of a large ''atelier'' in Venice. 
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-==Work== 
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-Carpaccio's earliest known solo works are a ''Salvator Mundi'' in the Collezione Contini Bonacossi and a ''[[Pietà]]'' now in the [[Palazzo Pitti]]. These works clearly show the influence of [[Antonello da Messina]] and [[Giovanni Bellini]]—especially in the use of light and colors—as well as the influence of the schools of [[Ferrara]] and [[Forlì]]. 
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-In 1490 Carpaccio began the famous ''Legend of St. Ursula'', for the Venetian ''Scuola'' dedicated to that saint (''at left''). The subject of the works, which are now in the [[Gallerie dell'Accademia]], was drawn from the [[Golden Legend]] of [[Jacopo da Varagine]]. In 1491 he completed the ''Glory of St. Ursula'' [[altarpiece]]. Indeed many of Carpaccio's major works were of this type: large scale detachable wall-paintings for the halls of [[Scuole Grandi of Venice|Venetian ''scuole'']], which were charitable and social confraternities. Three years later he took part in the decoration of the Scuola di San Giovanni Evangelista, painting one of his best know works, the ''Miracle of the Relic of the Cross at the Ponte di Rialto'', (above).  
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-In the opening decade of the sixteenth century, Carpaccio embarked on the works that have since awarded him the distinction of foremost [[Orientalism|orientalist]] painter of his age. From 1502-1507 Carpaccio executed another notable series of panels for the primarily immigrant Scuola di San Giorgio degli Schiavoni, (''Schiavoni'' meaning "[[Slavs]]" in Venetian [[dialect]]). Unlike the slightly old-fashioned use of a continuous narrative sequence found in the ''St. Ursula'' series, wherein the main characters appear multiple times within each canvas, each work in the ''Schiavoni'' series concentrates on a single episode in the lives of the [[Dalmatia]]n's three patron Saints: [[St. Jerome]], [[St. George]] and St. Trifon. These works are thought of as "orientalist" because they offer evidence of a new fascination with the [[Levant]]: a distinctly middle-eastern looking landscape takes an increasing role in the images as the backdrop to the religious scenes. Moreover, several of the scenes deal directly with cross-cultural issues, such as translation and conversion. For example, St. Jerome, a native son of Dalmatia, translated the [[Greek language|Greek]] [[Bible]] to [[Latin]] (known as the [[Vulgate]]) in the fourth century. Then the [[Saint George and the Dragon|St. George story]] addressed the theme of conversion and the supremacy of Christianity. According to the [[Golden Legend]], George, a Christian knight, rescues a [[Libya]]n princess who has been offered in sacrifice to a [[dragon]]. Horrified that her [[pagan]] family would do such a thing, George brings the dragon back to her town and compels them into being [[baptized]]. The St. George tale was enormously popular during the renaissance, and the confrontation between the knight and the dragon was painted by numerous artists. Carpaccio's depiction of the event thus has a long history; less common is his rendition of the baptism moment (''at right''). Although unusual in the history of St. George pictures, ''St. George Baptizing the Selenites'' offers a good example of the type of oriental subjects were popular in Venice at the time: great care and attention is given the foreign costumes, and hats are especially significant in indicating the exotic. Note that in ''The Baptism'' one of the recent converts has ostentatiously placed his elaborate red-and-white, jewel-tipped [[turban]] on the ground in order to receive the [[sacrament]]. 
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-Fortini Brown argues that this increased interest in exotic eastern subject matter is a result of worsening relations between Venice and the [[Ottoman Empire|Ottoman Turks]]: "as it became more of a threat, it also became more of an obsession." 
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-At about the same time, from 1501-1507, he worked in the [[Doge's Palace]], together with Giovanni Bellini, in decorating of the Hall of the Great Council. Like many other major works, the cycle was entirely lost in the disastrous fire of 1577. 
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-Dating from 1504-1508 is the cycle of ''[[Life of the Virgin]]'' for Santa Maria degli Albanesi, largely executed by assistants, and now divided between the [[Accademia Carrara]] of [[Bergamo]], the [[Pinacoteca di Brera]] in [[Milan]], and the [[Ca' d'Oro]] of Venice. 
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-In later years Carpaccio appears to have been influenced by [[Cima da Conegliano]], as evidenced in the ''Death of the Virgin'' from 1508, at Ferrara. In 1510 Carpaccio executed the panels of ''Lamentation on the Dead Christ'' and ''The Meditation on the Passion'', where the sense of bitter sorrow found in such works by [[Mantegna]] is backed by extensive use of allegoric symbolism. Of the same year is a ''[[Knight (Vittore Carpaccio)|Knight]]'', now in the [[Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection]] of [[Madrid]]. 
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-Between 1511 and 1520 he finished five panels on the ''Life of [[St. Stephen]]'' for the Scuola di Santo Stefano (''at left''). Carpaccio's late works were mostly done in the Venetian mainland territories, and in collaboration with his sons Benedetto and Piero. One of his pupils was [[Marco Marziale]]. 
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-==Main works== 
-*''[[The Healing of the Madman]]'' (c. 1496) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 365 x 389&nbsp;cm, [[Gallerie dell'Accademia]], [[Venice]] </small> 
-*''[[Portrait of Man with Red Beret]]'' (1490-1493) -<small> Tempera on wood, 35 x 23&nbsp;cm, [[Museo Correr]], Venice</small> 
-*''[[The Legend of St. Ursula]]'' (1490-1496) -<small> Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice</small> 
-*''[[The Flight into Egypt (Carpaccio)|The Flight into Egypt]]'' (1500) -<small> Tempera on wood, 73 x 111&nbsp;cm, [[National Gallery of Art]], [[Washington]]</small> 
-*''[[St. Catherine of Alexandria and St. Veneranda]]'' (c. 1500) -<small> Tempera on panel, Museo di Castelvecchio, [[Verona]]</small> 
-*Cycle in [[San Giorgio degli Schiavoni]], Venice (1502-1507) 
-*''[[Histories of St. Mary (Carpaccio)|The Histories of St. Mary]]'' (1504-1508) 
-**''[[Nativity of Mary|Birth of the Virgin]]'' -<small> Tempera on canvas, 126 x 128&nbsp;cm, [[Accademia Carrara]], [[Bergamo]]</small> 
-**''[[The Marriage of the Virgin]]'' -<small> Canvas, 130 x 140&nbsp;cm, [[Pinacoteca di Brera]], [[Milan]]</small> 
-**''[[Presentation of Mary|The Presentation of the Virgin]]'' -<small> Canvas, 130 x 137&nbsp;cm, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan</small> 
-*''Vision of St. Augustine'' (1502-1508) -<small> Oil on canvas, Scuola San Giorgio degli Schiavoni</small> 
-*''[[Holy Family and donors (Carpaccio)|Holy Family and donors]]'' (1505) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 90 x 136&nbsp;cm, [[Museu Calouste Gulbenkian]], [[Lisbon]] </small> 
-*''Holy Conversation'' (c. 1505) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 92 x 126&nbsp;cm, [[Musée du Petit Palais]], [[Avignon]]</small> 
-*''[[The Virgin Reading]]'' (1505-1510) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 78 x 51&nbsp;cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington</small> 
-*''Madonna and Blessing Child'' (1505-1510) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 85 x 68&nbsp;cm, National Gallery of Art, Washington</small> 
-*''St. Thomas in Glory between St Mark and St Louis of Toulouse'' (1507) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 264 x 171&nbsp;cm, Staatsgalerie, [[Stuttgart]] </small> 
-*''[[Two Venetian Ladies]] ''(c. 1510) -<small> Oil on wood, 94 x 64&nbsp;cm, Museo Correr, Venice</small> 
-*''[[Portrait of a Woman (Carpaccio)|Portrait of a Woman]] ''(c. 1510) -<small> Oil on canvas, 102 x 78&nbsp;cm, [[Galleria Borghese]], [[Rome]]</small> 
-*''[[Presentation of Jesus in the Temple (Carpaccio)|Presentation of Jesus in the Temple]]'' (1510) -<small> Tempera on panel, 421 x 236&nbsp;cm, Gallerie dell'Accademia, Venice</small> 
-*''[[Portrait of a Knight (Carpaccio)|Portrait of a Knight]] (1510) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 218 x 152&nbsp;cm, [[Thyssen-Bornemisza Collection]], [[Madrid]]</small> 
-*''Portrait of a Young Woman'' -<small> Panel, 57 x 44&nbsp;cm, Private collection</small> 
-*''[[The Meditation on the Passion]]'' (c. 1510) -<small> Oil and tempera on wood, 70,5 x 86,7&nbsp;cm, [[Metropolitan Museum of Art]], [[New York]]</small> 
-*''St George and the Dragon'' (1516) -<small> Oil on canvas, 180 x 226&nbsp;cm, [[Church of San Giorgio Maggiore|San Giorgio Maggiore]], Venice</small> 
-*''The Lion of St Mark'' (1516) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 130 x 368&nbsp;cm, [[Doge's Palace]], Venice</small> 
-*''The Dead Christ'' (c. 1520) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 145 x 185&nbsp;cm, [[Staatliche Museen]], [[Berlin]]</small> 
-*''Stories from the Life of St. Stephen'' (1511-1520) 
-**''St Stephen is Consecrated Deacon'' (1511) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 148 x 231&nbsp;cm, Staatliche Museen, Berlin</small> 
-**''The Sermon of St. Stephen'' (1514) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 152 x 195&nbsp;cm, [[Musée du Louvre]], [[Paris]] </small> 
-**''Disputation of St. Stephen'' (1514) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 147 x 172&nbsp;cm, Pinacoteca di Brera, Milan</small> 
-**''The Stoning of St Stephen'' (1520) -<small> Tempera on canvas, 142 x 170&nbsp;cm, Staatsgalerie, Stuttgart</small> 
 +'''Antonello da Messina''', properly '''Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio''' (c. 1430 — February 1479) was a [[Sicily|Sicilian]] [[Painting|painter]] active during the [[Italian Renaissance]]. His work shows strong influences from [[Early Netherlandish painting]] and, unusually for a painter from Southern Italy, he was influential on the art of North Italy, especially [[Venice]].
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Antonello da Messina, properly Antonello di Giovanni di Antonio (c. 1430 — February 1479) was a Sicilian painter active during the Italian Renaissance. His work shows strong influences from Early Netherlandish painting and, unusually for a painter from Southern Italy, he was influential on the art of North Italy, especially Venice.




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