Cultural psychology  

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 +'''Cultural psychology''' is a field of [[psychology]] which assumes the idea that [[culture]] and [[mind]] are inseparable, and that psychological theories grounded in one culture are likely to be limited in applicability when applied to a different culture. As [[Richard Shweder]], one of the major proponents of the field, writes, "Cultural psychology is the study of the way cultural traditions and social practices regulate, express, and transform the human psyche, resulting less in psychic unity for humankind than in ethnic divergences in mind, self, and emotion" (1991, p. 72). Cultural psychology is that branch of psychology which deals with the study and impact of culture, tradition and social practices on psyche for the unity of humankind.
-'''[[Psychology]]''' is an [[academic]] and [[applied science|applied]] field involving the scientific study of [[Mental function|mental processes]] and [[behavior]]. Psychology also refers to the application of such [[knowledge]] to various spheres of human activity, including education, health, occupational and employment services, human services, and the treatment of [[mental illness]]. [[Neuropsychology]] studies the actual neural processes and how they relate to the mental effects they subjectively produce. [[Biological psychology]] is the scientific study of the biological bases of behavior and mental states. +Cultural psychology has its roots in the 1960s and 1970s but became more prominent in the 1980s and 1990s. Some of the classic texts promoting cultural psychology include Shweder and Levine (1984), Triandis (1989), Bruner (1990), Shweder (1991), Markus and Kitayama (1991), Cole (1996), Nisbett & Cohen (1996), Shore (1996), Fiske, et al. (1998), Nisbett, et al. (2001) and Nisbett (2003). Cultural psychologists generally use either ethnographic or experimental methods (or a combination of both) for collecting data.
-The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to psychology:+Cultural psychology is distinct from [[cross-cultural psychology]] in that the cross-cultural psychologists generally use culture as a means of testing the universality of psychological processes rather than determining how local cultural practices shape psychological processes. So whereas a cross-cultural psychologist might ask whether Piaget's stages of development are universal across a variety of cultures, a cultural psychologist would be interested in how the social practices of a particular set of cultures shape the development of cognitive processes in different ways.
-==Branches of psychology==+Cultural psychology research informs several fields within psychology, including [[social psychology]], [[developmental psychology]], and [[cognitive psychology]]. However, the relativist perspective of cultural psychology tends to clash with the universalist perspectives common in most fields in psychology.
-====[[Basic science (psychology)|Basic psychological science]]====+
-* [[Abnormal psychology]]+One of the most significant themes in recent years has been cultural differences between East Asians and North Americans in [[attention]] (Masuda & Nisbett, 2001), [[perception]] (Kitayama, et al., 2003), [[cognition]] (Nisbett, et al. 2001) and social psychological phenomena such as the [[self (sociology)|self]] (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Some (Turiel) have argued that this research is based on cultural [[stereotyping]] and faulty methodology (Matsumoto). However, proponents of cultural psychology have countered these critics with evidence suggesting that such criticisms are based on an over-emphasis of cross-cultural comparisons of self-reported attitudes and values, which are relatively unstable and ultimately misleading (Heine, Lehman, Peng, & Greenholtz, 2002; Peng, Nisbett, & Wong, 1997). Instead, relying on experimental and ethnographic evidence of deeper level mental processes, which are more stable and more reflective of tacit cultural and historical influences, has been what cultural psychology is about (Kitayama, 2002, Nisbett, 2003).
-* [[Behavioral genetics]]+
-* [[Biological psychology]]+
-* [[Cognitive psychology]]+
-* [[Comparative psychology]]+
-* [[Cultural psychology]]+
-* [[Developmental psychology]]+
-* [[Evolutionary psychology]]+
-* [[Experimental psychology]]+
-* [[Mathematical psychology]]+
-* [[Neuropsychology]]+
-* [[Personality psychology]]+
-* [[Positive psychology]]+
-* [[Social psychology (psychology)|Social psychology]]+
-====Other areas by topic====+According to Richard Schweder (1991), the main finding of a universalistic approach to cross-cultural psychology has been the repeated failure to replicate Western laboratory findings in non-Western settings. Therefore, a major goal of cultural psychology is to have divergent cultures inform basic psychological theories in order to refine and/or expand these theories so that they become more relevant to the predictions, descriptions, and explanations of all human behaviors, not just Western ones (Markus & Kitayama, 2003).
-* [[Behavioral economics]]+
-* [[Feminine psychology]]+
-* [[Masculine psychology]]+
-* [[Moral psychology]]+
-* [[Psycholinguistics]]+
-* [[Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts|Psychology of aesthetics, creativity, and the arts]]+
-* [[Psychology of religion]]+
-* [[Psychology of science]]+
-* [[Psychology of self]]+
-* [[Psychopharmacology|Psychopharmacology and substance abuse]]+
-* [[Psychophysics]]+
-* [[Sex and psychology]]+
- +
-====[[Applied psychology]]====+
- +
-*[[Applied Behavior Analysis]]+
-* [[Clinical psychology]]+
-* [[Community psychology]]+
-* [[Consumer behaviour|Consumer psychology]]+
-* [[Counseling psychology]]+
-* [[Educational psychology]]+
-* [[Environmental psychology]]+
-* [[Forensic psychology]]+
-* [[Health psychology]]+
-* [[Human factors|Human factors psychology]]+
-* [[Industrial and organizational psychology]]+
-* [[Legal psychology]]+
-* [[Media psychology]]+
-* [[Military psychology]]+
-* [[Occupational health psychology]]+
-* [[Political psychology]]+
-* [[Psychoneuroimmunology]]+
-* [[School psychology]]+
-* [[Sport psychology]]+
-* [[Traffic psychology]]+
-{{col-end}}+
- +
-===Psychological schools===+
-The most prominent schools are in bold.+
- +
-* '''[[Analytical psychology]]'''+
-* '''[[Behaviorism]]''' (see also [[Radical behaviourism]])+
-* '''[[Cognitivism (psychology)|Cognitivism]]'''+
-* [[Depth psychology]]+
-* [[Descriptive psychology]]+
-* [[Ecological Systems Theory|Ecological systems theory]]+
-* [[Ego psychology]]+
-* [[Existential psychology]]+
-* [[Functional psychology]]+
-* '''[[Gestalt psychology]]'''+
-* '''[[Humanistic psychology]]'''+
-* [[Individual psychology]]+
-* [[Phenomenological psychology]]+
-* '''[[Psychoanalytic school]]''', or [[psychoanalysis]]+
-* [[Self (psychology)]]+
-* [[Structuralism]]+
-* [[Transactional analysis]]+
-* [[Transpersonal psychology]]+
- +
-===Cognitive psychologists===+
-* [[Aaron Temkin Beck]]+
-* [[Albert Ellis (psychologist)|Albert Ellis]]+
-* [[Hans Eysenck]]+
-* [[Howard Gardner]]+
-* [[Robert Sternberg]]+
- +
- +
-==Psychology lists==+
-* [[List of counseling topics]]+
-* [[List of important publications in psychology]]+
-* [[List of psychology topics]]+
 +Also sometimes called "Cultural Psychology" is what Wikipedia lists as [[Cultural–historical psychology]].
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Cultural psychology is a field of psychology which assumes the idea that culture and mind are inseparable, and that psychological theories grounded in one culture are likely to be limited in applicability when applied to a different culture. As Richard Shweder, one of the major proponents of the field, writes, "Cultural psychology is the study of the way cultural traditions and social practices regulate, express, and transform the human psyche, resulting less in psychic unity for humankind than in ethnic divergences in mind, self, and emotion" (1991, p. 72). Cultural psychology is that branch of psychology which deals with the study and impact of culture, tradition and social practices on psyche for the unity of humankind.

Cultural psychology has its roots in the 1960s and 1970s but became more prominent in the 1980s and 1990s. Some of the classic texts promoting cultural psychology include Shweder and Levine (1984), Triandis (1989), Bruner (1990), Shweder (1991), Markus and Kitayama (1991), Cole (1996), Nisbett & Cohen (1996), Shore (1996), Fiske, et al. (1998), Nisbett, et al. (2001) and Nisbett (2003). Cultural psychologists generally use either ethnographic or experimental methods (or a combination of both) for collecting data.

Cultural psychology is distinct from cross-cultural psychology in that the cross-cultural psychologists generally use culture as a means of testing the universality of psychological processes rather than determining how local cultural practices shape psychological processes. So whereas a cross-cultural psychologist might ask whether Piaget's stages of development are universal across a variety of cultures, a cultural psychologist would be interested in how the social practices of a particular set of cultures shape the development of cognitive processes in different ways.

Cultural psychology research informs several fields within psychology, including social psychology, developmental psychology, and cognitive psychology. However, the relativist perspective of cultural psychology tends to clash with the universalist perspectives common in most fields in psychology.

One of the most significant themes in recent years has been cultural differences between East Asians and North Americans in attention (Masuda & Nisbett, 2001), perception (Kitayama, et al., 2003), cognition (Nisbett, et al. 2001) and social psychological phenomena such as the self (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). Some (Turiel) have argued that this research is based on cultural stereotyping and faulty methodology (Matsumoto). However, proponents of cultural psychology have countered these critics with evidence suggesting that such criticisms are based on an over-emphasis of cross-cultural comparisons of self-reported attitudes and values, which are relatively unstable and ultimately misleading (Heine, Lehman, Peng, & Greenholtz, 2002; Peng, Nisbett, & Wong, 1997). Instead, relying on experimental and ethnographic evidence of deeper level mental processes, which are more stable and more reflective of tacit cultural and historical influences, has been what cultural psychology is about (Kitayama, 2002, Nisbett, 2003).

According to Richard Schweder (1991), the main finding of a universalistic approach to cross-cultural psychology has been the repeated failure to replicate Western laboratory findings in non-Western settings. Therefore, a major goal of cultural psychology is to have divergent cultures inform basic psychological theories in order to refine and/or expand these theories so that they become more relevant to the predictions, descriptions, and explanations of all human behaviors, not just Western ones (Markus & Kitayama, 2003).

Also sometimes called "Cultural Psychology" is what Wikipedia lists as Cultural–historical psychology.




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