First Intifada  

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- +The '''First Intifada''' or '''First Palestinian Intifada''' (also known simply as '''the intifada''' or '''intifadah''') was a [[Palestinian people|Palestinian]] [[Rebellion|uprising]] against the [[Israel]]i [[Israeli Civil Administration|occupation]] of the [[West Bank]] and [[Gaza Strip|Gaza]].
-'''Hamas''' is a [[Palestinian Territories|Palestinian]] [[Sunni]]-[[Islam]]ic fundamentalist organization. It has a social service wing, [[Dawah]], and a military wing, the [[Izz ad-Din al-Qassam Brigades]]. It has been the ''de facto'' governing authority of the [[Gaza Strip]] since its [[Battle of Gaza (2007)|takeover of that area]] in 2007. During this period it fought several [[Gaza–Israel conflict|wars with Israel]]. It is regarded, either in whole or in part, as a [[terrorist organization]] by [[List of designated terrorist groups|several countries and international organizations]], most notably by [[Israel]], the [[United States]] and the [[European Union]].+
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-Hamas was founded in 1987, soon after the [[First Intifada]] broke out, as an offshoot of the Egyptian [[Muslim Brotherhood]], which in its Gaza branch had been non-confrontational towards Israel, refrained from resistance, and was hostile to the PLO. Co-founder [[Sheik Ahmed Yassin]] stated in 1987, and the [[Hamas Charter]] affirmed in 1988, that Hamas was founded to liberate [[Mandatory Palestine|Palestine]], including modern-day Israel, from [[Israeli occupation]] and to establish an [[Islamic republic|Islamic state]] in the area that is now Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. The group has stated that it may accept a 10-year truce if Israel withdraws to the 1967 borders and allows [[Palestinian refugees from 1948]], including their descendants, to return to what is now Israel, although clarifying that this does not mean recognition of Israel or the end of the conflict. Hamas's military wing objected to the truce offer. Analysts have said that it seems clear that Hamas knows that many of its conditions for the truce could never be met.+
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-The military wing of Hamas has launched attacks against Israeli civilians and soldiers, often justifying them as retaliatory, in particular for assassinations of the upper echelon of their leadership. Tactics have included [[List of Palestinian suicide attacks|suicide bombings]] and, since 2001, [[Palestinian rocket attacks on Israel|rocket attacks]]. Hamas's rocket arsenal, though mainly consisting of short-range homemade [[Qassam rocket]]s, also includes long-range weapons that have reached major Israeli cities including [[Tel Aviv]] and [[Haifa]]. The attacks on civilians have been condemned as [[war crime]]s and [[crimes against humanity]] by human rights groups such as [[Human Rights Watch]]. A 2017 Palestinian Center for Public Opinion poll in the Palestinian territories revealed that Hamas violence and rhetoric against Israelis are unpopular and that a majority of Palestinians would rather Hamas "accept a permanent [[two-state solution]] based on the 1967 borders."+
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-In the January 2006 Palestinian parliamentary elections, Hamas won a plurality in the Palestinian Parliament, defeating the [[Palestine Liberation Organization|PLO]]-affiliated [[Fatah]] party. Following the elections, the [[Quartet on the Middle East|Quartet]] (the United States, Russia, United Nations, and European Union) made future foreign assistance to the [[Palestinian National Authority|PA]] conditional upon the future government's commitment to non-violence, recognition of the state of Israel, and acceptance of previous agreements. Hamas rejected those changes, which led to the Quartet suspending its foreign assistance program and Israel imposing [[2006–07 economic sanctions against the Palestinian National Authority|economic sanctions]] on the Hamas-led administration. In March 2007, a [[Palestinian authority national unity government|national unity government]] headed by Prime Minister [[Ismail Haniyeh]] of Hamas was briefly formed, but this failed to restart international financial assistance. Tensions over control of Palestinian security forces soon erupted in the [[2007 Battle of Gaza]], after which Hamas took control of Gaza, while its officials were ousted from government positions in the West Bank. Israel and Egypt then imposed an economic [[blockade of the Gaza Strip]], on the grounds that Fatah forces were no longer providing security there. In 2011, Hamas and Fatah announced a reconciliation agreement that provides for creation of a joint caretaker Palestinian government. Progress stalled, until an [[2014 Fatah–Hamas Gaza Agreement|April 2014 agreement]] to form a compromise unity government, with elections to be held in late 2014.+
==See also== ==See also==
-* [[25th anniversary of Hamas]]+* [[Intifada]]
-* [[Hamastan]]+* [[1990 Temple Mount riots]]
-* [[Human rights in the Palestinian National Authority]]+* [[Second Intifada]] (2000–2005)
-* [[List of Palestinian suicide attacks]]+* [[2014 Jerusalem unrest]] (2014)
-* [[List of political parties in the Palestinian National Authority]]+* [[Israeli–Palestinian conflict (2015)]]
 +* [[Sumud]] (steadfastness)
 +* [[Palestinian nationalism]]
 +* [[Palestinian political violence]]
 +* [[List of modern conflicts in the Middle East]]
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

The First Intifada or First Palestinian Intifada (also known simply as the intifada or intifadah) was a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and Gaza.

See also

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