Farnese Hercules  

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-'''Annibale Carracci''' ([[November 3]], [[1560]] - [[July 15]], [[1609]] was an [[Italian Baroque]] [[painter]]. The term [[eclectic]] was first used by [[Johann Joachim Winckelmann]] to characterize the art of the [[Carracci]], who incorporated in their paintings elements from the Renaissance and classical traditions.+The '''''Farnese Hercules'''''[http://jahsonic.tumblr.com/post/217980536/farnese-hercules-by-hendrik-goltzius-via] is an ancient sculpture, probably an enlarged copy made in the early [[third century AD]] by Glykon of an original of [[Lysippos]] or one of his circle, of the fourth century BC., made for the [[Baths of Caracalla]] in [[Rome]] (dedicated in 216 AD), where it was recovered in 1546.
-==Early career==+The heroically-scaled ''[[Hercules]]'' is one of the most famous sculptures of [[classical antiquity|Antiquity]], and has fixed the image of the mythic hero in the European imagination. It quickly made its way into the collection of [[Alessandro Farnese (cardinal)|Cardinal Alessandro Farnese]], grandson of [[Pope Paul III]]. Alessandro Farnese was well placed to form one of the greatest collections of classical sculpture that has been assembled since Antiquity.
-Annibale Carracci was born in [[Bologna]], and in all likelihood first apprenticed within his family. In 1582, Annibale, his brother [[Agostino Carracci|Agostino]], and his cousin [[Ludovico Carracci]] opened a painter's studio, called by some initially as the ''Academy of Desiderosi'' (Desirous of fame and learning) or subsequently of the [[Accademia degli Incamminati|''Incamminati'']] (progressives; literally "of those opening a new way"). While the Carraccis laid emphasis on the typically [[Florence|Florentine]] linear draftsmanship, as exemplified by [[Raphael]] and [[Andrea del Sarto]], their style also derived from [[Venice|Venetian]] painters an attention to the glimmering colors and mistier edge of objects. This eclecticism would define artists of the Baroque Emilian or [[Bolognese School (painting)|Bolognese School]].+
-It is difficult to distinguish the individual contributions by each Carracci in many early works in Bologna. For example, the frescoes on the story of ''Jason'' for the [[Palazzo Fava]] in Bologna (c. 1583-84); the frescoes are signed by ''Carracci'' and state that they all contributed. In 1585, Annibale completed an altarpiece of the ''Baptism of Christ'' for the church of San Gregorio in Bologna. In 1587, he painted the ''Assumption'' for the church of San Rocco in Reggio Emilia. +It stood for generations in its own room at [[Palazzo Farnese, Rome]], where the hero was surrounded by frescoed depictions of his feats by [[Annibale Carracci]] and his studio, executed in the 1590s. The Farnese statue was moved to Naples in 1787 and is now displayed in the [[Museo Archeologico Nazionale Napoli|Museo Archeologico Nazionale]].
-In 1587-88, Annibale is known to have had traveled to Parma and then Venice, where he met up with his brother Agostino. From 1589-92, the three Carracci complete the frescoes on the ''Founding of Rome'' for the [[Palazzo Magnani]] in Bologna. By 1593, Annibale completed by an altarpiece, ''Virgin on the throne with St John and St Catherine'', working alongside with [[Lucio Massari]]. His ''Resurrection of Christ'' also dates from the year 1593. In 1592, he paints an ''Assumption'' for the Bonasoni chapel in San Francesco. During 1593-1594, all three Carracci work at frescoes in the [[Palazzo Sampieri]] in Bologna.+The type was well known in Antiquity: a Hellenistic or Roman bronze reduction, found at [[Foligno]] is conserved in the [[Musée du Louvre]]; a small marble, probably Greek of the Roman period, is to be seen in the Museum of the Ancient Agora, Athens.
-==Frescoes in Palazzo Farnese==+The ''Farnese Hercules'' is a massive and muscular marble statue, following a lost original [[Casting (metalworking)|cast]] in [[bronze]] through a method called [[lost wax casting]]. It depicts a weary [[Hercules]] leaning on his club, which has his lion-skin draped over it. He is performing one of the last of [[The Twelve Labours]], which is suggested by the [[Hesperides|apples of the Hesperides]] he holds behind his back. This prominently-sited statue was well liked by the [[Ancient Rome|Romans]], and copies have been found in Roman palaces and gymnasiums: another, coarser, stood in the courtyard of Palazzo Farnese; one with the feigned ( but probably ancient) inscription "Lykippos" has stood in the court of [[Palazzo Pitti]], Florence, since the sixteenth century.
-Based on the prolific and masterful frescoes by the Carracci in Bologna, Annibale was recommended by the Duke of Parma, [[Ranuccio I Farnese]], to his brother, the [[Cardinal Odoardo Farnese]], who wished to decorate the piano nobile of the cavernous Roman [[Palazzo Farnese]]. In November-December of 1595, Annibale and Agostino traveled to Rome to begin decorating the ''Camerino'' with stories of Hercules, appropriate since the room housed the famous Greco-Roman antique sculpture of the hypermuscular [[Farnese Hercules]]. +
-Annibale meanwhile developed hundreds of preparatory sketches for the major product, wherein he led a team painting frescoes on the ceiling of the grand salon with the secular ''quadri riportati'' of [[The Loves of the Gods (Carracci)|The Loves of the Gods]], or as the biographer [[Giovanni Bellori]] described it, ''Human Love governed by Celestial Love''. Although the ceiling is riotously rich in illusionistic elements, the narratives are framed in the restrained classicism of High [[Renaissance]] decoration, drawing inspiration from, yet more immediate and intimate, than Michelangelo's [[Sistine Chapel|Sistine Ceiling]] as well as [[Raphael]]'s [[Vatican Logge]] and [[Villa Farnesina]] frescoes. His work would later inspire the untrammelled stream of Baroque illusionism and energy that would emerge in the grand frescoes of [[Pietro da Cortona|Cortona]], [[Giovanni Lanfranco|Lanfranco]], and in later decades [[Andrea Pozzo]] and [[Giovanni Battista Gaulli|Gaulli]]. +The sculpture has been reassembled and restored by degrees. According to a letter of [[Guglielmo della Porta]], the head had been recovered separately, from a well in [[Trastevere]], and was bought for Farnese through the agency of della Porta, whose legs made to complete the figure were so well regarded that when the original legs were recovered from ongoing excavations in the Baths of Caracalla, della Porta's were retained, on [[Michelangelo]]'s advice, in part to demonstrate that modern sculptors could bear direct comparison with the ancients. The original legs, from the [[Borghese]] collection, were not reunited with the sculpture until 1787. [[Goethe]], in his Italian Journey, recounts his differing impressions upon seeing the Hercules with each set of legs, marvelling at the clear superiority of the original ones.
-Throughout 17th and 18th centuries, the Farnese Ceiling was considered the unrivaled masterpiece of fresco painting for its age. They were not only seen as a pattern book of heroic figure design, but also as a model of technical procedure; Annibale’s hundreds of preparatory drawings for the ceiling became a fundamental step in composing any ambitious history painting.+Hercules is caught in a rare moment of repose. Leaning on his knobby club which is draped with the pelt of the [[Nemean Lion]], he holds the apples of the [[Hesperides]] in his right hand, but conceals them behind his back like a baseball pitcher with a knuckleball.
 +Many engravings and woodcuts spread the fame of the Farnese's Hercules. By 1562 the find was already included in the set of engravings for ''Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae'' ("Mirror of Rome's Magnificence")[http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/clan/hod_41.72%5B2.63%5D.htm] and connoisseurs, artists and tourists gaped at the original, which stood in the courtyard of the Palazzo Farnese, protected under the arcade. In 1590-91, during his trip to Rome, [[Hendrik Goltzius]] sketched the statue in the palazzo courtyard. Later (in 1591) Goltzius recorded the less-common rear view, in a bravura engraving (''illustration, right''), which emphasizes the already exaggerated muscular form with swelling and tapering lines that flow over the contours. The young [[Peter Paul Rubens|Rubens]] made quick sketches of the Hercules' planes and massing. Before photography, prints were the only way to put the image into many hands.
-==Contrast with Caravaggio==+The sculpture was admired from the start, reservations about its exaggerated [[musculature]] only surfacing in the later eighteenth century. [[Napoleon]] remarked to [[Antonio Canova]] that its lack in the museum he accumulated in Paris was the most important gap in the collection, and the sculpture was more than once crated ready for shipment to Paris before the Napoleonic regime fled Naples.
-The 17th century critic [[Giovanni Bellori]], in his survey titled ''Idea'', praised Carracci as the paragon of Italian painters, who had fostered a “renaissance” of the great tradition of [[Raphael]] and [[Michelangelo]]. On the other hand, while admitting Caravaggio's talents as a painter, Bellori deplored his over-naturalistic style, if not his turbulent morals and persona. He thus viewed the Caravaggisti styles with the same gloomy dismay. Painters were urged to depict the Platonic ideal of beauty, not Roman street-walkers. Yet Carracci and Caravaggio patrons and pupils did not all fall into irreconcilable camps. Contemporary patrons, such as Marquess [[Vincenzo Giustiniani]], found both applied showed excellence in ''maniera'' and ''modeling''.+
-In our century, observers have warmed to the rebel myth of Caravaggio, and often ignore the profound influence on art that Carracci had. Caravaggio almost never worked in fresco, regarded as the test of a great painter's mettle. On the other hand, Carracci's best works are in fresco. Thus the somber canvases of Caravaggio, with benighted backgrounds, are suited to the contemplative altars, and not to well lit walls or ceilings such as this one in the Farnese. Wittkower was surprised that a Farnese cardinal surrounded himself with frescoes of libidinous themes, indicative of a "considerable relaxation of counter-reformatory morality". This thematic choice suggests Carracci may have been more rebellious relative to the often-solemn religious passion of Caravaggio's canvases. Wittkower states Carracci's "frescoes convey the impression of a tremendous joie de vivre, a new blossoming of vitality and of an energy long repressed".+Wealthy collectors could afford one of the numerous bronze replicas in sizes for table-top display. A full-size marble copy that belonged to the Bourbons of Naples is at the National Museum, Naples. Copies of the Farnese Hercules appeared in 17th- and 18th-century gardens throughout Europe. At [[Wilhelmshöhe]], near [[Kassel]], a colossal version 8.5 m high produced by Johann Jacob Anthoni, 1713–1717, has become the city's mascot. [[André Le Nôtre]] placed a full-size gilded version against the skyline at the far end of the main vista at [[Vaux-le-Vicomte]]. That at [[Palace of Versailles]] is a copy by Jean Cornu, 1684–1686. In [[Scotland]], a rare copy in lead, of the first half of the 18th century, overlooks the recently restored Hercules Garden at [[Blair Castle]].
-Today, unfortunately, most connoisseurs making the pilgrimage to the [[Cerasi Chapel]] in [[Santa Maria del Popolo]] would ignore Carracci’s ''[[Assumption of the Virgin (Carracci)|Assumption of the Virgin]]'' altarpiece (1600-1601) and focus on the stunning flanking Caravaggio works. It is instructive to compare the [[Assumption of Mary|theologic]] and artistic differences between Carracci's ''Assumption'' and Caravaggio's ''[[Death of the Virgin (Caravaggio)|Death of the Virgin]]''. Among early contemporaries, Carracci would have been an innovator. He re-enlivened the Michelangelo's visual fresco vocabulary, and posited a muscular and vivaciously brilliant pictorial landscape, which had been becoming progressively crippled into a [[Mannerism|Mannerist]] tangle. While Michelangelo could bend and contort the body into all the possible perspectives, Carracci in the Farnese frescoes had shown how it could dance. The "ceiling"-frontiers, the wide expanses of walls to be frescoed would, for the next decades, be thronged by the monumental brilliance of the Carracci followers, and not Caravaggio's followers. 
-In the following century, it was not the admirers of Caravaggio, who would have dismissed Carracci, but to a lesser extent than [[Bernini]] and Cortona, baroque art in general came under criticism from neoclassic critics such as [[Johann Joachim Winckelmann|Winckelmann]] and even later from the prudish [[John Ruskin]]. Carracci in part was spared opprobrium because he was seen as an emulator of the highly admired Raphael, and in the Farnese frescoes, attentive to the proper themes such as those of antique mythology. 
- 
-==Landscapes, genre art and drawings == 
-On July 8, 1595, Annibale completed the painting of ''San Rocco distributing alms'', now in Dresden Gemäldegalerie. Other significant late works painted by Carracci in Rome include ''Domine, Quo Vadis?'' (c1602), which reveals a striking economy in figure composition and a force and precision of gesture that influenced on [[Nicolas Poussin|Poussin]] and through him, the language of gesture in painting.  
- 
-Carracci was remarkably eclectic in thematic, painting landcapes, genre scenes, and portraits, including a series of autoportraits across the ages. He was one of the first Italian painters to paint a canvases wherein [[landscape painting|landscape]] took priority over figures, such as his masterful ''[[The Flight into Egypt (Annibale Carracci)|The Flight into Egypt]]''; this is a genre in which he was followed by [[Domenichino]] (his favorite pupil) and [[Claude Lorraine|Lorraine]].  
- 
-Carracci's art also had a less formal side that comes out in his caricatures (he is generally credited with inventing the form) and in his early [[genre]] paintings, which are remarkable for their lively observation and free handling (see ''[[The Butcher's Shop]]'']) and his painting of ''The Beaneater''. He is described by biographers as inattentive to dress, obsessed with work: his self-portraits vary in his depiction. 
- 
-==Under a melancholic humor==  
-It is not clear how much work Annibale completed after finishing the major gallery in the Palazzo Farnese. In 1606, Annibale signs a ''Madonna of the bowl''. However, in a letter from April 1606, the cardinal Odoarde Farnese bemoans that a "heavy melancholic humor" prevented Annibale from painting for him. Throughout 1607, Annibale is unable to complete a commission for the Duke of Modena of a ''Nativity''. There is a note from 1608, where in Annibale stipulates to a pupil that he will spend at least two hours a day in his studio. 
- 
-There is little documentation from the man or time to explain why his brush was stilled. Speculation abounds.  
- 
-In 1609, Annibale dies, and was buried, according to his wish, near Raphael in the [[Pantheon, Rome|Pantheon]] of Rome. It is a measure of his achievement that artists as diverse as [[Gian Lorenzo Bernini|Bernini]], Poussin, and [[Peter Paul Rubens|Rubens]] praised his work. Many of his assistants or pupils in projects at the Palazzo Farnese and Herrera Chapel would become among the pre-eminent artists of the next decades, including [[Domenichino]], [[Francesco Albani]], [[Giovanni Lanfranco]], [[Domenico Viola]], [[Guido Reni]], [[Sisto Badalocchio]], and others. 
- 
-==Chronology of works== 
-*''[[Assumption of the Virgin (Carracci)|Assumption of the Virgin]]'' (c. 1590) <small>- Oil on canvas, 130 x 97 cm, [[Museo del Prado]]</small> 
-*''[[The Baptism of Christ (Annibale Carracci)|The Baptism of Christ]]'' (1584) <small>- Oil on canvas, [[San Gregorio, Bologna|San Gregorio]], [[Bologna]]</small> 
-*''[[The Beaneater (Annibale Carracci)|The Beaneater]]'' (1580-1590) <small>- Oil on canvas, 57 x 68 cm, [[Galleria Colonna]], [[Rome]]</small> 
-*''[[Butcher's Shop (Annibale Carracci)|Butcher's Shop]]'' (1580s) <small>- Oil on canvas, 185 x 266 cm, [[Christ Church Picture Gallery]], [[Oxford]]</small> 
-*''[[Crucifixion (Annibale Carracci)|Crucifixion]]'' (1583) <small>- Oil on canvas, 305 x 210 cm, [[Santa Maria della Carità]], [[Bologna]]</small> 
-*''[[Descent From the Cross (Annibale Carracci)|Descent From the Cross]]'' (1580-1600) [[St. Ann's, [[Manchester]]]] 
-*''[[Fishing (Annibale Carracci)|Fishing]]'' (before 1595) <small>- Oil on canvas, 136 x 253 cm, [[Musée du Louvre]]</small> 
-*''[[Hunting (Annibale Carracci)|Hunting]]'' (before 1595) <small>- Oil on canvas, 136 x 253 cm, [[Musée du Louvre]]</small> 
-*''[[The Laughing Youth (Annibale Carracci)|The Laughing Youth]]'' (1583) <small>- Oil on paper, [[Galleria Borghese]], [[Rome]]</small> 
-*''[[Madonna Enthroned with St Matthew (Annibale Carracci)|Madonna Enthroned with St Matthew]]'' (1588) <small>- Oil on canvas, 384 x 255 cm, [[Gemäldegalerie, Dresden|Gemäldegalerie]], [[Dresden]]</small> 
-*''[[The Mystic Marriage of St Catherine (Annibale Carracci)|The Mystic Marriage of St Catherine]]'' (1585-1587) <small>- Oil on canvas, [[Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte]], [[Naples]]</small> 
-*''[[Venus, Adonis and Cupid (Annibale Carracci)|Venus, Adonis and Cupid]]'' (c. 1595) <small>- Oil on canvas, 212 x 268 cm, [[Museo del Prado]], [[Madrid]]</small> 
-*''[[River Landscape (Annibale Carracci)|River Landscape]]'' (c. 1599) <small>- Oil on canvas, [[National Gallery of Art]], [[Washington D.C.]]</small> [http://www.nga.gov/cgi-bin/pinfo?Object=41400+0+none] 
-*''[[Venus and Adonis (Annibale Carracci)|Venus and Adonis]]'' (c. 1595) <small>- Oil on canvas, 217 x 246 cm, [[Kunsthistorisches Museum]], [[Vienna]]</small> 
-*''[[Venus with a Satyr and Cupids (Annibale Carracci)|Venus with a Satyr and Cupids]]'' (c. 1588) <small>- Oil on canvas, 112 x142 cm, [[Uffizi]], [[Florence]]</small> 
-*''[[The Virgin Appears to the Saints Luke and Catherine (Annibale Carracci)|The Virgin Appears to the Saints Luke and Catherine]]'' (1592) <small>- Oil on canvas, 401 x 226 cm, [[Musée du Louvre]], [[Paris]]</small> 
-*Frescoes (1597-1605) in the [[Palazzo Farnese]], [[Rome]] 
-*''[[Assumption of the Virgin (Carracci)|Assumption of the Virgin Mary]]'' (1600-1601) <small>- Oil on canvas, 245 x 155 cm, [[Santa Maria del Popolo]], [[Rome]]</small> 
-*''[[Lamentation of Christ (Annibale Carracci)|Lamentation of Christ]]'' (1606) <small>- Oil on canvas, 92,8 x 103,2 cm, [[National Gallery, London|National Gallery]], [[London]]</small> 
-*''[[The Flight into Egypt (Annibale Carracci)|The Flight into Egypt]]'' (1603) <small>- Oil on canvas, 122 x 230 cm, [[Galleria Doria Pamphilj]], [[Rome]]</small> 
-*''[[The Choice of Heracles (Annibale Carracci)|The Choice of Heracles]]'' (c. 1596) <small>- Oil on canvas, 167 x 273 cm, [[Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte]], [[Naples]]</small> 
-*''[[Mocking of Christ (Annibale Carracci)|Mocking of Christ]]'' (c. 1596) <small>- Oil on canvas, 60 x 69,5 cm, [[Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna|Pinacoteca Nazionale]]</small> 
-*''[[Pietà (Annibale Carracci)|Pietà]]'' (1599-1600) <small>- Oil on canvas, 156 x 149 cm, [[Museo Nazionale di Capodimonte]], [[Naples]]</small> 
-*''[[Domine quo vadis? (Annibale Carracci)|Domine quo vadis?]]'' (1601-1602) <small>- Oil on panel, 77,4 x 56,3 cm, [[National Gallery, London|National Gallery]], [[London]]</small> 
-*''[[Rest on Flight into Egypt (Annibale Carracci)|Rest on Flight into Egypt]]'' (c. 1600) <small>- Oil on canvas, diameter 82,5 cm, [[Hermitage Museum]], [[St. Petersburg]]</small> 
-*''[[Self-Portrait in Profile (Annibale Carracci)|Self-Portrait in Profile]]'' (1590s) <small>- Oil on canvas, [[Uffizi]], [[Florence]]</small> 
-*''[[Self-portrait (Annibale Carracci)|Self-portrait]]'' (c. 1604) <small>- Oil on wood, 42 x 30 cm, [[Hermitage Museum]], [[St. Petersburg]]</small> 
-*''[[The Martyrdom of St Stephen (Annibale Carracci)|The Martyrdom of St Stephen]]'' (1603-1604) <small>- Oil on canvas, 51 x 68 cm, [[Louvre]], Paris</small> 
-*[[Triptych (Annibale Carracci)|Triptych]] (1604-1605) <small>- Oil on copper and panel, 37 x 24 cm (central panel), 37 x 12 cm (each wing), [[Galleria Nazionale d'Arte Antica]], [[Rome]] </small> 
-*''[[Holy Women at the Tomb of Christ (Annibale Carracci)|Holy Women at the Tomb of Christ]]'' <small> Oil on canvas, [[Hermitage Museum]], St. Petersburg</small> 
-*''[[Atlante (Annibale Carracci)|Atlante]]'' <small> Sanguine, [[Louvre]], Paris</small> 
-*Drawings (exhibit, [[National Gallery of Art]]) [http://www.nga.gov/exhibitions/car_images.shtm] 
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The Farnese Hercules[1] is an ancient sculpture, probably an enlarged copy made in the early third century AD by Glykon of an original of Lysippos or one of his circle, of the fourth century BC., made for the Baths of Caracalla in Rome (dedicated in 216 AD), where it was recovered in 1546.

The heroically-scaled Hercules is one of the most famous sculptures of Antiquity, and has fixed the image of the mythic hero in the European imagination. It quickly made its way into the collection of Cardinal Alessandro Farnese, grandson of Pope Paul III. Alessandro Farnese was well placed to form one of the greatest collections of classical sculpture that has been assembled since Antiquity.

It stood for generations in its own room at Palazzo Farnese, Rome, where the hero was surrounded by frescoed depictions of his feats by Annibale Carracci and his studio, executed in the 1590s. The Farnese statue was moved to Naples in 1787 and is now displayed in the Museo Archeologico Nazionale.

The type was well known in Antiquity: a Hellenistic or Roman bronze reduction, found at Foligno is conserved in the Musée du Louvre; a small marble, probably Greek of the Roman period, is to be seen in the Museum of the Ancient Agora, Athens.

The Farnese Hercules is a massive and muscular marble statue, following a lost original cast in bronze through a method called lost wax casting. It depicts a weary Hercules leaning on his club, which has his lion-skin draped over it. He is performing one of the last of The Twelve Labours, which is suggested by the apples of the Hesperides he holds behind his back. This prominently-sited statue was well liked by the Romans, and copies have been found in Roman palaces and gymnasiums: another, coarser, stood in the courtyard of Palazzo Farnese; one with the feigned ( but probably ancient) inscription "Lykippos" has stood in the court of Palazzo Pitti, Florence, since the sixteenth century.

The sculpture has been reassembled and restored by degrees. According to a letter of Guglielmo della Porta, the head had been recovered separately, from a well in Trastevere, and was bought for Farnese through the agency of della Porta, whose legs made to complete the figure were so well regarded that when the original legs were recovered from ongoing excavations in the Baths of Caracalla, della Porta's were retained, on Michelangelo's advice, in part to demonstrate that modern sculptors could bear direct comparison with the ancients. The original legs, from the Borghese collection, were not reunited with the sculpture until 1787. Goethe, in his Italian Journey, recounts his differing impressions upon seeing the Hercules with each set of legs, marvelling at the clear superiority of the original ones.

Hercules is caught in a rare moment of repose. Leaning on his knobby club which is draped with the pelt of the Nemean Lion, he holds the apples of the Hesperides in his right hand, but conceals them behind his back like a baseball pitcher with a knuckleball. Many engravings and woodcuts spread the fame of the Farnese's Hercules. By 1562 the find was already included in the set of engravings for Speculum Romanae Magnificentiae ("Mirror of Rome's Magnificence")[2] and connoisseurs, artists and tourists gaped at the original, which stood in the courtyard of the Palazzo Farnese, protected under the arcade. In 1590-91, during his trip to Rome, Hendrik Goltzius sketched the statue in the palazzo courtyard. Later (in 1591) Goltzius recorded the less-common rear view, in a bravura engraving (illustration, right), which emphasizes the already exaggerated muscular form with swelling and tapering lines that flow over the contours. The young Rubens made quick sketches of the Hercules' planes and massing. Before photography, prints were the only way to put the image into many hands.

The sculpture was admired from the start, reservations about its exaggerated musculature only surfacing in the later eighteenth century. Napoleon remarked to Antonio Canova that its lack in the museum he accumulated in Paris was the most important gap in the collection, and the sculpture was more than once crated ready for shipment to Paris before the Napoleonic regime fled Naples.

Wealthy collectors could afford one of the numerous bronze replicas in sizes for table-top display. A full-size marble copy that belonged to the Bourbons of Naples is at the National Museum, Naples. Copies of the Farnese Hercules appeared in 17th- and 18th-century gardens throughout Europe. At Wilhelmshöhe, near Kassel, a colossal version 8.5 m high produced by Johann Jacob Anthoni, 1713–1717, has become the city's mascot. André Le Nôtre placed a full-size gilded version against the skyline at the far end of the main vista at Vaux-le-Vicomte. That at Palace of Versailles is a copy by Jean Cornu, 1684–1686. In Scotland, a rare copy in lead, of the first half of the 18th century, overlooks the recently restored Hercules Garden at Blair Castle.





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