History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art  

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==Full text== ==Full text==
:''http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofcaricat00wriguoft/historyofcaricat00wriguoft_djvu.txt'' :''http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofcaricat00wriguoft/historyofcaricat00wriguoft_djvu.txt''
 +
 +
 +OF
 +
 +
 +
 +fit f ifentro mb
 +
 +
 +
 +BY THOMAS\VRIGHT, E SQo , M.A., F.S.A.,
 +
 +//. M.R.S.L., &c. ;
 +
 +Corrtfponding Member of the Imperial Inftitute of France
 +(^dcademie da Infer if tions et Belles Lett res).
 +
 +
 +
 +WITH
 +
 +ILLUSTRATIONS FROM VARIOUS SOURCES,
 +
 +DRAWN AND ENGRAVED BY
 +
 +F. W. FAIR HOLT, Esa., F.S.A.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +VIRTUE BROTHERS & CO., i, AMEN CORNER,
 +
 +PATERNOSTER ROW.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +\
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +\
 +
 +
 +
 +PREFACE.
 +
 +
 +
 +T HAVE felt fome difficulty in fele&ing a title for
 +^- the contents of the following pages, in which it
 +was, in fact, my defign to give, as far as may be done
 +within fuch moderate limits, and in as popular a manner
 +as fuch information can eafily be imparted, a general
 +view of the Hiftory of Comic Literature and Art. Yet
 +the word comic feems to me hardly to exprefs all the
 +parts of the fubjed: which I have fought to bring
 +together in my book. Moreover, the field of this
 +hiftory is very large, and, though I have only taken as
 +my theme one part of it, it was neceffary to circum-
 +fcribe even that, in fome degree ; and my plan, there-
 +fore, is to follow it chiefly through thofe branches
 +which have contributed moft towards the formation
 +of modern comic and fatiric literature and art in our
 +own ifland.
 +
 +Thus,
 +
 +
 +
 +vi Preface.
 +
 +Thus, as the comic literature of the middle ages to
 +a very great extent, and comic art in a confiderable
 +degree alfo, were founded upon, or rather arofe out of,
 +thofe of the Romans which had preceded them, it
 +feemed defirable to give a comprehenfive hiftory of
 +this branch of literature and art as it was cultivated
 +among the peoples of antiquity. Literature and art in
 +the middle ages prefented a certain unity of general
 +character, arifing, probably, from the uniformity of the
 +influence of the Roman element of fociety, modified
 +only by its lower degree of intenfity at a greater diftance
 +from the centre, and by fecondary caufes attendant upon
 +it. To underftand the literature of any one country
 +
 +i
 +
 +in Weftern Europe, efpeeially during what we may
 +term the feudal period and the remark applies to art
 +equally it is neceflary to make ourfelves acquainted
 +with the whole hiftory of literature in Weftern
 +Europe during that time. The peculiarities in dif-
 +ferent countries naturally became more marked in the
 +progrefs of fociety, and more ftrongly individualifed ;
 +but it was not till towards the clofe of the feudal period
 +that the literature of each of thefe different countries
 +was becoming more entirely its own. At that period
 +the plan I have formed reftri&s itfelf, according to the
 +
 +view
 +
 +
 +
 +Preface. vii
 +
 +view ftated above. Thus, the fatirical literature of the
 +Reformation and pictorial caricature had their cradle
 +in Germany, and, in the earlier half of the fixteenth
 +century, carried their influence largely into France and
 +England ; but from that time any influence of German
 +literature on thefe two countries ceafes. Modern
 +fatirical literature has its models in France during
 +the fixteenth century, and the direct influence of this
 +literature in France upon Englifh literature continued
 +during that and the fucceeding century, but no further.
 +Political caricature rofe to importance in France in the
 +fixteenth century, and was tranfplanted to Holland in
 +the feventeenth century, and until the beginning of
 +the eighteenth century England owed its caricature,
 +indirectly or directly, to the French and the Dutch;
 +but after that time a purely Englifh fchool of cari-
 +cature was formed, which was entirely independent of
 +Continental caricaturifts.
 +
 +There are two fenfes in which the word hiftory
 +may be taken in regard to literature and art. It has
 +been ufually employed to fignify a chronological account
 +of authors or artifts and their works, though this comes
 +more properly under the title of biography and biblio-
 +graphy. But there is another and a very different
 +
 +application
 +
 +
 +
 +viii Preface.
 +
 +application of the word, and this is the meaning which
 +I attach to it in the prefent volume. During the middle
 +ages, and for fome period after (in fpecial branches),
 +literature I mean poetry, fatire, and popular literature
 +of all kinds belonged to fociety, and not to the
 +individual authors, who were but workmen who gained
 +a living by fatisfying fociety's wants ; and its changes
 +in form or character depended all upon the varying
 +progrefs, and therefore changing neceffities, of fociety
 +itfelf. This is the reafon why, efpecially in the earlier
 +periods, nearly the whole mafs of the popular I may,
 +perhaps, be allowed to call it the focial literature of the
 +middle ages, is anonymous; and it was only at rare
 +intervals that fome individual rofe and made himfelf a
 +great name by the fuperiority of his talents. A certain
 +number of writers of fabliaux put their names to their
 +compofitions, probably becaufe they were names of
 +writers who had gained the reputation of telling better
 +or racier ftories than many of their fellows. In fome
 +branches of literature as in the fatirical literature of the
 +fixteenth century fociety ftill exercifed this kind of
 +influence over it; and although its great monuments
 +owe everything to the peculiar genius of their authors,
 +they were produced under the preflure of focial cir-
 +
 +cumftances.
 +
 +
 +
 +Preface. ix
 +
 +cumftances. To trace all thefe variations in literature
 +connected with fociety, to defcribe the influences of
 +fociety upon literature and of literature upon fociety,
 +during the progrefs of the latter, appears to me to be
 +the true meaning of the word hiftory, and it is in this
 +fenfe that I take it.
 +
 +This will explain why my hiftory of the different
 +branches of popular literature and art ends at very
 +different periods. The grotefque and fatirical fculpture,
 +which adorned the eccleiiaftical buildings, ceafed with
 +the middle ages. The ftory-books, as a part of this
 +focial literature, came down to the fixteenth century,
 +and the hiftory of the j eft-books which arofe out of
 +them cannot be confidered to extend further than the
 +beginning of the feventeenth ; for, to give a lift of jeft-
 +books fince that time would be to compile a catalogue
 +of books made by bookfellers for fale, copied from
 +one another, and, till recently, each more contemptible
 +than its predeceffor. The fchool of fatirical literature
 +in France, at all events as far as it had any influence in
 +England, lafted no longer than the earlier part of the
 +feventeenth century. England can hardly be faid to
 +have had a fchool of fatirical literature, with the ex-
 +ception of its comedy, which belongs properly to the
 +
 +feventeenth
 +
 +
 +
 +x Preface.
 +
 +feventeenth century; and its caricature belongs efpecially
 +to the laft century and to the earlier part of the prefent,
 +beyond which it is not a part of my plan to carry it.
 +
 +Thefe few remarks will perhaps ferve to explain
 +what fome may conlider to be defects in my book ;
 +and with them I venture to truft it to the indulgence
 +of its readers. It is a fubjecl: which will have fome
 +novelty for the Englifh reader, for I am not aware that
 +we have any previous book devoted to it. At all
 +events, it is not a mere compilation from other people's
 +labours.
 +
 +In conclufion, I ought, perhaps, to ftate that the
 +chapters on the Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque in
 +Art were firft printed in the Art-Journal during the
 +two paft years, but they only form a portion of the
 +prefent volume, and they have been conliderably
 +modified and enlarged.
 +
 +THOMAS WRIGHT.
 +
 +Sydney Street, Brompton,
 +Dec. 1864.
 +
 +
 +
 +CONTENTS.
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER I.
 +
 +ORIGIN OF CARICATURE AND GROTESQUE SPIRIT OF CARICATURE IN
 +EGYPT MONSTERS: PYTHON AND GORGON GREECE THE DIO-
 +NYSIAC CEREMONIES, AND ORIGIN OF THE DRAMA THE OLD
 +COMEDY LOVE OF PARODY PARODIES ON SUBJECTS TAKEN
 +FROM GRECIAN MYTHOLOGY: THE VISIT TO THE LOVER; APOLLO
 +AT DELPHI THE PARTIALITY FOR PARODY CONTINUED AMONG
 +THE ROMANS : THE FLIGHT OF .33NEAS
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER II.
 +
 +ORIGIN OF THE STAGE IN ROME USES OF THE MASK AMONG THE
 +ROMANS SCENES FROM ROMAN COMEDY THE SANNIO AND MIMUS
 +THE ROMAN DRAMA THE ROMAN SATIRISTS CARICATURE
 +ANIMALS INTRODUCED IN THE CHARACTERS OF MEN THE PIGMIES,
 +AND THEIR INTRODUCTION INTO CARICATURE; THE FARM - YARD J
 +THE PAINTER'S STUDIO; THE PROCESSION POLITICAL CARICATURE
 +
 +IN POMPEnj THE GRAFFITI
 +
 +
 +
 +23
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER III.
 +
 +THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE MIDDLE AGES
 +THE ROMAN MTMT CONTINUED TO EXIST THE TEUTONIC AFTER-
 +DINNER ENTERTAINMENTS CLERICAL SATIRES: ARCHBISHOP HE-
 +RIGER AND THE DREAMER ', THE SUPPER OF THE SAINTS TRAN-
 +SITION FROM ANCIENT TO MEDL33VAL ART TASTE FOR MONSTROUS
 +ANIMALS, DRAGONS, ETC. ; CHURCH OF SAN FEDELE, AT COMO
 +SPIRIT OF CARICATURE AND LOVE OF GROTESQUE AMONG THE
 +ANGLO-SAXONS GROTESQUE FIGURES OF DEMONS NATURAL TEN-
 +DENCY OF THE EARLY MEDL3EVAL ARTISTS TO DRAW IN CARI-
 +CATURE EXAMPLES FROM EARLY MANUSCRIPTS AND SCULPTURES .
 +
 +
 +
 +10
 +
 +
 +
 +xii Contents.
 +
 +CHAPTER IV.
 +
 +PASK
 +THE DIABOLICAL IN CARICATURE MEDLEVAL LOVE OF THE LUDICROUS
 +
 +CAUSES WHICH MADE IT INFLUENCE THE NOTIONS OF DEMONS
 +
 +STORIES OF THE PIOUS PAINTER AND THE ERRING MONK-^J1ARE>__
 +KEB1 jmi> TTfiTTTCESS CARICATURED THE DEMONS IN THE MIRACLE
 +PLAYS THE DEMON OF NOTRE DAME 61
 +
 +CHAPTER V.
 +
 +EMPLOYMENT OF ANIMALS IN MEDIEVAL SATIRE POPULARITY OF
 +FABLES ; ODO DE CIRINGTON REYNARD THE FOX BURNELLUS AND
 +FAUVEL THE CHARIVARI LE MONDE BESTORNE ENCAUSTIC TILES
 +SHOEING THE GOOSE, AND FEEDING PIGS WITH ROSES fl A TTTUf! ATi.
 +^IGNgJ THE MUSTARD MAKER 75
 +
 +CHAPTER VI.
 +
 +THE MONKEY IN BURLESQUE AND CARICATURE TOURNAMENTS AND
 +
 +SINGLE COMBATS MONSTROUS COMBINATIONS OF ANIMAL FORMS
 +
 +__OARICATURES ON COSTUME THE HAT THE HELMET LADIES'
 +
 +
 +
 +HEAD-DRESSES THE GOWN. AND ITS LONG SLEEVES .... 95
 +
 +CHAPTER VII.
 +
 +PRESERVATION OF THE CHARACTER OF THE MTMUS AFTER THE
 +FALL OF THE EMPIRE THE MINSTREL AND JOGELOUR HISTORY
 +OF POPULAR STORIES THE FABLIAUX ACCOUNT OF THEM THE
 +CONTES DEVOTS 106
 +
 +CHAPTER VIII.
 +
 +CARICATURES OF DOMESTIC LIFE STATE OF DOMESTIC LIFE IN THE
 +MIDDLE AGES EXAMPLES OF DOMESTIC CARICATURE FROM THE
 +CARVINGS OF THE MISERERES KITCHEN SCENES DOMESTIC BRAWLS
 +THE FIGHT FOR THE BREECHES THE JUDICIAL DUEL BETWEEN
 +MAN AND WIFE AMONG THE OKBMATva AT.T.TT.^Tmsra TO WITCH-
 +_CRAFT SATIRES ON THE TRADES: THE BAKER, THE MILLER, THE
 +WINE-PEDLAR AND TAVERN KEEPER, THE ALE-WIFE, ETC. . . 118
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER IX.
 +
 +GROTESQUE FACES AND FIGURES~- J P_REVAJLENCE_^F THE TASTE FOR
 +UGLY AND GROTESQUE FACES SOME OF THE POPULAR FORMS
 +DERIVED FROM ANTIQUITY: THE TONGUE LOLLING OUT, AND THE
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Contents. xiii
 +
 +
 +
 +PAGE
 +DISTORTED MOUTH HORRIBLE SUBJECTS : THE MAN AND THE SER-
 +
 +P-RTSTTS ^AT.T.T-.OORIGAL FIGURES : GLUTTONY AND LUXURY OTHER
 +REPRESENTATIONS OF ^CLERICAL GLUTTONY AND DRUNKENNESS
 +GROTESQUE FIGURES OF INDIVIDUALS, AND GROTESQUE GROUPS
 +ORNAMENTS OF THE BORDERS OF BOOKS UNINTENTIONAL CARI-
 +CATURE J THE MOTE AND THE BEAM . . 144
 +
 +CHAPTER X.
 +
 +SATIRICAL LITERATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES JOHN DE HAUTEVTLLE
 +AND ALAN DE LILLE GOLIAS AND THE GOLIARDS THE GOLIARDIO
 +POETRY TASTE FOR PARODY PARODIES ON RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS
 +POLITICAL CARICATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES THE JEWS OF NOR-
 +WICH CARICATURE REPRESENTATIONS OF COUNTRIES LOCAL SA-
 +TIREPOLITICAL SONGS AND POEMS . . . . . . . .159
 +
 +CHAPTER XI.
 +
 +MINSTRELSY A SUBJECT OF BURLESQUE AND CARICATURE CHARACTER
 +OF THE MINSTRELS THEIR JOKES UPON THEMSELVES AND UPON
 +ONE ANOTHER VARIOUS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS REPRESENTED IN
 +THE SCULPTURES OF THE MEDIEVAL ARTISTS SIR MATTHEW
 +GOURNAY AND THE KING OF PORTUGAL DISCREDIT OF THE TABOR
 +AND BAGPIPES MERMAIDS 188
 +
 +CHAPTER XII.
 +
 +THE COURT FOOL THE NORMANS AND THEIR GABS EARLY HISTORY
 +
 +
 +
 +OF COURT rOOTifl TTTTTR OTBTVTtfgr ^^PVT^" 61 IN THE CORNISH
 +CHURCHES THE BURLESQUE SOCIETIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES
 +THE FEASTS OEJu qgii ' g J ATirr> nl? TOnT.S TTTRTB. LICENCE THE T.F.ADEN
 +MONEY OF THE FOOLS THE BISHOP'S BLESSING 200
 +
 +CHAPTER XIII.
 +
 +THE DANCE OF DEATH THE PAINTINGS IN THE CHURCH OF LA CHAISE
 +DIEU THE REIGN OF FOLLY SEBASTIAN BRANDT J THE SHIP OF
 +FOOLS DISTURBERS OF CHURCH SERVICE TROUBLESOME BEGGARS
 +GEILER'S SERMONS BADIUS, AND HIS SHIP OF FOOLISH WOMEN
 +THE PLEASURES OF SMELL ERASMUS; THE PRAISE OF FOLLY . 214
 +
 +
 +
 +xiv Contents.
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XIV.
 +
 +PAGE
 +
 +POPULAR LITERATURE AND ITS HEROES; BROTHER RUSH, TYLL
 +EULENSPIEGEL, THE WISE MEN OF GOTHAM STORIES AND JEST-
 +BOOKS SKELTON, SCOGIN, TARLTON, PEELE 228
 +
 +CHAPTER XV.
 +
 +THE AGE OF THE REFORMATION THOMAS MURNERJ HIS GENERAL
 +
 +SATIRES FRUITFULNESS OF FOLLY HANS SACHS TTTR TRAP FOR
 +
 +r FOOLS ATTACKS ON LUTHER THE POPE AS ANTICHRIST THE
 +
 +POPE-ASS AND THE MONK-CALF OTHER CARICATURES AGAINST
 +
 +THE POPE THE GOOD AND BAD SHEPHERDS ' 244
 +
 +CHAPTER XVI.
 +
 +ORIGIN OF MEDLEVAL FARCE AND MODERN COMEDY HROTSVITHA
 +MEDLEVAL NOTIONS OF TERENCE THE EARLY RELIGIOUS PLAYS '
 +MYSTERIES AND MIRACLE PLAYS THE FARCES THE DRAMA IN
 +THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 264
 +
 +CHAPTER XVII.
 +
 +DIABLERIE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY EARLY TYPES OF THE DIA-
 +BOLICAL FORMS ST. ANTHONY ST. GUTHLAC REVIVAL OF THE
 +TASTE FOR SUCH SUBJECTS IN THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTEENTH
 +CENTURY THE FLEMISH SCHOOL OF BREUGHEL THE FRENCH
 +AND ITALIAN SCHOOLS CALLOT, SALVATOR ROSA 288
 +
 +CHAPTER XVIII.
 +
 +CALLOT AND HIS SCHOOL CALLOT' S ROMANTIC HISTORY HIS " CA-
 +PRICI," AND OTHER BURLESQUE "WORKS THE " BALLI " AND THE
 +BEGGARS IMITATORS OF CALLOT; DELLA BELLA EXAMPLES OF
 +DELLA BELLA ROMAIN DE HOOGHE OQQ
 +
 +CHAPTER XIX.
 +
 +THE SATIRICAL LITERATURE OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY PASQUTL
 +MACARONIC POETRY THE EPISTOL^l OBSCURORUM VIRORUM
 +R A BET. ATS COURT OF THE QUEEN OF NAVARRE, AND ITS LITE-
 +RARY CIRCLE; BONAVENTURE DBS PERIERS HENRI ETIENNE
 +
 +THE LIGUE, AND ITS SATIRE: THE " SATYRE .MENIPPEE " . . . 312
 +
 +
 +
 +Contents.
 +
 +
 +
 +xv
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XX.
 +
 +POLITICAL CARICATURE IN ITS INFANCY THE REVERS DU JEU DES
 +SUYSSES CARICATURE IN FRANCE THE THREE ORDERS PERIOD
 +
 +OF THE LIGTJE; CARICATURES AGAINST HENRI ni. CARICATURES
 +
 +AGAINST THE LIGTJE CARICATURE IN FRANCE IN THE SEVEN-
 +TEENTH CENTURY GENERAL GALAS THE QUARREL OF AMBAS-
 +SADORS CARICATURE AGAINST LOUIS XTV. J "WILLIAM OF FURS-
 +TEMBERO ......
 +
 +
 +
 +347
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XXI.
 +
 +EARLY POLITICAL CARICATURE IN ENGLAND THE SATIRICAL WHITINGS
 +AND PICTURES OF THE COMMONWEALTH PERIOD SATIRES AGAINST
 +THE BISHOPS; BISHOP WILLIAMS CARICATURES ON THE CAVA-
 +LIERS; SIR JOHN SUCKLING THE ROARING BOYS; VIOLENCE OP
 +
 +THE ROYALIST SOLDIERS CONTEST BETWEEN THE PRESBYTERIANS
 +AND INDEPENDENTS GRINDING THE KING'S NOSE PLAYING-CARDS
 +USED AS THE MEDIUM FOR CARICATURE; HASELRIGGE AND LAM-
 +BERT SHROVETIDE
 +
 +
 +
 +360
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XXII.
 +
 +ENGLISH COMEDY BEN JONSON THE OTHER WRITERS OF HIS SCHOOL
 +
 +INTERRUPTION OF DRAMATIC PERFORMANCES i.COMEDY AFTER
 +
 +THE RESTORATION THE HOWARDS BROTHERS: THE" DUJ^E OF
 +
 +BUCKINGHAM ; THE R.'B'.Tni'.A'R.HAT. WR.TX'F'.Ra nr'noyp'.'nv iy THE
 +
 +_T.ATvriBVR^PA^T my TTTP. aTy.VEJgTTR-RNT-FC (TENTPBY jNDEOENny OF TTTR
 +
 +-STAGE COLLEY GIBBER ^FOOTE 375
 +
 +
 +
 +\
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XXIII.
 +
 +
 +
 +CARICATURE IN HOLLAND ROMAIN DE HOOGHE THE ENGLISH REVO-
 +LUTION CARICATURES ON LOUIS XIV. AND JAMES II. DR. SACHE-
 +VERELL CARICATURE BROUGHT FROM HOLLAND TO ENGLAND
 +ORIGIN OF THE WORD " CARICATURE " MISSISSIPPI AND THE SOUTH
 +SEA J THE YEAR OF BUBBLES
 +
 +
 +
 +406
 +
 +
 +
 +xvi Contents.
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XXIV.
 +
 +PAGE
 +
 +ENGLISH CARICATURE IN THE AGE OF GEOEGE II. ENGLISH PRINT-
 +SELLERS ARTISTS EMPLOYED BY THEM SIR ROBERT WALPOLE'S
 +LONG MINISTRY THE WAR WITH FRANCE THE NEWCASTLE AD-
 +MINISTRATION OPERA INTRIGUES ACCESSION OF GEORGE HI., AND
 +LORD BTTTE IN POWER 420
 +
 +CHAPTER XXV.
 +
 +HOGARTH HIS EARLY HISTORY HIS SETS OF PICTURES THE HARLOT'S
 +PROGRESS THE RAKF.'S PROGRESS THE MARRIAGE A LA MODE
 +HIS OTHER PRINTS THE ANALYSIS OF BEAUTY, AND THE PERSECU-
 +TION ARISING OUT OF IT HIS PATRONAGE BY LORD BUTE CARICA-
 +TURE OF THE TIMES ATTACKS TO WHICH HE WAS EXPOSED BY IT,
 +AND WHICH HASTENED HIS DEATH 431
 +
 +CHAPTER XXVI.
 +
 +THE LESSER CARICATURISTS OF THE REIGN OF GEORGE m. PAUL
 +
 +SANDBY COLLET: THE DISASTER, AND FATHER PAUL IN HIS CUPS
 +
 +JAMES BAYER : HIS CARICATURES IN SUPPORT OF PITT, AND HIS
 +REWARD CARLO KHAN'S TRIUMPH BUNBURY'S: HIS CARICATURES
 +ON HORSEMANSHIP WOODWARD : GENERAL COMPLAINT ROWLAND-
 +SON'S INFLUENCE ON THE STYLE OF THOSE WHOSE DESIGNS HE
 +ETCHED JOHN KAY OF EDINBURGH: LOOKING A ROCK IN THE
 +FACE . . ' . I 450
 +
 +CHAPTER XXVII.
 +
 +GILLRAY HIS FIRST ATTEMPTS HIS CARICATURES BEGIN WITH THE
 +SHELBURNE MINISTRY IMPEACHMENT OF WARREN HASTINGS
 +CARICATURES ON THE KING J NEW WAY TO PAY THE NATIONAL
 +DEBT ALLEGED REASON FOR GLLLRAY'S HOSTILITY TO THE KING
 +THE KING AND THE APPLE -DUMPLINGS GILLRAY'S LATER LA-
 +BOURS HIS EDIOTCY AND DEATH 464
 +
 +CHAPTER XXVIII.
 +
 +GILLRAY'S CARICATURES ON SOCIAL LIFE THOMAS ROWLANDSON HIS
 +EARLY LIFE HE BECOMES A CARICATURIST HIS STYLE AND WORKS
 +HIS DRAWINGS THE CRUIKSHANKS 480
 +
 +
 +
 +CARICATURE AND GROTESQUE IN
 +LITERATURE AND ART.
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER I.
 +
 +ORIGIN OF CARICATURE AND GROTESftUE. SPIRIT OF CARICATURE IN
 +
 +EGYPT. MONSTERS : PYTHON AND GORGON. GREECE. THE DIONY-
 +
 +SIAC CEREMONIES, AND ORIGIN OF THE DRAMA. THE OLD COMEDY.
 +
 +LOVE OF PARODY. PARODIES ON SUBJECTS TAKEN FROM GRECIAN
 +
 +MYTHOLOGY: THE VISIT TO THE LOVER: APOLLO AT DELPHT. THE
 +PARTIALITY FOR PARODY CONTINUED AMONG THE ROMANS : THE
 +FLIGHT OF /ENEAS.
 +
 +IT is not my intention in the following pages to difcufs the queftion
 +what conftitutes the comic or the laughable, or, in other words, to
 +enter into the philofophy of the fubje6t; I defign only to trace the hiftory
 +of its outward development, the various forms it has aflumed, and its
 +focial influence. Laughter appears to be almoft a neceflity of human
 +nature, in all conditions of man's exiftence, however rude or however cul-
 +tivated j and fome cf the greateft men of all ages, men of the moft refined
 +intellects, fuch as Cicero in the ages of antiquity, and Erafmus among
 +the moderns, have been celebrated for their indulgence in it. The former
 +was fometimes called by his opponents fcurra confularis, the "confular
 +jefter j" and the latter, who has been fpoken of as the "mocking-bird," is
 +faid to have laughed fo immoderately over the well-known " Ep'ftolae
 +Obfcurorum Virorum," that he brought upon himfelf a ferious fit of
 +illnefs. The greateft of comic writers, Ariftophanes, has always been looked
 +upon as a model of literary perfection. An epigram in the Greek Antho-
 +
 +B logy,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +logy, written by the divine Plato, tells us how, when the Graces fought
 +a temple which would not fall, they found the foul of Ariftophanes :
 +
 +
 +
 +Al \apirtc r*/itvoc Tt Xa/JeTv OTrtp oi>xl iriffiir
 +fiv ivpov 'Apiffro<f>avov(;.
 +
 +
 +
 +On the other hand, the men who never laughed, the ayc'Xaorot, were
 +looked upon as the leafl refpectable of mortals.
 +
 +A tendency to burlefque and caricature appears, indeed, to beji feeling
 +deeply fmplanted in human nature, and it is one of the earlieft talents
 +difplayed by people in a rude ftate lof^fociety. An appreciation of, and
 +fenfitivenefs to, ridicule, and a love of that which is humorous, are found
 +even among favages, and enter largely into their relations with their
 +fellow men. When, before people cultivated either literature or art,
 +the chieftain fat in his rude hall furrounded by his warriors, they amufed
 +themfelves by turning their enemies and opponents into mockery, by
 +laughing at their weaknefies, joking on their defects, whether phyfical or
 +mental, and giving them nicknames in accordance therewith, in fact,
 +caricaturing them in words, or by telling ftcries which were calculated to
 +excite laughter. When the agricultural ilaves (for the tillers of the land
 +'were then flaves) were indulged with a day of relief from their labours,
 +they fpent it in unreflrained mirth. And when thefe fame people began
 +to erect permanent buildings, and to ornament them, the favourite fub-
 +jects of their ornamentation were fuch as prefented ludicrous ideas. The
 +warrior, too, who caricatured his enemy in his fpeeches over the feftive
 +board, foon fought to give a more permanent form to his ridicule, which
 +he endeavoured to do by rude delineations on the bare rock, or on any
 +other convenient furface which prefented itfelf to his hand. Thus
 +originated caricature and the grotefque in art. In fact, art itfelf, in its
 +earlieft forms, is caricature j for it is only by that exaggeration of features
 +which belongs to caricature, that unikilful draughtfmen could make
 +themfelves underftood.
 +
 +Although we might, perhaps, find in different countries examples of
 +thefe principles in different flates of development, we cannot in any one
 +country trace the entire courfe of the development itfelf: for in all the highly
 +
 +civilifed
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +civilifed races of mankind, we firft become acquainted with their hiftory
 +when they had already reached a confiderable degree of refinement ; and
 +even at that period of their progrefs, our knowledge is almoft confined to
 +their religious, and to their more feverely historical, monuments. Such
 +is efpecially the cafe with Egypt, the hiftory of which country, as repre-
 +fented by its monuments of art, carries us back to the remoteft ages of
 +antiquity. Egyptian art generally prefents itfelf in a fombre and maffive
 +character, with little of gaiety or joviality in its defigns or forms. Yet, as
 +Sir Gardner Wilkinfon has remarked in his valuable work on the
 +"Manners and Cuftoms of the Ancient Egyptians," the early Egyptian
 +artifts cannot always conceal their natural tendency to the humorous,
 +which creeps out in a variety of little incidents. Thus, in a feries of
 +grave hiftorical pictures on one of the great monuments at Thebes, we
 +find a reprefentation of a wine party, where the company confifts of both
 +fexes, and which evidently mows that the ladies were not reftricted in the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. I. An Egyptian Lady at a Feaft.
 +
 +ufe of the juice of the grape in their entertainments; and, as he adds, "the
 +painters, in illuftrating this fact, have fometimes facrificed their gallantry
 +to a love of caricature." Among the females, evidently of rank, repre-
 +fented in this fcene, " fome call the fervants to fupport them as they fit,
 +others with difficulty prevent themfelves from falling on thofe behind
 +
 +them,
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +them, and the faded flower, which is ready to drop from their heated
 +hands, is intended to be charaderiftic of their own fenfations." One
 +group, a lady whofe excels has been carried too far, and her fervant who
 +comes to her afliftance, is reprefented in our cut No. I. Sir Gardner
 +obferves that " many fimilar inftances of a talent for caricature are
 +obfervable in the compofitions of the Egyptian artills, who executed the
 +paintings of the tombs" at Thebes, which belong to a very early period
 +of the Egyptian annals. Nor is the application of this talent reftri6ted
 +always to fecular fubje&s, but we fee it at times intruding into the moft
 +facred myfteries of their religion. I give as a curious example, taken from
 +one of Sir Gardner Wilkinfon's engravings, a fcene in the reprefentation
 +of a funeral proceflion croffing the Lake of the Dead (No. 2), that
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 2. Cataftrophe in a Funeral Procejfion.
 +
 +appears in one of theie early paintings at Thebes, in which " the love of
 +caricature common to the Egyptians is mown to have been indulged
 +even in this ferious fubjeft; and the retrograde movement of the large
 +boat, which has grounded and is puflied off the bank, ftriking the fmaller
 +one with its rudder, has overturned a large table loaded with cakes and
 +other things, upon the rowers feated below, in fpite of all the efforts of
 +the prowman, and the earneft vociferations of the alarmed fteerfman."
 +The accident which thus overthrows and fcatters the provifions intended
 +for the funeral feaft, and the confufion attendant upon it, form a ludicrous
 +
 +fcene
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +fcene in the midft of a folemn picture, that would be worthy of the
 +imagination of a Rowlandfon.
 +
 +Another cut (No. 3), taken from one of the fame feries of paintings,
 +belongs to a clafs of caricatures which dates from a very remote period.
 +One of the moft natural ideas among all people would be to compare
 +men with the animals whofe y<trticular qualities they poflelfed. Thus,
 +one might be as bold as a lior, another ~s faithful as a dog, or as cunning
 +as a fox, or as fwinifh as a hog. The aame of the animal would thus
 +often be given as a nickname to the Kian, and in the fequel he would be
 +reprefented piftorially under the form of the animal. It was partly out
 +of this kind of caricature, no doubt, that the fingular clafs of apologues
 +which have been fince diftinguiflied by the name of fables arofe.
 +Connected with it was the belief in the metempfychofis, or tranfmiifion
 +of the foul into the bodies of animals after death, which formed a part of
 +feveral of the primitive religions. The earlieft examples of this clafs
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No 3. A.n Unfortunate Soul.
 +
 +of caricature of mankind are found on the Egyptian monuments, as
 +in the inftance juft referred to, which reprefents " a foul condemned to
 +return to earth under the form of a pig, having been weighed in the
 +fcales before Ofiris and been found wanting. Being placed in a boat,
 +and accompanied by two monkeys, it is difmifled the facred precincV*
 +The latter animals, it may be remarked, as they are here reprefented, are
 +the cynocephali, or dog-headed monkeys (the Jimia inuus), which were
 +facred animals among the Egyptians, and the peculiar cbarafteriftic of
 +which the dog-ihaped head is, as ufual, exaggerated by the artift.
 +The reprefentation of this return of a condemned foul under the
 +
 +repulfive
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +
 +
 +repulfive form of a pig, is painted on the left fide wall of the long
 +entrance-gallery to the tomb of King Ramefes V., in the valley of royal
 +catacombs known as the Biban-el-Molook, at Thebes. Wilkinfon gives
 +the date of the acceffion of this monarch to the throne as 1185, B.C.
 +In the original picture, Ofiris is feated on his throne at fome diftance from
 +the item of the boat, and is difmiffing it from his prefence by a wave
 +of the hand. This tomb was open in the time of the Romans, and
 +termed by them the " Tomb of Momnon j" it was greatly admired, and
 +is covered with laudatory infcriptions by Greek and Roman vifitors. One
 +of the moft interefling is placed beneath this picture, recording the name
 +of a daduchus, or torch-bearer in the Eleufinian myfteries, who vifited this
 +tomb in the reign of Conftantine.
 +
 +The practice having been once introduced of reprefenting men under
 +th^_chara^er_"of"^nTi'lialb, was Iboii' developed into otheF~applications
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +,Y . 4. The Cat and the Geefe.
 +
 +of the fame idea fuch as that of figuring animals employed in the
 +various Ottiupatiora of mankmd^jUKTthat of reverimg the pofitiorToTm^n
 +"and the Infenorjujimals. and reprefentmg the latter as treating their
 +
 +human
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +human tyrant in the fame manner as they are ufually treated by him.
 +The latter idea became a very favourite one at a later period, but the
 +other is met with not unfrequently among the works of art which have
 +been faved from the wrecks of antiquity. Among the treafures of the
 +Britifh Mufeum, there is a long Egyptian pifture on papyrus, originally
 +forming a roll, confifting of reprefentations of this defcription, from which
 +I give three curious examples. The firft (fee cut No. 4) reprefents a cat
 +in charge of a drove of geefe. It will be obferved that the cat holds in
 +her hand the fame fort of rod, with a hook at the end, with which the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 5. The Fox turned Pifer.
 +
 +monkeys are furnifhed in the preceding pifture. The fecond (No. 5)
 +reprefents a fox carrying a bafket by means of a pole fupported on his
 +fhoulder (a method of carrying burthens frequently reprefented on the
 +monuments of ancient art), and playing on the well-known double flute,
 +or pipe. The fox foon became a %ourite__peiIbBaga in this HaiL-Of.
 +caricatures, and W Q ir^Jg!^ ? prnrpinpnt part hp afterwards-played in
 +jnedjaacaJUatire.^-Perhaps, however, the moft popular of all animals in
 +this clafs of drolleries was the monkey, which appears natural enough
 +
 +when
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijiory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +when we conlider its fingular aptitude to mimic the a&ions of man.
 +The ancient naturalifts tell us fome curious, though not very credible,
 +ftories of the manner in which this chara&eriflic of the monkey tribes was
 +taken advantage of to entrap them, and Pliny (Hift. Na,.., lib. viii. c. 80)
 +quotes an older writer, who aflerted that they had even been taught
 +to play at draughts. Our third fubje6t from the Egyptian papyrus of the
 +Britifh Mufeum (No. 6) reprefents a fcene in which the game of draughts
 +or, more properly (peaking, the game which the Romans called the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 6. The Lion and the Unicorn.
 +
 +ludus latrunculorinn, and which is believed to have refembled our draughts
 +is played by two animals well known to modem heraldry, the lion and
 +the unicorn. The lion has evidently gained the victory, and is fingering
 +the money; and his bold air of fwaggering fuperiority, as well as the look
 +of furprife and difappointment of his vanquifhed opponent, are by no
 +means ill pictured. This feries of caricatures, though Egyptian, belongs
 +to the Roman period.
 +
 +The monftrous is clofely allied to the grotefque, and both come within
 +the province of caricature, when we take this term in its wideft fenfe.
 +
 +The
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +The Greeks, efpecially, were partial to reprefentations of monfters, and
 +monitrous forms are continually met with among their ornaments and works
 +of art. The type of the Egyptian monfler is reprefented in the accompany-
 +ing cut (No. 7), taken from the work of Sir Gardner Wilkinfon before
 +quoted, and is faid to be the figure of the god Typhon. It occurs frequently
 +on Egyptian monuments, with fome variation in its forms, but always
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 7. Typhon.
 +
 +charafterifed by the broad, coarfe, and frightful face, and by the large
 +tongue lolling out. It is interefting to us, becaufe it is the apparent
 +origin of a long feries of faces, or maflb, of this form and charafter, which
 +are continually recurring in the grotefque ornamentation, not only of the
 +Greeks and Romans, but of the middle ages. It appears to have been
 +fometimes given by the Romans to the reprefentations of people whom
 +they hated or defpifed ; and Pliny, in a curious paflage of his " Natural
 +
 +c Hiftory,"
 +
 +
 +
 +10
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +History,"* informs us that at one time, among the pictures exhibited in
 +the Forum at Rome, there was one in which a Gaul was reprefented,
 +" thrufting out his tongue in a very unbecoming manner." The Egyptian
 +Typhons had their exact reprefentations in ancient Greece in a figure of
 +frequent occurrence, to which antiquaries have, 1 know not why, given
 +the name of Gorgon. The example in our cut No. 8, is a figure in terra*
 +cotta, now in the collection of the Royal Mufeum at Berlin, f
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 8. Gvrgirn.
 +
 +In Greece, however, the fpirit of caricature and burlefque repre-
 +fentation had aflumed a more regular form than in other countries, for it
 +was inherent in the fpirit of Grecian fociety. 'Among the population of
 +Greece, the worship of Dionyfus, or Bacchus, had taken deep root from
 +
 +
 +
 +* Plin. Hist. Nat., lib. xxxv. c. 8.
 +
 +f Panofka Terracotten des Museums Berlin, pi. Ixi. p. 154.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 1
 +
 +
 +
 +a very early period earlier than we can trace back and it formed the
 +nucleus of the popular religion and fuperftitions, the cradle of poetry and
 +the drama. The moft popular celebrations of the people of Greece, were
 +the Dionyfiac feftivals, and the phallic rites and proceffions which accom-
 +panied them, in which the chief adtors aflumed the difguife of fatyrs and
 +fawns, covering themfelves with goat-fkins, and disfiguring their faces by
 +rubbing them over with the lees of wine. Thus, in the guife of noify
 +bacchanals, they difplayed an unreftrained licentioufnefs of gefture and
 +language, uttering indecent jefts and abufive fpeeches, in which they
 +fpared nobody. This portion of the ceremony was the efpecial attribute
 +of a part of the performers, who accompanied the proceffion in waggons,
 +and a6ted fomething like dramatic performances, in which they uttered an
 +abundance of loofe extempore fatire on thofe who pafled or who accom
 +panied the proceffion, a little in the ftyle of the modern carnivals. It be
 +came thus the occafion for an unreftrained publication of coarfe pafquinades.
 +In the time of Pififtratus, thefe performances are aflumed to have been
 +reduced to a little more order by an individual named Thefpis, who is
 +faid to have invented mafks as a better difguife than dirty faces, and is
 +looked upon as the father of the Grecian drama. There can be no
 +doubt, indeed, that the drama arofe out of thefe popular ceremonies, and
 +it long bore the unmiftakable marks of its origin. Even the name of
 +tragedy has nothing tragic in its derivation, for it is formed from the
 +Greek word tragos (rpayoc), a goat, in the {kins of which animal the
 +fatyrs clothed themfelves, and hence the name was given alfo to thofe who
 +perfonated the fatyrs in the proceffions. A tragodus (rpayydog) was the
 +finger, whofe words accompanied the movements of a chorus of fatyrs,
 +and the term tragodia was applied to his performance. In the fame
 +manner, a comodus (KW/XW^OC) was one who accompanied fimilarly, with
 +chants of an abufive or fatirical character, a comus (*rw/ioc), or band of
 +revellers, in the more riotous and licentious portion of the performances
 +in the Bacchic feftivals. The Greek drama always betrayed its origin by
 +the circumftance that the performances took place annually, only at the
 +yearly feitivals in honour of Bacchus, of which in fat they conftituted
 +a part. Moreover, as the Greek drama became perfected, it Hill retained
 +
 +
 +
 +1 2 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +from its origin a triple divifion, into tragedy, comedy, and the fatiric
 +drama j and, being ftill performed at the Dionyfiac feflival in Athens,
 +each dramatic author was expe6ted to produce what was called a trilogy,
 +that is, a tragedy, a fatirical play, and a comedy. So completely was all
 +this identified in the popular mind with the worlhip of Bacchus, that,
 +long afterwards, when even a tragedy did not pleafe the audience
 +by its fubjecl:, the common form of difapproval was, ri ravra irpog TOV
 +"What has this to do with Bacchus?" and, ovSev irpoe rbv
 +
 +" This has nothing to do with Bacchus."
 +We have no perfect remains of the Greek fatiric drama, which was,
 +perhaps, of a temporary character, and lefs frequently preferved j but the
 +early Greek comedy is preferved in a certain number of the plays of
 +Ariftophanes, in which we can contemplate it in all its freedom of
 +character. It represented the waggon-jefting, of the age of Thefpis,
 +in its full development. In its form it was burlefque to a wanton degree
 +of extravagance, and its eflence was perfonal vilification, as well as general
 +fatire. Individuals were not oiuy attacked by the application to them of
 +abufive epithets, but they were reprefented perfonally on the llage as
 +performing every kind of contemptible adion, and as frittering all forts of
 +ludicrous and difgraceful treatment. The drama thus bore marks of
 +its origin in its extraordinary licentioufnefs^pf language and coftume, and
 +in the conftant ufe of the maflt. One of its moft favourite inftruments
 +of fatire was parody, which was employed unfparingly on everything
 +which fociety in its folermi moments refpeded againft everything that
 +the fatirift confidered worthy of being held up to public derifion or fcorn.
 +Religion itfelf, philofophy, focial manners and inftitutions even poetry
 +were all parodied in their turn. The comedies of Ariftophanes are full
 +of parodies on the poetry of the tragic and other writers of his age. He
 +is efpecially happy in parodying the poetry of the tragic dramatift
 +Euripides. The old comedy of Greece has thus been correctly defcribed
 +as the comedy of caricature j and the fpirit, and even the fcenes, of this
 +comedy, being transferred to pidorial reprefentattons, became entirely
 +identical with that branch of art to which we give the name of caricature
 +in modern times. Under the cover of bacchanalian buffoonery, a ferious
 +
 +purpofe.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 3
 +
 +purpofe, it is true, was aimed at ; but the general fatire was chiefly
 +implied in the violent perfonal attacks on individuals, and thU became fo
 +offenlive that when fuch perfons obtained greater power in Athens than
 +the populace the old comedy was abolifhed.
 +
 +Ariftophanes was the greateft and moft perfect poet of the Old
 +Comedy, and his remaining comedies are as ftrongly marked reprefenta-
 +tions of the hoftility of political and focial parties in his time, as the
 +caricatures of Gillray are of party in the reign of our George III., and, we
 +may add, even more minute. They range through the memorable period
 +of the Peloponnefian war, and the earlier ones give us the regular annual
 +feries of thefe performances, as far as Ariftophanes contributed them, during
 +feveral years. The firft of them, " The Acharnians," was performed at the
 +Lenaean feaft of Bacchus in the fixth year of the Peloponnefian war, the
 +year 425 B.C., when it gained the firft prize. It is a bold attack on
 +the factious prolongation of the war through the influence of the Athenian
 +demagogues. The next, "The Knights," brought out in B.C. 424, is a
 +direft attack upon Cleon, the chief of thefe demagogues, although he is
 +not mentioned by name ; and it is recorded that, finding nobody who had
 +courage enough to make a maik reprefenting Cleon, or to play the cha-
 +racter, Ariftophanes was obliged to perform it himfelf, and that he fmeared
 +his face with lees of wine, in order to reprefent the flufhed and bloated
 +countenance of the great demagogue, thus returning to the original mode
 +of acting of the predeceflbrs of Thefpis. This, too, was the firft of the
 +comedies of Ariftophanes which he publifhed in his own name. " The
 +Clouds," publilhed in 423, is aimed at Socrates and the philofophers.
 +The fourth, " The Wafps," publifhed in B.C. 422, prefents a fatire on the
 +litigious fpirit of tne Athenians. The fifth, entitled " Peace " ("Etpjjvj/),
 +appeared in the year following, at the time of the peace of Nicias, and is
 +another fatire on the bellicofe fpirit of the Athenian democracy. The
 +next in the lift of extant plays comes after an interval of feveraJ years,
 +having been publiihed in B.C. 414, the firft year of the Sicilian war, a^d
 +relates to an irreligious movement in Athens, which had caufed a great
 +fenfation. Two Athenians are repreiented as leaving Athens, in difguft
 +at the vices and follies of their fellow citizens, and feekir.g the kingdom
 +
 +of
 +
 +
 +
 +14 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +of the birds, where they form a new ftate, by which the communication
 +between the mortals and the immortals is cut off, and is only opened
 +again by an arrangement between all the parties. In the " Lyfiftrata,''
 +believed to have been brought out in 411, when the war was ftill at its
 +height, the women of Athens are reprefented as engaging in a cunning
 +and fuccefsful plot, by which they gain poflefiion of the government of the
 +Hate, and compel their hulbands to make peace. "The Thefmo-
 +phoriazufae," appears to have been publiftied in B.C. 410 ; it is a fatire
 +upon Euripides, whofe writings were remarkable for their bitter attacks
 +on the character of the female fex, who, in this comedy, confpire againft
 +him to fecure his puniihment. The comedy of "The Frogs " was brought
 +out in the year 405 B.C., and is a fatire on the literature of the day ; it is
 +aimed efpecially at Euripides, and was perhaps written foon after his death,
 +its real fubje6t being the decline of the tragic drama, which Euripides
 +was accufed of having promoted. It is perhaps the moft witty of the
 +plays of Ariftophanes which have been preferved. "The Ecclefiazufae,"
 +publifhed in 392, is a burlefque upon the theories of republican govern-
 +ment, which were then ftarted among the philofophers, fome of which
 +differed little from our modern communifm. The ladies again, by a clever
 +confpiracy, gain the maftery in the eftate, and they decree a community
 +of goods and women, with fome laws very peculiar to that ftate of things.
 +The humour of the piece, which is extremely broad, curns upon the
 +difputes and embarraffments refulting from this ftate of things. The
 +laft of his comedies extant, " Plutus," appears to be a work of the
 +concluding years of the aftive life of Ariftophanes ; it is the leaft ftriking
 +of them all, and is rather a moral than a political fatire.
 +
 +In a comedy brought out in 426, the year before "The Archarnians,"
 +under the title of "The Babylonians," Ariftophanes appears to have given
 +great offence to the democratic party, a circumftance to which he alludes
 +more than once in the former play. However, his talents and popularity
 +feem to have carried him over the danger, and certainly nothing can have
 +exceeded the bitternefs of fatire employed in his fubfequent comedies.
 +Thofe who followed him were lefs fortunate.
 +
 +One of the lateft writers of the Old Comedy was Anaximandrides,
 +
 +who
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \
 +
 +
 +
 +who caft a refle&ion on the ftate of Athens in parodying a line of Euripides-
 +This poet had faid,
 +
 +} 0v<rie l[3ov\tO' fj vofidiv ovSiv piXti
 +(Nature has commanded, which cares nothing for the- laws);
 +
 +which Anaximandrides changed to
 +
 +
 +
 +s/3ov\0' r\ vofjiwv ovSfv [liXti
 +(The state has commanded, which cares nothing for the laws).
 +
 +Nowhere is oppreflion exercifed with greater harfhnefs than under demo-
 +cratic governments ; and Anaximandrides was profecuted for this joke as
 +a crime againft the ftate, and condemned to death. As may be fuppofed,
 +liberty of fpeech ceafed to exift in Athens. We are well acquainted with
 +the character of the Old Comedy, in its greateft freedom, through the
 +writings of Ariftophanes. What was called the Middle Comedy, in
 +which political fatire was prohibited, lafted from this time until the age
 +of Philip of Macedon, when the old liberty of Greece was finally crufhed.
 +The laft form of Greek comedy followed, which is known as the
 +New Comedy, and was reprefented by fuch names as Epicharmus and
 +Menander. In the New Comedy all caricature and parody, and all
 +perfonal allufions, were entirely profcribed ; it was changed entirely into
 +a comedy of manners and domeftic life, a picture of contemporary fociety
 +under conventional names and characters. From this New Comedy was
 +taken the Roman comedy, fuch as we now have it in the plays of Plautus
 +and Terence, who were profefled imitators of Menander and the other
 +writers of the new comedy of the Greeks.
 +
 +Pictorial caricature was, of courfe, rarely to be feen on the public
 +monuments of Greece or Rome, but muft have been configned to objects
 +of a more popular character and to articles of common ufe j and, accord-
 +ingly, modern antiquarian refearch has brought it to light fomewhat
 +abundantly on the pottery of Greece and Etruna, and on the wall-paint-
 +ings of domeftic buildings in Herculaneum and Pompeii. The former
 +contains comic fcenes, efpecially parodies, which are evidently transferred
 +to them from the ftage, and which preferve the mafks and other attributes
 +ibme of which I have neceflarily^mitted proving the model from
 +
 +which
 +
 +
 +
 +1 6 Hlftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +which they were taken. The Greeks, as we know from many fources,
 +were extremely fond of parodies of ever)' defcription, whether literary or
 +pictorial. The fubje6t of our cut No. 9 is a good example of the parodies
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 9. A Greek Parody.
 +
 +
 +
 +found on the Greek pottery ; it is taken from a fine Etrufcan vafe,* and
 +has been fuppofed to be a parody on the vifit of Jupiter to Alcmena.
 +This appears rather doubtful, but there can be no doubt that it is a
 +burlefque reprefentation of the vifit of a lover to the object of his afpira-
 +tions. The lover, in the comic mafk and coftume, mounts by a ladder to
 +the window at which the lady prefents herfelf, who, it muft be confefied,
 +prefents the appearance of giving her admirer a very cold reception. He
 +tries to conciliate her by a prefent of what feem to be apples, inftead of
 +
 +gold,
 +
 +* Given in Panofka, " Antiques du Cabinet Pourtal&s," pi. x.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 7
 +
 +
 +
 +, but without much effed. He is attended by his fervant with a
 +torch, to give him light on the way, which mows that it is a night
 +adventure. Both matter and fervant have wreaths round their heads, and
 +the latter carries a third in his hand, which, with the contents of his
 +bafket, are alfo probably intended as prefents to the lady.
 +
 +A more unmiftakable burlefque on the vilit of Jupiter to Alcmena
 +is publifhed by Winckelmann from a vafe, formerly in the library of the
 +Vatican, and now at St. Peterfburg. The treatment of the fubject is
 +not unlike the picture juft defcribed. Alcmena appears juft in the fame
 +pofture at her chamber window, and Jupiter is carrying his ladder to
 +mount up to her, but has not yet placed it againft the wall. His
 +companion is identified with Mercury by the well-known caduceus he
 +carries in his left hand, while with his right hand he holds a lamp up
 +to the window, in order to enable Jupiter to fee the object of his amour.
 +
 +It is aftonilhing with how much boldnefs the Greeks parodied and
 +ridiculed facred fubjects. The Chriftian father, Arnobius, m writing
 +againft his heathen opponents, reproached them with this circumftance.
 +The laws, he fays, were made to protect the characters of men from
 +flander and libel, but there was no fuch protection for the characters of
 +the gods, which were treated with the greateft difrefpect.* This was
 +efpecially the cafe in their pictorial reprefentations.
 +
 +Pliny informs us that Ctefilochus, a pupil of the celebrated Apelles,
 +painted a burlefque picture of Jupiter giving birth to Bacchus, in which
 +the god was reprelented in a very ridiculous pofture. f Ancient writers
 +intimate that fimilar examples were not uncommon, and mention the
 +names of feveral comic painters, whofe works of this clafs were in repute.
 +Some of thefe were bitter perfonal caricatures, like a celebrated work of a
 +
 +painter
 +
 +* Arnobius (contra Gentes\ lib. iv..p. 150. Carmen malum conscribere, quo fama
 +alterius coinquinatur et vita, decemviralibus scitis evadere noluistis impune : ac ne
 +vestras aures convitio aliquis petulantiore pulsaret, de atrocibus formulas consti-
 +tuistis injuriis. Soli dii sunt apud vos super! inhonorati, contemtibiles, viles : in
 +quos jus est vobis datum quae quisque voluerit dicere turpitudinem, jacere quas
 +libido confinxerit atque excogitaverit formas.
 +
 +t Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. xxxv. c. 40.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 8 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +painter named Cteficles, defcribed alfo by Pliny. It appears that Stra-
 +tonice, the queen of Seleucus Nicator, had received this painter ill when
 +he vifited her court, and in revenge he executed a picture in which ihe
 +was reprefented, according to a current fcandal, as engaged in an amour
 +with a common fimerman, which he exhibited in the harbour of Ephefus,
 +and then made his efcape on ftiip-board. Pliny adds that the queen
 +admired the beauty and accuracy of the painting more than {he felt the
 +infult, and that me forbade the removal of the picture.*
 +
 +The fubject of our fecond example of the Greek caricature is better
 +known. It is taken from an oxybaphon which was brought from the
 +Continent to England, where it pafled into the collection of Mr. William
 +Hope.f The oxybaphon (6vfia<j)ov), or, as it was called by the Romans,
 +acetalulum, was a large veflel for holding vinegar, which formed one of
 +the important ornaments of the table, and was therefore very fufceptible
 +of piftorial embellifhment of this defcription. It is one of the moft remark-
 +able Greek caricatures of this kind yet known, and reprefents a parody on
 +one of the moft interefting ftories of the Grecian mythology, that of the
 +arrival of Apollo at Delphi. The artift, in his love of burlefque, has
 +fpared none of the perfonages who belonged to the ftory. The Hyper-
 +borean Apollo himfelf appears in the character of a quack doctor, on his
 +temporary ftage, covered by a fort of roof, and approached by wooden
 +fteps. On the ftage lies Apollo's luggage, confifting of a bag, a bow, and
 +his Scythian cap. Chiron (XlPQN) is reprefented as labouring under
 +the effects of age and blindnefs, and fupporting himfelf by the aid of a
 +crooked ftaff, as he repairs to the Delphian quack-doctor for relief. The
 +figure of the centaur is made to afcend by the aid of a companion, both
 +being furnilhed with the mafks and other attributes of the comic per-
 +formers. Above are the mountains, and on them the nymphs of Par-
 +naflus (NYM<J>AI), who, like all the other actors in the fcene, are difguifed
 +with malks, and thofe of a very grotefque character. On the right-hand
 +
 +fide
 +
 +* Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. xxxv. c. 40.
 +
 +t Engraved by Ch. Lenormant et J. de Witt, "Elite des Monuments Ceramo-
 +graphiques," pi. xciv.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +fide ftands a figure which is confidered as reprefenting the epoptes, the
 +infpe&or or overfeer of the performance, who alone wears no malk.
 +Even a pun is employed to heighten the drollery of the fcene, for inftead
 +of IIY6IAS, the Pythian, placed over the head of the burlefque Apollo,
 +it feems evident that the artift had written HEI6IA2, the confoler, in
 +allufion, perhaps, to the confolation which the quack-do6tor is adminifter-
 +ing to his blind and aged vifitor.
 +
 +The Greek fpirit of parody, applied even to the moft facred fubjeds,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 10. Apollo at Delphi.
 +
 +however it may have declined in Greece, was revived at Rome, and we find
 +examples of it on the walls of Pompeii and Herculaneum." They mow
 +the fame readinefs to turn into burlefque the moft facred and popular
 +legends of the Roman mythology. The example given (cut No. u),
 +from one of the wall-paintings, is peculiarly interefting, both from
 +circumftances in the drawing itfelf, and becaufe it is a parody on one of
 +the favourite national legends of the Roman people, who prided them-
 +
 +felves
 +
 +
 +
 +20
 +
 +
 +
 +Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +
 +
 +felves on their defcent from vEneas. Virgil has told, with great effect,
 +the ftory of his hero's elcape from the deftru6tion of Troy or rather has
 +put the llory into his hero's mouth. When the devoted city was already
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +n o o n n n o o n n r. o no
 +
 +
 +
 +No. II. The PKgh. of Mneas from Troy.
 +
 +in flames, ^Eneas took his father, Anchifes, on his moulder, and his boy,
 +lulus, or, as he was otherwife called, Afcanius, by the hand, and thus fled
 +from his home, followed by his wife
 +
 +
 +
 +Ergo age, care pater, cer-vici imponere nofirtf ,
 +
 +Ipfefubibo humeris, nee me labor ifte gra-vablt.
 +
 +Quo ret cumque cadent, unum et commune perklum,
 +
 +Unafalus ambobus em. AfiAi parvus lulus
 +
 +Sit ;, et longejer-vat vefllgla conjux.Virg. JEn., lib. ii. L 707.
 +
 +
 +
 +Thus
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +21
 +
 +
 +
 +Thus they hurried on, the child holding by his father's right hand, and
 +dragging after with " unequal fteps,"
 +
 +dextrte fe par-vus lulus
 +Implicuit fequiturque patrem non pajjlbus eequis. Virg. lEm., lib. ii. 1. 723.
 +
 +And thus ./Eneas bore away both father and fon, and the penates, or
 +houfehold gods, of his family, which were to be transferred to another
 +country, and become the future guardians of Rome
 +
 +j4fcanium, Anchifemque patrem, Tencrofque penates. Ib., L 747.
 +
 +In this cale we know that the delign is intended to be a parody,
 +or burlefque, upon a pi6ture which appears to have been celebrated
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 12. The Flight of Mneas.
 +
 +at the time, and of which at leaft two different copies are found upon
 +ancient intaglios. Tt is the only cafe I know in which both the original
 +
 +and
 +
 +
 +
 +22 Hi II or y of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +and the parody have been preferred from this remote period, and this is
 +fo curious a circumftance, that I give in the cut on the preceding page a
 +copy of one of the intaglios.* It reprefented literally Virgil's account of
 +the ftory, and the only difference between the defign on the intaglios and
 +the one given in our firft cut is, that in the latter the perfonages are repre-
 +fented under the forms of monkeys. ./Eneas, perfonified by the ftrong and
 +vigorous animal, carrying the old monkey, Anchifes, on his left (boulder,
 +hurries forward, and at the fame time looks back on the burning city. With
 +his right hand he drags along the boy lulus, or Afcanius, who is evidently
 +proceeding non pajffilus cequis, and with difficulty keeps up with his
 +father's pace. The boy wears a Phrygian bonnet, and holds in his right
 +hand the inftrument of play which we fhould now call a " bandy "
 +the pedun. Anchifes has charge of the box, which contains the facred
 +penates. It is a curious circumftance that the monkeys in this picture are
 +the fame dog-headed animals, or cynocephali, which are found on
 +the Egyptian monuments.
 +
 +
 +
 +* These intaglios are engraved in the Museum Florentinum of Gorius, vol. ii.
 +pi. 30 On one of them the figures are reversed.
 +
 +
 +
 +When this chapter was already given tor press, I first became acquainted with
 +an interesting paper, by Panofka, on the " Parodieen und Karikaturen auf Werken
 +der Klassischen Kunst," in the " Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften
 +zu Berlin," for the year 1854, ar >d I can only now refer my readers to it.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 23
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER II.
 +
 +ORIGIN OF THE STAGE IN ROME. USES OF THE MASK AMONG THE
 +
 +ROMANS. SCENES FROM ROMAN COMEDY. THE SANNIO AND MIMUS.
 +
 +THE ROMAN DRAMA. THE ROMAN SATIRISTS. CARICATURE.
 +
 +ANIMALS INTRODUCED IN THE CHARACTERS OF MEN. THE PIGMIES,
 +
 +AND THEIR INTRODUCTION INTO CARICATURE ; THE FARM-YARD ; THE
 +PAINTER'S STUDIO; THE PROCESSION. POLITICAL CARICATURE IN
 +POMPEII J THE GRAFFITI.
 +
 +THE Romans appear to have never had any real tafte for the regular
 +drama, which they merely copied from the Greeks, and from the
 +earlieft period of their hiftory we find them borrowing all their arts of
 +this defcription from their neighbours. In Italy, as in Greece, the firft
 +germs of comic literature may be traced in the religious feftivals, which
 +prefented a mixture of religious worfhip and riotous feftivity, where the
 +feafters danced and fung, and, as they became excited with wine and enthu-
 +fiafm, indulged in mutual reproaches and abufe. The oldeft poetry of the
 +Romans, which was compofed in irregular meafure, was reprefented by the
 +verfus faturnini, faid to have been fo called from their antiquity (for things
 +of remote antiquity were believed to belong to the age of Saturn). Naevius,
 +one of the oldeft of Latin poets, is faid to have written in this verfe. Next
 +in order of time came the Fefcennine verfes, which appear to have been
 +diftinguifhed chiefly by .their licenfe, and received their name becaufe
 +they were brought from Fefcennia, in Etruria, where they were employed
 +originally in the feftivals of Ceres and Bacchus. In the year 391 of
 +Rome, or 361 B.C., the city was vifited by a dreadful plague, and the
 +citizens hit upon what will appear to us the rather ftrange expedient of
 +fending for performers (ludiones) from Etruria, hoping, by employing
 +them, to appeafe the anger of the gods. Any performer of this kind
 +appears to have been fo little known to the Romans before this, that
 +
 +there
 +
 +
 +
 +24 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +there was not even a name for him in the language, and they were
 +obliged to adopt the Tufcan word, and call him a hiflrio, becaufe hifter in
 +that language meant a player or pantomimift. This word, we know,
 +remained in the Latin language. Thefe firft Etrurian performers appear
 +indeed to have been mere pantomimifts, who accompanied the flute with
 +all forts of mountebank tricks, geftures, dances, gefticulations, and the
 +like, mixed with fatirical fongs, and fometimes with the performance of
 +coarfe farces. The Romans had alfo a clafs of performances rather more
 +dramatic in character, confifting of ftories which were named Faluloe
 +AtdlancB, becaufe thefe performers were brought from Atella, a city of
 +the Ofci.
 +
 +A confiderable advance was made in dramatic Art in Rome about the
 +middle of the third century before Chrift. It is afcribed to a freedman
 +named Livius Andronicus, a Greet- by birth, who is faid to have brought
 +out, in the year 240 B.C., the firft regular comedy ever performed in
 +Rome. Thus we trace not only the Roman comedy, but the very rudi-
 +ments of dramatic art in Rome, either direct to the Greeks, or to the
 +Grecian colonies in Italy. With the Romans, as well as with the Greeks,
 +the theatre was a popular inftitution, open to the public, and the Hate or
 +a wealthy individual paid for the performance ; and therefore the building
 +itfelf was neceflarily of very great extent, and, in both countries open to
 +the fky, except that the Romans provided for throwing an awning over
 +it. As the Roman comedy was copied from the new comedy of the
 +Greeks, and therefore did not admit of the introduction of caricature and
 +burlefque on the ftage, thefe were left especially to the province of the
 +pantomime and farce, which the Romans, as juft ftated, had received
 +from a ftill earlier period.
 +
 +Whether the Romans borrowed the malk from the Greeks, or not, is
 +rather uncertain, but it was ufed as generally in the Roman theatres,
 +whether in comedy or tragedy, as among the Greeks. The Greek adors
 +performed upon ftilts, in order to magnify their figures, as the area of the
 +theatre was very large and uncovered, and without this help they were
 +not fo well feen at a diftance ; and one object of utility aimed at by the
 +mafk is faid to have been to make the head appear proportionate in fize
 +
 +to
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +2 5
 +
 +
 +
 +to the artificial height of the body. It may be remarked that the malk
 +feems generally to have been made to cover the whole head, reprefenting
 +the hair as well as the face, fo that the character of age or complexion
 +might be given complete. Among the Romans the ftilts were certainly
 +not in general ufe, but ftill the malk, befides its comic or tragic character,
 +is fuppofed to have ferved ufeful purpofes. The firft improvement upon
 +its original ftru6ture is faid to have been the making it of brafs, or fome
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 13. si Scene from Ten nee.
 +
 +other fonorous metal, or at leaft lining the mouth with it,fo as to reverberate,
 +and give force to the voice, and alfo to the mouth of the malk fomethingof
 +the charafter of a fpeaking-trumpet.* All thefe acceflbries could not fail to
 +detraa much from the effecT: of the ading, which muft in general have
 +been very meafured and formal, and have received moft of its importance
 +from the excellence of the poetry, and the declamatory talents of the
 +a6lors. We have pictures in which fcenes from the Roman ftage are
 +
 +accurately
 +
 +* It is said to have received its Latin name from this circumstance, ferfona, u
 +pcrjonando. See Aulus Gellius, Noct Alt., lib. v. C. 7-
 +
 +
 +
 +26
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +accurately reprefented. Several rather early manufcripts of Terence have
 +been preferved, illuftrated with drawings of the fcenes as reprefented on
 +the ftage, and thefe, though belonging to a period long fubfequent to the
 +age in which the Roman ftage exifted in its original character, are, no
 +doubt, copied from drawings of an earlier date. A German antiquary of
 +the laft century, Henry Berger, publifhed in a quarto volume a feries of
 +fuch illuftrations from a manufcript of Terence in the library of the
 +Vatican at Rome, from which two examples are ielec\ed, as fhowing the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 14. Geta and Demea.
 +
 +
 +
 +ufual ftyle of Roman comic ading, and the ufe of the mafk. The firil
 +(No. 13) is the opening fcene in the Andria. On the right, two fervants
 +have brought provifions, and on the left appear Simo, the matter of the
 +houfehold, and his freedman, Sofia, who feems to be entrufted with the
 +charge of his domeftic affairs. Simo tells his fervants to go away with
 +the provifions, while he beckons Sofia to confer with him in private :
 +
 +Si. Vos ijlac intro auferte ; abite, Sofia,
 +Adejdum ; faucis te -volo. So. Difium futa
 +Netffx ut curentur refie h<ec. Si. Imo aliud.
 +
 +Terent Andr., Actus i., Scena 1.
 +
 +When
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art
 +
 +
 +
 +27
 +
 +
 +
 +When we compare thefe words with the pi6ture, we cannot but feel that
 +in the latter there is an unneceflary degree of energy put into the pofe
 +of the figures ; which is perhaps lefs the cafe in the other (No. 14), an
 +illuftration of the fixth fcene of the fifth att of the Adelphi of Terence. It
 +reprefents the meeting of Geta, a rather talkative and conceited fervant,
 +and Demea, a countryfied and churlifh old man, his acquaintance, and of
 +courfe fuperior. To Geta's falutation, Demea afks churliflily, as not at
 +firft knowing him, "Who are you?" but when he finds that it is Geta,
 +he changes fuddenly to an almoft fawning tone :
 +
 +G Sed ecc urn Demeam. Sal-vus fief
 +
 +D. OA, qui -vocare ? G. Geta. D. Geta, hominem maximi
 +Pretii ejje te kodie judica-vi animo met.
 +
 +That thefe reprefentations are truthful, the fcenes in the wall-paintings
 +of Pompeii leave us no room to doubt. One of thefe is produced in our
 +cut No. 15, which is no doubt taken from a comedy now loft, and we
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 15. Comic Scene from Pomf,eii.
 +
 +
 +
 +are ignorant whom the charaders are intended to reprefent. The pofe
 +given to the two comic figures, compared with the example given from
 +
 +Berger,
 +
 +
 +
 +28
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +Berger, would lead us to fuppofe that this over-energetic action was
 +confidered as part of the character of comic acting.
 +
 +The fubject of the Roman mafks is the more interefting, becaufe they
 +were probably the origin of many of the grotefque faces fo often met
 +with in mediaeval fculpture. The comic maflc was, indeed, a very popular
 +object among the Romans, and appears to have been taken as fymbolical
 +of everything that was droll and burlefque. From the comic fcenes of
 +the theatre, to which it was firft appropriated, it pafied to the popular
 +feftivals of a public character, fuch as the Lupercalia, with which, no
 +doubt, it was carried into the carnival of the middle ages, and to our
 +mafquerades. Among the Romans, alfo, the ufe of the maik foon pafied
 +from the public feftivals to private fupper parties. Its ufe was fo common
 +that it became a plaything among children, and was fometimes ufed as a
 +bugbear to frighten them. Our cut No. 16, taken from a painting at
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1 6. Cupidi at Play.
 +
 +Refina, reprefents two cupids playing with a malk, and ufing it for this
 +latter purpofe, that is, to frighten one another ; and it is curious that the
 +mediaeval glofs of Ugutio explains larva, a malk, as being an image,
 +"which was put over the face to frighten children."* The maik thus
 +became a favourite ornament, efpecially on lamps, and on the antefixa
 +and
 +
 +" Simulacrum quod opponitur faciei ad terrendos parvos." (Ugutio, ap.
 +
 +Ducange, v. Mafia.)
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +29
 +
 +
 +
 +and gargoyls of Roman buildings, to which were often given the form of
 +grotefque malks, monftrous faces, with great mouths wide open, and
 +other figures, like thofe of the gargoyls of the mediaeval architects.
 +
 +While the comic malk was ufed generally in the burlefque entertain-
 +ments, it alfo became diftinctive of particular characters. One of thefe
 +was the fannio, or buffoon, whofe name was derived from the Greek word
 +oarvoQ, "a fool," and who was employed in performing burlefque dances,
 +making grimaces, and in other a6ts calculated to excite the mirth of the
 +lpetator. A reprefentation of the fannio is given in our cut No. 17,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 17. The Roman Sannio, or Buffoon.
 +
 +copied from one of the engravings in the "DiHertatio de Larvis Scenicis,"
 +by the Italian antiquary Ficoroni, who took it from an engraved gem.
 +The fannio holds in his hand what is fuppofed to be a brafs rod, and he has
 +
 +probably
 +
 +
 +
 +3
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +probably another in the other hand, fo that he could ftrike them together.
 +He wears the foccus, or low fhoe peculiar to the comic a&ors. This
 +buffoon was a favourite character among the Romans, who introduced
 +him conftantly into their feafts and fupper parties. The manducus was
 +another character of this defcription, reprefented with a grotefque mafk,
 +prefenting a wide mouth and tongue lolling out, and laid to have been
 +peculiar to the Atellane plays. A character in Plautus (Rud., ii. 6, 51)
 +talks of hiring himfelf as a manducus in the plays.
 +
 +" S}mdji aliquo ad ludos me pro manduco locem /"'
 +
 +The mediaeval glofles interpret manducus by joculator, " a jogelor," and
 +add that the charadteriftic from which he took his name was the practice
 +of making grimaces like a man gobbling up his food in a vulgar and
 +gluttonous manner.
 +
 +Ficoroni gives, from an engraved onyx, a figure of another burlefque
 +performer, copied in our cut No. 18, and which he compares to the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1 8. Roman Tom Fool.
 +
 +Catanian dancer of his time (his book was publilhed in 1754), who was
 +called a giangurgolo. This is confidered to reprefent the Roman mimus,
 +a clafs of performers who told with mimicry and action fcenes taken from
 +
 +common
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 3 1
 +
 +common life, and more efpecially fcandalous and indecent anecdotes, like
 +the jogelors and performers of farces in the middle ages. The Romans
 +were very much attached to thefe performances, fo much fo, that they
 +even had them at their funeral proceffions and at their funeral feafts. In
 +our figure, the mimus is reprefented naked, malked (with an exaggerated
 +nofe), and wearing what is perhaps intended as a caricature of the
 +Phrygian bonnet. In his right hand he holds a bag, or purfe, full of
 +objects which rattle and make a noife when fliaken, while the other holds
 +the crotalum, or caflanets, an inftrument in common ufe among the
 +ancients. One of the ftatues in the Barberini Palace reprefents a youth
 +in a Phrygian cap playing on the crotalum. We learn, from an early
 +authority, that it was an inftrument efpecially ufed in the fatirical and
 +burlefque dances which were fo popular among the Romans.
 +
 +As I have remarked before, the Romans had no tafte for the regular
 +drama, but they retained to the laft their love for the performances of
 +the popular mimi, or comeedi (as they were often called), the players
 +of farces, and the dancers. Thefe performed on the ftage, in the public
 +feftivals, in the ftreets, and were ufually introduced at private parties.*
 +Suetonius tells us that on one occafion, the emperor Caligula ordered a
 +poet who compofed the Atellanes (Atellance poetam) to be burnt in
 +the middle of the amphitheatre, for a pun. A more regular comedy,
 +however, did flourifh, to a certain degree, at the fame time with thefe
 +more popular compofitions. Of the works of the earlieft of the Roman
 +comic writers, Livius Andronicus and Naevius, we know only one or two
 +titles, and a few fragments quoted in the works of the later Roman
 +writers. They were followed by Plautus, who died B.C. 184, and nineteen
 +of whofe comedies are preferved and well known ; by feveral other
 +writers, whofe names are almoft forgotten, and whofe comedies are all
 +loft; and by Terence, fix of whofe comedies are preferved. Terence
 +died about the year 159 B.C. About the fame time with Terence lived
 +
 +Lucius
 +
 +
 +
 +* See, for allusions to the private employment of these performances, Pliny,
 +Epiit. i. 15, and ix. 36.
 +
 +
 +
 +32 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +Lucius Afranius and Quin&ius Atta, who appear to clofe the lift of the
 +Roman writers of comedy.
 +
 +But another branch of comic literature had fprung out of the fatire of
 +the religious feftivities. A year after Livius Andronicus produced the
 +firft drama at Rome, in the year 239 B.C., the poet Ennius was born at
 +Rudiae, in Magna Graecia. The fatirical verfe, whether Saturnine or
 +Fefcennine, had been gradually improving in its form, although ftill very
 +rude, but Ennius is faid to have given at leaft a new polifti, and perhaps
 +a new metrical (hape, to it. The verfe was ftill irregular, but it
 +appears to have been no longer intended for recitation, accompanied by
 +the flute. The Romans looked upon Ennius not only as their earlieft epic
 +poet, but as the father of fatire, a clafs of literary compofition which
 +appears to have originated with them, and which they claimed as their
 +own.* Ennius had an imitator in M. Terentius Varro. The fatires ot
 +thefe firft writers are faid to have been very irregular compofitions, mixing
 +profe with verfe, and fometimes even Greek with Latin ; and to have
 +been rather general in their aim than perfonal. But foon after this
 +period, and rather more than a century before Chrift, came Caius
 +Lucilius, who raifed Roman fatirical literature to its perfection. Lucilius,
 +we are told, was the firft who wrote fatires in heroic verfe, or hexameters,
 +mixing with them now and then, though rarely, an iambic or trochaic
 +line. He was more refined, more pointed, and more perfonal, than his
 +predeceflbrs, and he had refcued fatire from the ftreet performer to make
 +it a clafs of literature which was to be read by the educated, and not
 +merely liftened to by the vulgar. Lucilius is faid to have written thirty
 +books of fatires, of which, unfortunately, only fome fcattered lines
 +remain.
 +
 +Lucilius had imitators, the very names of moft of whom are now for-
 +gotten, but about forty years after his death, and fixty-five years before
 +the birth of Chrift, was born Quintus Horatius Flaccus, the oldeft of the
 +fetirifts whofe works we now poflefs, and the moft polifhed of Roman
 +
 +poets.
 +
 +* Quintilian says, " Satira quidem rota nojtra eft." De Instir. Orator., lib. x. c. i.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 3 3
 +
 +
 +
 +poets. In the time of Horace, the fatire of the Romans had reached its
 +higheft degree of perfection. Of the two other great fatirifts whofe works
 +are preferred, Juvenal was born about the year 40 of the Chriftian era,
 +and Perfius in 43. During the period through which thefe writers
 +flourished, Rome faw a confiderable number of other fatirifts of the
 +fame clafs, whofe works have periftied.
 +
 +In the time of Juvenal another variety of the fame clafs of literature had
 +already fprung up, more artificial and fomewhat more indirect than the
 +other, the profe fatiric romance. Three celebrated writers reprefent this
 +fchool. Petronius, who, born about the commencement of our era,
 +died in A.D. 65, is the earlieft and moft remarkable of them. He
 +compiled a romance, defigned as a fatire on the vices of the age of Nero,
 +in which real perfons are fuppofed to be aimed at under fictitious names,
 +and which rivals in licenfe, at leaft, anything that could have been uttered
 +in the Atellanes or other farces of the mirni. Lucian, of Samofata, who
 +died an old man in the year 200, and who, though he wrote in Greek,
 +may be confidered as belonging to the Roman fchool, compofed feveral
 +fatires of this kind, in one of the moft remarkable of which, entitled
 +" Lucius, or the Afs," the author defcribes himfelf as changed by forcer)'
 +into the form of that animal, under which he paries through a number
 +of adventures which illuftrate the vices and weaknefles of contemporary
 +fociety. Apuleius, who was considerably the junior of Lucian, made this
 +novel the groundwork of his " Golden Afs," a much larger and more
 +elaborate work, written in Latin. This work of Apuleius was very
 +popular through fubfequent ages.
 +
 +Let us return to Roman caricature, one form of which feems to have
 +been efpecially a favourite among the people. It is difficult to 'imagine
 +how the ftory of the pigmies and of their wars with the cranes originated,
 +but it is certainly of great antiquity, as it is fpoken of in Homer, and it
 +was a very popular legend among the Romans, who eagerly fought and
 +purchafed dwarfs to make domeftic pets of them. The pigmies and
 +cranes occur frequently among the piftorial ornamentations of the houfes
 +of Pompeii and Herculaneum ; and the painters of Pompeii not only
 +reprefented them in their proper charaaer,but they made ufe of them for
 +
 +F the
 +
 +
 +
 +34
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +the purpofe of caricaturing the various occupations of life domeftic
 +and focial fcenes, grave conferences, and many other fubjects, and
 +even perfonal character. In this clafs of caricatures they gave to the
 +pigmies, or dwarfs, very large heads, and very fmall legs and arms. I
 +need hardly remark that this is a clafs of caricature which is very common
 +in modern times. Our firft group of thefe pigmy caricatures (No. 19) is
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +The Farm-yard in Burlefque.
 +
 +taken from a painting on the walls of the Temple of Venus, at Pompeii,
 +and reprefents the interior of a farm-yard in burlefque. The ftructure in
 +the background is perhaps intended for a hayrick. In front of it, one of
 +the farm fervants is attending on the poultry. The more important-
 +looking perfonage with the paftoral ftaff is poflibly the overfeer of the
 +farm, who is vifiting the labourers, and this
 +probably is the caufe why their movements
 +have aflumed fo much activity. The labourer
 +on the right is ufing the qfilla, a wooden yoke
 +or pole, which was carried over the moulder,
 +with the corlis, or bafket, fufpended at each
 +end. This was a common method of carrying,
 +and is not unfrequently reprefented on Roman
 +works of art. Several examples might be
 +quoted from the antiquities of Pompeii. Our
 +cut No. 20, from a gem in the Florentine
 +
 +Mufeum, and illuftratirig another clafs of caricature, that of introducing
 +animals performing the actions and duties of men, reprefents a grafshopper
 +carrying the qfilla and the carles.
 +
 +A private
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 20. An Afilla-Bearer.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +35
 +
 +
 +
 +A private houfe in Pompeii furnifhed another example of this ftyle of
 +caricature, which is given in our cut No. 21. It reprefents the interior of
 +a painter's fludio, and is extremely curious on account of the numerous
 +details of his method of operation with which it furnifhes us. The
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 21. A. Painttr^i Studio.
 +
 +painter, who is, like mod of the figures in thefe pigmy caricatures, very
 +fcantily clothed, is occupied with the portrait of another, who, by the
 +rather exaggerated fulnefs of the gathering of his toga, is evidently
 +intended for a darning and fafliionable patrician, though he is feated as
 +bare-legged and bare-breeched as the artifl himfelf. Both are diftinguifhed
 +by a large allowance of nofe. The eafel here employed refembles greatly
 +the fame article now in ufe, and might belong to the fludio of a
 +modern painter. Before it is a fmall table, probably formed of a flab
 +of (lone, which ferves for a palette, on which the painter fpreads and
 +mixes his colours. To the right a fervant, who fills the office of colour-
 +grinder, is feated by the fide of a veflel placed over hot coals, and appears
 +to be preparing colours, mixed, according to the directions given in old
 +writers, with punic wax and oil. In the background is feated a ftudent,
 +whofe attention is taken from his drawing by what is going on at the
 +other fide of the room, where two fmall perfonages are entering, who
 +look as if they were amateurs, and who appear to be talking about the
 +portrait. Behind them flands a bird, and when the painting was firft
 +
 +uncovered
 +
 +
 +
 +36 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +uncovered there were two. Mazois, who made the drawing from which
 +our cut is taken, before the original had periflied for it was found in a
 +(late of decay imagined that the birds typified fome well-known
 +fingers or muficians, but they are, perhaps, merely intended for cranes,
 +birds fo generally aflbciated with the pigmies.
 +
 +According to an ancient writer, combats of pigmies were favourite
 +reprefentations on the walls of taverns and (hops ;* and, curioufly enough,
 +the walls of a (hop in Pompeii have furniflied the picture reprefented in
 +our cut No. 22, which has evidently been intended for a caricature,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 22. Part of a Triumphal Procejjion.
 +
 +probably a parody. All the pigmies in this picture are crowned with
 +laurel, as though the painter intended to turn to ridicule fome over-
 +pompous triumph, or fome public, perhaps religious, ceremony. The two
 +figures to the left, who are clothed in yellow and green garments, appear
 +to be difputing the poflefiion of a bowl containing a liquid. One of
 +thefe, like the two figures on the right, has a hoop thrown over his
 +fhoulder. The firft of the latter perfonages wears a violet drels, and
 +holds in his right hand a rod, and in his left a ftatuette, apparently ot a
 +
 +deity,
 +
 +* liri riav KairT}\in>v. Problem. Aristotelic Sec. x. 7.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +37
 +
 +
 +
 +deity, but its attributes are not diftinguifliable. The laft figure to the
 +right has a robe, or mantle, of two colours, red and green, and holds in
 +his hand a branch of a lily, or fome fimilar plant ; the reft of the picture
 +is loft. Behind the other figure Hands a fifth, who appears younger and
 +more refined in character than the others, and feems to be ordering or
 +directing them. His drels is red.
 +
 +We can have no doubt that political and perlbnal caricature flourifhed
 +among the Romans, as we have fome examples of it on their works of
 +art, chiefly on engraved ftones, though thefe are moftly of a character we
 +could not here conveniently introduce ; but the fame rich mine of Roman
 +art and antiquities, Pompeii, has furnifhed us with one fample of what
 +may be properly confidered as a political caricature. In the year 59 of the
 +Chriftian era, at a gladiatorial exhibition in the amphitheatre of Pompeii,
 +where the people of Nuceria were prefent, the latter exprefied themfelves
 +in fuch fcornful terms towards the Pompeians, as led to a violent quarrel,
 +which was followed by a pitched battle between the inhabitants of the
 +two towns, and the Nucerians, being defeated, carried their complaints
 +before the reigning emperor, Nero, who gave judgment in their favour,
 +and condemned the people of Pompeii to fufpenfion from all theatrical
 +amufements for ten years. The feelings of the Pompeians on this occafion
 +are difplayed in the rude drawing reprefented in our cut No. 23, which
 +is fcratched on the plafter of the external wall of a houfe in the ftreet to
 +which the Italian antiquarians have given the name of the ftreet oi
 +Mercury. A figure, completely armed, his head covered with what might
 +be taken for a mediaeval helmet, is defcending what appear to be intended
 +for the fteps of the amphitheatre. He carries in his hand a palm-branch,
 +the emblem of victory. Another palm-branch ftands ere6t by his fide,
 +and underneath is the infcription, in rather ruftic Latin, " CAMPANI
 +VICTORIA VNA CVM NVCER1NIS PERISTIS " "O Campa-
 +nians, you perifhed in the viftory together with the Nucerians." The
 +other fide cf the picture is more rudely and haftily drawn. It has been
 +fuppofed to reprefent one of the vidors dragging a prifoner, with his arms
 +bound, up a ladder to a ftage or platform, on which he was perhaps to be
 +exhibited to the jeers of the populace. Four years after this event,
 +
 +Pompeii
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +Pompeii was greatly damaged by an earthquake, and fixteen years later
 +came the eruption of Vefuvius, which buried the town, and lef". it in the
 +condition in which it is now found.
 +
 +This curious caricature belongs to a clafs of monuments to which
 +archaeologifts have given technically the Italian name of graffiti, fcratches
 +or fcrawls, of which a great number, confifting chiefly of writing, have
 +been found on the walls of Pompeii. They alfo occur among the remains
 +on other Roman fites, and one found in Rome itfelf is efpecially intereft-
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +A Popular Caricature.
 +
 +
 +
 +ing. During the alterations and extenfions which were made from time
 +to time in the palace of the Caefars, it had been found necefTary to build
 +acrols a narrow ftreet which interfered the Palatine, and, in order to give
 +fupport to the ftru&ure above, a portion of the ftreet was walled off, and
 +remained thus hermetically fealed until about the year 1857, when fome
 +excavations on the fpot brought it to view. The walls of the flreet were
 +found to be covered with thefe graffiti, among which one attracted efpecial
 +attention, and, having been carefully removed, is now preferved in the
 +mufeum of the Collegio Romano. It is a caricature upon a Chriftian
 +
 +named
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +39
 +
 +
 +
 +named Alexamenos, by fome pagan who defpifed Chriftianity. The
 +Saviour is reprefented under the form of a man with the head of an als,
 +extended upon a crofs, the Chriftian, Alexamenos, ftanding on one fide in
 +the attitude of worftiip of that period. Underneath we read the infcrip-
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +-OEQ'
 +
 +No. 24. Early Caricature upon a Chriftian,
 +
 +tion, AAEBAMENO2 CEBETE (for ffejSe-a-) EON, "Alexamenos
 +wormips God." This curious figure, which may be placed among the
 +moft interefting as well as early evidences of the truth of Gofpel hiftory,
 +is copied in our cut No. 24. It was drawn when the prevailing religion
 +at Rome was ftill pagan, and a Chriftian was an object of contempt.
 +
 +
 +
 +40 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER III
 +
 +THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION FROM ANTIftUITY TO THE MIDDLE AGES.
 +THE ROMAN MIMI CONTINUED TO EXIST. THE TEUTONIC AFTER-
 +DINNER ENTERTAINMENTS. CLERICAL SATIRE.? , ARCHBISHOP HE-
 +
 +RI6ER AND THE DREAMER ; THE SUPPER OF THE SAINTS. TRANSI-
 +TION FROM ANCIENT TO MEDIAEVAL ART. TASTE FOR MONSTROUS
 +
 +ANIMALS, DRAGONS, ETC. j CHURCH OF SAN FEDELE, AT COMO. -
 +SPIRIT OF CARICATURE AND LOVE OF GROTESQUE AMONG THE
 +ANGLO-SAXONS. GROTESQUE FIGURES OF DEMONS. NATURAL TEN-
 +DENCY OF THE EARLY MEDIAEVAL ARTISTS TO DRAW IN CARICATURE.
 +EXAMPLES FROM EARLY MANUSCRIPTS AND SCULPTURES.
 +
 +THE tranfition from antiquity to what we ufually underftand by the
 +name of the middle ages was long and flow ; it was a period during
 +which much of the texture of the old fociety was deftroyed, while at the fame
 +time a new life was gradually given to that which remained. We know very
 +little of the comic literature of this period of tranfition ; its literary remains
 +confift chiefly of a mafs of heavy theology and of lives of faints. The
 +ftage in its perfectly dramatic form theatre and amphitheatre had dis-
 +appeared. The pure drama, indeed, appears never to have had great
 +vitality among the Romans, whofe taftes lay far more among the vulgar
 +performances of the mimics and jeflers, and among the favage fcenes of
 +the amphitheatre. While probably the performance of comedies, fuch
 +as thofe of Plautus and Terence, foon went out of fafliion, and tragedies,
 +like thofe of Seneca, were only written as literary compofitions, imitations
 +of the iimilar works which formed fo remarkable a feature in the litera-
 +ture of Greece, the Romans of all ranks loved to witnefs the loofe atti-
 +tudes of their mimi, or Men to their equally loofe fongs and ftories. The
 +theatre and the amphitheatre were ftate inftitutions, kept up at the
 +national expenfe, and, as juft ftated, they perilhed with the overthrow of
 +the weftern empire j and the fanguinary performances of the amphitheatre,
 +
 +if
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 4 1
 +
 +
 +
 +if the amphitheatre itfelf continued to be ufed (which was perhaps the
 +cafe in fome parts of weftern Europe), and they gave place to the more
 +harmlefs exhibitions of dancing bears and other tamed animals,* for
 +deliberate cruelty was not a chara&eriftic of the Teutonic race. But the
 +mimi, the performers who fung fongs and told ftories, accompanied with
 +dancing and mufic, furvived the fall of the empire, and continued to be
 +as popular as ever. St. Auguftine, in the fourth century, calls thefe
 +things nefaria, deteflable things, and fays that they were performed at
 +night.f We trace in the capitularies the continuous exiftence of thefe
 +performances during the ages which followed the empire, and, as in the
 +time of St. Auguftine, they ftill formed the amufement of no6turnal
 +aflemblies. The capitulary of Childebert profcribes thofe who pafled
 +their nights with drunkennefs, jefting, and fongs. % The council of
 +Narbonne, in the year 589, forbade people to fpend their nights "with
 +dancings and filthy fongs." The council of Maye-nce, in 813, calls thefe
 +fongs "filthy and licentious " (turpia atque luocuriofa) ; and that of Paris
 +fpeaks of them as "obfcene and filthy" (obfccena et turpia); while in
 +another they are called "frivolous and diabolic." From the bitternefs
 +with which the ecclefiaftical ordinances are exprefied, it is probable
 +that thefe performances continued to preferve much of their old
 +paganifm j yet it is curious that they are fpoken of in thefe capitularies
 +and a6ts of the councils as being ftill praftifed in the religious feftivals,
 +and even in the churches, fo tenacioufly did the old fentirnents of the
 +race keep their pofleflion of the minds of the populace, long after they
 +had embraced Chriftianity. Thefe "fongs," as they are called, continued
 +alfo to confift not only of general, but of perfonal fatire, and contained
 +
 +fcandalous
 +
 +
 +
 +* On this subject, see my " History of Domestic Manners and Sentiments,"
 +p. 65. The dancing -bear appears to have been a favourite performer among the
 +Germans at a very early period.
 +
 +f Per totam noctem cantabantur hie nefaria et a cantaforibus saltabatur.
 +Augustini Serm. 311, part v.
 +
 +t Noctes pervigiles cum ebrietate, scurrilitate, vel canticis. See the Capitulary
 +in Labbei Concil-, vol. v.
 +
 +Ut populi saltationibus et turpibus invigilant canticis.
 +
 +tt
 +
 +
 +
 +42 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +fcandalous ftories of perfons living, and well known to thofe who heard
 +them. A capitulary of the Frankifh king Childeric III., publifhed in
 +the year 744, is directed againft tbofe who compofe and fing fongs in
 +defamation of others (in blafphemiam allerius, to ufe the rather energetic
 +language of the original) ; and it is evident that this offence was a very
 +common one, for it is not unfrequently repeated in later records of this
 +character in the fame words or in words to the fame purpofe. Thus one
 +refult of the overthrow of the Roman empire was to leave comic literature
 +almoft in the fame condition in which it was found by Thefpis in Greece
 +and by Livius Andronicus in Rome. There was nothing in it which
 +would be contrary to the feelings of the new races who had now planted
 +themfelves in the Roman provinces.
 +
 +The Teutonic and Scandinavian nations had no doubt their popular
 +feftivals, in which mirth and frolic bore fway, though we know little
 +about them ; but there were circumftances in their domeftic manners
 +which implied a neceffity for amufement. After the comparatively early
 +meal, the hall of the primitive Teuton was the fcene efpecially in the
 +darker months of winter of long fittings over the feftive board, in which
 +there was much drinking and much talking, and, as we all know, fuch
 +talking could not preferve long a very ferious tone. From Bede's account
 +of the poet Caedmon, we learn that it was the praftice of the Anglo-Saxons
 +in the feventh century, at their entertainments, for all thofe prefent
 +to fing in their turns, each accompanying himfelf with a mufical
 +inftrument. From the fequel of the ftory we are led to fuppofe that
 +thefe fongs were extemporary effufions, probably mythic legends, ftories
 +of perfonal adventure, praife of themfelves, or vituperation of their
 +enemies. In the chieftain's houfehold there appears to have been
 +ufually fome individual who afted the part of the fatirift, or, as we ihould
 +perhaps now fay, the comedian. Hunferth appears as holding fome fuch
 +pofition in Beowulf ; in the later romances, Sir Kay held a fimilar pofition
 +at the court of king Arthur. At a flill later period, the place of thefe
 +heroes was occupied by the court fool. The Roman mimus muft have been
 +a welcome addition to the entertainments of the Teutonic hall, and there
 +is every reafon to think that he was cordially received. The performances
 +
 +of
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 43
 +
 +of the hall were foon delegated from the gueils to fuch hired ators, and
 +we have reprefentations of them m the illuminations of Anglo-Saxon
 +manufcripts.* Among the earlieft amufements of the Anglo-Saxon table
 +were riddles, which in every form prefent fome of the features of the
 +comic, and are capable of being made the fource of much laughter. The
 +faintly Aldhelm condefcended to write fuch riddles in Latin verfe, which
 +were, of courfe, intended for the tables of the clergy. In primitive
 +fociety, verfe was the ordinary form of conveying ideas. A large portion
 +of the celebrated collection of Anglo-Saxon poetry known as the
 +"Exeter Book," confifts of riddles, and this tafte for riddles has continued
 +to exift down to our own times. But other forms of entertainment, if
 +they did net already exift, were foon introduced. In a curious Latin poem,
 +older than the twelfth century, of which fragments only are preferred,
 +and have been publifhed under the title of " Ruodlieb," and which
 +appears to have been a tranflation of a much earlier German romance,
 +we have a curious defcription of the poft-prandial entertainments after
 +the dinner of a great Teutonic chieftain, or king. In the firtt place there
 +was a grand diftribution of rich prefents, and then were mown ftrange
 +animals, and among the reft came bears. Thefe bears flood upon their
 +hind legs, and performed fome of the offices of a man ; and when the
 +minttrels (mimi) came in, and played upon their mufical instruments, thefe
 +animals danced to the mufic, and performed all forts of ftrange tricks.
 +
 +Et parties urjl
 +
 +}ui vas tollebant, ut homo, bipedefque gerebant.
 +Afimi quandojides diglth tangunt modularity,
 +llli faltatant, neumas pedibut variabant.
 +Inter dum faliunt, fefeque fuper jaciebant,
 +Alterutrum dorjo Je portabant refidendo,
 +Amplexando fe, lufJando defduntfe.
 +
 +Then followed dancing-girls, and exhibitions of other kinds.!
 +
 +Although
 +
 +* The reader is referred, for further information on this subject, to my " History
 +of Domestic Manners and Sentiments," pp. 33-39-
 +
 +f This curious Latin poem was printed by Grimm and Schmeller, in their
 +Lateinische Gedichte des x. und xi. Jh., p. 129.
 +
 +
 +
 +44 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +Although thefe performances were profcribed by the ecclefiaftical
 +laws, they were not difcountenanced by the ecclefiaftics themfelves, who,
 +on the contrary, indulged as much in after-dinner amufements as any-
 +body. The laws againft the profane fongs are often directed efpecially
 +at the clergy ; and it is evident that among the Anglo-Saxons, as well
 +as on the Continent, not only the priefts and monks, but the nuns alfo,
 +in their love of fuch amufements, far tranfgrefied the bounds of decency.*
 +Thefe entertainments were the cradle of comic literature, but, as this
 +literature in the early ages of its hiftory was rarely committed to writing,
 +it has almoft entirely perifhed. But, at the tables of the ecclefiaftics,
 +thefe ftories were fometimes told in Latin verfe, and as Latin was not
 +fo eafily carried in the memory as the vernacular tongue, in this lan-
 +guage they were fometimes committed to writing, and thus a few
 +examples of early comic literature have fortunately been preferred. Thefe
 +confift chiefly of popular ftories, which were among the favourite amufe-
 +ments of mediaeval fociety ftories many of which are derived from the
 +earlieft period of the hiftory of our race, and are ftill cherifhed among
 +our peafantry. Such are the ftories of the Child of Snow, and of
 +the Mendacious Hunter, preferved in a manufcript of the eleventh
 +century. f The firft of thefe was a very popular ftory in the middle
 +ages. According to this early veriion, a merchant of Conftance, in
 +Switzerland, was detained abroad for feveral years, during which time
 +his wife made other acquaintance, and bore a child. On his' return, me
 +excufed her fault by telling him that on a cold wintry day me had
 +fwallowed fnow, by which fhe had conceived ; and, in revenge, the
 +buiband carried away the child, and fold it into flavery, and returning,
 +
 +told
 +
 +
 +
 +* On the character of the nuns among the Anglo-Saxons, and indeed of the
 +inmates of the monastic houses generally, I would refer my readers to the excellent
 +and interesting volume by Mr. John Thrupp, " The Anglo-Saxon Home : a
 +History of the Domestic Institutions and Customs of England from the fifth to the
 +eleventh century." London, 1862.
 +
 +f These will be found in M. Ed61estand du Meril's Po&ies Populaires Latines
 +ant6rieures au douzieme siecle, pp. 275, 276.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 45
 +
 +told its mother, that the infant which had originated in fnow, had melted
 +away under a hotter fun. Some of thefe ftories originated in the
 +different collections of fables, which were part of the favourite literature
 +of the later Roman period. Another is rather a ridiculous ftory of an
 +afs belonging to two fitters in a nunnery, which was devoured by a
 +wolf.* It is curious how foon the mediaeval clergy began to imitate
 +their pagan predeceffors in parodying religious fubjeds and forms, of
 +which we have one or two very curious examples. Vifits to purgatory,
 +hell, and paradife, in body or fpirit, were greatly in famion during the
 +earlier part of the middle ages, and afforded extremely good material
 +for fatire. In a metrical Latin ftory, preferred in a manufcript of the
 +eleventh century, we are told how a " prophet," or vifionary, went to
 +Heriger, archbilhop of Mayence from 912 to 926, and told him that
 +he had been carried in a vilion to the regions below, and defcribed them
 +as a place furrounded by thick woods. It was the Teutonic notion of
 +hell, and indeed of all fettlements of peoples ; and Heriger replied
 +with a fneer that he would fend his herdfmen there with his lean fwine
 +to fatten them. Each " mark," or land of a family or clan, in the
 +early Teutonic fettlements, was furrounded by woodland, which was
 +common to all members of the clan for fattening their fwine and
 +hunting. The falfe dreamer added, that he was afterwards carried to
 +heaven, where he faw Chrift fitting at the table and eating. John the
 +Baptift was butler, and ferved excellent wine round to the faints, who
 +were the Lord's guefts. St. Peter was the chief cook. After fome
 +remarks on the appointments to thefe two offices, archbilhop Heriger
 +alked the informant how he was received in the heavenly hall, where he
 +fat, and what he eat. He replied that he fat in a corner, and ftole from
 +the cooks a piece of liver, which he eat, and then departed. Inftead of
 +rewarding him for his information, Heriger took him on his own confeffion
 +for
 +
 +* This, and the metrical story next referred to, were printed in the " Altdeutsche
 +Blatter," edited by Moriz Haupt and Heinrich Hoffmann, vol. i. pp. 390, 392, to
 +whom I communicated them from a manuscript in the University Library at
 +Cambridge.
 +
 +
 +
 +46 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +for the theft, and ordered him to be bound to a ftake and flogged,
 +which, for the offence, was rather a light punifhment.
 +
 +Herlger ilium
 +juffit ad f alum
 +lorit ligarlf
 +Jcoplfque cedi,
 +fermone dura
 +hunc arguendo.
 +
 +Thefe lines will ferve as a fpecimen of the popular Latin verfe in which
 +thefe monkifh after-dinner ftories were written j but the moft remarkable
 +of thefe early parodies on religious fubje6ts, is one which may be defcribed
 +as the fupper of the faints ; its title is fimply Ccena. It is falfely afcribed
 +to St. Cyprian, who lived in the third century] but it is as old as the tenth
 +century, as a copy was printed by profeffor Endlicher from a manufcript
 +of that period at Vienna. It was fo popular, that it is found and known
 +to have exifted in different forms in verfe and in profe. It is a sort of
 +drollery, founded upon the wedding feaft at which the Saviour changed
 +water into wine, though that miracle is not at all introduced into it. It
 +was a great king of the Eaft, named Zoel, who held his nuptial feaft at
 +Cana of Galilee. The perfonages invited are all fcriptural, beginning with
 +Adam. Before the feaft, they wafh in the river Jordan, and the number
 +of the guefts was fo great, that feats could not be provided for them,
 +and they took their places as they could. Adam took the firft place, and
 +feated himfelf in the middle of the aflembly, and next to him Eve fat
 +upon leaves (fuper folia), fig-leaves, we may fuppofe. Cain fat on a
 +plough, Abel on a milk-pail, Noah on an ark, Japhet on tiles, Abraham
 +on a tree, Ifaac on an altar, Lot near the door, and fo with a long lift of
 +others. Two were obliged to ftand Paul, who bore it patiently, and
 +Efau, who grumbled while Job lamented bitterly becaufe he was obliged
 +to fit on a dunghill. Mofes, and others, who came late, were obliged to
 +find feats out of doors. When the king faw that all his guefls had arrived,
 +he took them into his wardrobe, and there, in the fpirit of mediaeval
 +generality, diftributed to them drefies, which had all fome burlefque
 +allufion to their particular characters. Before they were allowed to fit
 +
 +down
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 47
 +
 +down to the feaft, they were obliged to go through other ceremonies,
 +which, as well as the eating, are defcribed in the fame ftyle of cari-
 +cature. The wines, of which there was great variety, were ferved to
 +the guefts with the fame allufions to their individual characters; but
 +fome of them complained that they were badly mixed, although Jonah was
 +the butler. In the fame manner are defcribed the proceedings which
 +followed the dinner, the warning of hands, and the deffert, to the
 +latter of which Adam contributed apples, Samfon honey; while David
 +played on the harp and Mary on the tabor; Judith led the round dance;
 +Jubal played on the pfalter; Afael fung fongs, and Herodias aded the
 +part of the dancing-girl :
 +
 +Tune Adam poma miniftrat, Samjonfa-vi dulcia.
 +David cytharum percu]]it t et Maria tympana.
 +Judith choreas ducebat, et Jubal pfalteria.
 +metra canebat, faltabat Herodias.
 +
 +
 +
 +Mambres entertained the company with his magical performances ; and
 +the other incidents of a mediaeval feftival followed, throughout which the
 +fame tone of burlefque is continued ; and fo the ftory continues, to the
 +end.* We mall find thefe incipient forms of mediaeval comic literature
 +largely developed as we go on.
 +
 +The period between antiquity and the middle ages was one of fuch
 +great and general deftru6tion, that the gulf between ancient and mediaeval
 +art feems to us greater and more abrupt than it really was. The want
 +of monuments, no doubt, prevents our feeing the gradual change of one
 +into the other, but neverthelefs enough of fats remain to convince us
 +that it was not a fudden change. It is now indeed generally underftood
 +that the knowledge and practice of the arts and manufactures of the
 +Romans were handed onward from matter to pupil after the empire had
 +fallen ; and this took place efpecially in the towns, fo that the workman-
 +
 +____ {hip
 +
 +* The text of this singular composition, with a full account of the various forms
 +in which it was published, will be found in M. du Mfiril's " Ponies Populates
 +Latines ant6rieures au douzieme siecle," p- 193-
 +
 +
 +
 +4 8
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +Jhip which had been declining in character during the later periods of
 +the empire, only continued in the courfe of degradation afterwards.
 +Thus, in the firft Chriftian edifices, the builders who were employed, or
 +at leaft many of them, muft have been pagans, and they would follow
 +their old models of ornamentation, introducing the fame grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 15. Saturn Devouring /in Child.
 +
 +figures, the fame mafks and monftrous faces, and even fometimes the
 +fame fubjecls from the old mythology, to which they had been accuftomed.
 +It is to be obferved, too, that this kind of iconographical ornamentation
 +had been encroaching more and more upon the old architedural purity
 +during the latter ages of the empire, and that it was employed more
 +profufely in the later works, from which this tafte was transferred to the
 +
 +ecclefiaftical
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 40
 +
 +ecclefiaftical and to the domeftic architecture of the middle ages. After
 +the workmen themfelves had become Chriftians, they Hill found pagan
 +emblems and figures in their models, and ftill went on imitating them,
 +fometimes merely copying, and at others turning them to caricature or
 +burlefque. And this tendency continued fo long, that, at a much later
 +date, where there ftill exifted remains of Roman buildings, the mediaeval
 +architects adopted them as models, and did not hefitate to copy the
 +fculpture, although it might be evidently pagan in character. The
 +accompanying cut (No. 25) reprefents a bracket iti the church of Mont
 +Majour, near Nifmes, built in the tenth century. The fubjecl: is a
 +monftrous head eating a child, and we can hardly doubt that it was really
 +intended for a caricature on Saturn devouring one of his children.
 +
 +Sometimes the mediaeval fculptors miftook the emblematical defigns
 +of the Romans, and mifapplied them, and gave an allegorical meaning to
 +that which was not intended to be emblematical or allegorical, until the
 +fubjefts themfelves became extremely confufed. They readily employed
 +that clafs of parody of the ancients in which animals were reprefented
 +performing the aftions of men, and they had a great tafte for monfters
 +of every defcription, efpecially thofe which were made up of portions of
 +incongruous animals joined together, in contradiction to the precept of
 +Horace :
 +
 +Humano capiti cervicem piflor equinam
 +Jungerejl -velit, et varias inducere plumas,
 +Undicjue collatis membris, ut turpiter atrum
 +Dejinet in pijcem mulier formofa Juperne ,-
 +Speflatum admijfi rifum teneatis, amid ?
 +
 +The mediaeval architects loved fuch reprefentations, always and in all
 +parts, and examples are abundant. At Como, in Italy, there is a very
 +ancient and remarkable church dedicated to San Fedele (Saint Fidelis) ; it
 +has been confidered to be of fo early a date as the fifth century. The-
 +fculptures that adorn the doorway, which is triangular-headed, are
 +efpecially interefting. On one of thefe, reprefented in our cut No. 26,
 +in a compartment to the left, appears a figure of an angel, holding in one
 +hand a dwarf figure, probably intended for a child, by a lock of his hair,
 +
 +H and
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. a6. Sculpture from San Fedele, at C^mo.
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque. 5 1
 +
 +and with the other hand dire6ting his attention to a feated figure in the
 +compartment below. This latter figure has apparently the head of a
 +fheep, and as the head is furrounded with a large nimbus, and the right hand
 +is held out in the attitude of benedidtion, it may be intended to reprefent
 +the Lamb. This perfonage is feated on fomething which is difficult to make
 +out, but which looks fomewhat like a crab-filh. The boy in the com-
 +partment above carries a large bafin in his arms. The adjoining compart-
 +ment to the right contains the reprefentation of a conflict between a
 +dragon, a winged ferpent, and a winged fox. On the oppofite fide of the
 +door, two winged monfters are reprefented devouring a lamb's head. I
 +owe the drawing from which this and the preceding engraving were made
 +to my friend Mr. John Robinfon, the architect, who made the (ketches
 +while travelling with the medal of the Royal Academy. Figures of
 +dragons, as ornaments, were great favourites with the peoples of the
 +Teutonic race ; they were creatures intimately wrapped up in their
 +national mythology and romance, and they are found on all their artiftic
 +monuments mingled together in grotefque forms and groups. When the
 +Anglo-Saxons began to ornament their books, the dragon was continually
 +introduced for ornamental borders and in forming initial letters. One of
 +the latter, from an Anglo-Saxon manufcript of the tenth century (the
 +well-known manufcript of Caedmon, where it is given as an initial V), is
 +reprefented in our cut on the next page, No. 27.
 +
 +Cqriratnrp. anH hnrlp.fqnp! are naturally intended to be heard and feen_
 +publiclj^jmd would therefore be figured on fuch monuments as were
 +moft expofed to popular gaze. Such was the cafe, in the earlier periods
 +of the middle ages, chiefly with ecclefiaftical buildings, which explains
 +how they became the grand receptacles of this clals of Art. We have
 +few traces of what may be termed comic literature among our Anglo-
 +Saxon forefathers, but this is fully explained by the circumftance that
 +very little of the popular Anglo-Saxon literature has been preferred. In
 +their feftive hours the Anglo-Saxons feem to have efpecially amufed
 +themfelves in boafting of what they had done, and what they could do;
 +and thefe boafts were perhaps often of a burlefque character, like the
 +gals of the French and Anglo-Norman romancers of a later date, or fo
 +
 +extravagant
 +
 +
 +
 +Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +extravagant as to produce laughter. The chieftains appear alfo to have
 +encouraged men who could make jokes, and fatirife and caricature others ;
 +for the company of fuch men feems to have been cherifhed, and they are
 +not unfrequently introduced in the ftories. Such a perfonage, as I have
 +remarked before, is Hunferth in Beowulf ; fuch was the Sir Kay of the
 +later Arthurian romances ; and fuch too was the Norman minftrel in the
 +hiftory of Hereward, who amufed the Norman foldiers at their feafts by
 +mimicry of the manners of their Anglo-Saxon opponents. The too
 +perfonal fatire of thefe wits often led to quarrels, which ended iu
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 27. Anglo-Saxon Dragons.
 +
 +fanguinary brawls. The Anglo-Saxon love of caricature is fhown largely
 +in their proper names, which were moftly lignificant of perfonal qualities
 +their parents hoped they would poflefs ; and in thefe we remark the
 +pronenefs of the Teutonic race, as well as the peoples of antiquity, to
 +reprefent thefe qualities by the animals fuppofed to poflefs them, the
 +animals moft popular being the wolf and the bear. But it is not to be
 +expected that the hopes of the parents in giving the name would always
 +be fulfilled, and it is not an uncommon thing to find individuals lofing
 +their original names to receive in their place nicknames, or names which
 +
 +probably
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 5 3
 +
 +probably exprefied qualities they did pofiefs, and which were given to
 +them by their acquaintances. Thefe names, though often not very
 +complimentary, and even fometimes very much the contrary, completely
 +fuperfeded the original name, and were even accepted by the individuals
 +to whom they applied. The fecond names were indeed fo generally
 +acknowledged, that they were ufed in figning legal documents. An
 +Anglo-Saxon abbefs of rank, whofe real name was Hrodwaru, but who
 +was known univerfally by the name Bugga, the Bug, wrote this latter
 +name in figning charters. We can hardly doubt that fuch a name was
 +intended to afcribe to her qualities of a not agreeable character, and
 +very different to thofe implied by the original name, which perhaps
 +meant, a dweller in heaven. Another lady gained the name of the
 +Crow. It is well known that furnames did not come into ufe till long
 +after the Anglo-Saxon period, but appellatives, like thefe nicknames,
 +were often added to the name for the purpofe of diftinftion, or at
 +pleafure, and thefe, too, being given by other people, were frequently
 +fatirical. Thus, one Harold, for his fwiftnefs, was called Hare-foot j a
 +well-known Edith, for the elegant form of her neck, was called Swan-
 +neck ; and a Thurcyl, for a form of his head, which can hardly have been
 +called beautiful, was named Mare's-head. Among many other names,
 +quite as fatirical as the laft-mentioned, we find Flat-nofe, the Ugly,
 +Squint-eye, Hawk-nofe, c.
 +
 +Of Anglo-Saxon fculpture we have little left, but we have a few
 +illuminated manufcripts which prefent here and there an attempt at
 +caricature, though they are rare. It would feem, however, that the two
 +favourite fubjeds of caricature among the Anglo-Saxons were the clergy
 +and the evil one. We have .abundant evidence that, from the eighth
 +century downwards, neither the Anglo-Saxon clergy nor the Anglo-
 +Saxon nuns were generally objeds of much refpeft among the people ;
 +and their character and the manner of their lives fufHciently account for
 +it. Perhaps, alfo, it was increafed by the hoftility between the old clergy
 +and the new reformers of Dunftan's party, who would no doubt
 +caricature each other. A manufcript pfalter, in the Univerfity Library,
 +Cambridge (Ff. i, 23), of the Anglo-Saxon period, and apparently of the
 +
 +tenth
 +
 +
 +
 +54 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +tenth century, illuftrated with rather grotefque initial letters, furnimes us
 +with the figure of a jolly Anglo-Saxon monk, given in our cut No. 28,
 +and which it is hardly neceflary to Hate reprefents the letter Q. As we
 +proceed, we fhall fee the clergy continuing to furnifti a butt for the fhafts
 +of fatire through all the middle ages.
 +
 +The inclination to give to the demons (the middle ages always looked
 +upon them as innumerable) monftrous forms, which eafily ran into the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 28. A Jolly Monk.
 +
 +grotefque, was natural, and the painter, indeed, prided himfelf on drawing
 +them ugly ; but he was no doubt influenced in fo generally caricaturing
 +them, by mixing up this idea with thofe furnimed by the popular fuper-
 +ftitions of the Teutonic race, who believed in multitudes of fpirits, repre-
 +fentatives of the ancient fatyrs, who were of a playfully malicious
 +defcription, and went about plaguing mankind in a very droll manner,
 +and fometimes appeared to them in equally droll forms. They were the
 +Pucks and Robin Goodfellows of later times; but the Chriftian miflionaries
 +to the weft taught their converts to believe, and probably believed them-
 +felves, that all thefe imaginary beings were real demons, who wandered
 +over the earth for people's ruin and deftruction. Thus the grotefque
 +imagination of the converted people was introduced into the Chriftian
 +fyftem of demonology. It is a part of the fubjed to which we ihall
 +return in our next chapter ; but I will here introduce two examples of
 +
 +die
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +55
 +
 +
 +
 +the Anglo-Saxon demons. To explain the firfl. of thefe, it will be
 +neceflary to ftate that, according to the mediaeval notions, Satan, the arch
 +demon, who had fallen from heaven for his rebellion againft the Almighty,
 +was not a free agent who went about tempting mankind, but he was
 +himfelf plunged in the abyfs, where he was held in bonds, and tormented
 +by the demons who peopled the infernal regions, and alfo iflued thence
 +to feek their prey upon God's neweft creation, the earth. The hiftory of
 +Satan's fall, and the defcription of his pofition (No. 29), form the fubjeft
 +of the earlier part of the Anglo-Saxon poetry afcribed to Caedmon,
 +and it is one of the illuminations to the manufcript of Caedmon (which
 +is now preferred at Oxford), which has furnilhed us with our cut,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 29. Satan in Bonds.
 +
 +reprefenting Satan in his bonds. The fiend is here pictured bound to
 +flakes, over what appears to be a gridiron, while one of the demons,
 +rifing out of a fiery furnace, and holding in his hand an inftrument of
 +punimment, feems to be exulting over him, and at the fame time urging
 +on the troop of grotefque imps who are fwarming round and tormenting
 +their vicYtm. The next cut, No. 30, is alfo taken from an Anglo-Saxon
 +
 +manufcript
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +manuicript, preferred in the Britifh Mufeum (MS. Cotton., Tiberius,
 +C. vi.), which belongs to the earlier half of the eleventh century, and
 +contains a copy of the pfalter. It gives us the Anglo-Saxon notion of the
 +demon under another form, equally characteristic, wearing only a girdle
 +of flames, but in this cafe the efpecial fingularity
 +of the defign confifts in the eyes in the fiend's
 +wings.
 +
 +Another circumftance had no doubt an in-
 +fluence on the mediaeval tafte for grotefque and
 +caricature the natural rudenels of early mediaeval
 +art. The wn'ers of antiquity tell us of a remote
 +period of Grecian art when it was neceflary to
 +write under each figure of a picture the name of
 +what it was intended to reprefent, in order to
 +make the whole intelligible " this is a horfe,"
 +"this is a man," "this is a tree." Without being
 +quite fo rude as this, the early mediaeval artifts,
 +through ignorance of perfpective, want of know-
 +ledge of proportion, and of fkill in drawing,
 +found great difficulty in reprefenting a fcene in
 +which there was more than one figure, and in
 +which it was neceflary to diftinguifh them from
 +each other; and they were continually trying to
 +help themfelves by adopting conventional forms
 +or conventional pofitions, and by fometimes adding
 +fymbols that did not exactly reprefent what they
 +meant. The exaggeration in form confifted
 +chiefly in giving an undue prominence to fome characteriftic feature,
 +which anfwered the fame purpofe as the Anglo-Saxon nickname and dif-
 +tinctive name, and which is, in fact, one of the firft principles of all cari-
 +cature. Conventional pofitions partook much of the character of
 +conventional forms, but gave ftill greater room for grotefque. Thus the
 +very firft characteristics of mediaeval art implied the exiftence of caricature,
 +and no. doubt led to the tafte for the grotefque. The effect of this
 +
 +influence
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 30 Satan.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +57
 +
 +
 +
 +influence is apparent everywhere, and in innumerable cafes ferious
 +pictures of the graveft and moft important fubjefts are (imply and
 +abfolutely caricatures. Anglo-Saxon art ran much into this ftyle, and
 +is often very grotefque in charader. The firft example we give
 +(cut No. 31) is taken from one of the illuftrations to Alfric's Anglo-
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +ffo. 31. The Temptation.
 +
 +Saxon verfion of the Pentateuch, in the profufely illuminated manufcript
 +in the Britifti Mufeum (MS. Cotton., Claudius B iv.), which was written
 +at the end of the tenth, or beginning of the eleventh, century. It
 +reprefents the temptation and fall of man ; and the fubjecl: is treated, as
 +will be feen, in a rather grotefque manner. Eve is evidently dictating
 +to her hufband, who, in obeying her, {hows a mixture of eagernefs and
 +trepidation Adam is no lefs evidently going to fwallow the apple whole,
 +which is, perhaps, in accordance with the mediaeval legend, according to
 +which the fruit ftuck in his throat. It is hardly neceflary to remark that
 +the tree is entirely a conventional one ; and it would be difficult to
 +imagine how it came to bear apples at all. The mediaeval artifts were
 +extremely unfkilful in drawing trees j to thefe they ufually gave the
 +forms of cabbages, or fome fuch plants, of which the form was fimple, or
 +often of a mere bunch of leaves. Our next example (cut No. 32) is alfo
 +
 +i Anglo-
 +
 +
 +
 +Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +Anglo-Saxon, and is furnifhed by the manufcript'in the Britifh Mufeum
 +already mentioned (MS. Cotton., Tiberius C vi.) It probably reprefents
 +young David killing the lion, and is remarkable not only for the ftrange
 +pofture and bad proportions of the man, but for the tranquillity of the
 +animal and the exaggerated and violent action of its flayer. This is very
 +commonly the cafe in the mediaeval drawings and fculptures, the artifts
 +apparently poffefling far lefs fkill in reprefenting action in an animal than
 +in man, and therefore more rarely attempting it. Thefe illustrations are
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 32 Da-vid and tht Lion.
 +
 +both taken from illuminated manufcripts. The two which follow are
 +furnifhed by fculptures, and are of a rather later date than the preceding.
 +The abbey of St. George of Bofcherville, in the diocefe of Auxerre (in
 +Normandy), was founded by Ralph de Tancarville, one of the minifters
 +of William the Conqueror, and therefore in the latter half of the eleventh
 +century. A hiflory of this religious houfe was publiihed by a clever local
 +antiquary M. Achille Deville from whofe work we take our cut No. 33,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +59
 +
 +
 +
 +one of a few rude fculptures on the abbey church, which no doubt
 +belonged to the original fabric. It is not difficult to recognife the fubjecl:
 +as Jofeph taking the Virgin Mary with her Child into Egypt j but there
 +is fomething exceedingly droll m the unintentional caricature of the
 +faces, as well as in the whole defign. The Virgin Mary appears without
 +a nimbus, while the nimbus of the Infant Jefus is made to look very like
 +a bonnet. It may be remarked that this fubjecl: of the flight into Egypt
 +is by no means an uncommon one in mediaeval art j and a drawing of
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 33. The Flight into Egypt.
 +
 +the fame fubjeft, copied in my " Hiftory of Domeftic Manners and
 +Sentiments" (p. 115), prefents a remarkable illuftration of the contraft
 +of the fkill of a Norman fculptor and of an almoft contemporary Anglo-
 +Norman illuminator. Our cut alfo furnifhes us with evidence of the
 +error of the old opinion that ladies rode aftride in the middle ages. Even
 +one, who by his ftyle of art muft have been an obfcure local carver on
 +ftone, when he reprefented a female on horfeback, placed her in the
 +pofition which has always been confidered fuitable to the fex.
 +
 +For
 +
 +
 +
 +60 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +For the drawing of the other fculpture to which I allude, I am
 +indebted to Mr. Robinfon. It is one of the fubje6ts carved on the
 +fagade of the church of St. Gilles,. near Nifmes, and is a work of the
 +twelfth century. It appears to reprefent the young David flaying
 +the giant GoliaJi, the latter fully armed in fcale armour, and with (hield
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 34. Druid and Goliah.
 +
 +
 +
 +and fpear, like a Norman knight ; while to David the artift has given a
 +figure which is feminine in its forms. What we might take at firft fight
 +for a balket of apples, appears to be meant for a fupply of Hones for the
 +fling which the young hero carries fufpended from his neck. He has
 +flain the giant with one of thefe, and is cutting off his head with his own
 +fword.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 6 1
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER IV.
 +
 +THE DIABOLICAL IN CARICATURE. MEDIAEVAL LOVE OF THE LUDICROUS.
 +
 +CAUSES WHICH MADE IT INFLUENCE THE NOTIONS OF DEMONS.
 +
 +STORIES OF THE PIOUS PAINTER AND THE ERRING MONK. DARKNESS
 +
 +AND UGLINESS CARICATURED. THE DEMONS IN THE MIRACLE PLAYS.
 +THE DEMON OF NOTRE DAME.
 +
 +AS I have already ftated in the laft chapter, there can be no doubt that
 +the whole fyftem of the demonology of the middle ages was derived
 +from the older pagan mythology. The demons of the monkiih legends
 +were fimply the elves and hobgoblins of our forefathers, who haunted
 +woods, and fields, and waters, and delighted in mifleading or plaguing
 +mankind, though their mifchief was ufuallyof a rather mirthful character.
 +They were reprefented in claflical mythology by the fauns and latyrs,
 +who had, as we have feen, much to do with the birth of comic literature
 +among the Greeks and Romans j but thefe Teutonic elves were more
 +ubiquitous than the fatyrs, as they even haunted men's houfes, and played
 +tricks, not only of a mifchievous, but of a very familiar character. The
 +Chriftian clergy did not look upon the perfonages of the popular fuper-
 +flitions as fabulous beings, but they taught that they were all diabolical,
 +and that they were fo many agents of the evil one, conftantly employed
 +in enticing and entrapping mankind. Hence, in the mediaeval legends,
 +we frequently find demons prefenting themfelves under ludicrous forms
 +or in ludicrous fituations ; or performing atts, fuch as eating and drinking,
 +which are not in accordance with their real character; or at times even
 +letting themfelves be outwitted or entrapped by mortals in a very
 +undignified manner. Although they affumed any form they pleafed,
 +their natural form was remarkable chiefly for being extremely ugly; one
 +of them, which appeared in a wild wood, is defcribed by Giraldus
 +Cambrenfis, who wrote at the end of the twelfth century, as being hairy,
 +
 +flaggy.
 +
 +
 +
 +62
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +lhaggy, and rough, and monftroufly deformed.* According to a mediaeval
 +ftory, which was told in different forms, a great man's cellar was once
 +haunted by thefe demons, who drank all his wine, while the owner was
 +totally at a lofs to account for its rapid difappearance. After many
 +unfuccefsful attempts to difcover the depredators, fome one, probably
 +fufpe&ing the truth, fuggefted that he fhould mark one of the barrels
 +with holy water, and next morning a demon, much refembling the
 +defcription given by Giraldus, was found ftuck faft to the barrel. It is
 +told alfo of Edward the Confefibr, that he once went to fee the tribute
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 35. The Demon of the Trcafure.
 +
 +
 +
 +called the Danegeld, and it was fliown to him all packed up in great
 +barrels ready to be fent away for this appears to have been the ufual
 +mode of tranfporting large quantities of money. The faintly king had
 +the faculty of being able to fee fpiritual beings a fort of fpiritual fecond-
 +fight
 +
 +* " Formam quandam viliosam, hispidam, et hirsutam, adeoque enormiter
 +deformem." Girald. Camb., Itiner. Camb., lib. i. c. 5.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 63
 +
 +fight and he beheld feated on the largeft barrel, a devil, who was " black
 +and hideous."
 +
 +Vit un deable faer defut
 +
 +Le trefor, noir et hidus. Life of S. Edward, 1. 944.
 +
 +An early illuminator, in a manufcnpt preferred in the library of Trinity
 +College, Cambridge (MS. Trin. Col., B x. 2), has left us a pi&orial
 +reprefentation of this fcene, from which I copy his notion of the form of
 +the demon in cut No. 35. The general idea is evidently taken from the
 +figure of the goat, and the relationship between the demon and the
 +claffical fatyr is very evident.
 +
 +{Tglinpfe was an pflfcnfja] rharacteriftic of the demons, and, moreover,
 +<lheir features_have ufually a mirthful caft. as though fhpy grgatly enjoyed
 +Jhejr occupation^ There is a mediaeval flory of a young monk, who was
 +facriftan to an abbey, and had the directions of the building and orna-
 +mentation. The carvers of ftone were making admirable reprefentations
 +of hell and paradife, in the former of which the demons " feemed to take
 +great delight in well tormenting their victims "
 +
 +Qui par femblant ft delitoit
 +En ce que bien Us tormentolt.
 +
 +The facriftan, who watched the fculptors every day, was at laft moved by
 +pious zeal to try and imitate them, and he fet to work to make a devil
 +himfelf, with fuch fuccefs, that his fiend was fo black and ugly that
 +nobody could look at it without terror.
 +
 +Tant qu'un deable a fere emfrijl ;
 +Sf / miftfa polne et fa cure,
 +Que la forme fuji of cure
 +Etji /aide, que cil doutafl
 +Que entre deus oik refgardaj}.
 +
 +The facriftan, encouraged by his fuccefs for it muft be underftood that
 +his art was a fudden infpiration (as he had not been an artift before)
 +continued his work till it was completed, and then " it was fo horrible
 +and fo ugly, that all who faw it affirmed upon their oaths that they had
 +
 +
 +
 +64 ' Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +never feen fo ugly a figure either in fculpture or in painting, or one which
 +had fo repulfive an appearance, or a devil which was a better likenefs
 +than the one this monk had made for them "-
 +
 +Si horribles fu etji lez,
 +
 +Que treftou-z celi que le vcoicnt
 +
 +Seur leur ferement afermoient
 +
 +C'onquei mesji laide figure,
 +
 +Ne en faille ne en peinture,
 +
 +N^avolent a nul jor -veue,
 +
 +Qulji cuft lalde veue,
 +
 +Ne deable miex contrefet
 +
 +<$ue ell moines leur etvoit fet. Meon's Fabliaux, torn. ii. p. 414.
 +
 +The demon himfelf now took offence at the affront which had been put
 +upon him, and appearing the night following to the facriftan, reproached
 +him with having made him fo ugly, and enjoined him to break the
 +fculpture, and execute anothei reprefenting him better looking, on pain
 +of very fevere puniftiment j but, although this vifit was repeated thrice,
 +the pious monk refufed to comply. The evil one now began to work in
 +another way, and, by his cunning, he drew the facriftan into a difgraceful
 +amour with a lady of the neighbourhood, and they plotted not only to
 +elope together by night, but to rob the monaftery of its treafure, which
 +was of courfe in the keeping of the facriftan. They were difcovered, and
 +caught in their flight, laden with the treafure, and the unfaithful facriftan
 +was thrown into prifon. The fiend now appeared to him, and promifed
 +to clear him out of all his trouble on the mere condition that he fliould
 +break his ugly ftatue, and make another reprefenting him as looking
 +handfome a bargain to which the facriftan acceded without further
 +hefitation. It would thus appear that the demons did not like to be
 +reprefented ugly. In this cafe, the fiend immediately took the form and
 +place of the facriftan, while the latter went to his bed as if nothing had
 +happened. When the other monks found him there next morning, and
 +heard him difclaim all knowledge of the robbery or of the prifon, they
 +hurried to the latter place, and found the devil in chains-, who, when they
 +attempted to exorcife him, behaved in a very turbulent manner, and
 +
 +difappeared
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +difappeared from their fight. The monks believed that it was all a
 +deception of the evil one, while thfe facriftan, who was not inclined to
 +brave his difpleafure a fecond time, performed faithfully his part of the
 +contract, and made a devil who did not look ugly. In another verfion ol
 +the ftory, however, it ends differently. After the third warning, the
 +monk went in defiance of the devil, and made his picture uglier than
 +ever; in revenge for which the demon came unexpectedly and broke the
 +ladder on which he was mounted at his work, whereby the monk would
 +undoubtedly have been killed. But the Virgin, to whom he was much
 +devoted, came to his afMance, and, feizing him with her hand, and
 +holding him in the air, difappointed the devil of his purpofe. It is this
 +latter denouement which is reprefented in the cut No. 36, taken from the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 36. The Pious Sculptor.
 +
 +celebrated manufcript in the Britifh Mufeum known as " Queen Mary's
 +Pfalter " (MS. Reg. 2 B vii.). The two demons employed here prefent,
 +well defined, the air of mirthful jollity which was evidently derived from
 +the popular hobgoblins.
 +
 +There was another popular ftory, which alfo was told under feveral
 +
 +K forms.
 +
 +
 +
 +66
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +forms. The old Norman hiftorians tell it of their duke Richard Sanf-
 +Peur. There was a monk of the abbey of St. Ouen, who alfo held the
 +office of facriftan, but, neglecting the duties of his pofition, entered into
 +an intrigue with a lady who dwelt in the neighbourhood, and was accuf-
 +tomed at night to leave the abbey fecretly, and repair to her. His place
 +as facriftan enabled him thus to leave the houfe unknown to the other
 +brethren. On his way, he had to pafs the little river Robec, by means
 +of a plank or wooden bridge, and one night the demons, who had been
 +watching him on his errand of fin, caught him on the bridge, and threw
 +him over into the water, where he was drowned. One devil feized his
 +foul, and would have carried it away, but an angel came to claim him on
 +account of his good actions, and the difpute ran fo high, that duke
 +Richard, whofe piety was as great as his courage, was called in to decide
 +it. The fame manufcript from which our laft cut was taken has furniftied
 +our cut No. 37, which reprefents two demons tripping up the monk, and
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 37. The Monk" i Difafter.
 +
 +:
 +
 +throwing him very unceremonioufly into the river. The body of one of
 +the demons here affumes the form of an animal, inftead of taking,
 +like the other, that of a man, and he is, moreover, furnifhed with a
 +dragon's wings. There was one verfion of this ftory, in which it found
 +its place among the legends of the Virgin Mary, inftead of thofe of duke
 +Richard. The monk, in fpite of his failings, had been a conftant
 +
 +worlhipper
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +worlhipper of the Virgin, and, as he was falling from the bridge into the
 +river, me ftepped forward to protect him from his perfecutors, and taking
 +hold of him with her hand, faved him from death. One of the compart-
 +ments of the rather early wall-paintings in Winchefter Cathedral reprefents
 +the icene according to this verfion of the ftory, and is copied in our cut
 +No. 38. The fiends here take more fantaftic Ihapes than we have
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Nn, 38. The Demons Dif appointed.
 +
 +previously feen given to them. They remind us already of the infinitely
 +varied grotefque forms which the painters of the age of the Renaifiance
 +crowded together in fuch fubjects as " The Temptation of St. Anthony."
 +In fact these ftrange notions of the forms of the demons were not only
 +preferved through the whole period of the middle ages, but are ftill
 +hardly extinct. They appear in almoft exaggerated forms in the illuftrations
 +to books of a popular religious character which appeared in the firft ages
 +of printing. I may quote, as an example, one of the cuts of an early and
 +very rare block-book, entitled the Ars ^ Moriendi, or "Art of Dying," or,
 +in a fecond title, De Tentationilus Morientium, on the temptations to
 +which dying men are expofed. The fcene, of which a part is given in
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +68
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +the annexed cut (No. 39), is in the room of the dying man, whofe bed is fur-
 +rounded by three demons, who are come to tempt him, while his relatives
 +of both fexes are looking on quite unconfcious of their prefence. VThe
 +figures of thefe demons are particujarj^-gqrtefaue^juid-thf i r "gl.v features
 +
 +
 +
 +betray a degree of vulgar cunningj^hichjulds not a little to this effecl..
 +The one leaning over the dying man fuggeils to him the words exprefied
 +in the label iffuing from his mouth, Provideas amicis, " provide for your
 +friends " while the one whofe heajd appears to the left whifpers to him,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 39. A Med'nt-val Death- bed.
 +
 +Yntende thefauro, "think of your treafure." The dying man feems
 +grievoufly perplexed with the various thoughts thus fuggefted to him.
 +Why did the mediaeval nhr^flians think it neceffary to make the
 +
 +
 +
 +black and ugly ? The firft reply to this queftion which prefents itfelf is,
 +that the rhqrafteriftirs i ntgadedLXoJbe repreJeJited_were__the.,biaknefe-aBd
 +uglinefs of fin. This, however, is only partially the explanation of the
 +facl: ; for there can be no doubt that the notion was a popular one, and
 +that it had previoufly exifled in the popular mythology ; and, as has been
 +already remarked, the uglinefs exhibited bv them is a vnlgai-j mirthful
 +which makes you laugh inftead of fliudder. Another fcene,
 +
 +from
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +from the interefting drawings at the foot of the pages in " Queen Mary's
 +Pfalter," is given in our cut No. 40. It reprefents that moft popular
 +of mediaeval pi&ures, and, at the fame time, moft remarkable of
 +literal interpretations, hell mouth. The entrance to the infernal regions
 +was always reprefented pidorially as the mouth of a monftrous animal,
 +where the demons appeared leaving and returning. Here they are feen
 +bringing the finful fouls to their laft deftination, and it cannot be denied
 +that they are doing the work right merrily and jovially. In our cut
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 40. Condemned Souls carried to their Place of Punifhment.
 +
 +No. 41, from the manufcript in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge,
 +which furnifhed a former fubje<5t, three demons, who appear to be the
 +guardians of the entrance to the regions below for it is upon the -brow
 +above the monftrous mouth that they are ftanding prefent varieties of
 +the diabolical form. The one in the middle is the moft remarkable, for
 +he has wings not only on his fhoulders, but alfo on his knees and heels.
 +All three have horns ; in fact, the three fpecial charadteriftics of mediaeval
 +demons were horns, hoofs or, at leaft, the feet of beafts, and tails,
 +which fufficiently indicate the fource from which the popular notions of
 +thefe beings were derived. In the cathedral of Treves, there is a mural
 +painting by William of Cologne, a painter of the fifteenth- century, which
 +
 +reprefents
 +
 +
 +
 +yo Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +reprefents the entrance to the fhades, the monftrous mouth, with its
 +keepers, in ftill more grotefque forms. Our cut No. 42 gives but a
 +fmall portion of this pidure, in which the porter of the regions of punifh-
 +ment is fitting aftride the fnout of the monftrous mouth, and is founding
 +with a trumpet what may be fuppofed to be the call for thofe who are
 +condemned. Another minftrel of the fame ftamp, fpurred, though not
 +booted, fits aftride the tube of the trumpet, playing on the bagpipes; and
 +the found which iffues from the former inftrument is reprefented by a
 +hoft of fmaller imps who are fcattering themfelves about.
 +
 +It muft not be fuppofed that, in fubjedts like thefe, the drollery of the
 +fcene was accidental ; but, on the contrary, the mediaeval artifts and
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 41 . The Guardlam of Hell Mouth.
 +
 +popular writers gave them this character purpofely. The demons and
 +the executioners the latter of whom were called in Latin for/ores, and
 +in popular old Englifh phrafeology the " tormentours " were the comic
 +characters of the time, and the fcenes in the old myfteries or religious
 +plays in which they were introduced were the comic fcenes, or farce, of
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +the piece. The love of burlefque and caricature was, indeed, fo deeply
 +planted in the popular mind, that it was found necefiary to introduce
 +them even in pious works, in which fuch fcenes as the flaughter of the
 +innocents, where the " knights " and the women abufed each other in
 +vulgar language, the treatment of Chritt at the time of His trial, fome
 +parts of the fcene of the crucifixion, and the day of judgment, were
 +eflentially comic. The laft of thefe fubjects, efpecially, was a fcene of
 +mirth, becaufe it often confitted throughout of a coarfe fatire on the vices
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No 42. The Trumpeter of Evil.
 +
 +
 +
 +of the age, efpecially on thofe which were moft obnoxious to the populace,
 +fuch as the pride and vanity of the higher ranks, and the extortions and
 +frauds of ufurers, bakers, taverners, and others. In the play of " Juditium,"
 +or the day of doom, in the " Towneley Myfteries," one of the earlieft
 +collections of myfteries in the Englifh language, the whole converfation
 +among the demons is exactly of that joking kind which we might expect
 +from their countenances in the pictures. When one of them appears
 +carrying a bag full of different offences, another, his companion, is fo
 +joyful at this circumftance, that he fays it makes him laugh till he is out
 +
 +of
 +
 +
 +
 +J2. Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +of breath, or, in other words, till he is ready to burft ; and, while alking
 +if anger be not among the fins he had colle&ed, propofes to treat him
 +with fomething to drink
 +
 +Primus daemon. Peafese, I fray tne, be ftllle , I laghe that I kynke.
 +Is oghte ire in thl bille? and then falle thou drynke, Towneley Mysteries, p. 309.
 +
 +And in the continuation of the converfation, one telling of the events
 +which had preceded the announcement of Doomfday says, rather jeeringly,
 +and fomewhat exultingly, " Souls came fo thick now of late to hell, that
 +our porter at hell gate is ever held fo clofe at work, up early and down
 +late, that he never refts"
 +
 +Battles cam fo thyk ncno late unto helle t
 +
 +As ever
 +
 +Oure porter at helle gate
 +Is halden fo flrate,
 +Up erly and doivne late,
 +
 +He ryftys never. Ib., p. 314.
 +
 +With fuch popular notions on the fubjeft, we have no reafon to be
 +furprifed that the artifts of the middle ages frequently chofe the figures of
 +demons as objects on which to exercife their fkill in burlefque and carica-
 +ture, that they often introduced grotefque figures of their heads and bodies
 +in the fculptured ornamentation of building, and that they prefented them
 +in ludicrous fituations and attitudes in their pictures. They are often
 +brought in as fecondary actors in a picture in a very fingular manner, of
 +which an excellent example is furnifhed by the beautifully illuminated
 +manufcript known as " Queen Mary's Pfalter," which is copied in our cut
 +No. 43. Nothing is more certain than that in this inftance the intention
 +of the artift was perfectly ferious. Eve, under the influence of a rather
 +fingularly formed ferpent, having the head of a beautiful woman and the
 +body of a dragon, is plucking the apples and offering them to Adam, who
 +is preparing to eat one, with evident hefitation and reluctance. But three
 +demons, downright hobgoblins, appear as fecondary actors in the fcene,
 +who exercife an influence upon the principals. One is patting Eve on
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +73
 +
 +
 +
 +the ftioulder, with an air of approval and encouragement, while a fecond,
 +with wings, is urging on Adam, and apparently laughing at his appre-
 +henfions ; and a third, in a very ludicrous manner, is preventing him from
 +drawing back from the trial.
 +
 +In all the delineations of demons we have yet feen, the ludicrous is
 +the fpirit which chiefly predominates, and in no one inftance have we
 +had a figure which is really demoniacal. The devils are droll but not
 +frightful 5 they provoke laughter, or at leaft excite a fmile, but they
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 43. The Fall of Man.
 +
 +create no horror. Indeed, they torment their victims fo good-humouredly,
 +that we hardly feel for them. There is, however, one well-known
 +inftance in which the mediaeval artift has mown himfelf fully fuccefsful
 +in reprefenting the features of the fpirit of evil. On the parapet of the
 +external gallery of the cathedral church of Notre Dame in Paris, there is
 +a figure in ftone, of the ordinary flature of a man, reprefenting the demon,
 +apparently looking with fatisfa&ion upon the inhabitants of the city as
 +they were everywhere indulging in fin and wickednefs. We give a
 +Jketch of this figure in our cut No. 44. The unmixed evil horrible in
 +
 +i. its
 +
 +
 +
 +74 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +its expreffion in this countenance is marvelloufly portrayed. It is an
 +abfolute Mephiftophiles, carrying in his features a ftrange mixture of
 +hateful qualities malice, pride, envy in fat, all the deadly fins combined
 +in one diabolical whole.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 44. The Spirit of Evil.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 75
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER V.
 +
 +EMPLOYMENT OF ANIMALS IN MEDIEVAL SATIKE. POPULARITY OP
 +
 +FABLES ; ODO DE CIRINGTON. REYNARD THE FOX. BURNELLUS
 +
 +AND FAUVEL. THE CHARIVARI. LE MONDE BESTORNE. ENCAUSTIC
 +
 +TILES. SHOEING THE GOOSE, AND FEEDING PIGS WITH ROSES.
 +
 +SATIRICAL SIGNS J THE MUSTARD MAKER.
 +
 +THE people of the middle ages appear to have been great admirers
 +of animals, to have obferved clofely their various characters and
 +peculiarities, and to have been fond 01 domefticating them. Thgy-feon-
 +began to employ their_pjculiaritin m mr? 1 ^ y f rcif .irifing and caricaturinfc-
 +Jrnankind ; and among the literature bequeathed to them by the Romans,
 +they received no book more eagerly than the " Fables of JEfop," and
 +the other collections of fables which were publilhed under the empire.
 +We find no traces of fables among the original literature of the German
 +race ; but the tribes who took poffeffion of the Roman provinces no
 +fooner became acquainted with the fables of the ancients, than they
 +began to imitate them, and ftories in which animals afted the part of
 +men were multiplied immenfely, and became a very important branch
 +of mediaeval fiction.
 +
 +Among the Teutonic peoples efpecially, thefe fables often affumed very
 +grotefque forms, and the fatire they convey is very amufing. One of the
 +earlieft of thefe collections of original fables was compofed by an Englilh
 +ecclefiaftic named Odo de Cirington, who lived in the time of Henry II.
 +and Richard I. In Odo's fables, we find the animals figuring under the
 +fame popular names by which they were afterwards fo well known, fuch
 +as Reynard for the fox, Ifengrin for the wolf, Teburg for the cat, and
 +the like. Thus the fubjeft of one of them is " Ifengrin made Monk "
 +(de Ifengrino monacho). "Once," we are told, " Ifengrin defired to be a
 +monk. By dint of fervent fupplications, he obtained the confent of the
 +
 +chapter,
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +chapter, and received the tonfure, the cowl, and the other infignia of
 +monachifm. At length they put him to fchool, and he was to learn the
 +' Paternofter,' but he always replied, ' lamb ' (agnus) or 'ram' (dries).
 +The monks taught him that he ought to look upon the crucifix and upon
 +the facrament, but he ever direfted his eyes to the lambs and rams." The
 +fable is droll enough, but the moral, or application is ftill more grotefque.
 +" Such is the conduct of many of the monks, whofe only cry is ' aries,'
 +that is, good wine, and who have their eyes always fixed on fat flefh and
 +their platter ; whence the faying in "Englifh
 +
 +They thou the vulf hart Thwgh thou the hoary iuolf
 +
 +hod to prefte t conjecratc to a frieft,
 +
 +they thou him to fkole fette though thou put him to fchool
 +
 +falmes to lerne, to learn Pfalmt,
 +
 +hevere bet hife gerei ever are his ears turned
 +
 +to the grove grene" to the green grove.
 +
 +Thefe lines are in the alliterative verfe of the Anglo-Saxons, and (how
 +that fuch fables had already found their place in the popular poetry of the
 +Englifh people. Another of thefe fables is entitled " Of the Beetle
 +(fcralo) and his Wife." " A beetle, flying through the land, palled
 +among moft beautiful blooming trees, through orchards and among rofes
 +and lilies, in the moft lovely places, and at length threw himfelf upon a
 +dunghill among the dung of horfes, and found there his wife, who alked
 +him whence he came. And the beetle faid, ' I have flown all round the
 +earth and through it ; I have feen the flowers of almonds, and lilies, and
 +rofes, but I have feen no place fo pleafant as this,' pointing to the dung-
 +hill." The application is equally droll with the former and equally un-
 +complimentary to the religious part of the community. Odo de Cirington
 +tells us that, " Thus many of the clergy, monks, and laymen liflen to the
 +lives of the fathers, pafs among the lilies of the virgins, among the rofes
 +of the martyrs, and among the violets of the confeflbrs, yet nothing ever
 +appears fo pleafant and agreeable as a ftrumpet, or the tavern, or a finging
 +party, though it is but a flunking dunghill and congregation of finners."
 +
 +Popular fculpture and painting were but the tranflation of popular
 +literature, and nothing was more common to reprefent, in pictures and
 +
 +carvings,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 77
 +
 +carvings, than individual men under the forms of the animals who difplayed
 +fimilar characters or fimilar propenfities. Cunning,, treachery, and
 +intrigue were the prevailing vices of the middle ages, and they were thofe
 +alfo of the fox, who hence became a favourite character in fatire. The
 +victory of craft over force always provoked mirth. The fabulifts, or, we
 +fhould perhaps rather fay, the fatirifts, foon began to extend their canvas
 +and enlarge their picture, and, inftead of fingle examples of fraud or
 +injuftice, they introduced a variety of characters, not only foxes, but
 +wolves, and fheep, and bears, with birds alfo, as the eagle, the cock, and
 +the crow, and mixed them up together in long narratives, which thus
 +formed general fatires on the vices of contemporary fociety. In this
 +manner originated the celebrated romance of " Reynard the Fox," which
 +in various forms, from the twelfth century to the eighteenth, has enjoyed
 +a popularity which was granted probably to no other book. The plot of
 +this remarkable fatire turns chiefly on the long ftruggle between the
 +brute force of Ifengrin the Wolf, poflefled only with a fmall amount of
 +intelligence, which is eafily deceived under which character is prefented
 +the powerful feudal baron and the craftinefs of Reynard the Fox, who
 +reprefents the intelligent portion of fociety, which had to hold its ground
 +by its wits, and thefe were continually abufed to evil purpofes. Reynard
 +is fwayed by a conflant impulfe to deceive and vidimife everybody,
 +whether friends or enemies, but efpecially his uncle Ifengrin. It was
 +fomewhat the relationfhip between the ecclefiaflical and baronial
 +ariftocracy. Reynard was educated in the fchools, and intended for
 +the clerical order ; and at different times he is reprefented as a&ing
 +under the difguife of a prieft, of a monk, of a pilgrim, or even of a
 +prelate of the church. Though frequently reduced to the greateft
 +ftraits by the power of Ifengrin, Reynard has generally the better of it
 +in the end : he robs and defrauds Ifengrin continually, outrages his
 +wife, who is half in alliance with him, and draws him into all forts of
 +dangers and fufferings, for which the latter never fucceeds in obtaining
 +juftice. The old fculptors and artifts appear to have preferred exhibiting
 +Reynard in his ecclefiaftical difguifes, and in thefe he appears often in the
 +ornamentation of mediaeval architectural fculpture, in wood-carvings, in
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefaue
 +
 +
 +
 +the illuminations of manufcripts, and in other objefts of art. The popular
 +feeling againft the clergy was llrong in the middle ages, and no caricature
 +was received with more favour than thofe which expofed the immorality
 +or difhonefty of a monk or a pried. Our cut No. 45 is taken from a
 +
 +fculpture in the church of Chriftchurch, in
 +Hampmire, for the drawing of which I am
 +indebted to my friend, Mr. Llewellynn
 +Jewitt. It reprefents Reynard in the pulpit
 +preaching ; behind, or rather perhaps befide
 +him, a diminutive cock ftands upon a ftool
 +in modern times we fhould be inclined
 +to fay he was acting as clerk. Reynard's
 +coftume confifls merely of the ecclefiatlical
 +hood or cowl. Such fubje6ts are frequently
 +found on the carved feats, or mifereres, in
 +the ftalls of the old cathedrals and collegiate
 +churches. The painted glafs of the great
 +window of the north crofs-aifle of St. Martin's
 +church in Leicefter, which was deftroyed in
 +the laft century, reprefented the fox, in the
 +character of an ecclefiaftic, preaching to a
 +congregation of geefe, and addreffing them in the words Teftis eft mihi
 +Deus, quam cupiam vos omnes vifceribus meis (God is witnefs, how I
 +defire you all in my bowels), a parody on the words of the New
 +Teflament.* Our cut No. 46 is taken from one of the mifereres in the
 +church of St. Mary, at Beverley, in Yorkftiire. Two foxes are reprefented
 +in the difguife of ecclefiaftics, each furniihed with a paftoral ftaff, and
 +they appear to be receiving inftructions from a prelate or perfonage of
 +rank perhaps they are undertaking a pilgrimage of penance. But their
 +fmcerity is rendered fomewhat doubtful by the geefe concealed in their
 +
 +hoods.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 45. The Fox in the Fulfil.
 +
 +
 +
 +* An engraving of thi<= scene, modernised in character, is given in Nichols's
 +" Leicestershire," vol. i. plate 43.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +79
 +
 +
 +
 +hoods. In one of the incidents of the romance of Reynard, the hero
 +enters a monaftery and becomes a monk, in order to efcape the wrath of
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 46. Ecclefiaftical Sincerity.
 +
 +King Noble, the lion. For fome time he made an outward Ihow of
 +
 +fan&ity and felf-privation, but unknown to his brethren he fecretly helped
 +
 +himfelf freely to the good things of the
 +
 +monaftery. One day he obferved, with
 +
 +longing lips, a meflenger who brought
 +
 +four fat capons as a prefent from a lay
 +
 +neighbour to the abbot. That night,
 +
 +when all the monks had retired to reft,
 +
 +Reynard obtained admifiion to the larder,
 +
 +regaled himfelf with one of the capons,
 +
 +and as foon as he had eaten it, trufled
 +
 +the three others on his back, efcaped
 +
 +fecretly from the abbey, and, throwing
 +
 +away his monadic garment, hurried
 +
 +home with his prey. We might almoft
 +
 +imagine our cut No. 47, taken from one
 +
 +of the flails of the church of Nantwich,
 +
 +in Chelhire, to have been intended to No - 47- R*i*ard turned Mont.
 +
 +reprefent this incident, or, at leaft, a fimilar one. Our next cut, No. 48,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +8o
 +
 +
 +
 +Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +is taken from a ftall in the church of Bofton, in Lincolnftiire. A prelate,
 +equally falfe, is feated in his chair, with a mitre on his head, and the
 +paftoral ftaff in his right hand. His flock are reprefented by a cock and
 +hens, the former of which he holds fecurely with his right hand, while
 +he appears to be preaching to them.
 +
 +Another mediaeval fculpture has furnifhed events for a rather curious
 +hiftory, at the fame time that it is a good illuftration of our fubjeft.
 +Odo de Cirington, the fabulift, tells us how, one day, the wolf died, and
 +the lion called the animals together to celebrate his exequies. The hare
 +carried the holy water, hedgehogs bore the candles, the goats rang the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No 48. The Prelate and his Flock.
 +
 +bells, the moles dug the grave, the foxes carried the corpfe on the bier.
 +Berengarius, the bear, celebrated mafs, the ox read the gofpel, and the
 +afs the epiflle. When the mafs was concluded, and Ifengrin buried, the
 +animals made a fplendid feaft out of his goods, and wifhed for fuch
 +another funeral. Our fatirical ecclefiaftic makes an application of this
 +ftory which tells little to the credit of the monks of his time. " So it
 +frequently happens," he fays, " that when fome rich man, an extortionifl
 +or a ufurer, dies, the abbot or prior of a convent of beads, i.e. of men
 +living like beafls. caufes them to aflemble. For it commonly happens
 +that in a great convent of black or white monks (Benediftines or
 +
 +Auguftinians)
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +81
 +
 +
 +
 +Auguftinians) there are none but beafts lions by their pride, foxes by
 +their craftinefs, bears by their voracity, flinking goats by their incontinence,
 +affes by their fluggifhnefs, hedgehogs by their afperity, hares by their
 +timidity, becaufe they were cowardly where there was no fear, and oxen
 +by their laborious cultivation of their land." *
 +
 +A fcene clofely refembling that here defcribed by Odo, differing only
 +in the distribution of the characters, was tranflated from fome fuch
 +written ftory into the pi&orial language of the ancient fculptured ornamen-
 +tation of Straiburg Cathedral, where it formed, apparently, two fides of
 +the capital or entablature of a column near the chancel. The deceafed in
 +this pi&ure appears to be a fox, which was probably the animal intended
 +to be reprefented in the original, although, in the copy of it preferred, it
 +looks more like a fquirrel. The bier is carried by the goat and the boar,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 49. The Funeral of the Fo*.
 +
 +
 +
 +while a little dog underneath is taking liberties with the tail of the latter.
 +Immediately before the bier, the hare carries the lighted taper, preceded
 +by the wolf, who carries the crofs, and the bear, who holds in one hand
 +the holy-water veflel and in the other the afperfoir. This forms the
 +firft divifion of the fubje6t, and is reprefented in our cut No. 49. In the
 +
 +next
 +
 +* The Latin text of this and some others of the fables of Odo de Cirington
 +will be found in my " Selection of Latin Stories," pp, 50-52, 55-5 8 > and 80.
 +
 +
 +
 +82
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +next divifion (cut No. 50), the flag is reprefented celebrating mafs, and
 +the afs reads the Gofpel from a book which the cat fupports with
 +its head.
 +
 +This curious fculpture is faid to have been of the thirteenth century.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 50. The Mafs for the Pox.
 +
 +
 +
 +In the fifteenth century it attracted the attention of the reformers, who
 +looked upon it as an ancient proteft againft the corruptions of the mafs,
 +and one of the more diftinguifhed of them, John Fifchart, had it copied
 +and engraved on wood, and publifhed it about the year 1580, with fome
 +verfes of his own, in which it was interpreted as a fatire upon the papacy.
 +This publication gave fuch dire offence to the ecclefiaftical authorities of
 +Stralburg, that the Lutheran bookfeller who had ventured to publifh it,
 +was compelled to make a public apology in the church, and the wood-
 +engraving and all the impreffions were feized and burnt by the common
 +hangman. A few years later, however, in 1608, another engraving was
 +made, and publifhed in a large folio with Fifchart's verfes ; and it is from
 +the diminifhed copy of this fecond edition given in Flb'gelV'Gefchichte
 +des Komifches Literatur" that our cuts are taken. The original
 +fculpture was ftill more unfortunate. Its publication and explanation by
 +Fifchart was the caufe of no little fcandal among the Catholics, who tried
 +to retort upon their opponents by afferting that the figures in this funeral
 +celebration were intended to reprefent the ignorance of the Proteftant
 +preachers ; and the fculpture in the church continued to be regarded
 +by the ecclefiaflical authorities with diflatisfaclion until the year 1685,
 +
 +when
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 8 3
 +
 +when, to take away all further ground of fcandal, it was entirely
 +defaced.
 +
 +Reynard's mediaeval celebrity dates certainly from a rather early period.
 +Montflaucon has given an alphabet of ornamental initial letters, formed
 +chiefly of figures of men and animals, from a manufcript which he
 +afcrtbes to the ninth century, among which is the one
 +copied in our cut No. 51, reprefenting a fox walking
 +upon his hind legs, and carrying two frnall cocks,
 +fufpended at the ends of a crofs ftarF. It is hardly
 +neceflary to fay that this group forms the letter T.
 +Long before this, the Frankiih hiftorian Fredegarius,
 +who wrote about the middle of the feventh century,
 +introduces a fable in which the fox figures at the court
 +of the lion. The fame fable is repeated by a monkifh
 +writer of Bavaria, named Fromond, who flourifhed in No. 5 1 - The Fox
 +
 +Provided.
 +
 +the tenth century, and by another named Aimomus,
 +who lived about the year 1,000. At length, in the twelfth century,
 +Guibert de Nogent, who died about the year 1124, and who has left us
 +bis autobiography (de Vita Jua), relates an anecdote in that work, in
 +explanation of which he tells us that the wolf was then popularly
 +defignated by the name of Ifengrin j and in the fables of Odo, as we
 +have already feen, this name is commonly given to the wolf, Reynard to
 +the fox, Teburg to the cat, and fo on with the others. This only Ihows
 +that in the fables of the twelfth century the various animals were known
 +by thefe names, but it does not prove that what we know as the romance
 +of Reynard exifted. Jacob Grimm argued from the derivation and forms
 +of thefe names, that the fables themfelves, and the romance, originated
 +with the Teutonic peoples, and were indigenous to them ; but his reafons
 +appear to me to be more fpecious than conclufive, and I certainly lean to
 +the opinion of my friend Paulin Paris, that the romance of Reynard was
 +native of France,* and that it was partly founded upon old Latin legends,
 +
 +perhaps
 +
 +* Sec the dissertation by M- Paulin Paris, published in his nice popular modern
 +abridgment of the French romance, published in 1861, under the title " Les Aven-
 +
 +
 +
 +84 Hijiory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +perhaps poems. Its character is altogether feudal, and it is ftrictly a
 +picture of fociety, in France primarily, and fecondly in England and the
 +other nations of feudalifm, in the twelfth century. The earlieft form in
 +which this romance is known is in the French poem or rather poems,
 +for it coniifts of feveral branches or continuations and is fuppofed to date
 +from about the middle of the twelfth century. It foon became fo
 +popular, that it appeared in different forms in all the languages of Weftern
 +Europe, except in England, where there appears to have exifted no edition
 +of the romance of Reynard the Fox until Caxton printed his profe
 +Englifh verfion of the ftory. From that time it became, if poffible, more
 +popular in England than elfewhere, and that popularity had hardly
 +diminiflied down to the commencement of the prefent century.
 +
 +The popularity of the ftory of Reynard caufed it to be imitated in a
 +variety of fhapes, and this form of fatire, in which animals acted the part
 +of men, became altogether popular. In the latter part of the twelfth
 +century, an Anglo-Latin poet, named Nigellus Wireker, compofed a very
 +fevere fatire in elegiac verfe, under the title of Speculum Stultorum, the
 +" Mirror of Fools." It is not a wife animal like the fox, but a fimple
 +animal, the afs, who, under the name of Brunellus, pafles among the
 +various ranks and clafles of fociety, and notes their crimes and vices. A
 +profe introduction to this poem informs us that its hero is the reprefenta-
 +tive of the monks in general, who were always longing for fome new
 +acquifition which was inconfiftent with their profeflion. In fact, Brunellus
 +is abforbed with the notion that his tail was too fhort, and his great
 +ambition is to get it lengthened. For this purpofe he confults a phyfician,
 +who, after reprefenting to him in vain the folly of his purfuit, gives him
 +a receipt to make his tail grow longer, and fends him to the celebrated
 +medical fchool of Salerno to obtain the ingredients. After various
 +adventures, in the courfe of which he lofes a part of his tail inftead of its
 +being lengthened, Brunellus proceeds to the Univerfity of Paris to ftudy
 +
 +and
 +
 +tures de Maitre Renart et d'Ysengrin son compere." On the debated question of
 +the origin of the Romance, see the learned and able work by Jonckbloet, 8vo.,
 +Groningue, 1863.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 85
 +
 +
 +
 +and obtain knowledge ; and we are treated with a moft amufingly fatirical
 +account of the condition and manners of the fcholars of that time. Soon
 +convinced of his incapacity for learning, Brunellus abandons the univerfity
 +in delpair, and he refolves to enter one of the monaftic orders, the
 +character of all which he pafles in review. The greater part of the poem
 +confifts of a very bitter fatire on the corruptions of the fnonkifh orders
 +and of the Church in general. While ftill hefitating which order to
 +choofe, Brunellus falls into the hands of his old matter, from whom he
 +had run away in order to feek his fortune in the world, and he is
 +compelled to pafs the reft of his days in the fame humble and fervile
 +condition in which he had begun them.
 +
 +A more dire6t imitation of " Reynard the Fox " is found in the early
 +French romance of" Fauvel," the hero of which is neither a fox nor an afs,
 +but a horfe. People of all ranks and clafles repair to the court of Fauvel,
 +the horfe, and furnifh abundant matter for fatire on the moral, political,
 +and religious hypocrify which pervaded the whole frame of fociety. At
 +length the hero refolves to marry, and, in a finely illuminated manufcript
 +of this romance, preferred in the Imperial Library in Paris, this marriage
 +furnifties the fubjecl: of a picture, which gives the only reprefentation I
 +have met with of one of the popular ourlefque ceremonies which were fo
 +common in the middle ages.
 +
 +Among other fuch ceremonies, it was cuftomary with the populace,
 +on the occalion of a man's or woman's fecond marriage, or an ill-forted
 +match, or on the efpoufals of people who were obnoxious to their
 +neigh bours > to aflemble outfide the houfe, and greet them with difcordant
 +mufic. This cuftom is faid to have been praftifed efpecially in France,
 +and it was called a charivari. There is ftill a laft remnant of it in our
 +country in the mufic of marrow-bones and cleavers, with which the
 +marriages of butchers are popularly celebrated ; but the derivation of the
 +French name appears not to be known. It occurs in old Latin documents,
 +for it gave rife to fuch fcandalous fcenes of riot and licentiousnefs, that
 +the Church did all it could, though in vain, to fupprefs it. The earlieft
 +mention of this cuftom, furnilhed in the Gloffhrium of Ducange, is
 +contained in the fy nodal ftatutes of the church of Avignon, pafled in the
 +
 +year
 +
 +
 +
 +86
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +year 1337, from which we learn that when fuch marriages occurred,
 +people forced their way into the houfes of the married couple, and carried
 +away their goods, which they were obliged to pay a ranfom for before
 +they were returned, and the money thus raifed was fpent in getting up
 +what is called in the ftatute relating to it a Chalvaricum. It appears from
 +this flatute, that the individuals who performed the charirari accompanied
 +the happy couple to the church, and returned with them to their
 +refidence, with coarfe and indecent geftures and difcordant mufic, and
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 52. A Medittval Charivari.
 +
 +
 +
 +uttering fcurrilous and indecent abufe, and that they ended with feafting.
 +In the ftatutes of Meaux, in 1365, and in thofe of Hugh, biftiop of
 +Beziers, in 1368, the fame practice is forbidden, under the name of
 +Charavallium ; and it is mentioned in a document of the year 13/2, alfo
 +quoted by Ducange, under that of Carivarium, as then exifting at Nimes.
 +Again, in 1445, the Council of Tours made a decree, forbidding, under
 +pain of excommunication, " the infolences, clamours, founds, and other
 +tumults pra&ifed at fecond and third nuptials, called by the vulgar a
 +
 +Charh-anum,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +Charivarium, on account of the many and grave evils arifing out of
 +them."* It will be obferved that thefe early allufions to the charivari
 +are found almoft folely in documents coming from the Roman towns in
 +the fouth of France, fo that this practice was probably one of the many
 +popular cuftoms derived directly from the Romans. When Cotgrave's
 +"Dictionary " was publifhed (that is, in 1632) the practice of the charivari
 +appears to have become more general in its exiftence, as well as its
 +application ; for he defcribes it as " a public defamation, or traducing of;
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 53. Continuation of the Chari-vari.
 +
 +
 +
 +a foule noife made, blacke fantus rung, to the fhame and difgrace of
 +another^ hence an infamous (or infaming) ballad fung, by an armed
 +troupe, under the window of an old dotard, married the day before unto
 +a yong wanton, in mockerie of them both." And, again, a charivaris de
 +
 +poelles
 +
 +* " Insultationes, clamores, sonos, et alios tumultus, in secundis et tenth's quo-
 +rundam nuptiis, quos charivarium vulgo appellant, propter multa et gravia incom-
 +moda, prohibemus sub pcena excommunicationis." Ducange, v. Charivarium.
 +
 +
 +
 +88 Htftory of Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +poelles is explained as " the carting of an infamous perfon, graced with
 +the harmonic of tinging kettles and frying-pan muficke."* The word is
 +now generally ufed in the fenfe of a great tumult of difcordant rrmfic,
 +produced often by a number of perfons playing different tunes on
 +different inftruments at the fame time.
 +
 +As I have ftated above, the manufcript of the romance of "Fauvel "
 +is in the Imperial Library in Paris. A copy of this illumination is
 +engraved in Jaime's " Mufee de la Caricature," from which our cuts
 +Nos. 52 and 53 are taken. It is divided into three compartments, one
 +above another, in the uppermoft of which Fauvel is feen entering the
 +nuptial chamber to his young wife, who is already in bed. The fcene in
 +the compartment below, which is copied in our cut No. 52, reprefents
 +the flreet outfide, and the mock revellers performing the charivari;
 +and this is continued in the third, or loweft, compartment, which
 +is reprefented in our cut No. 53. Down each fide of the original
 +illumination is a frame-work of windows, from which people, who
 +have been difturbed by the noife, are looking out upon the tumult.
 +It will be feen that all the performers wear malks, and that they are
 +drefled in burlefque coftume. In confirmation of the ftatement of the
 +ecclefiaftical fynods as to the licerltioufnefs of thefe exhibitions, we
 +fee one of the performers here difguifed as a woman, who lifts up his
 +drefs to expofe his perfon while dancing. The mufical inftruments
 +are no lefs grotefque than the coftumes, for they confift chiefly of kitchen
 +utenfils, fuch as frying-pans, mortars, faucepans, and the like.
 +
 +There was another feries of fubjets in which_animals wej^e. introduced
 +as the inftrumrpti of fntirr^ This fatirc coofiifed in reverfing^ the-pofilion
 +n th g animalfLpver wh'^ ^ r-H ^fn accuflomed
 +
 +
 +
 +_tp ^rgnnifeijQ_jh^Ji_3Kas--fab}^e4-ta-llie^fame treatment from the
 +animals which, in his a6tual pofition, he uies towards them. .This change
 +Qf~reTative pofition was railed ii-| old French anrl Anf;ln Nprmatij L>
 +
 +jnonde leftorni^ which was equivalent to the Englifh phrafe, " the world
 +
 +lurngd upfide down." It forms the fubjecl: of rather old verfes, I believe,
 +
 +__ both
 +
 +* Cotgrave's Dictionarie, v. Chari-var'u.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +both in French and Englifh, and individual fcenes from it are met with
 +in pi&orial reprefentation at a rather early date. During the year J 862,
 +in the courfe of accidental excavations on the lite of the Friary, at
 +Derby, a number of encauftic tiles, fuch as were ufed for the floors
 +of the interiors of churches and large buildings, were found.* The
 +ornamentation of thefe tiles, efpecially of the earlier ones, is, like ail
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 54 I'he Tablet Turned.
 +
 +mediaeval ornamentations, extremely varied, and even thefe tiles Ibnu-
 +times prefent fubje&s of a burlefque and fatirical character, though they
 +are more frequently adorned with the arms and badges of benefactors to
 +the church or convent. The tiles found on the fite of the priory at
 +Derby are believed to be of the thirteenth century, and one pattern, a
 +diminished copy of which is given in our cut No. 54, prefents a fubject
 +
 +taken
 +
 +* Mr Llewellynn Jewitt, in his excellent publication, the Reliquary, [or O< tober,
 +1861, has given an interesting paper on the encaustic tiles found on this occasion,
 +and on the conventual house to which they belonged.
 +
 +
 +
 +9
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +taken from the monde be/lorn^. The hare, matter of his old enemy, the
 +dog, has become hunter himfelf, and feated upon the dog's back he rides
 +vigoroufly to the chace, blowing his horn as he goes. The defign is
 +fpiritedly executed, and its fatirical intention is fhown by the monflrous
 +and mirthful face, with the tongue lolling out, figured on the outer
 +corner of the tile. It will be feen that four of thefe tiles are intended to
 +be joined together to make the complete piece. In an illumination
 +in a manufcript of the fourteenth century in the Britifli Mufeum
 +(MS. Reg. 10 E iv.), the hares are taking a ftill more fevere vengeance
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 55. Juftice in the Hands of the Perfccuted.
 +
 +on their old enemy. The dog has been caught, brought to trial for his
 +numerous murders, and condemned, and they are reprefented here
 +(cut No. 55) conducting him in the criminal's cart to the gallows. Our
 +cut No. 56, the fubjed of which is furnimed by one of the carved flails
 +in Sherborne Minfter (it is here copied from the engraving in Carter's
 +" Specimens of Ancient Sculpture "), reprefents another execution fcene,
 +fimilar in fpirit to the former. The geefe have feized their old enemy,
 +Reynard, and are hanging him on a gallows, while two monks, who
 +attend the execution, appear to be amufed at the energetic manner in
 +
 +which
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +9 l
 +
 +
 +
 +which the geefe perform their talk. Mr. Jewitt mentions two other
 +fubjeds belonging to this feries, one of them taken from an illuminated
 +manufcript ; they are, the moufe chafing the cat, and the horfe driving
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 56. Reynard brought to Account at Loft.
 +
 +the cart the former human carter in this cafe taking the place of the
 +horfe between the lhafts.
 +
 +"The World turned upfide down; or, the Folly of Man," has
 +continued amongft us to be a popular chap-book and child's book till
 +within a very few years, and I have now a copy before me printed in
 +London about the year 1790. It confifts of a feries of rude woodcuts,
 +with a few doggrel verfes under each. One of thefe, entitled " The Ox
 +turned Farmer," reprelents two men drawing the plough, driven by an
 +ox. In the next, a rabbit is feen turning the fpit on which a man is
 +roalling, while a cock holds a ladle and baftes. In a third, we fee a
 +tournament, in which the horfes are armed and ride upon the men.
 +Another reprelents the ox killing the butcher. In others we have birds
 +netting men and women ; the als, turned miller, employing the man-
 +miller to carry his facks ; the horfe turned groom, and currying the man ;
 +and the fifties angling for men and catching them.
 +
 +In a cleverly fculptured ornament in Beverley Minfter, represented in
 +our cut No. 57, the goofe herfelf is reprefented in a grotefque fituation,
 +
 +which
 +
 +
 +
 +9 2
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +which might almoft give her a place in " The World turned upfide
 +down," although it is a mere burlefque, without any apparent fatirical
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 57. Shoeing the Goofe.
 +
 +aim. The goofe has here taken the place of the horl'e at the black fmith's,
 +
 +who is vigoroufly nailing the fhoe on her webbed foot.
 +
 +Burlefque fubje&s of this defcription are not uncommon, eipecially
 +
 +among architectural iculpture and
 +wood-carving, and, at a rather
 +later period, on all ornamental
 +objects. The field for fuch fubje6ts
 +was fo extenfive, that the artift
 +had an almoft unlimited choice,
 +and therefore his fubjeds might be
 +almoft infinitely varied, though we
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No, 58. Food for Sivinc.
 +
 +
 +
 +ufually find them running on par-
 +ticular clafles. The old popular
 +proverbs, for inftance, furnilhed a fruitful fource for drollery, and are at
 +times delineated in an amufingly literal or practical manner. Pidorial
 +
 +proverbs
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +93
 +
 +
 +
 +proverbs and popular fayings are fometimes met with on the carved
 +mifereres. For example, in one of thofe at Rouen, in Normandy,
 +reprefented in our cut No. 58, the carver has intended to reprefent
 +the idea of the old faying, in allufion to mifplaced bounty, of throwing
 +pearls to fwine, and has given it a much more pi6turefque and pidtorially
 +intelligible form, by introducing a rather dafliing female feeding her
 +fwine with rofes, or rather offering them rofes for food, for the fwine
 +difplay no eagernefs to feed upon them.
 +
 +We meet with fuch fubjets as thefe fcattered over all mediaeval
 +works of art, and at a fomewhat later period they were transferred to
 +other objets, liich as the (igns of houfes. The cuftorn of placing figns
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 59. The Induftriout Sew.
 +
 +over the doors of (hops and taverns, was well known to the ancients, as is
 +abundantly manifefted by their frequent occurrence in the ruins of
 +Pompeii; but in the middle ages, the ufe of figns and badges was
 +univerfal, and as contrary to the apparent practice in Pompeii, where
 +certain badges were appropriatt d to certain trades and profeffions every
 +individual was free to choofe his own fign, the variety was unlimited.
 +Many ftill had reference, no doubt, to the particular calling of thofe to
 +whom they belonged, while others were of a religious character, and
 +indicated the faint under whofe protection the houfeholder had placed
 +himfelf. Some people took animals for their figns, others monftrous
 +or burlefque figures ; and, in fa6t, there were hardly any of the fubje&s of
 +
 +caricature
 +
 +
 +
 +94
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefaue
 +
 +
 +
 +caricature or burlefque familiar to the mediaeval fculptor and illuminator
 +which did not from time to time appear on thefe popular figns. A few
 +of the old figns ftill preferved, efpecially in the quaint old towns of
 +France, Germany, and the Netherlands, mow us how frequently they
 +
 +were made the inftruments of popular fatire.
 +A fign not uncommon in France was La
 +Truie qui Jile (the fow fpinning). Our cut
 +No. 59 reprefents this fubjedt as treated on
 +an old fign, a carving in baf-relief of the
 +fixteenth century, on a houfe in the Rue
 +du March e-aux-Poirees, in Rouen. The fow
 +appears here in the character of the induftrious
 +houfewife, employing herfelf in fpinning at
 +the fame time that me is attending to the
 +wants of her children. There is a fingularly
 +fatirical fign at Beauvais, on a houfe which
 +was formerly occupied by an epicier-moutardier,
 +or grocer who made muftard, in the Rue du
 +Chatel. In front of this fign, which is repre-
 +fented in our cut No. 60, appears a large
 +muftard-mill, on one fide of which ftands
 +
 +Folly with a ftaff in her hand, with which
 +
 +No. 6 . Aauiicrathn. fa }s flilT j ng ^ mu ft a rd, while an ape,
 +
 +with a fort of fardonic grin, throws in a feafoning, which may be
 +conjetured by his pofture.* The trade-mark of the individual who
 +adopted this ftrange device, is carved below.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +* See an interesting little book on this subject by M. Ed. de la Queriere,
 +entitled " Recherches sur les Enseignes des Maisons Particulieres," 8vo., Rouen,
 +1852, from which both the above examples are laken.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 95
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAFrER VJ.
 +
 +THE MONKEY IN BURLESftUE AND CARICATURE. TOURNAMENTS ANI>
 +
 +SINGLE COMBATS. MONSTROUS COMBINATIONS OF ANIMAL FORMS. -
 +
 +CARICATURES ON COSTUME. THE HAT. THE HELMET. LADIES*
 +
 +HEAD-DRESSES. THE GOWN, AND ITS LONG SLEEVES.
 +
 +THE fox^the wolf, and their companions, were introduced as
 +inftruments of fatire, on account of their^ peculiar characters | but
 +there\vere other animals^ whicti were alfo favourites with the fatirift,
 +becaufe they difplayed an innateTnciination to imitate ; they formedTas
 +u were, natural pa
 +
 +
 +
 +the prindpaljfld_moft^r^||parkahl^^a^f^ r^pnlg^j This animal muft
 +have been known to our Anglo-Saxon forefathers from a remote period,
 +for they had a word for it in their own language apa, our ape. Monkey
 +is a more modern name, and feems to be equivalent with maniken, or a
 +little man. The earlieft Bejliaries, or popular treatifes on natural hiftory,
 +give anecdotes illuftrative of the aptnefe of this animal for imitating the
 +actions of men, and afcribe to it a degree of underftanding which would
 +almoft raife it above the level of the brute creation. Philip de Thaun.,
 +an Anglo-Norman poet of the reign of Henry 1., in his Be/iiary, tells us
 +that "the monkey, by imitation, as books fay, counterfeits what it fees,
 +and mocks people :"
 +
 +Li Jingc par figure, Ji cum nit efcrifture,
 +Ceo que II vait contrefait, de gent efcar halt,*
 +
 +He
 +
 +* See my " Popular Treatises on Science written during the Middle Ages,"
 +p. 107.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +q 6 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +He goes on to inform us, as a proof of the extraordinary inftinct of this
 +animal, that it has more affection for fome of its cubs than for others,
 +and that, when running away, it carried thofe which it liked before it,
 +and thofe it difliked behind its back. The fketch from the illuminated
 +manufcript of the Romance of the Comte
 +
 +!\A j^^ d' Artois, of the fifteenth century, which forms
 +
 +our cut No. 61, reprefents the monkey, carry-
 +ing, of courfe, its favourite child before it in
 +its flight, and what is more, it is taking that
 +flight mounted on a donkey. A monkey
 +on horfeback appears not to have been a
 +novelty, as we (hall fee in the fequel.
 +No. 61. A Monkey Alexander Neckam, a very celebrated
 +
 +Mounted. Englifh fcholar of the latter part of the
 +
 +twelfth century, and one of the moil interesting of the early mediaeval
 +writers on natural hiitory, gives us many anecdotes, which fhow us
 +how much attached our mediaeval forefathers were to domefticated
 +animals, and how common a practice it was to keep them in
 +their houfes. The baronial caftle appears often to have prefented the
 +appearance of a menagerie of animals, among which fome were of that
 +ftrong and ferocious character that rendered it neceflary to keep them in
 +clofe confinement, while others, fuch as monkeys, roamed about the
 +buildings at will. One of Neckam's ftories is very curious in regard to
 +our fubject, for it (hows that the people in thofe days exercifed their
 +tamed animals in practically caricaturing contemporary weaknefles and
 +fafhions. This writer remarks that " the nature of the ape is'fo ready at
 +acting, by ridiculous gefticulations, the reprefentations of things it has
 +feen, and thus gratifying the vain curiofity of worldly men in public
 +exhibitions, that it will even dare to imitate a military conflict. A
 +jougleur (hi/trio) was in the habit of conftantly taking two monkeys to
 +the military exercifes which are commonly called tournaments, that the
 +labour of teaching might be diminished by frequent infpection. He
 +afterwards taught two dogs to carry thefe apes, who fat on their backs,
 +furnifhed with proper arms. Nor did they want fpurs, with which they
 +
 +flrenuoufly
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +97
 +
 +
 +
 +ftrenuoufly urged on the dogs. Having broken their lances, they drew
 +out their fwords, with which they fpent many blows on each other's
 +fhields. Who at this fight could refrain from laughter ?"*
 +
 +Such contemporary caricatures of the mediaeval tournament, which
 +was in its greateft famion during the period from the twelfth to the
 +fourteenth century, appear to have been extremely popular, and are not
 +unfrequently reprefented in the borders of illuminated manufcripts.
 +The manufcript now fo well known as " Queen Mary's Pfalter "
 +(MS. Reg. 2 B vii.), and written and illuminated very early in the
 +fourteenth century, contains not a few illuftrations of this defcription.
 +One of thefe, which forms our cut No. 62, reprefents a tournament
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Ns. 62. A Tournament,
 +
 +not much unlike that defcribed by Alexander Neckam, except that
 +the monkeys are here riding upon other monkeys, and not upon
 +dogs. In fact, all the individuals here engaged are monkeys, and
 +the parody is completed by the introduction of the trumpeter on
 +one fide, and of minftrelfy, reprefented by a monkey playing on the
 +tabor, on the other ; or, perhaps, the two monkeys are fimply
 +playing on the pipe and tabor, which were looked upon as the loweft
 +defcription of minftrelfy, and are therefore the more aptly introduced
 +into the fcene.
 +
 +The fame manufcript has furnifhed us with the cut No. 63. Here
 +the
 +
 +* Alexander Neckam, De Naturis Rerum, lib. ii. c. 129.
 +o
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +the combat takes place between a monkey and a flag, the latter having
 +the claws of a griffin. They are mounted, too, on rather nondefcript
 +animals one having the head and body of a lion, with the forefeet of
 +an eagle ; the other having a head fomewhat like that of a lion, on a
 +lion's body, with the hind parts of a bear. This fubje6t may, perhaps, be
 +intended as a burlefque on the mediaeval romances, filled with combats
 +between the Chriflians and the Saracens ; for the ape who, in the
 +moralifations which accompany the Be/liaries, is faid to reprefent the devil
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 63. A Feat affirms.
 +
 +is here armed with what are evidently intended for the fabre and
 +Ihield of a Saracen, while the flag carries the fhield and lance of a
 +Chriftian knight.
 +
 +The love of the mediaeval artifts for monfirous figures of animals, and
 +for mixtures of animals and men, has been alluded to in a former chapter.
 +The combatants in the accompanying cut (No. 64), taken from the fame
 +manufcript, prefent a fort of combination of the rider and the animal, and
 +they again feem to be intended for a Saracen and a Chriftian. The
 +figure to the right, which is compofed of the body of a fatyr, with the
 +feet of a goofe and the wings of a dragon, is armed with a fimilar
 +Saracenic fabre ; while that to the left, which is on the whole lefs
 +monftrous, wields a Norman fword. F"th have human faces below the_
 +
 +idca in the grotefque of the
 +middle
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +99
 +
 +
 +
 +agea^ Our mediaeval forefathers appear to have had a decided
 +tafte for monftrofities of every defcription, and efpecially for mixtures of
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 64. A Terrible Combat.
 +
 +different kinds of animals, and of animals and men. There is no doubt,
 +
 +to judge by the anecdotes recorded by fuch writers as Giraldus
 +
 +Cambrenfis, that a belief in the exiftence of fuch
 +
 +unnatural creatures was widely entertained. In his
 +
 +account of Ireland, this writer tells us of animals
 +
 +which were half__ox and half man, half flag and
 +
 +half cow, and half dog and half monkey.* It is
 +
 +certain that there was a general belief in fuch
 +
 +animals, and nobody could be more credulous than
 +
 +Giraldus himfelf.
 +
 +The defign to caricature, which is tolerably evident
 +in the fubjefts juft given, is ftill more apparent in
 +other grotefques that adorn the borders of the
 +mediaeval manufcripts, as well as in fome of the
 +mediaeval carvings and fculpture. Thus, in our cut N 6 5 Fa/bioaaMe Dnf*
 +No. 65, taken from one of the borders in the Romance of the Comte
 +
 +d'Artois,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +* See Girald. Cambr., Topog. Hibernie, dist. ii. cc. 21, 22 ; and the Itinerary
 +of Wales, lib. ii. e. n.
 +
 +
 +
 +I oo Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +d'Artois, a manufcript of the fifteenth century, we cannot fail to
 +recognife an attempt at turning to ridicule the contemporary fafhions in
 +drefs. The hat is only an exaggerated form of one which appears to
 +have been commonly ufed in France in the latter half of the fifteenth
 +century, and which appears frequently in illuminated manufcripts
 +executed in Burgundy ; and the boot alfo belongs to the fame period.
 +The latter reappeared at different times, until at length it became
 +developed into the modern top-boots. In cut No. 66, from the fame
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 66. Heads and Hati,
 +
 +manufcript, where it forms the letter T, we have the fame form of
 +hat, ftill more exaggerated, and combined at the fame time with
 +grotefque faces.
 +
 +Caricatures on coftume are by no means uncommon among the
 +artiflic remains of the middle ages, and are not confined to illuminated
 +manufcripts. The famionable drefles of thofe days went into far more
 +ridiculous excefies of fhape than anything we fee in our times at leaft,
 +fo far as we can believe the drawings in the manufcripts ; but thefe,
 +however ferioufly intended, were conftantly degenerating into caricature,
 +from circumftances which are eafily explained, and which have, in fad,
 +been explained already in their influence on other parts of our fubjecl.
 +The mediaeval artifts in general were not very good delineators of form,
 +and their outlines are much inferior to their finifh. Confcious of this,
 +though perhaps unknowingly, they fought to remedy the defect in a fpirit
 +which has always been adopted in the early ftages of art-progrefs they
 +aimed at making themfelves underftood by giving a fpecial prominence to
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. i o I
 +
 +
 +
 +the peculiar characteriftics of the objects they wiftied to reprefent. Thefe
 +were the points which naturally attracted people's firft attention, and
 +the refemblance was felt moft by people in general when thefe points
 +were put forward in exceffive prominence in the picture. The dreffes,
 +perhaps, hardly exifled in the exact forms in which we fee them in the
 +illuminations, or at leaft thofe were only exceptions to the generally
 +more moderate forms ; and hence, in ufing thefe pictorial records as
 +materials for the hiftory of coftume, we ought to make a certain allowance
 +for exaggeration we ought, indeed, to treat them almoft as caricatures.
 +In fact, much of what we now call caricature, was then characteriftic of
 +ferious art, and of what was confidered its high development. Many of
 +the attempts which have been made of late years to introduce ancient
 +coftume on the ftage, would probably be regarded by the people who
 +lived in the age which they were intended to reprefent, as a mere defign
 +to turn them into ridicule. Neverthelels, the fafliions in drefs were,
 +efpecially from the twelfth century to the fixteenth, carried to a great
 +degree of extravagance, and were not only the objects of fatire and
 +caricature, but drew forth the indignant declamations of the Church, and
 +furnilhed a continuous theme to the preachers. The contemporary
 +chronicles abound with bitter reflections on the extravagance in coftume,
 +which was confidered as one of the outward figns of the great corruption
 +of particular periods ; and they give us not unfrequent examples of the
 +coarfe manner in which the clergy difcufled them in their fermons. The
 +readers of Chaucer will remember the manner in which this fubject is
 +treated in the " Parfon's Tale." In this refpect the fatirifts of the
 +Church went hand in hand with the pictorial caricaturifts of the illumi-
 +nated manufcripts, and of the fculptures with which we fometimes meet
 +in contemporary architectural ornamentation. In the latter, this clafe
 +of caricature is perhaps lefs frequent, but it is fometimes very expreflive.
 +The very curious mifereres in the church of Ludlow, in Shropfhire, prefent
 +the caricature reproduced in our cut No. 67. It reprefent^. an ugly^
 +and, to judge by the expreflion of the countenance, an ill-tempered old
 +jwoman, wearing the fafhionable head-dref^f the_ earlier half of the^
 +.fifteenth, century, wjiich_,feems to have been carried to its preateft
 +
 +extravagance
 +
 +
 +
 +IO2 Hiftory of Caricature and Grot efque
 +
 +
 +
 +extravagance in the beginning of the reign of Henry VI. -Itos-lheJlvle
 +jpf coiffurejcpnwn efpprially as the horned head-drefs, aqd the very nam^
 +carries with it a fort of relationfhip to an individual jwho was notorioufly
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 67. A Fafhionable Beauty,
 +
 +\\]f> fpjrit of evil. This dafhing dame of the olden time appears
 +to have ftruck terror into two unfortunates who have fallen within her
 +
 +influence, one of whom, as though he
 +took her for a new Gorgon, is attempt-
 +ing to cover himfelf with his buckler,
 +while the other, apprehending danger of
 +another kind, is prepared to defend him-
 +felf with his fword. The details of the
 +head-drefs in this figure are interefling
 +for the hiftory of coftume.
 +
 +Our next cut, No. 68, is taken from
 +a manufcript in private pofTeflion, which
 +is now rather well known among anti-
 +quaries by the name of the " Luttrell
 +Pfalter," and which belongs to the four-
 +teenth century. It feems to involve a
 +fatire on the ariftocratic order of fociety
 +on the knight who was diftinguifhed
 +
 +by his helmet, his fhield, and his armour. The individual here repre-
 +fented prefents a type which is anything but ariftocratic. While he holds
 +
 +a helmet
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Ac. 68. A Man of War.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +103
 +
 +
 +
 +a helmet in his hand to fhow the meaning of the fatire, his own helmet,
 +which he wears on his head, is fimply a bellows. He may be a knight
 +of the kitchen, or perhaps a mere quijlron, or kitchen lad.
 +
 +We have juft feen a caricature of one of the ladies' head-drefles of the
 +earlier half of the fifteenth century, and our cut No. 69, from an illuminated
 +manufcript in the Britifh Mufeum of the latter half of
 +the fame century (MS. Harl., No. 4379), furnifhes
 +us with a caricature of a head-drefs of a different
 +character, which came into fafhion 'Q.jftp rp '5 n "f_p-
 +
 +Edward TV, The horned head-drefs of the previous
 +
 +generation had been entirely laid afide, and the
 +ladies adopted in its place a fort of fteeple-fhaped
 +.head-drefs,j3r rather of the form of a fpire, made by
 +rolling a piece" of linen into the tomToT a long cone.
 +Over this lofty cap wasthrown a_
 +muflinTwhich delcended almoft to the ground, and
 +formed, as it were, two wings. A fhort tranfparent
 +veil was thrown over the face, and reached not quite
 +to the chin, refembling rather clofely the veils in ufe
 +among our ladies of the prefent day (1864). The
 +whole head-drefs, indeed, has been preferved by the
 +Norman peafantry ; for it may be obferved that,
 +during the feudal ages, the fafhions in France and
 +England were always identical. Thefe fteeple head-drefles greatly pro-
 +voked the indignation of the clergy, and zealous preachers attacked them
 +roughly in their fermons. A French monk, named Thomas Conecte,
 +diftinguifhed himfelf efpecially in this crufade, and inveighed againft
 +the head-drefs with fuch effect, that we are aflured that many of the
 +women threw down their head-drefles in the middle of the fermon, and
 +made a bonfire of them at its conclufion. The zeal of the preacher foon
 +extended itfelf to the populace, and, for a while, when ladies appeared in
 +this head-drefs in public, they were expofed to be pelted by the rabble.
 +Under fuch a double perfecution it difappeared for a moment, but when
 +the preacher was no longer prefent, it returned again, and, to ufe the
 +
 +words
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 69. A Lady's
 +Head-drejs.
 +
 +
 +
 +104 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +words of the old writer who has preferred this anecdote, " the women
 +who, like fnails in a fright, had drawn in their horns, fhot them out again
 +as foon as the danger was over." The caricaturift would hardly overlook
 +fo extravagant a fafliion, and accordingly the manufcript in the Britifh
 +Mufeum, juft mentioned, furnifhes us with the fubjeft of our cut No. 69.
 +In thofe times, when the paflions were fubjedted to no reftraint, the fine
 +ladies indulged in fuch luxury and licentioufnefs, that the caricaturift has
 +chofen as their fit reprefentaHve n fmv,\vhn ivr'nn tho rtbjfftionnbl" bp=H-
 +
 +.jlrefs in full fafhion. The original forms one of the illuftrations of a
 +copy of the hiftorian Froifiart, and was, therefore, executed in France,
 +or, more probably, in Burgundy.
 +
 +^rhe^fermons and fatires againft extravagance in coftume began at an
 +early period. The Anglo-Norman ladies, in the earlier part of the
 +twelfth century, firft brought in vogue in our ifland this extravagance in
 +
 +.fafhionj.jwhich quickly fell under the lafh of fatirift and caricaturift. It
 +was firft exhibited in the robes rather than in the head-drefs. Thefe
 +Anglo-Norman ladies are underftood to have firft introduced ftays, in
 +order to give an artificial appearance of flendernefs to their waifts ; but
 +the greateft extravagance appeared in the forms of their fleeves. The
 +robe, or gown, inftead of being loofe, as among the Anglo-Saxons, was
 +laced clofe round the body, and the fleeves, which fitted the arm tightly
 +till they reached the elbows, or fometimes nearly to the wrift, then
 +fuddenly became larger, and hung down to an extravagant length, often
 +trailing on the ground, and fometimes fhortened by means of a knot.
 +The gown, alfo, was itfelf worn very long. The clergy preached againft
 +thefe extravagances in faftiion, and at times, it is faid, with effecl: ; and
 +they fell under the vigorous lafh of the fatirift. In a clafs of fatires which
 +became extremely popular in the twelfth century, and which produced
 +in the thirteenth the immortal poem of Dante the vifions of purgatory
 +and of hell thefe contemporary extravagances in fafhion are held up to
 +public deteftation, and are made the fubjeft of fevere punifhment.
 +They werp Innlr^d yiprm gs among fhp nnjwp 1 *>"-mr nf prirlg It arofe,
 +no doubt, from this tafte from the darker fhade which fpread over men's
 +minds in the twelfth century that demons, inftead of animals, were
 +
 +introduced
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +105
 +
 +
 +
 +introduced to perfonify the evil-doers of the time. Such is the figure
 +(cut No. 70) which we take from a very interefting manufcript in the
 +Britifh Mufeum (MS. Cotton. Nero, C iv.). The demon is here drefled
 +in the fafhionable gown with its long fleeves, of which one appears to have
 +been ufaally much longer than the other. Both the gown and fleeve are
 +ihortened by means of knots, while the former is brought clofe round
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 70. Sin in Satins.
 +
 +the waift by tight lacing. It is a picture of the ufe of ftays made at the
 +time of their firft introduction.
 +
 +This fuperfluity of length in the different parts of the drefs was a
 +fubject of complaint and fatire at various and very diftant periods, and
 +contemporary illuminations of a perfectly ferious character {how that
 +tliefe complaints were not without foundation.
 +
 +
 +
 +106 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER VII.
 +
 +
 +
 +PRESERVATION OF THE CHARACTER OF THE M1MUS AFTER THE FALL OF
 +
 +1 . THE EMPIRE. THE MINSTREL AND JOGELOUR. HISTORY OF POPULAR
 +
 +STORIES. THE FABLIAUX. ACCOUNT OF THEM. THE CONTES DEVOTS.
 +
 +I HAVE already remarked that, upon the fall of the Roman empire,
 +the popular inftitutions of the Romans were more generally
 +preferved to the middle ages than thofe of a higher and more refined
 +chara&er. This is underftood without difficulty, when we confider that
 +the lower clafs of the population in the towns, what we might perhaps
 +call the lower and middle clafles continued to exift much the fame as
 +before, while the barbarian conquerors came in and took the place of the
 +ruling clafles. The drama, which had never much hold upon the love
 +of the Roman populace, was loft, and the theatres and the amphitheatres,
 +which had been fupported only by the wealth of the imperial court and
 +of the ruling clafs, were abandoned and fell into ruin ; but the mimus,
 +who furnimed mirth to the people, continued to exift, and probably
 +underwent no immediate change in his character. It will be well to
 +ftate again the chief chara&eriftics of the ancient mimus, before we
 +proceed to defcribe his mediaeval reprefentative.
 +
 +The grand aim of the mimus was to make people laugh, and he
 +employed generally every means he knew of for effecting this purpofe,
 +by language, by geftures or motions of the body, or by drefs. Thus he
 +carried, (trapped over his loins, a wooden fword, which was called
 +gladius hiftricus and clunaculum, and wore fometimes a garment made of
 +a great number of fmall pieces of cloth of different colours, which was
 +hence called centunculus, or the hundred-patched drefs.* Thefe two
 +
 +chara&eriftics
 +
 +* "Uti me consuesse tragoedi syrmate, histrionis crotalone ad trieterica orgia, aut
 +mimi centunculo." Apuleius, Apolog.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ 07
 +
 +character! ftics have been preferred in the modern harlequin. Other
 +peculiarities of coftume may conveniently be left undefcribed j the female
 +mimae fometimes exhibited themfelves unreftri6ted by drefs. They
 +danced and fung ; repeated jokes and told merry ftories ; recited or a&ed
 +farces and fcandalous anecdotes ; performed what we now call mimicry,
 +a word derived from the name of mimus ; and they put themfelves in
 +ftrange poftures, and made frightful faces. They fometimes a6ted the
 +part of a fool or zany (morio), or of a madman. They added to thefe
 +performances that of the conjurer or juggler (prcejligiator), and played
 +tricks of fleight of hand. The mimi performed in the ftreets and public
 +places, or in the theatres, and efpecially at feftivals, and they were often
 +employed at private parties, to entertain the guefts at a fupper.
 +
 +"We trace the exiilence of this clafs of performers during the earlier
 +period of the middle ages by the expreffions of hoftility towards them
 +ufed from time to time by the ecclefiaftical writers, and the denunciations
 +of fynods and councils, which have been quoted in a former chapter.*
 +Neverthelefs, i is evident from many allufions to them, that they found
 +their way into the monaftic houfes, and were in great favour not only
 +among the monks, but among the nuns alfo; that they were introduced
 +into the religious feftivalsj and that they were tolerated even in the
 +churches. It is probable that they long continued to be known in Italy
 +and the countries near the centre of Roman influence, and where the
 +Latin language was continued, by their old name of mimus. The
 +writers of the mediaeval vocabularies appear all to have been much better
 +acquainted with the meaning of this word than of moft of the Latin
 +words of the fame clafs, and they evidently had a clafs of performers
 +exifting in their own times to whom they confidered that the name
 +applied. The Anglo-Saxon vocabularies interpret the Latin mimus by
 +glig-mon, a gleeman. In Anglo-Saxon, glig or gliu meant mirth and
 +game of every defcription, and as the Anglo-Saxon teachers who compiled
 +the vocabularies give, as fynonyms of mimus, the words fcurra, jocifta,
 +and pantomimus, it is evident that all thefe were included in the character
 +of
 +
 +* See before, p. 41 of the present volume.
 +
 +
 +
 +io8 Hijiory oj Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +of the gleeman, and that the latter was quite identical with his Roman
 +type. It was the Roman mimus introduced into Saxon England. We
 +have no traces of the exiftence of fuch a clas of performers among the
 +Teutonic race before they became acquainted with the civilifation of
 +imperial Rome. We know from drawings in contemporary illuminated
 +manufcripts that the performances of the gleeman did include mufic,
 +finging, and dancing, and alfo the tricks of mountebanks and jugglers,
 +fuch as throwing up and catching knives and balls, and performing with
 +tamed bears, &c.*
 +
 +But even among the peoples who preferred the Latin language,
 +the word mimus was gradually exchanged for others employed to fignify
 +the fame thing. The word jocus had been ufed in the fignification
 +of a jeft, playfulnefs, jocari fignified to jell, and joculator was a word
 +for a jefterj but, in the debafement of the language^'ocMS was taken in
 +the fignification of everything which created mirth. It became, in
 +the courfe of time the French word jeu, and the Italian gioco, or
 +giuoco. People introduced a form of the verb, jocare, which became the
 +French juer, to play or perform. Joculator was then ufed in -the
 +fenfe of mimus. In French the word became jogleor, or jougleor, and
 +in its later form jongleur. I may remark that, in mediaeval manu-
 +fcripts, it is almoft impoffible to diftinguifh between the u and the n, and
 +that modern writers have mifread this laft word as jongleur, and thus
 +introduced into the language a word which never exifted, and which
 +ought to be abandoned. In old Englifh, as we fee in Chaucer, the ufual
 +form was jogelere. The mediaeval joculator, or jougleur, embraced all
 +the attributes of the Roman mimus,^ and perhaps more. In the firft
 +place
 +
 +* See examples of these illuminations in my " History of Domestic Manners
 +and Sentiments," pp. 34, 35, 37, 65.
 +
 +t People in the middle ages were so fully conscious of the identity of the
 +mediaeval jougleur with the Roman mimus, that the Latin writers often use mimus
 +to signify a jougleur, and the one is interpreted by the others in the vocabularies.
 +Thus, in Latin-English vocabularies of the fifteenth century, we have
 +Hie joculator,
 +Hie mimus,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 109
 +
 +
 +
 +place he was very often a poet himfelf, and compofed the pieces which it
 +was one of his duties to ling or recite. Thefe were chiefly fongs, or
 +(lories, the latter ufually told in verfe, and fo many of them are preferred
 +in manufcripts that they form a very numerous and important clafs of
 +mediaeval literature. The fongs were commonly fatirical and abufive,
 +and they were made ufe of for purpofes of general or perfonal
 +vituperation. Out of them, indeed, grew the political fongs of a later
 +period. There were female jougleurs, and both fexes danced, and, to
 +create mirth among thofe who encouraged them, they pra&ifed a variety ^
 +of performances, fuch as mimicking people, making wry and ugly faces, ;
 +diftorting their bodies into ftrange poftures, often expofing their perfons in
 +a very unbecoming manner, and performing many vulgar and indecent
 +ads, which it is not neceflary to defcribe more particularly. They
 +carried about with them for exhibition tame bears, monkeys, and other
 +animals, taught to perform the actions of men. As early as the
 +thirteenth century, we find them including among their other accom-
 +plifhments that of dancing upon the tight-rope. Finally, the jougleurs
 +performed tricks of fleight of hand, and were often conjurers and
 +magicians. As, in modern times, the jougleurs of the middle ages
 +gradually palTed away, fleight of hand appears to have become their
 +principal accomplimment, and the name only was left in the modern
 +word juggler. The jougleurs of the middle ages, like the mimi of
 +antiquity, wandered about from place to place, and often from country
 +to country, fometimes fingly and at others in companies, exhibited their
 +performances in the roads and flreets, repaired to all great feftivals, and
 +were employed efpecially in the baronial hall, where, by their fongs,
 +llories, and other performances, they created mirth after dinner.
 +
 +This clafs of fociety had become known by another name, the origin
 +of which is not fo eafily explained. The primary meaning of the Latin
 +word mini/ler was a fervant, one who minifters to another, either in his
 +wants or in his pleafures and amufements. It was applied particularly to
 +the cup-bearer. In low Latinity, a diminutive of this word was formed,
 +minefiellus, or mini/trellus, a petty fervant, or minifter. When we firfl
 +meet with this word, which is not at a very early date, it is ufed as
 +
 +perfedly
 +
 +
 +
 +1 1 o Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +perfectly fynonymous w\thjoculator, and, as the word is certainly of Latin
 +derivation, it is clear that it was from it the middle ages derived the
 +French word meneftrel (the modern menetrier), and the Englifh minftrel.
 +The mimi or jougleurs were perhaps considered as the petty minifters to
 +the amufements of their lord, or of him who for the time employed them.
 +Until the clofe of the middle ages, the minftrel and the jougleur were
 +abfolutely identical. Poflibly the former may have been confidered the
 +more courtly of the two names. But in England, as the middle ages
 +difappeared, and loft their influence on fociety fooner than in France, the
 +word minftrel remained attached only to the mufical part of the functions
 +of the old mimus, while, as juft obferved, the juggler took the fleight of
 +hand and the mountebank tricks. In modern French, except where
 +employed technically by the antiquary, the word menetrier means
 +a fiddler.
 +
 +The jougleurs, or minftrels, formed a very numerous and important,
 +though a low and defpifed, clafs of mediaeval fociety. The duliiefs of
 +every-day life in a feudal caftle or manfion required fomething more than
 +ordinary excitement in the way of amufement, and the old family bard,
 +who continually repeated to the Teutonic chief the praifes of himfelf and
 +his anceftors, was foon felt to be a wearifome companion. The mediaeval
 +knights and their ladies wanted to laugh, and to make them laugh
 +fufHciently it required that the jokes, or tales, or comic performances,
 +mould be broad, coarfe, and racy, with a good fpicing of violence and of
 +the wonderful. Hence the jougleur was always welcome to the feudal
 +manfion, and he feldom went away diflatisfied. But the fubject of the
 +prefent chapter is rather the literature of the jougleur than his perfonal
 +hiftory, and, having traced his origin to the Roman mimus, we will now
 +proceed to one clals of his performances.
 +
 +It has been ftated that the mimus and the jougleurs told ftories. Of
 +thofe of the former, unfortunately, none are preferved, except, perhaps, in
 +a few anecdotes fcattered in the pages of fuch writers as Apuleius and
 +Lucian, and we are obliged to guefs at their character, but of the ftories
 +of the jougleurs a confiderable number has been preferved. It becomes
 +an interefting queftion how far thefe ftories have been derived from the
 +
 +mimi,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 1 1
 +
 +
 +
 +mimi, handed down traditionally from mimus to jougleur, how far they
 +are native in our race, or how far they were derived at a later date from
 +other fources. And in confidering this queftion, we muft not forget that
 +the mediaeval jougleurs were not the only reprefentatives of the mimi,
 +for among the Arabs of the Eaft alfo there had originated from them,
 +modified under different circumftances, a very important clafs of minftrels
 +and ftory-tellers, and with thefe the jougleurs of the weft were brought
 +into communication at the commencement of the crufades. There can
 +be no doubt that a very large number of the ftories of the jougleurs
 +were borrowed from the Eaft, for the evidence is furnifhed by the ftories
 +themfelves ; and there can be little doubt alfo that the jougleurs
 +improved themfelves, and underwent fome modification, by their inter-
 +courfe with Eaftern performers of the fame clafs.
 +
 +On the other hand, we have traces of the exiftence of thefe popular
 +ftories before the jougleurs can have had communication with the Eaft.
 +Thus, as already mentioned, we find, compofed in Germany, apparently
 +in the tenth century, in rhythmical Latin, the well-known ftory of the
 +wife of a merchant who bore a child during the long abfence of her
 +hufband, and who excufed herfelf by ftating that her pregnancy had been
 +the refult of fwallowing a flake of fnow in a fnow-ftorm. This, and
 +another of the fame kind, were evidently intended to be fung. Another
 +poem in popular Latin verfe, which Grimm and Schmeller, who edited
 +it,* believe may be of the eleventh century, relates a very amufing
 +ftory of an adventurer named Ujiibos, who, continually caught in
 +his own fnares, finiihes by getting the better of all his enemies, and
 +becoming rich, by mere ingenious cunning and good fortune. This ftory
 +is not met with among thofe of the jougleurs, as far as they are yet
 +known, but. curioufly enough, Lover found it exifting orally among the
 +Irifh peafantry, and inferted the Irifh ftory among his " Legends of
 +Ireland." It is a curious illuftration of the pertinacity with which the
 +popular ftories defcend along with peoples through generations from the
 +
 +remoteft
 +
 +* In a volume entitled "Lateinische Gedichte des x. und xi. Ih." 8vo.
 +Gottingen, 1838.
 +
 +
 +
 +112 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +remoteft ages of antiquity. The lame ftory is found in an oriental form
 +among the tales of the Tartars published in French by Guenlette.
 +
 +The people of the middle ages, who took their word fable from the
 +Latin fal-ula, which they appear to have underftood as a mere term for
 +any fhort narration, included under it the ftories told by the mimi and
 +jougleurs ; but, in the fondnefs of the middle ages for diminutives, by
 +which they intended to exprefs familiarity and attachment, applied to
 +them more particularly the Latin falella, which in the old French
 +became Jallel, or, more ufua\\y,fo.l-liau. The fabliaux of the jougleurs
 +form a moft important clafs of the comic literature of the middle ages.
 +They muft have been wonderfully numerous, for a very large quantity of
 +them ftill remain, and thefe are only the fmall portion of what once
 +exifted, which have efcaped perifhing like the others by the accident of
 +being written in manufcripts which have had the fortune to furvive;
 +while manufcripts containing others have no doubt perifhed, and it is
 +probable that many were only preferred orally, and never written down
 +at all.* The recital of thefe fabliaux appears to have been the favourite
 +employment of the jougleurs, and they became fo popular that the
 +mediaeval preachers turned them into fhort ftories in Latin profe, and
 +made ufe of them as illuftrations in their fermons. Many collections of
 +thefe fhort Latin ftories are found in manufcripts which had ferved as
 +note-books to the preachers,f and out of them was originally compiled
 +that celebrated mediaeval book called the " Gefta Romanorum."
 +
 +It is to be regretted that the fubjects and language of a large portion
 +of thefe fabliaux are fuch as to make it impoffible to prefent them before
 +modern readers, for they furnifh fingularly interefting and minute pictures
 +of mediaeval life in all clafles of fociety. Domeftic fcenes are among
 +thofe moft frequent, and they reprefent the interior of the mediaeval
 +
 +houfehold
 +
 +
 +
 +* Many of the Fabliaux have been printed, but the two principal collertions,
 +and to which I shall chiefly refer in the text, are those of Barhazan, re-edited
 +and much enlarged by M6on, 4 vols. 8vo., 1808, and of Meon, a vols. 8vo., 1823.
 +
 +t A collection of these short Latin stories was edited by the author of the
 +present work, in a volume printed for the Percy Society in 1842.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ \ 3
 +
 +houfehold in no favourable point of view. The majority of thefe tell
 +loofe ftories of hufbands deceived by their fair fpoufes, or of tricks played
 +upon unfufpe&ing damfels. In fome inftances the treatment of the
 +hufband is perhaps what may be called of a lefs objectionable character,
 +as in the fabliau of La Vilain Mire (the clown dodtor), printed in
 +Barbazan (iii. i), which was the origin of Moliere's well-known comedy
 +of" Le Medecin malgre lui." A rich peafant married the daughter of a
 +poor knight ; it was of courfe a marriage of ambition on his part, and of
 +intereft on hers one of thofe ill-forted matches which, according to feudal
 +fentiments, could never be happy, and in which the wife was confidered
 +as privileged to treat her hulband with all poflible contempt. In this
 +inflance the lady hit upon an ingenious mode of puniihing her hufband
 +for his want of fubmitfion to her ill-treatment. Meflengers from the
 +king parted that way, feeking a (kilful do6tor to cure the king's daughter
 +of a dangerous malady. The lady fecretly informed thefe mefiengers
 +that her hulband was a phyfician of extraordinary talent, but of an
 +eccentric temper, for he would never acknowledge or exercife his art
 +until firft fubjeded to a fevere beating. The hulband is feized, bound,
 +and carried by force to the king's court, where, of courfe, he denies all
 +knowledge of the healing art, but a fevere beating obliges him to com-
 +pliance, and he is fuccefsful by a combination of impudence and chance.
 +This is only the beginning of the poor man's miferies. Inftead of being
 +allowed to go home, his fame has become fo great that he is retained at
 +court for the public good, and, with a rapid fucceffion of patients, fearful
 +of the refults of his confcious ignorance, he refufes them all, and is
 +fubje6ted in every cafe to the fame ill-treatment to force his compliance.
 +The examples in which the hulband, on the other hand, outwits the wife
 +are few. A fabliau by a poet who gives himfelf the name of Cortebarbe,
 +printed alfo by Barbazan (iii. 398), relates how three blind beggars were
 +deceived by a clerc, or fcholar, of Paris, who met them on the road near
 +Compiegne. The clerk pretended to give the three beggars a bezant,
 +which was then a good fum of money, and they haftened joyfully to the
 +next tavern, where they ordered a plentiful fupper, and feafted to their
 +hearts' content. But, in fad, the clerk had not given them a bezant at
 +
 +a nil,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +i 1 4 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +all, although, as he faid 'he did fo, and they could only judge by their
 +hearing, they imagined that they had the coin, and each thought that it
 +was in the keeping of one of his companions. Thus, when the time of
 +paying came, and the money was not forthcoming, in the common belief
 +that one of the three had received the bezant and intended to keep it
 +and cheat the others, they quarrelled violently, and from abufe foon
 +came to blows. The landlord, drawn to the fpot by the uproar, and
 +informed of the ftate of the cafe, accufed the three blind men of a
 +confpiracy to cheat him, and demanded payment with great threats.
 +The clerk of Paris, who had followed them to the inn, and taken his
 +lodging there in order to witnefs the refult, delivered the blind men by
 +an equally ingenious trick which he plays upon the landlord and the
 +prieft of the parifh.
 +
 +Some of thefe ftories have for their fubje6t tricks played among
 +thieves. In one printed by Me"on (i. 124), we have the ftory of a rich
 +but fimple villan, or countryman, named Brifaut, who is robbed at
 +market by a cunning fharper, and feverely corrected by his wife for his
 +carelefihefs. Robbery, both by force and by fleight of hand and craft,
 +prevailed to an extraordinary degree during the middle ages. The plot
 +of the fabliau of Barat and Hairnet, by Jean de Boves (Barbazan, iv. 233),
 +turns upon a trial of {kill among three robbers to determine who (hall
 +commit the clevereft a6t of thievery, and the refult is, at leaft, an
 +extremely amufing ftory. It may be mentioned as an example of the
 +numerous ftories which the jougleurs certainly obtained from the Eaft,
 +that the well-known flory of the Hunchback in the " Arabian Nights "
 +appears among them in two or three different forms.
 +
 +The focial vices of the middle ages, their general licentioufnels, the
 +prevalence of injuftice and extortion, are very fully expofed to view in
 +thefe competitions, in which no clafs of fbciety is fpared. The villan, or
 +peafant, is always treated very contemptuoufly ; he formed the clafs from
 +which the jougleur received leaft benefit. But the ariftocracy, the great
 +barons, the lords of the foil, come in for their full fhare of fatire, and they
 +no doubt enjoyed the ridiculous piftures of their own order. I will not
 +venture to introduce the reader to female life in the baronial caftle, as it
 +
 +appears
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 115
 +
 +appears in many of thefe ftories, and as it is no doubt truly painted,
 +although, of courfe, in many inftances, much exaggerated. We have already
 +feen how in the flory of Reynard, the character of mediaeval fociety was
 +reprefented by the long ftruggle between brute force reprefented by the
 +wolf, the emblem of the ariftocratic clafs, and the low aftutenefs of the
 +fox, or the unariftocratic clafs. The fuccefs of the craft of the human fox
 +over the force of his lordly antagonift is often told in the fabliaux in
 +ludicrous colours. In that of Trubert, printed by Meon (i. 192), the
 +" duke " of a country, with his wife and family, become repeatedly the
 +dupes of the grofs deceptions of a poor but impudent peafant. Thefe
 +fatires upon the ariftocracy were no doubt greatly enjoyed by the good
 +lourgeoifie, who, in their turn, furnifhed abundance of ftories, of the
 +drolleft defcription, to provoke the mirth of the lords of the foil, between
 +whom and themfelves there was a kind of natural antipathy. Nor are
 +the clergy fpared. The prieft is ufually defcribed as living with a
 +concubine his order forbade marrying and both are confidered as
 +fair game to the community j while the monk figures more frequently
 +as the hero of gallant adventures. Both prieft and monk are ufually
 +diftinguifhed by their felfifhnefs and love of indulgence. In the fabliau
 +Du Bouchier d' Abbeville, in Barbazan (iv. i), a butcher, on his way
 +home from the fair, feeks a night's lodging at the houfe of an inhofpitable
 +prieft, who refufes it. But when the former returns, and offers, in
 +exchange for his hofpitality, one of his fat fheep which he has purchafed
 +at the fair, and not only to kill it for their fupper, but to give all the
 +meat they do not eat to his hoft, he is willingly received into the houfe,
 +and they make an excellent fupper. By the promife of the fkin of the
 +fheep, the gueft fucceeds in feducing both the concubine and the maid-
 +fervant, and it is only after his departure the following morning, in
 +the middle of a domeftic uproar caufed by the conflicting claims of the
 +prieft, the concubine, and the maid, to the pofleflion of the fkin, that it
 +is difcovered that the butcher had ftolen the fheep from the prieft's own
 +flock.
 +
 +The fabliaux, as remarked before, form the moft important clafs of
 +the extenfive mafs of the popular literature of the middle ages, and the
 +
 +writers,
 +
 +
 +
 +1 1 6 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +writers, confident in their ftrong hold upon public favour, fometimes turn
 +round and burlefque the literature of other clafies, efpecially the long
 +heavy monotony of ftyle of the great romances of chivalry and the
 +extravagant adventures they contained, as though confcious that they
 +were gradually undermining the popularity of the romance writers.
 +One of thele poems, entitled " De Audigier," and printed in Barbazan
 +(iv. 217), is a parody on the romance writers and on their ftyle, not
 +at all wanting in fpirit or wit, but the fatire is coarfe and vulgar.
 +Another printed in Barbazan (iv. 287), under the title "De Berengier,"
 +is a fatire upon a fort of knight-errantry which had found its way into
 +mediaeval chivalry. Berengier was a knight of Lombardy, much given to
 +boafting, who had a beautiful lady for his wife. He ufed to leave her
 +alone in his caftle, under pretext of fallying forth in fearch of chivalrous
 +adventures, and, after a while, having well hacked his fword and fhield,
 +he returned to vaunt the defperate exploits he had performed. But the
 +lady was fhrewd as well as handfome, and, having fome fufpicions of his
 +truthfulnefs as well as of his courage, Ihe determined to make trial of
 +both. One morning, when her hufband rode forth as ufual, {he haftily
 +difguifed herfelf in a fuit of armour, mounted a good fteed, and hurrying
 +round by a different way, met the boaftful knight in the middle of a
 +wood, where he no fooner faw that he had to encounter a real aflailant,
 +than he difplayed the moft abjecl: cowardice, and his opponent exa&ed
 +from him an ignominious condition as the price of his efcape. On his
 +return home at night, boafting as ufual of his fuccefs, he found his lady
 +taking her revenge upon him in a ftill lefs refpeclful manner, but he was
 +filenced by her ridicule.
 +
 +The Irouv&res, or poets, who wrote the fabliaux I need hardly
 +remark that trouvere is the fame word as trolador, but in the northern
 +dialeft of the French language appear to have flourifhed chiefly from
 +the clofe of the twelfth century to the earlier part of the fourteenth.
 +They all compofed in French, which was a language then common to
 +England and France, but fome of their compofitions bear internal
 +evidence of having been compofed in England, and others are found in
 +contemporary manufcripts written in this ifland. The fcene of a fabliau,
 +
 +printed
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 117
 +
 +printed by Meon (i. 113), is laid at Colchefter; and that of La Male
 +Honte, printed in Barbazan (iii. 204), is laid in Kent. The latter,
 +however, was written by a trouvere named Hugues de Cambrai. No
 +obje&ion appears to have been entertained to the recital of thefe
 +licentious fames before the ladies of the caftle or of the domeftic circle,
 +and their general popularity was fo great, that the more pious clergy
 +feem to have thought neceflary to find Something to take their place in
 +the poft-prandial fociety of the monaflery, and efpecially of the nunnery;
 +and religious ftories were written in the fame form and metre as the
 +fabliaux. Some of thefe have been publiflied under the title of" Contes
 +Devots," and, from their general dulnefs, it may be doubted if they
 +anfwered their purpofe of furnilhing amufement fo well as the others.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 1 8 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER VIII.
 +
 +CARICATURES OF DOMESTIC LIFE. STATE OF DOMESTIC LIFE IN THE
 +
 +MIDDLE AGES. EXAMPLES OF DOMESTIC CARICATURE FROM THE
 +
 +CARVINGS OF THE MISERERES. KITCHEN SCENES. DOMESTIC
 +
 +BRAWLS. THE FIGHT FOR THE BREECHES. THE JUDICIAL DUEL
 +
 +BETWEEN MAN AND WIFE AMONG THE GERMANS. ALLUSIONS TO
 +
 +WITCHCRAFT. SATIRES ON THE TRADES ; THE BAKER, THE MILLER,
 +
 +THE WINE-PEDLAR AND TAVERN-KEEPER, THE ALE-WIFE, ETC.
 +
 +THE influence of the jougleurs over people's minds generally, with
 +their ftories and fatirical pieces, their grimaces, their poftures, and
 +their wonderful performances, was very confiderable, and may be eafily
 +traced in mediaeval manners and fentiments. This influence would
 +naturally be exerted upon inventive art, and when a painter had to adorn
 +the margin of a book, or the fculptor to decorate the ornamental parts of
 +a building, we might expect the ideas which would firfl. prefent themfelves
 +to him to be thofe fuggefted by the jougleur's performance, for the fame
 +tafte had to be indulged in the one as in the other. The fame wit or
 +fatire would pervade them both.
 +
 +Among the moft popular fubjefts of fatire during the middle ages,
 +were domeftic fcenes. Domeflic life at that period appears to have been
 +in its general character coarfe, turbulent, and, I fhould fay, anything
 +but happy. In all its points of view, it prefented abundant fubje&s for
 +ieft and burlefque. There is little room for doubt that the Romifh
 +Church, as it exifted in the middle ages, was extremely hoftile to
 +domeftic happinefs among the middle and lower clafies, and that the
 +interference of the prieft in the family was only a fource of domeftic
 +trouble. The fatirical writings of the period, the popular tales, the
 +difcourfes of thofe who fought reform, even the pictures in the
 +
 +manufcripts
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +119
 +
 +
 +
 +manufcripts and the fculptures on the walls invariably reprefent
 +the female portion of the family as entirely under the influence of the
 +priefts, and that influence as exercifed for the worft of purpofes. They
 +encouraged faith leflhels as well as difobedience in wives, and undermined
 +the virtue of daughters, and were confequently regarded with anything
 +but kindly feeling by the male portion of the population. The prieft,
 +the wife, and the hufband, form the ufual leading characters in a
 +mediaeval farce. Subjects of this kind are not very unfrequent in the
 +illuminations of manufcripts, and more efpecially in the fculptures of
 +buildings, and thofe chiefly ecclefiaftical, in which monks or priefts are
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 71. A Mediaeval Kitchen Sune.
 +
 +
 +
 +introduced in very equivocal fituations. This part of the fubje6t, however,
 +is one into which we fliall not here venture, as we find the mediaeval
 +caricaturifts drawing plenty of materials from the lefs vicious fhades of
 +contemporary life ; and, in fat, fome of their moft amufing pictures are
 +taken from the droll, rather than from the vicious, fcenes of the interior
 +of the houfehold. Such fcenes are very frequent on the mifereres of the
 +old cathedrals and collegiate churches. Thus, in the ftalls at Worcefler
 +Cathedral, there is a droll figure of a man feated before a fire in a
 +
 +kitchen
 +
 +
 +
 +I2O Hlftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 72. An Old Lady
 +and her Friends.
 +
 +
 +
 +kitchen well ftored with flitches of bacon, he himfelf occupied in
 +attending to the boiling pot, while he warms his feet, for which purpofe
 +he has taken off his fhoes. In a fimilar carving
 +in Hereford Cathedral, a man, alfo in the kitchen,
 +is feen attempting to take liberties with the
 +cook maid, who throws a platter at his head. A
 +copy of this curious fubje6t is given in cut No. 71,
 +and the cut No. 72 is taken from a fimilar mife-
 +rere in Minfter Church, in the Ifle of Thanet. It
 +reprefents an old lady feated, occupied induftrioufly
 +in fpinning, and accompanied by her cats.
 +
 +We might eafily add other examples of
 +fimilar fubje&s from the fame fources, fuch as
 +the fcene in our cut No. 73, taken from one of
 +the ftalls of Winchefter Cathedral, which feems to be intended to
 +reprefent a witch riding away upon her cat, an enormous animal, whofe
 +
 +jovial look is only outdone by that of
 +its miftrels. The latter has carried her
 +diftaff with her, and is diligently
 +employed in fpinning. A ftall in Sher-
 +borne Minfter, given in our cut No. 74,
 +reprefents a fcene in a fchool, in which
 +an unfortunate fcholar is experiencing
 +punifhment of a rather fevere defcrip-
 +tion, to the great alarm of his com-
 +panions, on whom his difgrace is evi-
 +dently a6ting as a warning. The flog-
 +ging fcene at fchool appears to have
 +been rather a favourite fubje6t among
 +the early caricaturifts, for the fcourge
 +was looked upon in the middle ages as the grand ftimulant to fcholarfhip.
 +In thofe good old times, when a man recalled to memory his fchoolboy
 +days, he did not fay, " When I was at fchool," but, " When I was under
 +the rod."
 +
 +An
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 73. The Lady and her Cat.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +121
 +
 +
 +
 +An extenfive field for the ftudy of this interefting part of our fubjed
 +will be found in the architedural gallery in the Kenfington Mufeum,
 +which contains a large number of cafts from flails and other fculptures,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 74. Scholaftk Difdpline.
 +
 +chiefly felefted from the French cathedrals. One of theie, engraved in
 +our cut No. 75, reprefents a couple of females, feated before the kitchen
 +fire. The date of this fculpture is ftated to be 1382. To judge by their
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 75. A Point in Difpute.
 +
 +looks and attitude, there is a difagreement between them, and the object
 +in difpute feems to be a piece of meat, which one has taken out of the
 +pot and placed on a dim. This lady wields her ladle as though (he wore
 +
 +E prepared
 +
 +
 +
 +122 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +prepared to ufe it as a weapon, while her opponent is armed with tne
 +bellows. The ale-pot was not unfrequently the fubject of pictures of a
 +turbulent character, and among the grotefque and monftrous figures in
 +the margins of the noble manufcript of the fourteenth century, known as
 +the " Luttrell Pfalter," one reprefents two perfonages not only quarrelling
 +over their pots, which they appear to have emptied, but actually fighting
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 76. Want of Harmony aver the Pot.
 +
 +with them. One of them has literally broken his pot over his
 +companion's head. The fcene is copied in our cut No. 76.
 +
 +It muft be ftated, however, that the more common fubjects of thefe
 +homely fcenes are domeftic quarrels, and that the man, or his wife,
 +enjoying their firefide, or limilar bits of domeftic comfort, only make
 +their appearance ar rare intervals. Domeftic quarrels and combats
 +are much more frequent. We have already feen, in the cut No. 75,
 +two dames of the kitchen evidently beginning to quarrel over their
 +cookery. A flail in the church of Stratford-upon-Avon gives us the
 +group reprefented in our cut No. 77. The battle has here become
 +defperate, but whether the male combatant be an opprefled hufband or
 +
 +an
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +123
 +
 +
 +
 +an impertinent intruder, is not clear. The quarrel would feem to have
 +
 +arifen during the procefs of cooking, as the female, who has feized her
 +
 +opponent by the beard, has evidently
 +
 +fnatched up the ladle as the readieft
 +
 +weapon at hand. The anger appears to
 +
 +be mainly on her fide, and the rather
 +
 +tame countenance of her antagonift
 +
 +contrails flrangely with her inflamed
 +
 +features. Our next cut, No. 78, is
 +
 +taken from the fculpture of a column
 +
 +in Ely Cathedral, here copied from an
 +
 +engraving in Carter's " Specimens of
 +
 +Ancient Sculpture." A man and wife,
 +
 +apparently, are ftruggling for the pof-
 +
 +feffion of a ftafF, which is perhaps in-
 +
 +No. 77. Domeftic Strife.
 +
 +tended to be the emblem of maflery.
 +
 +As is generally reprefented to be the cafe in thefe fcenes of domeflic
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 78. A Struggle for the Maflery.
 +
 +ftrife, the woman mows more energy and more Itrength than her
 +
 +opponent,
 +
 +
 +
 +124 Hsftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +opponent, and me is evidently overcoming him. The mattery of the
 +wife over the hufband feems to have been a univerfally acknowledged
 +ftate of things. A flail in Sherborne Minfter, in Dorfet, which has
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 79. The Wife in the AJcendant.
 +
 +furniftied the fubjeft of our cut No. 79, might almoft be taken as the
 +fequel of the laft cut. The lady has pofleired herfelf of the ttaftj has
 +overthrown her huiband, and is even flriking him on the head with it
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 80. Violence Refjttd.
 +
 +when he is down. In our next cut, No. 80, which is taken from one of
 +the cafts of ftalls in the French cathedrals exhibited in the Kenfmgton
 +Mufeum, it is not quite clear which of the two is the offender, but,
 +
 +perhaps,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 125
 +
 +perhaps, in this cafe, the archer, as his profeflion is indicated by his bow
 +and arrows, has made a gallant aflault, which, although fhe does not look
 +much difpleafed at it, the offended dame certainly refifts with fpirit.
 +
 +One idea connected with this picture of domeftic antagonifm appears
 +to have been very popular from a rather early period. There is a
 +proverbial phrafe to fignify that the wife is matter in the houfehold, by
 +which it is intimated that "fhe wears the breeches." The phrafe is, it
 +muft be confefled, an odd one, and is only half underftood by modem
 +explanations ; but in mediaeval flory we learn how "fhe" firft put in
 +her claim to wear this particular article of drefs, how it was firft difputed
 +and contefted, how fhe was at times defeated, but how, as a general rule,
 +the claim was enforced. There was a French poet of the thirteenth
 +century, Hugues Piaucelles, two of whofe falliaux, or metrical tales,
 +entitled the " Fabliau d'Eftourmi," and the " Fabliau de Sire Hains et de
 +Dame Anieufe," are preferved in manufcript, and have been printed
 +in the collection of Barbazan. The fecond of thefe relates fome of the
 +adventures of a mediaeval couple, whofe houfehold was not the beft
 +regulated in the world. The name of the heroine of this ftory, Anieufe,
 +is fimply an old form of the French word ennuyeufe, and certainly dame
 +Anieufe was fufficiently "ennuyeufe" to her lord and hufband. " Sire
 +Hains," her hufband, was, it appears, a maker of " cottes " and mantles,
 +and we fhould judge alfo, by the point on which the quarrel turned, that
 +he was partial to a good dinner. Dame Anieufe was of that difagreeable
 +temper, that whenever Sire Hains told her of fome particularly nice
 +thing which he wifhed her to buy for his meal, fhe bought inftead fbme-
 +thing which fhe knew was difagreeable to him. If he ordered boiled
 +meat, fhe invariably roafted it, and further contrived that it fhould be fo
 +covered with cinders and allies that he could not eat it. This would
 +fhow that people in the middle ages (except, perhaps, profeflional cooks)
 +were very unapt at roafting meat. This Hate of things had gone on for
 +fome time, when one day Sire Hains gave orders to his wife to buy him
 +fifh for his dinner. The difobedient wife, inftead of buying fifh, provided
 +nothing for his meal but a difli of fpinage, telling him falfely that all the
 +fifh flank. This leads to a violent quarrel, in which, after fome fierce
 +
 +wrangling,
 +
 +
 +
 +126 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +wrangling, efpecially on the part of the lady, Sire Hains propofes to
 +decide their difference in a novel manner. " Early in the morning," he
 +faid, " I will take off my breeches and lay them down in the middle of
 +the court, and the one who can win them (hall be acknowledged to be
 +matter or miftrefs of the houfe."
 +
 +Le tnatinet, fans contredlre t
 +Voudrai met traits defcfiaucicr,
 +Et enmt noftre cort couchier ;
 +Et qui conquerre lei porra,
 +Par bone refon miiufterra
 +S^il ertjtre ou dame du noftre.
 +
 +Barbazan, Fabliaux, tome iii. p. 383.
 +
 +Dame Anieufe accepted the challenge with eagernefs, and each prepared
 +for the ftruggle. After due preparation, two neighbours, friend Symori
 +and Dame Aupais, having been called in as witnefies, and the obje6t of
 +difpute, the breeches, having been placed on the pavement of the court,
 +the battle began, with fome flight parody on the formalities of the
 +judicial combat. The firft blow was given by the dame, who was fo
 +eager for the fray that fhe ftruck her hulband before he had put himfelf
 +on his guard ; and the war of tongues, in which at leaft Dame Anieufe
 +had the beft of it, went on at the fame time as the other battle. Sire
 +Hains ventured a flight expoftulation on her eagernefs for the fray, in
 +anfwer to which fhe only threw in his teeth a fierce defiance to do his
 +worft. Provoked at this, Sire Hains ftruck at her, and hit her over the
 +eyebrows, fo effectively, that the fkin was difcolou ed ; and, over-confident
 +in the effeft of this firft blow, he began rather too foon to exult over his
 +wife's defeat. But Dame Anieufe was lefs difconcerted than he expe&ed,
 +and recovering quickly from the effect of the blow, (he turned upon him
 +and ftruck him on the fame part of his face with fuch force, that fhe
 +nearly knocked him over the fheepfold. Dame Anieufe, in her turn,
 +now fneered over him, and while he was recovering from his confufion,
 +her eyes fell upon the objeft of contention, and fhe rufhed to it, and laid
 +her hands upon it to carry it away. This movement roufed Sire Hains,
 +who inftandy feized another part of the article of his drefs of which he
 +
 +was
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ 27
 +
 +was thus in danger of being deprived, and began a ftruggle for poflefiion,
 +in which the faid article underwent confiderable dilapidation, and
 +fragments of it were fcattered over the court. In the mid it of this
 +ftruggle the adtual fight recommenced, by the hufband giving his wife fo
 +heavy a blow on the teeth that her mouth was filled with blood. The
 +effeft was fuch that Sire Hains already reckoned on the victory, and
 +proclaimed himfelf lord of the breeches.
 +
 +Hains Jiert fa fame enmi les den*
 +Tel cop, que la bouche dedenx
 +Li a toute em f lie dejancx.
 +" Tien ore" dift Sire Hains, " anc,
 +ye cult que je fai Hen atainte,
 +Or t'ai-je de deux colors tainte
 +yaurai let braies toutes -voies"
 +
 +But the immediate effect on Dame Anieufe was only to render her more
 +defperate. She quitted her bold on the difputed garment, and fell upon
 +her hufband with fuch a fliower of blows that he hardly knew which way
 +to turn. She was thus, however, unconfcioufly exhaufting herfelf, and
 +Sire Hains foon recovered. The battle now became fiercer than ever, and
 +the lady feemed to be gaining the upper hand, when Sire Hains gave her
 +a Ikilful blow in the ribs, which nearly broke one of them, and confider-
 +ably checked her ardour. Friend Symon here interpofed, with the praife-
 +worthy aim of reftoring peace before further harm might be done, but in
 +vain, for the lady was only rendered more obftinate by her mifhap; and he
 +agreed that it was ufelefs to interfere until one had got a more decided
 +advantage over the other. The fight therefore went on, the two com-
 +batants having now feized each other by the hair of the head, a mode of
 +combat in which the advantages were rather on the fide of the male.
 +At this moment, one of the judges, Dame Aupais, fympathifing too much
 +with Dame Anieufe, ventured fome words of encouragement, which
 +drew upon her a fevere rebuke from her colleague, Symon, who intimated
 +that if (he interfered again there might be two pairs of combatants
 +inftead of one. Meanwhile Dame Auieufe was becoming exhaufted. and
 +was evidently getting the worft of the conteft, until at length, daggering
 +
 +from
 +
 +
 +
 +128 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +from a vigorous pufh, Ihe fell back into a large balket which lay behind
 +her. Sire Hains flood over her exultingly, and Symon, as umpire,
 +pronounced him victorious. He thereupon took poffeflion of the difputed
 +article of raiment, and again inverted himfelf with it, while the lady
 +accepted faithfully the conditions impofed upon her, and we are affured
 +by the poet that me was a good and obedient wife during the reft of net
 +life. In this ftory, which affords a curious picture of mediaeval life, we
 +learn the origin of the proverb relating to the pofleffion and wearing of
 +the breeches. Hugues Piaucelles concludes hisfal-liau by recommending
 +every man who has a difobedient wife to treat her in the fame manner j
 +and mediaeval hulbands appear to have followed his advice, without fear
 +of laws againft the ill-treatment of women.
 +
 +A fubjecl: like this was well fitted for the burlefques on the ftalls, and
 +accordingly we find on one of thofe in the cathedral at Rouen, the group
 +given in our cut No. 81, which feems to reprefent the part of the ftory
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 8l. The Fight for the Breeches.
 +
 +in which both combatants feize hold of the difputed garment, and
 +ftruggle for pofieffion of it. The hufband here grafps a knife in his
 +hand, with which he feems to be threatening to cut it to pieces rather
 +than give it up. The fabliau gives the victory to the hufband, but the
 +wife was generally confidered as in a majority of cafes carrying off the
 +prize. In an extremely rare engraving by the Flemifh artift Van Mecken,
 +dated in 1480, of which I give a copy in our cut No. 82, the lady, while
 +
 +putting
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 120
 +
 +putting on the breeches, of which fhe has juft become poflefled, mows
 +an inclination to lord it rather tyrannically over her other half, whom (lie
 +has condemned to perform the domeftic drudgery of the manfion.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 82. The Breeches Won.
 +
 +In Germany, where there was ftill more roughnefs in mediaeval life,
 +what was told in England and France as a good ftory of domeftic doings,
 +was actually carried into practice under the authority of the laws. The
 +judicial duel was there adopted by the legal authorities as a mode of
 +fettling the differences between hulband and wife. Curious particulars on
 +this fubject are given in an interefling paper entitled " Some obfervations
 +on Judicial Duels as practifed in Germany," published in the twenty-
 +ninth volume of the Archaeologia of the Society of Antiquaries (p. 348).
 +Thefe obfervations are chiefly taken from a volume of directions, accom-
 +panied with drawings, for the various modes of attack and defence,
 +compiled by Paulus Kail, a celebrated teacher of defence at the court of
 +Bavaria about the year 1400. Among thefe drawings we have one
 +reprefenting the mode of combat between hufband and wife. The only
 +weapon allowed the female, but that a very formidable one, was,
 +according to thefe directions, a heavy ftone wrapped up in an elongation
 +of her chemife, while her opponent had only a fhort ftaff, and he was
 +placed up to the waift in a pit formed in the ground. The following
 +
 +
 +
 +130 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +is a literal tranflation of the directions given in the manufcript, and
 +our cut No. 83 is a copy of the drawing which illuftrates it :
 +" The woman muft be fo prepared, that a fleeve of her chemife extend
 +a fmall ell beyond her hand, like a little fack ; there indeed is put
 +a ftone weighing three pounds ; and fhe has nothing elfe but her
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 83. A Legal Combat.
 +
 +chemife, and that is bound together between the legs with a lace.
 +Then the man makes himfelf ready in the pit over againft his wife.
 +He is buried therein up to the girdle, and one hand is bound at
 +the elbow to the fide." At this time the practice of fuch combats in
 +Germany feems to have been long known, for it is ftated that in the
 +year 1200 a man and his wife fought under the fan&ion of the civic
 +authorities at Bale, in Switzerland. In a picture of a combat between
 +man and wife, from a manufcript refembling that of Paulus Kail,
 +but executed nearly a century later, the man is placed in a tub inftead
 +of a pit, with his left arm tied to his fide as before, and his right holding
 +a fliort heavy rtaff; while the woman is drefled, and not ftripped to the
 +
 +chemife,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ 3
 +
 +
 +
 +chemife, as in the former cafe. The man appears to be holding the
 +flick in fuch a manner that the fling in which the ftone was contained
 +would twift round it, and the woman would thus be at the mercy of her
 +opponent. 'In an ancient manufcript on the fcience of defence in the
 +library at Gotha, the man in the tub is reprefented as the conqueror
 +of his wife, having thus dragged her head-foremoft into the tub, where
 +fhe appears with her legs kicking up in the air.
 +
 +This was the orthodox mode of combat between man and wife,
 +but it was fometimes prattifed under more fanguinary forms. In
 +one picture given from thefe old books on the fcience of defence by
 +the writer of the paper on the fubjeft in the Archaeologia, the two
 +combatants, naked down to the waift, are reprefented fighting with
 +fharp knives, and inflicting upon each other's bodies frightful gafhes.
 +
 +A feries of flail carvings at Corbeil, near Paris, of which more will
 +be faid a little farther on in this chapter, has furniflied the curious group
 +reprefented in our cut No. 84, which is one of the rather rare pidoriai
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 84. The If itch and the Demon.
 +
 +allcfions to the fubje6t of witchcraft. It reprefents a woman who rnult,
 +by her occupation, be a witch, for fhe has ib far got the mattery of the
 +demon that fhe is fawmg off his head with a very uncomfortable looking
 +
 +inftrument.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 3 2 Hi ftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +inftrument. Another ftory of witchcraft is told in the fculpture of a
 +ftone panel at the entrance of the cathedral of Lyons, which is repre-
 +fented in our cut No. 85. One power, fuppofed to be poflefled by
 +witches, was that of transforming people to animals at will. William of
 +Malmefbury, in his Chronicle, tells a ftory of two witches in the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No, 85. The Witch and her ViEtlm.
 +
 +neighbourhood of Rome, who ufed to allure travellers into their cottage,
 +and there transform them into horfes, pigs, or other animals, which they
 +fold, and feafted themfelves with the money. One day a young man,
 +who lived by the profeflion of a jougleur, fought a night's lodging at
 +their cottage, and was received, but they turned him into an afs, and, as
 +he retained his understanding and his power of ating, they gained much
 +money by exhibiting him. At length a rich man of the neighbourhood,
 +who wanted him for his private amufement, offered the two women a
 +large fum for him, which they accepted, but they warned the new
 +pofleifor of the afs that he Ihould carefully reftrain him from going into
 +the water, as that would deprive him of his power of performing. The
 +man who had purchafed the afs afted upon this advice, and carefully kept
 +him from water, but one day, through the negligence of his keeper, the
 +
 +afs
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 133
 +
 +afs efcaped from his ftable, and, rulhing to a pond at no great diftance,
 +threw himfelf into it. Water and running water efpecially was
 +believed to deftroy the power of witchcraft or magic ; and no fooner was
 +the als immerfed in the water, than he recovered his original form of a
 +young man. He told his ftory, which foon reached the ears of the pope,
 +and the two women were feized, and confeffed their crimes. The
 +carving from Lyons Cathedral appears to reprefent fbme fuch fcene of
 +forcery. The naked woman, evidently a witch, is, perhaps, feated on a
 +man whom fhe has transformed into a goat, and me feems to be
 +whirling the cat over him in fuch a manner that it may tear his face
 +with its claws.
 +
 +There was (till another clafs of fubjefts for fatire and caricature which
 +belongs to this part of our fubjecl: I mean that of the trader and
 +manufacturer. We muft not fuppofe that fraudulent trading, that
 +deceptive and imperfect workmanfhip, that adulteration of everything
 +that could be adulterated, are peculiar to modern times. On the
 +contrary, there was no period in the world's hiftory in which diflioneft
 +dealing was carried on to fuch an extraordinary extent, in which there
 +was fo much deception ufed in manufactures, or in which adulteration
 +was praftifed on lo mamelefs a fcale, as during the middle ages. Thefe
 +vices, or, as we may, perhaps, more properly defcribe them, thefe crimes,
 +are often mentioned in the mediaeval writers, but they were not
 +eafily reprefented pi6torially, and therefore we rarely meet with direct
 +allufions to them, either in fculpture, on ftone or wood, or in the paintings
 +of illuminated manufcripts. Reprefentations of the trades themfelves
 +are not fo rare, and are fometimes droll and almoft burlefque. A
 +curious feries of fuch reprefentations of arts and trades was carved
 +on the mifereres of the church of St. Spire, at Corbeil, near Paris,
 +which only exifl now in Millin's engravings, but they feem to have
 +been works of the fifteenth century. Among them the firft place
 +is given to the various occupations neceffary for the production of bread,
 +that article fo important to the fupport of life. Thus we fee, in thefe
 +carvings at Corbeil, the labours of the reaper, cutting the wheat and
 +forming it into (heaves, the miller carrying it away to be ground into
 +
 +meal,
 +
 +
 +
 +1 34 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +meal, and the baker thrufting it into the oven, and drawing it out in the
 +lhape of loaves. Our cut No. 86, taken from one of thefe fculptures,
 +reprefents the baker either putting in or taking out the bread with his
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 86. A Baker of the Fifteenth Century.
 +
 +peel ; by the earneft manner in which he looks at it, we may fuppofe
 +that it is the latter, and that he is afcertaining if it be fufficiently baked.
 +We have an earlier reprefentation of a mediaeval oven in our cut No. 87,
 +
 +taken from the celebrated illu-
 +minated manufcript of the "Ro-
 +mance of Alexandre," in the
 +Bodleian Library at Oxford,
 +which appears to belong to an
 +early period of the fourteenth
 +century. Here the baker is evi-
 +dently going to take a loaf out
 +of the oven, for his companion
 +
 +holds a difh for the purpofe of
 +No. 87. A Mediaeval Baker.
 +
 +receiving it.
 +
 +In nothing was fraud and adulteration pradifed to fo great an extent
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 135
 +
 +as in the important article of bread, and the two occupations efpecially
 +employed in making it were objects of very great diflike and of fcornful
 +fatire. The miller was proverbially a thief. Every reader of Chaucer
 +will remember his charafter fo admirably drawn in that of the miller of
 +Trumpington, who, though he was as proud and gay " as eny pecok,"
 +was neverthelefs eminently difhoneft.
 +
 +A theef he -was for foth of corn and male,
 +
 +And that ajleigh (sly), and ujyng (practised) for toftele.
 +
 +Chaucer's Beeves Tale.
 +
 +This practice included a large college then exifting in Cambridge, but
 +now forgotten, the Soler Hall, which fuffered greatly by his depredations.
 +
 +And on a day it happed in a ftounde,
 +
 +Syk lay the mauncyple on a maledye,
 +
 +Men luenden wijly that he Jchulde dye ,
 +
 +For "which this meller Jtal hot he mele and corn
 +
 +A thoufend part more than byforn.
 +
 +For ther biforn he Jlal but curteyjly ;
 +
 +But ncnu he is a theef outrageously .
 +
 +For which the ivardeyn chidde and made fare,
 +
 +But theroffette the meller not a tare ;
 +
 +He crakked boojt, andfwor it -was natfo.
 +
 +Two of the fcholars of this college refolved to go with the corn to the
 +mill, and by their watchfulnefs prevent his depredations. Thofe who are
 +acquainted with the ftory know how the fcholars fucceeded, or rather
 +how they failed ; how the miller ftole half a bumel of their flour and
 +caufed his wife to make a cake of it ; and how the victims had their
 +revenge and recovered the cake.
 +
 +As already ftated, the baker had in thefe good old times no better
 +character than the miller, if not worfe. There was an old faying, that if
 +three perfons of three obnoxious profeffions were put together in a fack
 +and fhaken up, the firft who came out would certainly be a rogue, and
 +one of thefe was a baker. Moreover, the opinion concerning the baker
 +was fo ftrong that, as in the phrafe taken from the old legends of the
 +witches, who in their feftivals fat thirteen at a table, this number was
 +
 +popularly
 +
 +
 +
 +136 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +popularly called a devil's dozen, and was believed to be unlucky fo,
 +when the devil's name was abandoned, perhaps for the fake of euphony,
 +the name fubftituted for it was that of the baker, and the number
 +thirteen was called " a baker's dozen." The makers of nearly all forts
 +of provifions for fale were, in the middle ages, tainted with the fame
 +vice, and there was nothing from which fociety in general, efpecially in
 +the towns where few made bread for themfelves, fuffered fo much.
 +This evil is alluded to more than once in that curious educational treatife,
 +the " Dictionarius " of John de Garlande, printed in my " Volume of
 +Vocabularies." This writer, who wrote in the earlier half of the thirteenth
 +century, insinuates that the makers of pies (pajiillarii) , an article of food
 +which was greatly in repute during the middle ages, often made ufe of
 +bad eggs. The cooks, he fays further, fold, efpecially in Paris to the
 +fcholars of the univerfity, cooked meats, faufages, and fuch things,
 +which were not fit to eatj while the butchers furnimed the meat of
 +animals which had died of difeafe. Even the fpices and drugs fold by
 +the apothecaries, or epiders, were not, he fays, to be trailed. John de
 +Garlande had evidently an inclination to fatire, and he gives way to it
 +not unfrequently in the little book of which I am fpeaking. He fays
 +that the glovers of Paris cheated the fcholars of the univerfity, by felling
 +them gloves made of bad materials ; that the women who gained their
 +living by winding thread (devacuatrices, in the Latin of the time), not only
 +emptied the fcholars' purfes, but wafted their bodies alfo (it is intended as
 +a pun upon the Latin word) ; and the huckflers fold them unripe fruit
 +for ripe. The drapers, he fays, cheated people not only by felling bad
 +materials, but by meafuring them with falfe meafures ; while the hawkers,
 +who went about from houfe to houfe, robbed as well as cheated.
 +
 +M. Jubinal has publilhed in his curious volume entitled "Jongleurs
 +et Trouveres," a rather jocular poem on the bakers, written in French of,
 +perhaps, the thirteenth century, in which their art is lauded as much
 +better and more ufeful than that of the goldfmith's. The millers'
 +depredations on the corn fent to be ground at the mill, are laid to the
 +charge of the rats, which attack it by night, and the hens, which find
 +their way to it by day ; and he explains the diminution the bakings
 +
 +experienced
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 3 7
 +
 +
 +
 +experienced in the hands of the baker as ariling out of the charity of the
 +latter towards the poor and needy, to whom they gave the meal and
 +pafte before it had even been put into the oven. The celebrated Englifh
 +poet, John Lydgate, in a fhort poem preferved in a manufcript in the
 +Harleian Library in the Britiih Mufeum (MS. Harl. No. 2,255,
 +fol. 157, v), defcribes the pillory, which he calls their Baflile, as
 +the proper heritage of the miller and the baker :
 +
 +Put out hh hed, lyfl not for to dare,
 +
 +But lyk a man upon that tour to abyde.
 +For cafl of eggys -wil not oonysfpare,
 +
 +Tyl he be quallyd body, bak, andfyde.
 +
 +His heed endooryd, and of-verray pryde
 +Put out hit armys, Jhetvith abroad his face ;
 +
 +The fenejlrallys be made for hym fo nayde,
 +Claymyth to been a capteyn of that place.
 +
 +The bajiyle longith of iierray dewe ryght
 +
 +To fah bakerys, it is trewe herytage
 +Severalle to them, this hnoweth every ivyght t
 +
 +Be kynde ajjygnedfor ther frtyngftage ;
 +
 +Wheer they may freely Jkewe out ther >vifage t
 +Whan they tak oonys their pojjejflioun,
 +
 +Oivthir in youthe or in myddyl age ;
 +Men doon hem ivrong yifthey take hym down.
 +
 +Let mellerys and bakerys gadre hem a gilde t
 +
 +dnd alle of ajjent make a fraternite',
 +Undir the pillory a letil chapelle bylde,
 +
 +The place amorteyfe, and purchaje lybcrte",
 +
 +For alle thos that of ther noumbre be ;
 +What e-vir it cooft afftir that they loende,
 +
 +They may claymc, be juft aufiorite,
 +Upon that baflile to make an ende.
 +
 +The wine-dealer and the publican formed another clals in mediaeval
 +fociety who lived by fraud and dimonefty, and were the objets of fatire.
 +The latter gave both bad wine and bad meafure, and he often alfo adted
 +as a pawnbroker, and when people had drunk more than they could pay
 +for, he would take their clothes as pledges for their money. The tavern,
 +in the middle ages, was the refort of very mifcellaneous company}
 +
 +T gamblers
 +
 +
 +
 +138 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +gamblers and loofe women were always on the watch there to lead more
 +honeft people into ruin, and the tavern-keeper profited largely by their
 +gains ; and the more vulgar minftrel and " jogelour " found employment
 +there ; for the middle clafles of fociety, and even their betters, frequented
 +the tavern much more generally than at the prefent day. In the carved
 +ftalls of the church of Corbeil, the liquor merchant is reprefented by the
 +figure of a man wheeling a hogfhead in a barrow, as fhown in our cut
 +No. 88. The gravenefi and air of importance with which he regards it
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 88. The Wine Dealer.
 +
 +would lead us to fuppofe that the barrel contains wine ; and the cup and
 +jug on the ihelf above (how that it was to be fold retail. The wine-
 +fellers called out their wines from their doors, and -boafted of their
 +qualities, in order to tempt people in ; and John de Garlande aflures us
 +that when they entered, they were ferved with wine which was not
 +worth drinking. "The criers of wine," he fays, "proclaim with
 +extended throat the diluted wine they have in their taverns, offering
 +it at four pennies, at fix, at eight, and at twelve, frefli poured out
 +from the gallon calk into the cup, to tempt people." ("Volume of
 +Vocabularies/' p. 126.) The ale-wife was an efpecial fubje6t of jeft
 +
 +and
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +and fatire, and is not unfrequently reprefented on the pidorial
 +monuments of our forefathers. Our cut No. 89 is taken from one of the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +A**. 89. The Ale-Wife.
 +
 +mifereres in the church of Wellingborough, in Northamptonfhire ; the
 +ale-wife is pouring her liquor from her jug
 +into a cup to ferve a ruftic, who appears
 +to be waiting for it with impatience.
 +
 +The figure of the ale-drawer, No. 90, is
 +taken from one of the mifereres in the
 +parifh church of Ludlow, in Shropfhire.
 +The fize of his jug is fomewhat difpropor-
 +tionate to that of the barrel from which
 +he obtains the ale. The fame mifereres
 +of Ludlow Church furnifh the next fcene,
 +cut No. 91, which reprefents the end of
 +the wicked ale-wife. The day of judgment
 +is fuppcfed to have arrived, and me has
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 90. The Ale-Drawer.
 +
 +
 +
 +received her fentence. A demon, feated on one fide, is reading a lift of
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +1 40 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +the crimes (he has committed, which the magnitude of the parchment
 +fhows to be a rather copious one. Another demon (whofe head has
 +been broken off in the original) carries on his back, in a very irreverent
 +manner, the unfortunate lady, in order to throw her into hell-
 +mouth, on the other fide of the picture. She is naked with the
 +exception of the fashionable head-gear, which formed one of her vanities
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 91 . The Ale-Wfis End.
 +
 +in the world, and the carries with her the falie meafure with which (he
 +cheated her cuftomers. A demon bagpiper welcomes her on her arrival.
 +The fcene is full of wit and humour.
 +
 +The ruftic clafles, and inftances of their rufticity, are not unfrequently
 +met with in thefe interesting carvings. The flails of Corbeil prefent
 +leveral agricultural fcenes. Our cut No. 92 is taken from thofe of
 +Gloucefter cathedral, of an earlier date, and reprefents the three
 +fhepherds, aftonimed at the appearance of the ftar which announced the
 +birth of the Saviour of mankind. Like the three kings, the Shepherds
 +to whom this revelation was made were always in the middle ages
 +reprefented as three in number. In our drawing from the miferere in
 +Gloucefter cathedral, the coftume of the fhepherds is remarkably well
 +
 +depi&ed
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +14.1
 +
 +
 +
 +depided, even to the details, with the various implements appertaining
 +to their profelfion, moft of which are fufpended to their girdles. They
 +are drawn with much fpirit, and even the dog is well reprefented as
 +an efpecially active partaker in the fcene.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 92. The Shepherd* of the Eafl.
 +
 +Of the two other examples we feleft from the mifereres of Corbeil,
 +the firft reprefents the carpenter, or, as he was commonly called by our
 +Anglo-Saxon and mediaeval forefathers, the wright, which fignifies fimply
 +the "maker." The application of this higher and more general term
 +for the Almighty himfelf is called, in the Anglo-Saxon poetry, ealra
 +gefcefta wyrhta, the Maker, or Creator, of all things {hows how
 +important an art that of the carpenter was confidered in the middle ages.
 +Everything made of wood came within his province. In the Anglo-
 +Saxon " Colloquy" of archbifliop Alfric, where feme of the more ufeful
 +artifans are introduced difputing about the relative value of their feveral
 +crafts, the "wright " fays, "Who of you can do without my craft, fince
 +I make houfes and all forts of veffels (vafd), and mips for you all?"
 +("Volume of Vocabularies," p. n.) And John de Garlande, in the
 +thirteenth century, defcribes the carpenter as making, among other
 +things, tubs, and barrels, and wine-cades. The workmanlhip of thofe
 +times was exercifed, before all other materials, on wood and metals, and
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +142 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +the wright, or worker in the former material, was diftinguifhed by this
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 93. The Carpenter.
 +
 +circumftance from the fmith, or worker in metal. The carpenter is ftill
 +called a wright in Scotland. Our laft cut (No. 94), taken alfo from one
 +
 +\
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 94, The Shoemaker.
 +
 +of the mifereres at Corbeil, reprefents the flioemaker, or as he was then
 +
 +ufually
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 143
 +
 +
 +
 +ufually called, the cordwainer, becaufe the leather which he chiefly ufed
 +came from Coidova in Spain, and was thence called cordewan, or
 +cordewaine. Our fhoemaker is engaged in cutting a fkin of leather with
 +an inftrument of a rather fingular form. Shoes, and perhaps forms for
 +making (hoes, are fufpended on pegs againfl. the wall.
 +
 +
 +
 +144 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +\
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER IX.
 +
 +GROTESftUE FACES AND FIGURES. PREVALENCE OF THE TASTE FOE
 +
 +UGLY AND GROTESftUE FACES. SOME OF THE POPULAR FORMS
 +
 +DERIVED FROM ANTIQUITY ; THE TONGUE LOLLING OUT, AND THE
 +
 +DISTORTED MOUTH. HORRIBLE SUBJECTS : THE MAN AND THE
 +
 +SERPENTS. ALLEGORICAL FIGURES : GLUTTONY AND LUXURY.
 +
 +OTHER REPRESENTATIONS OF CLERICAL GLUTTONY AND DRUNKEN-
 +NESS. GROTESaUE FIGURES OF INDIVIDUALS, AND GROTESftUE
 +
 +GROUPS. ORNAMENTS OF THE BORDERS OF BOOKS. UNINTENTIONAL
 +
 +CARICATURE ; THE MOTE AND THE BEAM.
 +
 +THE grimaces and ftrangeppftures of the jougleurs feem to_jiaye had
 +great attracYion3or-thofe wha j witneffed thjno. _Tg unrefined and
 +uneducated minds no object conveys fo perfect a notion of mirth asan
 +ugly and diftorted face. Hence it is that among the common peafantry
 +at a country fair few exhibitions are more fatisfa6tory than that of
 +grinning through a horfe-collar. This fentiment is largely exemplified
 +in the fculpture efpecially of the middle ages, a long period, during
 +which the general character of fociety prefented that want of refinement
 +which we now obferve chiefly in its leaft cultivated claffes. Among the
 +moft common decorations of our ancient churches and other mediaeval
 +buildings, are grotefque and monftrous heads and faces. Antiquity, which
 +lent us the types of many of thefe nionftrofities, faw in her Typhons and
 +Gorgons a fignification beyond the furface of the pidure, and her
 +grotefque mafks had a general meaning, and were in a manner typical of
 +the whole field of comic literature. The maik was lefs an individual
 +grotefque to be laughed at for itfelf, than a perfonification of comedy.
 +In the middle ages, on the contrary, although in ibme cafes certain forms
 +were often regarded as typical of certain ideas, in general the defign
 +extended no farther than the forms which the artift had given to it ; the
 +
 +grotefbue
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 145
 +
 +grotefqne features, like the grinning through the horfe-collar, gave
 +fatisfadion by their mere uglinefs. Even the applications, when fuch
 +figures were intended to have one, were coarfely fatirical, without any
 +intellectuality, and, where they had a meaning beyond the plain text of
 +the fcuipture or drawing, it was not far-fetched, but plain and eafily
 +underftood. When the Anglo-Saxon drew the face of a bloated and
 +disfigured monk, he no doubt intended thereby to proclaim the popular
 +notion of the general character of monaftic life, but this was a defign
 +which nobody could mifunderftand, an interpretation which everybody
 +was prepared to give to it. We have already feen various examples of
 +this defcription of fatire, fcattered here and there among the immcnfe
 +mafs of grotefque fcuipture which has no fuch meaning. A great
 +proportion, indeed, of thefe grotefque fculptures appears to prefent mere
 +variations of a certain number of diftinft types which had been handed
 +down from a remote period, fome of them borrowed, perhaps involuntarily,
 +from antiquity. Hence we naturally look for the earlier and more
 +curious examples of this elate of art to Italy and the fouth of France,
 +where the tranfition from claflical to mediaeval was more gradual, and
 +the continued influence of claflical forms is more eafily traced. The
 +early Chriftian mafons appear to have caricatured under the form of fuch
 +grotefques the perfonages of the heathen mythology, and to this practice
 +we perhaps owe fome of the types of the mediaeval monfters. We have
 +feen in a former chapter a grotefque from the church of Monte Majour,
 +near Nifmes, the original type of which had evidently been fome
 +burlefque figure of Saturn eating one of his children. Theclafljcal
 +malic doubtlefs furnilhed the type for thofe figures, fo common in
 +mediaeval fcuipture, of faces with difproportionately large mouths - } jult
 +as another favourite clafs of grotefque faces, thole with diflended mouths
 +
 +
 +
 +and tongues lolling out, were taken originally from the Typhous and
 +Gorgons of the ancients. Many other popular types of faces rendered
 +artificially ugly are mere exaggerations of the diftnrtTnns procTticed pn ihe
 +features by different operations, iuch, iui' illfUmce, as mat of blowing
 +a horn.
 +
 +The pradice of blowing the horn, is, indeed, peculiarly calculated to
 +
 +u exhibit
 +
 +
 +
 +1 46 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +exhibit the features of the face to difadvantage, and was not overlooked
 +by the defigners of the mediaeval decorative fculpture. One of the large
 +collection of cafts of fculptures from French cathedrals exhibited in the
 +mufeum at South Kenfington, has furnifhed the two fubje&s given in our
 +cut No. 93 . The firft is reprefented as blowing a horn, but he is
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 95. Grotejque Monfters.
 +
 +
 +
 +producing the greateft poffible diftortion in his features, and especially in
 +his mouth, by drawing the horn forcibly on one fide with his left hand,
 +while he pulls his beard in the other direction with the right hand. The
 +force with which he is fuppofed to be blowing is perhaps reprefented by
 +the form given to his eyes. The face of the lower figure is in at leaft
 +comparative repose. The defign of reprefenting general diftortion in the
 +firft is further fhown by thendiculoufly unnatural pofition of the arms.
 +Such diftortion of the memoers was not unfrequently introduced to
 +heighten the. effeft of the grimace in the face ; and, as in thefe
 +examples, it was not uncommon to introduce as a further element of
 +grotefque, the bodies, or parts of the bodies, of animals, or even of
 +demons.
 +
 +Another
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +H7
 +
 +
 +
 +Another caft in the Kenfington Muleum is the lubjeft of our rut
 +No. 96, which prefents the fame idea of ftretching the mouth. The
 +lubjecl. is here exhibited by another rather mirthful looking individual,
 +but whether the exhibitor is intended to be a goblin or demon, or
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 96. Diabolical Mirth.
 +
 +whether he is merely furnimed with the wings and claws of a bat, feems
 +rather uncertain. The bat was looked upon as an unpropitious if not an
 +unholy animal ; like the owl, it was the companion of the witches, and
 +of the fpirits of darknefs. The group in our cut No. 97 is taken from
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 97. Making Facet.
 +
 +one of the carved flails in the church of Stratford-upon-Avon, and
 +reprefents a trio of grimacers. The firft of thefe three grotefque faces is
 +lolling out the tongue to an extravagant length ; the fecond is fimply
 +grinning; while the third has taken a faufage between his teeth to
 +
 +render
 +
 +
 +
 +148 Hiflory of Caricature a?id Grotefque
 +
 +render his grimace ftill more ridiculous. The number and variety of
 +fuch grotefque faces, which we find fcattered over the architectural
 +decoration of our old ecclefiaftical buildings, are fo great that I will not
 +attempt to give any more particular claffification of them. All this
 +church decoration was calculated efpecially to produce its efFed upon the
 +middle and lower clafles, and mediaeval art was, perhaps more than any-
 +thing elfe, fuited to mediaeval fociety, for it belonged to the mafs and not
 +to the individual. The man who could enjoy a match at grinning
 +through horfe-collars, muft have been charmed by the grotefque works of
 +the mediaeval ftone fculptor and wood carver ; and we may add that thefe
 +difplay, though often rather rude, a very high degree of fldll in art, a
 +great power of producing ftriking imagery.
 +
 +Theie_xnejiJLaeYal_artifts loved alfo to produce horrible objects as well as
 +laughable ones, thougheven in tEeir horrors
 +
 +
 +
 +r arming into the_grotgigue. Among the arljvmffs. fp th^ fcuTptured
 +figures, we fqmetimes meet with inftruments of pain, and very talented
 +attempts to exhibirtnTTon the features of the victims. The creed of the
 +middle ages gave great fcope for the indulgence of this tafte in the
 +infinitely varied terrors of purgatory and hell; and, not to fpeak of
 +the more crude defcriptions that are fo common in mediaeval popular
 +literature, the account to which thefe defcriptions might be turned by the
 +poet as well as the artift are well known to the reader of Dante. Coils
 +of ferpents and dragons, which were the moft ufual inftruments in the
 +tortures of the infernal regions, were always favourite objects in mediaeval
 +ornamentation, whether fculptured or drawn, in the details of architectural
 +decoration, or in the initial letters and margins of books. They are often
 +combined in forming grotefque tracery with the bodies of animals or of
 +human beings, and their movements are generally hoftile to the latter.
 +We have already feen, in previous chapters, examples of this ufe of
 +ferpents and dragons, dating from the earlieft periods of mediaeval art ;
 +and it is perhaps the moft common ftyle of ornamentation in the
 +buildings and illuminated manufcripts in our ifland from the earlier
 +Saxon times to the thirteenth century. This ornamentation is fometimes
 +ftrikingly bold and effective. In the cathedral of Wells there is a feries
 +
 +of
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 49
 +
 +of ornamental bofles, formed by faces writhing under the attacks of
 +numerous dragons, who are feizing upon the lips ; eyes, and cheeks of
 +their victims. One of thele bofles, which are of the thirteenth century,
 +is reprefented in our cut No. 98. A large, coarfely featured face is the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 98. Horror.
 +
 +victim of two dragons, one of which attacks his mouth, while the other has
 +feized him by the eye. The expreffion of the face is ftrikingly horrible.
 +
 +The higher mind of the middle ages loved to fee inner meanings
 +through outward forms ; or, at leaft, it was a fafhion which manifefted
 +itfelf moft ftrongly in the latter half of the twelfth century, to adapt
 +thefe outward forms to inward meanings by comparifons and moralifa-
 +tions : and under the effeft of this feeling certain figures were at times
 +adopted, with a view to fome other purpofe than mere ornament, though
 +this was probably an innovation upon mediaeval art. The tongue lolling
 +out, taken originally, as we have feen, from the imagery of claffic times,
 +was accepted rather early in the middle ages as the emblem or fymbol of
 +luxury ; and, when we find ft among the fculptured ornaments of the
 +architefture efpecially of fome of the larger and more important churches,
 +it implied probably an allufion to that vice at leaft the face prefented to
 +us was intended to be that of a voluptuary. Among the remarkable
 +
 +feries
 +
 +
 +
 +150 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +feries of fculptures which crown the battlements of the cloifters of
 +Magdalen College, Oxford, executed a very few years after the middle of
 +the fifteenth century, amid many figures of a very mifcellaneous character,
 +there are feveral which were thus, no doubt, intended to be reprefen-
 +tatives of vices, if not of virtues. I give two examples of thefe curious
 +fculptures.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 99. Gluttony.
 +
 +
 +
 +No. loo. Luxury.
 +
 +
 +
 +The firft, No. 99, is generally confidered to reprefent gluttony, and it
 +is a remarkable circumftance that, in a building the character of which
 +was partly ecclefiaftical, and which was erected at the expenfe and under
 +the directions of a great prelate, Bifhop Wainflete, the vice of gluttony,
 +with which the ecclefiaftical order was efpecially reproached, mould be
 +reprefented in ecclefiaftical coftume. It is an additional proof that the
 +detail of the work of the building was left entirely to the builders. The
 +coarie^bloated_ features of the face, and the "_vi}lainnng " Irm/ frrfhead^.
 +
 +are
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +are chara6teriftically executed ; and the lolling tongue may perhaps be
 +intended to intimate that, in the lives of the clergy, luxury went hand in
 +with its kindred vice. The fecond of our examples, No. 100, appears by
 +its different characteriftics (fome of which we have been unable to
 +introduce in our woodcut) to be intended to reprefent luxury itfelf.
 +Sometimes qualities of the individual man, or
 +even the clafs of fociety, are reprefented in
 +a manner far lefs difguifed by allegorical
 +clothing, and therefore much more plainly to
 +the underftanding of the vulgar. Thus in an
 +illuminated manufcript of the fourteenth cen-
 +tury, in the Britifh Mufeum (MS. Arundel,
 +No. 91), gluttony is reprefented by a monk
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No - IOI
 +
 +
 +
 +G/utton ^
 +
 +
 +
 +devouring a pie alone and in fecret, except that a little cloven-footed imp
 +holds up the dim, and feems to enjoy the profped of monaftic indulgence.
 +This picture is copied in our cut No. 101. Another manufcript of the
 +fame date (MS. Sloane, No. 2435) contains a fcene, copied in our cut
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. lol. The Monaftic Cellarer.
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 103. Drunkenneft.
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 102, reprefenting drunkennefs under the form of another monk, who
 +has obtained the keys and found his way into the cellar of his monaftery,
 +and is there indulging his love for good ale in fimilar fecrecy. It is to be
 +remarked that here, again, the vices are laid to the charge of the clergy.
 +Our cut No. 103, from a baf-relief in Ely Cathedral, given in Carter's
 +
 +" Specimens
 +
 +
 +
 +152 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +" Specimens of Ancient Sculpture," reprefents a man drinking from a
 +horn, and evidently enjoying his employment, but his coftume is not
 +fufficiently chara&eriftic to betray his quality.
 +
 +The fubjeft of grotefque faces and heads naturally leads us to that of
 +monftrous and grotefque bodies and groups of bodies, which has already
 +been p? r tly _f r rafr"l in ajjjrmer chapter, where we have noticed the
 +great love fliown in the middle ae^es for monflfdui.
 +
 +
 +
 +not only monfters of one nature, but, and that efpecially, of figures
 +formed by joining together the parts of different, and entirely diflimilar,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 104. A btrange Monfter.
 +
 +animals, of fimilar mixtures between animals and men. This, as ftated
 +above, was often effeded by joining the body of fome nondeicript animal
 +to a human head and face ; fo that, by the difproportionate fize of the
 +latter, the body, as a fecondary part of the pifture, became only an adjunft
 +to fet off ftill further the grotefque charader of the human face. More
 +importance was fometimes given to the body combined with fantaftic
 +forms, which baffle any attempt at giving an intelligible defcription.
 +The accompanying cut, No. 104, reprefents a winged monfter of this
 +
 +kind ;
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +'53
 +
 +
 +
 +kind ; it is taken from one of the cafts from French churches exhibited
 +in the Kenfington Mufeum.
 +
 +Snmptin-.PS tfrfi rrWljgv_alartift, without giving any unufual form to
 +his human figures, placed them in itrange poltures. or joined them In
 +
 +
 +
 +Jingular combinations. Thefe latter are commonly of a playful character.
 +or fometimes they reprefent droll feats of {kill, or puzzles, or other
 +fubjects, all of which have been publiftied pictorially and for the amufe-
 +ment of children down to very recent times. There were a few of thefe
 +groups which ate of rather frequent occurrence, and they were evidently
 +favourite types. One of thefe is given in the annexed cut, No. 105. It
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 105. Rolling Toffy Tur-vy.
 +
 +is taken from one of the carved mifereres of the flails in Ely cathedral, as
 +given in Carter, and reprefents two men who appear to be rolling over
 +each other. The upper figure exhibits animal's ears on his cap, which
 +feem to proclaim him a member of the fraternity of fools : the ears of
 +the lower figure are concealed from view. This group is not a rare one,
 +efpecially on fimilar monuments in France, where the architectural
 +antiquaries have a technical name for it ; and this Ihows us how even the
 +particular forms of art in the middle ages were not confined to any par-
 +ticular country, but more or lefs, and with exceptions, they pervaded all
 +
 +x thofe
 +
 +
 +
 +154 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +thofe which acknowledged the ecclefiaftical fupremacy of the church of
 +Rome ; whatever peculiarity of ftyle it took in particular countries, the
 +
 +fame forms were fpread through
 +all weftern Europe. Our next cut,
 +No. 1 06, gives another of thefe
 +curious groups, confifting, in fad, of
 +two individuals, one of which is
 +evidently an ecclefiaftic. It will
 +be feen that, as we follow this
 +round, we obtain, by means of the
 +two heads, four different figures in fo
 +
 +No. 106. A Continuous Group. many totally different pofitions. This
 +
 +group is taken from one of the very curious feats in the cathedral of
 +Rouen in Normandy, which were engraved and publifhed in an
 +interefting volume by the late Monfieur E. H.
 +Langlois.
 +
 +Among the moft interefting of the mediaeval
 +burlefque drawings are thofe which are found in
 +fuch abundance in the borders of the pages of
 +illuminated manufcripts. During the earlier
 +periods of the mediaeval miniatures, the favourite
 +objects for thefe borders were monftrous animals,
 +efpecially dragons, which could eafily be twined
 +into grotefque combinations. In courfe of time, the
 +fubjecls thus introduced became more numerous,
 +and in the fifteenth century they were very varied.
 +Strange animals ftill continued to be favourites, but
 +they were more light and elegant in their forms,
 +and were more gracefully defigned. Our cut
 +No. 107, taken from the beautifully-illuminated
 +manufcript of the romance of the "Com te d'Artois,"
 +of the fifteenth century, which has furnilhed us
 +previoufly with feveral cuts, will illuftrate my
 +The graceful lightnefs of the tracery of the foliage fhown in
 +
 +this
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Nc. 107. Bcrdcr Ornament.
 +
 +
 +
 +meaning.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +'55
 +
 +
 +
 +this defign is found in none of the earlier works of art of this clafs.
 +This, of courfe, is chiefly to be afcribed to the great advance which had
 +been made in the art of defign fince the thirteenth century. But, though
 +fo greatly improved in the ftyle of art, the fame clafs of fubjefts con-
 +tinued to be introduced in this border ornamentation long after the art
 +of printing, and that of engraving, which accompanied it, had been
 +introduced. The revolution in the ornamentation of the borders of the
 +pages of books was effefted by the artifts of the lixteenth century, at
 +which time people had become better acquainted with, and had learnt to
 +appreciate, ancient art and Roman antiquities, and they drew their
 +infpiration from a correct knowledge of what the middle ages had copied
 +blindly, but had not underftood. Among the fubje6ts of burlefque which
 +the monuments of Roman art prefented to them, the ftumpy figures of
 +the pigmies appear to have gained fpecial favour, and they are employed
 +in a manner which reminds us of the pictures found in Pompeii. Joft
 +Amman, the well-known artift, who exercifed his profeffion at Nurem-
 +berg in the latter half of the fixteenth century, engraved a fet of
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1 08. A Triumphal ProccJJhn.
 +
 +illuftrations to Ovid's Metamorphofes, which were printed at Lyons in
 +1574, and each cut and page of which is enclofed in a border of very
 +fanciful and neatly-executed burlefque. The pigmies are introduced in
 +thefe borders very freely, and are grouped with great fpirit. I felecl: as an
 +example, cut No. 108, a fcene which reprefents a triumphal proceflion
 +
 +fome
 +
 +
 +
 +156 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +fome pigmy Alexander returning from his conquefts. The hero is feated
 +on a throne carried by an elephant, and before him a bird, perhaps a
 +vanquished crane, proclaims loudly his praife. Before them a pigmy
 +attendant marches proudly, carrying in one hand the olive branch of
 +peace, and leading in the other a ponderous but captive oftrich, as a
 +trophy of his mailer's victories. Before him again a pigmy warrior,
 +heavily armed with battle-axe and falchion, is mounting the fteps of a
 +ftage, on which a nondefcript animal, partaking fomewhat of the
 +character of a fow, but perhaps intended as a burlefque on the ftrange
 +animals which, in mediaeval romance, Alexander was faid to have
 +encountered in Egypt, blows a horn, to celebrate or announce the return
 +of the conqueror. A fnail, alfo advancing flowly up the ftage, implies,
 +perhaps, a fneer at the whole fcene.
 +
 +Neverthelefs, thefe old German, Flemifh, and Dutch artifts were ftill
 +much influenced by the mediaeval fpirit, which they difplayed in their
 +coarfe and clumfy imagination, in their neglect of everything like
 +congruity in their treatment of the fubject with regard to time and
 +place, and their naive exaggerations and blunders. Extreme examples of
 +thefe characterises are fpoken of, in which the Ifraelites croffing the Red
 +Sea are armed with muikets, and all the other accoutrements of modern
 +foldiers, and in which Abraham is preparing to facrifice his fon Ifaac by
 +mooting him with a matchlock. In delineating fcriptural fubjects, an
 +attempt is generally made to clothe the figures in an imaginary ancient
 +oriental coftume, but the landfcapes are filled with the modem caftles
 +and manfion houfes, churches, and monaileries of weftern Europe.
 +Thefe half-mediaeval artifts, too, like their more ancient predeceflbrs,
 +often fall into unintentional caricature by the exaggeration or fimplicity
 +with which they treat their fubjects. There was one fubject which the
 +artifts of this period of regeneration of art feemed to have agreed to
 +treat in a very unimaginative manner. In the beautiful Sermon on the
 +Mount, our Saviour, in condemning hafty judgments of other people's
 +actions, fays (Matt. vii. 35), "And why beholdeft thou the mote that
 +is in thy brother's eye, but confidereft not the beam that is in thine
 +own eye ? Or how wilt thou fay to thy brother, Let me pull out the
 +
 +mote
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +'57
 +
 +
 +
 +mote out of thine eye, and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye ? Thou
 +hypocrite, firft caft out the beam out of thine own eye, and then (halt
 +thou fee clearly to caft out the mote out of thy brother's eye." What-
 +ever be the exact nature of the beam which the man was expected to
 +overlook in his " own eye," it certainly was not a large beam of timber.
 +Yet fuch was the conception of it by artifts of the fixteenth century.
 +One of them, named Solomon Bernard, defigned a feries of woodcuts
 +illuftrating the New Teftament, which were publifhed at Lyons in 1553 j
 +and the manner in which he treated the fubject will be feen in our cut
 +No. 109, taken from one of the illuftrations to that book. The individual
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 109. The Mote and the Beam.
 +
 +feated is the man who has a mote in his eye, which the other, approach-
 +ing him, points out ; and he retorts by pointing to the " beam," which is
 +certainly fuch a maffive objea as could not eafily have been overlooked.
 +About thirteen years before this, an artift of Augfburg, named Daniel
 +Hopfer, had publifhed a large copper-plate engraving of this fame fubjed,
 +a reduced copy of which is given in the cut No. no. The individual
 +who fees the mote in his brother s eye, is evidently treating it m the
 +
 +character
 +
 +
 +
 +1 5 8 Htflory of Caricature and Crotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +charater of a phyfician or furgeon. It is only neceffary to add that the
 +beam in his own eye is of ftill more extraordinary dimenfions than the
 +former, and that, though it feems to efcape the notice both of himfelf
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Ac. 1 1 o. The Mote and the Beam Another Treatment.
 +
 +and his patient, it is evident that the group in the diftance contemplate it
 +with aftonimment. The building accompanying this fcene appears to be
 +a church, with paintings of faints in the windows.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER X.
 +
 +SATIRICAL LITERATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES. JOHN DE HAUTEVILLB
 +
 +AND ALAN DE LILLE. GOLIAS AND THE GOLIARDS. THE GOLIAHDIC
 +
 +POETRY. TASTE FOR PARODY. PARODIES ON RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS.
 +
 +POLITICAL CARICATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES. THE JEWS OF
 +
 +NORWICH. CARICATURE REPRESENTATIONS OF COUNTRIES. LOCAL
 +
 +SATIRE. POLITICAL SONGS AND POEMS.
 +
 +IN a previous chapter I have fpoken of a clafe of fatirical literature
 +which was entirely popular in its character. Not that on this account
 +it was original among the peoples who compofed mediaeval fociety, for
 +the intellectual development of the middle ages came almoft all from
 +Rome through one medium or other, although we know fo little of the
 +details of the popular literature of the Romans that we cannot always
 +trace it. The mediaeval literature of weftern Europe was moftly modelled
 +upon that of France, which was received, like its language, from Rome.
 +But when the great univerfity fyftem became eftablifhed, towards the end
 +of the eleventh century, the fcholars of weftern Europe became more
 +directly acquainted with the models of literature which antiquity had left
 +them 5 and during the twelfth century thefe found imitators fo Ikilful that
 +fome of them almoft deceive us into accepting them for claflical writers
 +themfelves. Among the firft of thefe models to attract the attention of
 +mediaeval fcholars, were the Roman fatirifls, and the ftudy of them
 +produced, during the twelfth century, a number of fatirical writers in
 +Latin profe and verfe, who are remarkable not only for their boldnefs and
 +poignancy, but for the elegance of their ftvle. I mav mention among
 +thofe of Englilh birth, John of Salisbury, Walter Mapes, and Giraldus
 +Cambrenfis, who all wrote in profe, and Nigellus Wireker, already
 +mentioned in a former chapter, and John de Hauteville, who wrote in
 +
 +verfe.
 +
 +
 +
 +160 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +verfe. The lirft of thefe, in his " Polycraticus," Walter Mapes, in his
 +book "De Nugis Curialium," and Giraldus. in his " Speculum Ecclefiae,"
 +and feveral other of his writings, lay the lalh on the corruptions and vices
 +of their contemporaries with no tender hand. The two moft remarkable
 +Englifh fatirifts of the twelfth century were John de Hauteville and
 +Nigellus Wireker. The former wrote, in the year 1184, a poem in nine
 +books of Latin hexameters, entitled, after the name of its hero, " Archi-
 +trenius," or the Arch-mourner. Architrenius is reprefented as a youth,
 +arrived at years of maturity, who forrows over the fpeftacle of human
 +vices and weaknelfes, until he refolves to go on a pilgrimage to Dame
 +Nature, in order to expoftulate with her for having made him feeble to
 +refift the temptations of the world, and to entreat her afliftance. On his
 +way, he arrives fucceffively at the court of Venus and at the abode of
 +Gluttony, which give him the occafion to dwell at confiderable length
 +on the licenfe and luxury which prevailed among his contemporaries.
 +He next reaches Paris, and vifits the famous mediaeval univerfity, and his
 +fatire on the manners of the ftudents and the fruitlefihefs of their ftudies,
 +forms a remarkable and interefting picture of the age. The pilgrim
 +next arrives at the Mount of Ambition, tempting by its beauty and by the
 +ftately palace with which it was crowned, and here we are prefented with
 +a fatire on the manners and corruptions of the court. Near to this was
 +the Hill of Prefumption, which was inhabited by ecclefiaftics of all claffes,
 +great fcholaftic do6tors and profeflbrs, monks, and the like. It is a
 +fatire on the manners of the clergy. As Architrenius turns from this
 +painful fpeclacle, he encounters a gigantic and hideous monfter named
 +Cupidity, is led into a feries of reflections upon the greedinefs and
 +avarice of the prelates, from which he is roufed by the uproar caufed by
 +a fierce combat between the prodigals and the mifers. He is fubfequently
 +carried to the ifland of far-diilant Thule, which he finds to be the refting-
 +place of the philofophers of ancient Greece, and he liftens to their
 +declamations againft the vices of mankind. After this vifit, Architrenius
 +reaches the end of his pilgrimage. He finds Nature in the form of a
 +beautiful woman, dwelling with a hoft of attendants in the midft of a
 +flowery plain, and meats with a courteous reception, but me begins by
 +
 +giving
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ 6
 +
 +
 +
 +giving him a long ledure on natural philofophy. After this is concluded,
 +Dame Nature liftens to his complaints, and, to confole him, gives him a
 +handfome woman, named Moderation, for a wife, and difmifles him with
 +a chapter of good counfels on the duties of married life. The general
 +moral intended to be inculcated appears to be that the retirement of
 +domeftic happinefs is to be preferred to the vain and heartlels turmoils of
 +adive life in all its phafes. It will be feen that the kind of allegory
 +which fubfequently produced the " Pilgrim's Progrefs/' had already made
 +its appearance in mediaeval literature.
 +
 +Another of the celebrated fatirifls of the fcholaftic ages was named
 +Alanus de Infulis, or Alan of Lille, becaufe he is underftood to have been
 +born at Lille in Flanders. He occupied the. chair of theology for many
 +years in the univerfity of Paris with great diftintion, and his learning was
 +fo extenfive that he gained the name of doSlor univerfalis, the univerfal
 +doctor. In one of his books, which is an imitation of that favourite book
 +in the middle ages "Boethius de Confolatione Philofophiae," Dame Nature,
 +in the place of Philofophy not, as in John de Hauteville, as the referee,
 +but as the complainant is introduced bitterly lamenting over the deep
 +depravity of the thirteenth century, efpecially difplayed in the prevalence
 +of vices of a revolting character. This work, which, like Boethius, confifts
 +of alternate chapters in verfe and profe, is entitled " De Planctu Naturae,"
 +the lamentation of nature. I will not, however, go on here to give a
 +lift of the graver fatirical writers, but we will proceed to another clafs of
 +fatirifts which fprang up among the mediaeval fcholars, more remarkable
 +and more peculiar in their character I mean peculiar to the middle ages.
 +
 +The fatires of the time fhow us that the ftudents in the universities
 +in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, who enjoyed a great amount
 +of independence from authority, were generally wild and riotous, and,
 +among the vaft number of youths who then devoted themfelves to a
 +fcholaftic life, we can have no doubt that the habit of diflipation became
 +permanent. Among thefe wild ftudents there exifled, probably, far more
 +wit and fatirical talent than among their fteadier and more laborious
 +brethien, and this wit, and the manner in which it was difplayed, made
 +its pofleflbrs welcome guefts at the luxurious tables of the higher and
 +
 +Y richer
 +
 +
 +
 +1 62 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +richer clergy, at which Latin feems to have been the language in ordinary
 +ufe. In all probability it was from this circumftance (in allufion to the
 +Latin word gula, as intimating their love of the table) that thefe merry
 +fcholars, who difplayed in Latin fome of the accomplishments which the
 +jougleurs profeffed in the vulgar tongue, took or received the name of
 +goliards (in the Latin of that time, goliardi, or goliardenfcs) * The
 +name at leaft appears to have been adopted towards the end of the
 +twelfth century. In the year 1229, during the minority of Louis IX.,
 +and while the government of France was in the hands of the queen-
 +mother, troubles arofe in the univerfity of Paris through the intrigues of
 +the papal legate, and the turbulence of the fcholars led to their difperfion
 +and to the temporary clofing of the fchools ; and the contemporary
 +hiftorian, Matthew Paris, tells us how " fome of the fervants of the
 +departing fcholars, or thofe whom we ufed to call goliardenfes," com-
 +pofed an indecent epigram on the rumoured familiarities between the
 +legate and the queen. But this is not the firft mention of the goliards,
 +for a flatute of the council of Treves, in 1227, forbade "all priefts to
 +permit truants, or other wandering fcholars, or goliards, to fing verfes or
 +Sanftus and Angelus Dei in the fervice of the mafs."f This probably
 +refers to parodies on the religious fervice, fuch as thofe of which I fhall
 +foon have to fpeak. From this time the goliards are frequently mentioned.
 +In ecclefiaftical ftatutes publifhed in the year 1289, it is ordered that the
 +clerks or clergy (clerici, that is, men who had their education in the
 +univerfity) fliould not be jougleurs, goliards, or buffoons ;" J and the fame
 +ftatute proclaims a heavy penalty againft thofe clerici " who perfift in the
 +
 +practice
 +
 +
 +
 +* In the mediaeval Latin, the word goliardia was introduced to express the pro-
 +fession of the goliard, and the verb g oliardizare, to signify the practice of it.
 +
 +t " Item, praecipimus ut omnes sacerdotes non permittant trutannos et alios vagos
 +scholares, aut goliardos, cantare versus super Sanflus et Angelus Dei in missis," etc-
 +Concil. Trevir., an 1227, ap. Marten, et Durand. Ampliss. Coll., vii. col. 117.
 +
 +J " Item, praecipimus quod clerici non sint joculatores, goliardi, seu bufones."
 +Stat. Synod. Caduacensis, Ruthenensis, et Tutelensis Eccles. ap. Martene, Thes.
 +Anecd., iv. col. 727.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 163
 +
 +
 +
 +pra&ice of goliardy or flage performance during a year,"* which fliows
 +that they exercifed more of the functions of the jougleur than the mere
 +finging of fongs.
 +
 +Thefe vagabond clerks made for themfelves an imaginary chieftain, or
 +prefident of their order, to whom they gave the name of Golias, probably
 +as a pun on the name of the giant who combated againft David, and, to
 +fhow further their defiance of the exiiling church government, they made
 +him a bifhop Golias epifcopus. Bimop Golias was the burlefque repre-
 +fentative of the clerical order, the general fatirift, the reformer of
 +eclefiaftical and all other corruptions. If he was not a doctor of divinity,
 +he was a mafter of arts, for he is fpoken of as Magifter Golias. But
 +above all he was the father of the Goliards, the "ribald clerks," as they
 +are called, who all belonged to his houfehold,f and they are fpoken of as
 +his children.
 +
 +Summa falus omnium, Ji/ius Marite,
 +Pafcat, fotat, -veftiat puerot Golyce ! J
 +
 +" May the Saviour of all, the Son of Mary, give food, drink, and clothes
 +to the children of Golias!" Still the name was clothed in fo much
 +myftery, that Giraldus Cambrenfis, who flourimed towards the latter end
 +of the twelfth century, believed Golias to be a real perfonage, and his
 +contemporary. It may be added that Golias not only boafts of the
 +dignity of bifhop, but he appears fometimes under the title of archipoeta,
 +the archpoet or poet-in-chief.
 +
 +Caefarius of Heifterbach, who completed his book of the miracles of
 +his time in the year 1222, tells us a curious anecdote of the character of
 +the wandering clerk. In the year before he wrote, he tells us, " It
 +happened at Bonn, in the diocefe of Cologne, that a certain wandering
 +
 +clerk,
 +
 +
 +
 +* " Cleric! .... si in goliardiavel histrionatu per annum fuerint." Ib. col. 729.
 +In one of the editions of this statute it is added, " after they have been warned three
 +times."
 +
 +f "Clerici ribaldi, maxime qui vulgo dicuntur defamila Goliai." Concil. Sen. ap.
 +Concil., torn. ix. p. 578.
 +
 +J See my " Poems of Walter Mapes," p. 70.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 64 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +clerk, named Nicholas, of the clafs they call archpoet, was grievoufly ill,
 +and when he fuppofed that he was dying, he obtained from our abbot,
 +through his own pleading, and the interceflion of the canons of the fame
 +church, admiflion into the order. What more ? He put on the tunic,
 +as it appeared to us, with much contrition, but, when the danger was
 +paft, he took it off immediately, and, throwing it down with derifion, took
 +to flight." We learn beft the character of the goliards from their own
 +poetry, a considerable quantity of which is preferred. They wandered
 +about from manfion to manfion, probably from monaftery to monaflery,
 +juft like the jougleurs, but they feem to have been efpecially welcome at
 +the tables of the prelates of the church, and, like the jougleurs, befides
 +being well feafted, they received gifts of clothing and other articles. In
 +few inftances only were they otherwife than welcome, as defcribed in the
 +rhyming epigram printed in my " Latin Poems attributed to Walter
 +Mapes." " I come uninvited," fays the goliard to the bifhop, "ready for
 +dinner; fuch is my fate, never to dine invited." The bilhop replies, "I
 +care not for vagabonds, who wander among the fields, and cottages, and
 +villages j fuch guefts are not for my table. I do not invite you, for I
 +avoid fuch as you ; yet without my will you may eat the bread you afk.
 +Warn, wipe, fit, dine, drink, wipe, and depart."
 +
 +Goliardus.
 +
 +Non in-vitatus -venlo p^andere paratus ;
 +Sic fum fatatusy nunquam pranderc "vocatus.
 +
 +Episcopus.
 +
 +Non ego euro "vagos, qul rura, mapalia, pages
 +Pcrluftranty tales nan -vult mea menja Jodalet.
 +Te nan in-vitOy tibi confimilei ego vitc ;
 +Me tamen in-vlto potieris pane fetito.
 +dbluey terge, Jede, prande t bite, terge, recede.
 +
 +In another fimilar epigram, the goliard complains of the bifliop who
 +had given him as his reward nothing but an old worn-out mantle. Moft
 +of the writers of the goliardic poetry complain of their poverty, and
 +fome of them admit that this poverty arofe from th<? tavern and the
 +love of. gambling. One of them alleges as his claim to the liberality of
 +
 +his
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. j6c
 +
 +his hoft, that, as he was a fcholar, he had not learnt to labour, that his
 +parents were knights, but he had no tafle for fighting, and that, in a
 +word, he preferred poetry to any occupation. Another fpeaks ftill more
 +to the point, and complains that he is in danger of being obliged to fell
 +his clothes. " If this garment of vair which I wear," he fays, " be fold
 +for money, it will be a great difgrace to me ; I would rather fuffer a long
 +fart. A bimop, who is the mod generous of all generous men, gave me
 +this cloak, and will have for it heaven, a greater reward than St. Martin
 +has, who only gave half of his cloak. It is needful now that the poet's
 +want be relieved by your liberality [addreffing his hearers] ; let noble men
 +give noble gifts gold, and robes, and the like."
 +
 +Si -vendatur proffer denarlum
 +
 +. Indumentum quod for to -varlum,
 +
 +Grande ml hi fet opprobrium ;
 +Malo diu pati jejunlum.
 +LargiJJlmus largorum omnium
 +Prceful dedit mihl hoc pallium)
 +Majus habens In calls pramlum
 +Quam Martinus, qul dedit medium.
 +Nunc eft opus ut -veflra copla
 +Skblevetur -vatis Inopla ;
 +Dent nobiles dona nobilia,
 +Aurum, -ueftes, et hlijimllla.
 +
 +There has been fome difference of opinion as to the country to which
 +this poetry more efpecially belongs. Giraldus Cambrenfis, writing at the
 +end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century, evidently
 +thought that Golias was an Englifhman ; and at a later date the goliardic
 +poetry was almoft all afcribed to Giraldus's contemporary and friend, the
 +celebrated humourift, Walter Mapes. This was, no doubt, an error.
 +Jacob Grimm feemed inclined to claim them for Germany ; but Grimm,
 +on this occafion, certainly took a narrow view of the queftion. We mall
 +probably be more correct in faying that they belonged in common to all
 +the countries over which univerfity learning extended ; that in whatever
 +country a particular poem of this clafi was compofed, it became the
 +property of the whole body of thefe fcholaftic jougleurs, and that it was
 +
 +thus
 +
 +
 +
 +1 66 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotef^ue
 +
 +thus carried from one land to another, receiving fometimes alterations or
 +additions to adapt it to each. Several of thefe poems are found in
 +manufcripts written in different countries with fuch alterations and
 +additions, as, for inftance, that in the well-known " Confeffion," in the
 +Englifa copies of which we have, near the conclufion, the line
 +
 +Praful Coventrenjlum, farce confitenti ;
 +
 +an appeal to the bifhop of Coventry, which is changed, in a copy in a
 +German manufcript, to
 +
 +Elefle Colonitf, farce penitent!,
 +
 +' O eleft of Cologne, fpare me penitent." From a comparifon of what
 +remains of this poetry in manufcripts written in different countries, it
 +appears probable that the names Golias and goliard originated in the
 +univerlity of Paris, but were more efpecially popular in England, while the
 +term archipoeta was more commonly <ifed in Germany.
 +
 +In 1841 I colle&ed all the goliardic poetry which I could then find
 +in Englifti manufcripts, and edited it, under the name of Walter Mapes,
 +as one of the publications of the Camden Society.* At a rather later
 +date I gave a chapter of additional matter of the fame defcription in my
 +" Anecdota Literaria."f All the poems I have printed in thefe two
 +volumes are found in manufcripts written in England, and fome of them
 +are certainly the compofitions of Englilh writers. They are diftinguifhed
 +by remarkable facility and eafe in verfification and rhyme, and by great
 +pungency of fatire. The latter is directed efpecially againft the clerical
 +order, and none are fpared, from the pope at the fummit of the fcale
 +down to the loweft of the clergy. In the " Apocalypfis Goliae," or Golias's
 +Revelations, which appears to have been the moft popular of all thefe
 +
 +poems,
 +
 +* The Latin Poems commonly attributed to Walter Mapes, collected and edited
 +by Thomas Wright, Esq., 410., London, 1841.
 +
 +t " Anecdota Literaria ; a Collection of Short Poems in English, Latin, and
 +French, illustrative of the Literature and History of England in the Thirteenth
 +Century." Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. 8vo., London, 1844.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ 67
 +
 +poems,* the poet defcribes himfelf as carried up in a vifion to heaven,
 +where the vices and diforders of the various claries of the popifh clergy are
 +fuccefiively revealed to him. The pope is a devouring lion ; in hiseager-
 +nefs for pounds, he pawns books ; at the fight of a mark of money, he
 +treats Mark the Evangelift with disdain ; while he fails aloft, money alone
 +is his anchoring-place. The original lines will ferve as a fpecimen of
 +the ftyle of thefe curious compofitions, and of the love of punning which
 +was fo characteriftic of the liteiature of that age :
 +
 +Eft leo pontifex Jummus, qm dcvorat,
 +Qui libras foiens, librm imfignorat ;
 +Marcam refficict, Marcum dedccorat }
 +Infummis navigans, in nummis anchor at.
 +
 +The bifhop is in hafte to intrude himfelf into other people's paftures, and
 +fills himfelf with other people's goods. The ravenous archdeacon is com-
 +pared to an eagle, becaufe he has (harp eyes to fee his prey afar off, and
 +is fwift to leize upon it. The dean is reprefented by an animal with a
 +man's face, full of filent guile, who covers fraud with the form of juitice,
 +and by the Ihow of fimplicity would make others believe him to be pious.
 +In this fpirit the faults of the clergy, of all degrees, are minutely criticifed
 +through between four and five hundred lines ; and it muft not be forgotten
 +that it was the Englilh clergy whofe character was thus expofed.
 +
 +Tufcribes etiam, forma Jed alia,
 +Septem ecclefiit qua funt in Anglla.
 +
 +Others of thefe pieces are termed Sermons, and are addrefied, fome to
 +the bifhops and dignitaries of the church, others to the pope, others to
 +the monaflic orders, and others to the clergy in general. The court of
 +Rome, we are told, was infamous for its greedinefs ; there all right and
 +juilice were put up for fale, and no favour could be had without money.
 +In this court money occupies everybody's thoughts ; its crols i. e. the mark
 +
 +on
 +
 +
 +
 +* In my edition I have collated no less than sixteen copies which occur among
 +the MSS. in the British Museum, and in the libraries at Oxford and Cambridge,
 +and there are, no doubt, many more.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 6 8 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +on the reverie of the coin its roundnefs, and its whiteneis, all pleafe the
 +Romans ; where money fpeaks law is filent.
 +
 +Nummis in hoc curia non eft qui nan -vacet ;
 +Crux placet, rotunditas, et albedo placet,
 +Et cum totum placeat, et Romanis placet,
 +Ubi numtnui loquitur, et lex omnis facet.
 +
 +Perhaps one of the moft curious of thefe poems is the " Confeflion of
 +Golias," in which the poet is made to fatirife himfelf, and he thus gives
 +us a curious picture of the goliard's life. He complains that he is made
 +of light material, which is moved by every wind j that he wanders about
 +irregularly, like the fliip on the fea or the bird in the air, feeking worth-
 +lefs companions like himfelf. He is a flave to the charms of the fair fex.
 +He is a martyr to gambling, which often turns him out naked to the cold,
 +but he is warmed inwardly by the infpiration of his mind, and he writes
 +better poetry than ever. Lechery and gambling are two of his vices, and
 +the third is drinking. " The tavern," he fays, " I never defpifed, nor
 +mall I ever defpife it, until I fee the holy angels coming to fing the
 +eternal requiem over my corpfe. It is my defign to die in the tavern ; let
 +wine be placed to my mouth when I am expiring, that when the choirs
 +of angels come, they may fay, ' Be God propitious to this drinker ! ' The
 +lamp of the foul is lighted with cups ; the heart fteeped in netar flies up
 +to heaven ; and the wine in the tavern has for me a better flavour than
 +that which the bifhop's butler mixes with water. .... Nature gives to
 +every one his peculiar gift : I never could write fading ; a boy could beat
 +me in compofition when I am hungry ; I hate thirft and failing as much
 +as death."
 +
 +Tertio capitulo memoro tabernam :
 +Illam nullo tempore fprevi, neque fpernam,
 +Donee Janflos angelos -venientes cernam,
 +Cantantes pro mortuo requiem aternam.
 +
 +Meum eji propofitum in taberna mori ;
 +Vmdumjit appojitum morientis ori,
 +Ut dicant cum -venennt angelorum chori,
 +' Deusjit prophiut huic potatori ! '
 +
 +Poculit
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 169
 +
 +
 +
 +PocuKs accendltur animi lucerna f
 +Cor imbutum nefiare volat ad fuperna :
 +Mlhi fapit dulcius vinum in taberna,
 +Quam quod aqua mifcuit prcejulif pincerna.
 +
 +*******
 +Unicuique proprlum dat rtatura munus :
 +Ego nunquam potui fcribere jejunus ;
 +Me jejunum -vincere pojjet puer unus ;
 +Sitim et jejunium odi tanquam Junus.*
 +
 +Another of the more popular of thefe goliardic poems was the advice of
 +Golias againft marriage, a grofs fatire upon the female fex. Contrary to
 +what we might perhaps expect from their being written in Latin, many
 +of thefe metrical fatires are directed againft the vices of the laity, as well
 +as againft thofe of the clergy.
 +
 +In 1844 the celebrated German fcholar, Jacob Grimm, publifhed in
 +the " Tranfactions of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin " a felection of
 +goliardic verfes from manufcripts in Germany, which had evidently been
 +written by Germans, and fome of them containing allufions to German
 +affairs in the thirteenth century.f They prefent the fame form of verfe
 +and the fame ftyle of fatire as thofe found in England, but the name of
 +Golias is exchanged for archipoeta, the archpoet. Some of the flanzas
 +of the " Confeffion of Golias " are found in a poem in which the archpoet
 +addrefles a petition to the arch chancellor for afliftance in his diftrefs, and
 +confefles his partiality for wine. A copy of the Confeffion itfelf is alfo found
 +in this German collection, under the citle of the " Poet's Confeffion."
 +
 +The Royal Library at Munich contains a very important manufcript of
 +this goliardic Latin poetry, written in the thirteenth century. It belonged
 +originally to one of the great Benedictine abbeys in Bavaria, where it appears
 +to have been very carefully preferved, but ftill with an apparent confciouf-
 +nefs that it was not exactly a book for a religious brotherhood, which led
 +the
 +
 +* Poems attributed to Walter Mapes, p. 73. The stanzas here quoted, with
 +some others, were afterwards made up into a drinking song, which was rather
 +popular in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
 +
 +f " Gedichte des Mittelalters auf Konig Friedrich I. den Staufar, und aus seiner
 +so wie der nachstfolgenden Zeit," 4to. Separate copies of this work were printed
 +off and distributed among mediaeval scholars
 +
 +
 +
 +170 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +the monks to omit it in the catalogue of their library, no doubt as a book
 +the pofleffion of which was not to be proclaimed publicly. When written,
 +it was evidently intended to be a careful felection of the poetry of this clafs
 +then current. One part of it confifts of poetry of a more ferious character,
 +fuch as hymns, moral poems, and efpecially fatirical pieces. In this clafs
 +there are more than one piece which are alfo found in the manufcripts
 +written in England. A very large portion of the collection confifts of love
 +fongs, which, althougn evidently treafured by the Benedictine monks, are
 +fometimes licentious in character. A third clafs confifts of drinking and
 +gambling fongs (potatoria et luforia). The general character of this poetry
 +is more playful, more ingenious and intricate in its metrical ftructure, in
 +fact, more lyric than that of the poetry we have been defcribing ; yet it
 +came, in all probability, from the fame clafs of poets the clerical jougleurs.
 +The touches of fentiment, the defcriptions of female beauty, the admiration
 +of nature, are fometimes exprefled with remarkable grace. Thus, the
 +green wood fweetly enlivened by the joyous voices of its feathered inhabi-
 +tants, the made of its branches, the thorns covered with flowers, which,
 +fays the poet, are emblematical of love, which pricks like a thorn and then
 +foothes like a flower, are taftefully defcribed in the following lines:
 +
 +Cantu nemui a-viunt
 +
 +Lafcivla canentium
 +
 +Suave delinitur t
 +
 +Fronde redimitur,
 +
 +Verna.nl fptnce florlbui
 +
 +Micantibiu,
 +
 +Venerem Jig n art tit us
 +
 +S^uia Jplna fungit, Jlot tlanJitur.
 +
 +And the following fcrap of the defcription of a beautiful damfel (hows no
 +fmall command of language and verfification
 +
 +Allicit dulcibui
 +ferbii et ofculis,
 +Labellulis
 +
 +Caftigate tumentibtu,
 +Rojeo nefiareus
 +Odor infufus on ;
 +Pariter eburneui
 +Sedat ordo dentlum
 +Par n'rveo candiri.
 +
 +The
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 171
 +
 +The whole contents of this manufcript were printed in 1847, in an o&avo
 +volume, iflued by the Literary Society at Stuttgard.* I had already
 +printed fome examples of fuch amatory Latin lyric poetry in 1838, in a
 +volume of "Early Myfteries and Latin Poems j"f but this poetry does
 +not belong properly to the fubjeft of the prefent volume, and I pafs on
 +from it.
 +
 +The goliards did not always write in verfe, for we have fome of their
 +profe compofitions, and thefe appear efpecially in the form of parodies.
 +We trace a great love for parody in the middle ages, which fpared not
 +even things the moft facred, and the examples brought forward in the
 +celebrated trial of William Hone, were mild in comparifon to fome which
 +are found fcattered here and there in mediaeval manufcripts. In my
 +Poems, attributed to Walter Mapes,J I have printed a fatire in profe
 +entitled " Magijier Golyas de quodam ablate' (i.e., Matter Golias's account
 +of a certain abbot), which has fomewhat the character of a parody upon a
 +faint's legend. The voluptuous life of the fuperior of a monaftic houfe is
 +here defcribed in a tone of banter which nothing could excel. Several
 +parodies, more dire6t in their character, are printed in the two volumes of
 +the " Reliquas Antiquae." One of thefe (vol. ii. p. 208) is a complete
 +parody on the fervice of the mafs, which is entitled in the original,
 +" Miffa de Poiatoril-us," the Mafs of the Drunkard. In this extraordinary
 +compofition, even the pater-nofler is parodied. A portion of this, with
 +great variations, is found in the German collection of the Carmina
 +Burana, under the title of Officium Luforum, the Office of the Gamblers.
 +
 +In
 +
 +
 +
 +* " Carmina Burana. Lateinische und Deutsche Lieder und Gedichfe einer
 +Handschrift des XIII. Jahrhunderts aus Benedictbeurn auf der K. Bibliothek zu
 +Munchen." 8vo. Stuttgart, 1847.
 +
 +f " Early Mysteries and other Latin Poems of the Twelfth and Thirteenth
 +Centuries," edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. 8vo. London, 1838.
 +
 +I Introduction, p. xl.
 +
 +" Reliquiae Antiquae. Scraps from Ancient Manuscripts, illustrating chiefly
 +Early English Literature and the English Language." Edited by Thomas
 +Wright, Esq., and J. O. Halliwell, Esq. a vols. 8vo. Vol. i., London, 1841;
 +vol. ii., 1843.
 +
 +
 +
 +172 HI ftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +In the " Reliquae Antiquae" (ii. 58) we have a parody on the Gofpel of
 +St. Luke, beginning with the words, Initium fallacis Evangelii fecundum
 +Lupum, this laft word being, of courfe, a fort of pun upon Lucam. Its
 +fubjeft alfo is Bacchus, and the fcene having been laid in a tavern in
 +Oxford, we have no difficulty in afcribing it to fome fcholar of that
 +univerfity in the thirteenth century. Among the Carmina Burana we
 +find a limilar parody on the Gofpel of St. Mark, which has evidently
 +belonged to one of thefe burlefques on the church fervice ; and as it is
 +lefs profane than the others, and at the fame time pidures the mediaeval
 +hatred towards the church of Rome, I will give a translation of it as an
 +example of this fingular clafs of compofitions. It is hardly neceflary to
 +remind the reader that a mark was a coin of the value of thirteen Shillings
 +and fourpence :
 +
 +" The beginning of the holy gospel according to Marks of silver. At that time
 +the pope said to the Romans : ' When the son of man shall come to the seat of
 +our majesty, first say, Friend, for what hast thou come ? But if he should persevere
 +in knocking without giving you anything, cast him out into utter darkness.' And
 +it came to pass, that a certain poor clerk came to the court of the lord the pope, and
 +cried out, saying, ' Have pity on me at least, you doorkeepers of the pope, for the
 +hand of poverty has touched me. For I am needy and poor, and therefore I seek
 +your assistance in my calamity and misery.' But they hearing this were highly
 +indignant, and said to him : ' Friend, thy poverty be with thee in perdition ; get
 +thee backward, Satan, for thou dost not savour of those things which have the
 +savour of money. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Thou shalt not enter into the joy
 +of thy lord, until thou shalt have given thy last farthing.*
 +
 +" Then the poor man went away, and sold his cloak and his gown, and all that
 +he had, and gave it to the cardinals, and to the doorkeepers, and to the chamberlains.
 +But they said, ' And what is this among so many ?' And they cast him out of the
 +gates, and going out he wept bitterly, and was without consolation. After him
 +there came to the court a certain clerk who was rich, and gross, and fat, and
 +large, and who in a tumult had committed manslaughter. He gave first to the
 +doorkeeper, secondly to the chamberlain, third to the cardinals. But they judged
 +among themselves, that they were to receive more. Then the lord the pope, hearing
 +that the cardinals and officials had received many gifts from the clerk, became sick
 +unto death. But the rich man sent him an electuary of gold and silver, and he was
 +immediately made whole. Then the lord the pope called before him the cardinals
 +and officials, and said to them : * Brethren, see that no one deceive you with empty
 +words. For I give you an example, that, as I take, so take ye also.' "
 +
 +This mediaeval love of parody was not unfrequently difplayed in a
 +
 +more
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 173
 +
 +more popular form, and in the language of the people. In the Reliance
 +Antiques (i. 82) we have a very fingular parody in Englim on the.fermons
 +of the Catholic priefthood, a good part of which is fo written as to prefent
 +no confecutive fenfe, which circumftance itfelf implies a fneer at the
 +preachers. Thus our burlefque preacher, in the middle of his difcourfe,
 +proceeds to narrate as follows (I modernife the Englim) :
 +
 +" Sirs, what time that God and St. Peter came to Rome, Peter asked Adam a
 +full great doubtful question, and said, " Adam, Adam, why ate thou the apple un-
 +pared ?' ' Forsooth, 1 quod he, ' for I had no wardens (pears) fried.' And Peter
 +saw the fire, and dread him, and stepped into a plum-tree that hanged full of ripe
 +red cherries. And there he saw all the parrots in the sea. There he saw steeds
 +and stockfish pricking ' swose ' (?) in the water. There he saw hens and herrings that
 +hunted after harts in hedges. There he saw eels roasting larks. There he saw
 +haddocks were done on the pillory for wrong roasting of May butter ; and there he
 +saw how bakers baked butter to grease with old monks' boots. There he saw how
 +the fox preached," &c.
 +
 +The fame volume contains fome rather clever parodies on the old
 +Englim alliterative romances., compofed in a fimilar flyle of confecutive
 +nonfenfe. It is a clafs of parody which we trace to a rather early period,
 +which the French term a coq-a-l'dne, and which became fafhionable in
 +England in the feventeenth century in the form of fongs entitled
 +" Tom-a-Bedlams." M. Jubinal has printed two fuch poems in French,
 +perhaps of the thirteenth century,* and others are found fcattered
 +through the old manufcripts. There is generally fo much coarfenefs in
 +them that it is not eafy to feleft a portion for tranflation, and in fa6t their
 +point confifts in going on through the length of a poem of this kind
 +without imparting a lingle clear idea. Thus, in the fecond of thofe
 +publifhed by Jubinal, we are told how, " The fhadow of an egg carried
 +the new year upon the bottom of a pot ; two old new combs made a ball
 +to run the trot ; when it came to paying the fcot, I, who never move
 +
 +rnyfelf,
 +
 +* " Achille Jubinal, Jongleurs et Trouveres." 8vo,, Paris, 1835, p. 34; and
 +" Nouveau Recueil de Contes, Dits, Fabliaux," &c. 8vo., Paris, 1842. Vol. ii.
 +p. 208. In the first instance M. Jubinal has given to this little poem the title
 +Ref-veries, in the second, Fatrajiet.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 74 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +myfelf, cried out, without faying a word, ' Take the feather of an ox, and
 +clothe a wife fool with it.' "
 +
 +Li ombres d~"un oef
 +
 +Portoit Pan reneuf
 +
 +Sur la fonts tTun pot ;
 +
 +Deui -vie* pinges neuf
 +
 +Firent un eftuef
 +
 +Pour courre le trot }
 +
 +Qjtant <vlnt au paler fejcot^
 +
 +ye, qui onques ne me muef t
 +
 +Kfefcrlai^Ji ne dis mot :
 +
 +' Prenes la plume d'un buef,
 +
 +S?en -vejie* unfagefot.'' Jubinal, Nonv. Eec., ii. 217.
 +
 +The fpirit of the goliards continued to exift long after the name had
 +been forgotten ; and the mals of bitter fatire which they had left behind
 +them againft the whole papal fyftem, and againft the corruptions of the
 +papal church of the middle ages, were a perfect godfend to the reformers
 +of the fixteenth century, who could point to them triumphantly as
 +irrefiftible evidence in their favour. Such fcholars as Flacius Illyricus,
 +eagerly examined the manufcripts which contained this goliardic poetry,
 +and printed it, chiefly as good and effective weapons in the great religious
 +ftrife which was then convulfing European fociety. To us, befides their
 +intereft as literary compofitions, they have alfo a hiftorical value, for they
 +introduce us to a more intimate acquaintance with the character of the
 +great mental ftruggle for emancipation from mediaeval darknefs which
 +extended efpecially through the thirteenth century, and which was only
 +overcome for a while to begin more ftrongly and more fuccelsfully at a
 +ter period. They difplay to us the grofs ignorance, as well as the
 +corruption of manners, of the great mals of the mediaeval clergy.
 +^ ^Nothing can be more amufing than the fatire which fome of thefe pieces
 +
 +3v^ throw on the character of monkifh Latin. I printed in the " Reliquae
 +Antiquae," under the title of "The Abbot of Gloucefter's Feaft," a
 +complaint fuppofed to ifiue from the mouth of one of the common herd
 +of the monks, againft the felfilhnefs of their fuperiors, in which all the
 +rules of Latin grammar are entirely fet at defiance. The abbot and prior
 +of Gloucefter, with their whole convent, are invited to a feaft, and on
 +
 +their
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 175
 +
 +
 +
 +their arrival, " the abbot/' fays the complainant, " goes to fit at the top,
 +and the prior next to him, but I flood always in the back place among
 +the low people."
 +
 +Abba* ire fede furfum,
 +Et priori s juxta ipjum ,
 +Ego femfer _ftai>i dorfum
 +
 +inter rafcalilia.
 +
 +The wine was ferved liberally to the prior and the abbot, but " nothing
 +was give to us poor folks everything was for the rich."
 +
 +Vinum venit fanguinatis
 +Ad prioris et abbatis ;
 +N'Ml nobis paupertatis,
 +
 +fed ad dives omnia.
 +
 +When fome diflatisfadion was difplayed by the poor monks, which the
 +great men treated with contempt, "faid the prior to the abbot, 'They have
 +wine enough ; will you give all our drink to the poor ? What does their
 +poverty regard us ? they have little, and that is enough, fince they came
 +uninvited to our feaft.' "
 +
 +Prior dixit ad abbatis,
 +' Ipjt habent vinumfatis ;
 +Vultis dare paupertatis
 +
 +nofter potus omnia ?
 +f}uid not Jpeftat paupertatis ?
 +Pojiquam venit non vocatis
 +
 +ad nofter convivial
 +
 +Thus through feveral pages this amufing poem goes on to defcribe the
 +gluttony and drunkennefs of the abbot and prior, and the ill-treatment of
 +their inferiors. This compofition belongs to the clofe of the thirteenth
 +century. A fong very fimilar to it in character, but much fhorter, is
 +found in a manufcript of the middle of the fifteenth century, and printed
 +with the other contents of this manufcript in a little volume iflued by the
 +Percy Society.* The writer complains that the abbot and prior drunk
 +good
 +
 +* " Songs and Carols, now first printed from a Manuscript of the Fifteenth
 +Century. Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. 8vo., London, 184.7, p. 2.
 +
 +
 +
 +176 Uljlory of Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +
 +
 +good and high-flavoured wine, while nothing but inferior fluff was
 +ufually given to the convent ; "But," he fays, "it is better to
 +go drink good wine at the tavern, where the wines are of the beft
 +quality, and money is the butler."
 +
 +Bonum -vinum cum fa pore
 +Bibit abbas cum priore ;
 +Sed cotrvcntus de pejore
 +
 +Jemper folet bibere.
 +Bonum vinum in taberna,
 +Ubi vinajunt -valarna (for Falerna),
 +Ubi nummui eft pincerna )
 +
 +Ibi prodeft bibere.
 +
 +Partly out of the earneft, though playful, fatire defcribed in this chapter,
 +arofe political fatire, and at a later period political caricature. I have
 +before remarked that the period we call the middle ages was not that of
 +political or perfonal caricature, becaufe it wanted that means of circulating
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No, ill. Caricature upon the Jews at Kor-wich.
 +
 +
 +
 +quickly and largely which is neceflary for it. Yet, no doubt, men who
 +could draw, did, in the middle ages, fometimes amufe themfelves in
 +(ketching caricatures, which, in general, have periflied, becaufe nobody
 +cared to preferve them ; but the fad of the exiftence of fuch works is
 +
 +proved
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +177
 +
 +
 +
 +proved by a very curious example, which has been preferved, and which
 +is copied in our cut No. in. It is a caricature on the Jews of Norwich,
 +which fome one of the clerks of the king's courts in the thirteenth century
 +has drawn with a pen, on one of the official rolls of the Pell office, where
 +it has been preferved. Norwich, as it is well known, was one of the
 +principal feats of the Jews in England at this early period, and Ifaac of
 +Norwich, the crowned Jew with three faces, who towers over the other
 +figures, was no doubt fome perfonage of great importance among them.
 +Dagon, as a two-headed demon, occupies a tower, which a party of demon
 +knights is attacking. Beneath the figure of Ifaac there is a lady, whofe
 +name appears to be Avezarden, who has fome relation or other with a
 +male figure named Nolle-Mokke, in which another demon, named
 +Colbif, is interfering. As this latter name is
 +written in capital letters, we may perhaps con-
 +clude that he is the rnoft important perfonage
 +in the fcene ; but, without any knowledge of
 +the circumftances to which it relates, it would
 +be in vain to attempt to explain this curious
 +and rather elaborate caricature.
 +
 +Similar attempts at caricature, though leli
 +direct and elaborate, are found in others of our
 +national records. One of thefe, pointed out to
 +me by an excellent and refpecled friend,
 +the Rev. Lambert B. Larking, is peculiarly in-
 +terefling, as well as amufing. It belongs to the
 +Treafury of the Exchequer, and confifts of two
 +volumes of vellum called Liber A and Liber B,
 +forming a regifter of treaties, marriages, and
 +fimilar documents of the reign of Edward I.,
 +which have been very fully ufed by Rymer.
 +The clerk who was employed in writing it,
 +teems to have been, like many of thefe official
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1 1 Z. An Irishman.
 +
 +
 +
 +clerks, fomewhat of a wag, and he has amufed himfclf by drawing
 +in the margin figures of the inhabitants of the provinces of Edwanl's
 +
 +A A crown
 +
 +
 +
 +1 78 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +crown to which the documents referred. Some of thefe are evidently
 +defigned for caricature. Thus, the figure given in our cut No. 112 was
 +intended to reprefent an Irifhman. One trait, at leaft, in this caricature
 +is well known from the defcription given by Giraldus Cambrenfis, who
 +fpeaks with a fort of horror of the formidable axes which the Irifh were
 +accuftomed to carry about with them. In treating of the manner in
 +which Ireland ought to be governed when it had been entirely reduced
 +to fubje&ion, he recommends that, " in the meantime, they ought not
 +to be allowed in time of peace, on any pretence or in any place, to ufe
 +that deteftable inftrument of deflrucYion, which, by an ancient but accurfed
 +cuftom, they conftantly carry in their hands inftead of a
 +ftaff." In a chapter of his "Topography of Ireland,"
 +Giraldus treats of this " ancient and wicked cuftom "
 +of always carrying in their hand an axe, inftead of a
 +ftaff, to the danger of all perfons who had any relations
 +with them. Another Irifhman, from a drawing in the
 +fame manufcript, given in our cut No. 113, carries his
 +axe in the fame threatening attitude. The coftume of
 +thefe figures anfwers with fufficient accuracy to the de-
 +fcription given by Giraldus Cambrenfis. The drawings
 +exhibit more exadly than that writer's defcription the
 +"fmall clofe-fitting hoods, hanging a cubit's length
 +(half-a-yard) below the moulders," which, he tells us,
 +they were accuftomed to wear. This fmall hood, with the flat cap
 +attached to it, is mown better perhaps in the fecond figure than in the
 +firft. The " breeches and hofe of one piece, or hofe and breeches joined
 +together," are alfo exhibited here very diftindly, and appear to be tied
 +over the heel, but the feet are clearly naked, and evidently the ufe
 +of the " brogues " was not yet general among the Irifh of the thirteenth
 +century.
 +
 +If the Welfhman of this period was fomewhat more Icantily clothed
 +than the Irifhman, he had the advantage of him, to judge by this
 +manufcript, in wearing at leaft one fhoe. Our cut No. 114, taken from
 +it, reprefents a Welfhman armed with bow and arrow, whofe clothing
 +
 +confifts
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +179
 +
 +
 +
 +confifts apparently only of a plain tunic and a light mantle. This is
 +quite in accordance with the defcription by Giraldus Cambrenfis, who
 +tells us that in all feafons their drefs was the fame, and that, however
 +fevere the weather, " they defended themfelves from the cold only by a
 +thin cloak and tunic." Giraldus fays nothing of the practice of the
 +Welfh in wearing but one fhoe, yet it is evident that at the time of this
 +record that was their practice, for in another figure of a Welfhman, given
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Ac. 114. A Welfo Archer.
 +
 +
 +
 +A 7 e. 115. A Weljbman with his Spear,
 +
 +
 +
 +in our cut No. TI j, we fee the fame peculiarity, and in both cafes the fhoe
 +is worn on the left foot. Giraldus merely fays that the Welmmen in
 +general, when engaged in warfare, " either walked bare-footed, or made
 +ufe of high fhoes, roughly made of untanned leather." He defcribes
 +them as armed fometimes with bows and arrows, and fometimes with
 +long fpears j and accordingly our firft example of a Welfhman from this
 +manufcript is ufing the bow, while the fecond carries the fpear, which
 +he apparently refts on the fingle fhoe of his left foot, while he brandifhes
 +a fword in his left hand. Both our Welfhmen prefent a fingularly
 +grotefque appearance.
 +
 +The
 +
 +
 +
 +1 80 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +The Gafcon is reprefented with more peaceful attributes. Gafcony
 +was the country of vineyards, from whence we drew our great fupply of
 +wines, a very important article of confumption in the middle ages.
 +
 +When the official clerk who wrote this
 +manufcript came to documents relating to
 +Gafcony, his thoughts wandered naturally
 +enough to its rich vineyards and the wine
 +they fupplied fo plentifully, and to which,
 +according to old reports, clerks feldom
 +mowed any diflike, and accordingly, in
 +the fketch, which we copy in our cut
 +No. 1 1 6, we have a Gafcon occupied
 +diligently in pruning his vine-tree. He,
 +at leaft, wears two fhoes, though his
 +clothing is of the lighted defcription.
 +He is perhaps the vinitor of the mediaeval
 +documents on this fubject, a ferf attached
 +to the vineyard. Our fecond Iketch, cut No. 117, prefents a more
 +enlarged fcene, and introduces us to the whole procefs of making wine.
 +Firft we fee a man better clothed, with fhoes (or boots) of much fuperior
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1 1 6. A Gafcon at hit Vine.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 117. The Wme Manufafiurer.
 +
 +
 +
 +make, and a hat on his head, carrying away the grapes from the vineyard
 +to the place where another man, with no clothing at all, is treading out
 +the juice in a large vat. This is ttill in fome of the wine countries
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 8 1
 +
 +
 +
 +the common method of extracting the juice from the grape. Further to
 +the left is the large calk in which the juice is put when turned into wine.
 +Satires on the people of particular localities were not uncommon
 +during the middle ages, becaufe local rivalries and confequent local feuds
 +prevailed everywhere. The records of fuch feuds were naturally of a
 +temporary character, and perifhed when the feuds and rivalries themfelves
 +ceafed to exift, but a few curious fatires of this kind have been preferved.
 +A monk of Peterborough, who lived late in the twelfth or early in the
 +thirteenth century, and for fome reafon or other nourifhed an unfriendly
 +feeling to the people of Norfolk, gave vent to his hoftility in a Ihort
 +Latin poem in what we may call goliardic verfe. He begins by abufing
 +the county itfelf, which, he fays, was as bad and unfruitful as its
 +inhabitants were vile ; and he fuggefts that the evil one, when he fled
 +from the anger of the Almighty, had parted through it and left his
 +pollution upon it. Among other anecdotes of the fimplicity and folly of
 +the people of this county, which clofely refemble the ftories of the wife
 +men of Gotham of a later date, he informs us that.one day the peafantry
 +of one diftri6t were fo grieved by the oppreflions of their feudal lord, that
 +they fubfcribed together and bought their freedom, which he fecured to
 +them by formal deed, ratified with a ponderous feal. They adjourned to
 +the tavern, and celebrated their deliverance by feafting and drinking
 +until night came on, and then, for want of a candle, they agreed to burn
 +the wax of the feal. Next day their former lord, informed of what had
 +taken place, brought them before a court, where the deed was judged to
 +be void for want of the feal, and they loft all their money, were reduced
 +to their old pofition of flavery, and treated worfe than ever. Other
 +ftories, ftill more ridiculous, are told of thefe old Norfolkians, but few of
 +them are worth repeating. Another monk, apparently, who calls himfelf
 +John de St. Omer, took up the cudgels for the people of Norfolk, and re-
 +plied to the Peterborough fatirift in fimilar language.* I have printed in
 +
 +another
 +
 +
 +
 +* Both these poems are printed in my " Early Mysteries, and other Latin Poems
 +of the Twelfth an I Thirteenth Centuries." 8vo., London, 1838.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 82 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +another collection,* a fatirical poem againft the people of a place called
 +Stockton (perhaps Stockton-on-Tees in Durham), by the monk of a
 +monaftic houfe, of which they were ferfs. It appeared that they had
 +rifen againft the tyranny of their lord, but had been unfuccefsful in
 +defending their caufe in a court of law, and the ecclefiaftical fatirift
 +exults over their defeat in a very uncharitable tone. There will be found
 +in the " Reliquae Ar.tiquae,"t a very curious fatire in Latin profe directed
 +againtt the inhabitants of Rochefter, although it is in truth aimed againft
 +Englishmen in general, and is entitled in the manufcript, which is of the
 +fourteenth century, " Proprietates Anglicorum " (the Peculiarities of
 +Engliftimen). In the firft place, we are told, that the people of Rochefter
 +had tails, and the queftion is difcufled, very fcholaftically, what fpecies
 +of animals thefe Roceftrians were. We are then told that the caufe of
 +their deformity arofe from the infolent manner in which they treated
 +St. Augulline, when he came to preach the Gofpel to the heathen Englifh.
 +After vifiting many parts of England, the faint came to Rochefter, where
 +the people, inftead of liflening to him, hooted at him through the ftreets,
 +and, in derifion, attached tails of pigs and calves to his veftments, and
 +fo turned him out of the city. The vengeance of Heaven came upon
 +them, and all who inhabited the city and the country round it, and their
 +.defcendants after them, were condemned to bear tails exactly like
 +thofe of pigs. This ftory of the tails was not an invention of the author
 +of the fatire, but was a popular legend connected with the hiftory of
 +St. Auguftine's preaching, though the fcene of the legend was laid in
 +Dorfetftiire. The writer of this fingular compofition goes on to defcribe
 +the people of Rochefter as feducers of other people, as men without
 +gratitude, and as traitors. He proceeds to fhow that Rochefter being
 +fituated in England, its vices had tainted the whole nation, and he
 +illuftrates the bafenefs of the Englifti character by a number of anecdotes
 +of worfe than doubtful authenticity. It is, in fad, a fatire on the Englifti
 +compofed in France, and leads us into the domains of political fatire.
 +Political
 +
 +* " Anecdota Literaria," p. 49. t " Reliquae Antiquae," vol. ii. p. 230.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 8 3
 +
 +Political fatire in the middle ages appeared chiefly in the form of
 +poetry and fong, and it was efpecially in England that it flourifhed, a fure
 +fign that there was in our country a more advanced feeling of popular
 +independence, and greater freedom of fpeech, than in France or
 +Germany.* M. Leroux de Lincy, who undertook to make a collection of
 +this poetry for France, found fo little during the mediaeval period that
 +came under the character of political, that he was obliged to fubftitute
 +the word "hiftbrical" in the title of his book.f Where feudalifm was
 +fupreme, indeed, the fongs which arofe out of private or public ftrife,
 +which then were almoft infeparable from fociety, contained no political
 +fentiment, but confifted chiefly of perfonal attacks on the opponents of
 +thofe who employed them. Such are the four fliort fongs written in the
 +time of the revolt of the French during the minority of St. Louis, which
 +commenced in 12265 they are all of a political character which
 +M. Leroux de Lincy has been able to collect previous to the year
 +j 2 /o, and they confift merely of perfonal taunts againft the courtiers by
 +the diflatisfied barons who were out of power. We trace a fimilar feeling
 +in fome of the popular records of our baronial wars of the reign of
 +Henry III., efpecially in a fong, in the baronial language (Anglo-Norman),
 +preferred in a fmall roll of vellum, which appears to have belonged
 +to the minftrel who chanted it in the halls of the partifans of Simon de
 +Montfort. The fragment which remains connfts of ftanzas in praife of
 +the leaders of the popular party, and in reproach of their opponents.
 +Thus of Roger de Clifford, one of earl Simon's friends, we are told that
 +" the good Roger de Clifford behaved like a noble baron, and exercifed
 +great
 +
 +* I have published from the original manuscripts the mass of the political poetry
 +composed in England during the middle ages in my three volumes "The Political
 +Songs of England, from the Reign of John to that of Edward II." 410., London,
 +1839 (issued by the Camden Society) ; and " Political Poems and Songs relating to
 +English History, composed during the Period from the Accession of Edward III.
 +to that of 'Richard III." 8vo., vol i., London, 1859; vol. ii., 1861 (published by
 +the Treasury, under the direction of the Master of the Rolls.)
 +
 +t " Receuil de Chants Historiques Fran9ais depuis le xii e . jusqu'au xviii*.
 +Siecle, par Leroux de Lincy .... Premiere Serie, xii e ., xiii e ., xiv e ., et xv*., Siecles."
 +8vo., Paris, 1841.
 +
 +
 +
 +184 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefi/uc
 +
 +great juftice ; he fuffered none, either fmall or great, or fecretly or
 +openly, to do any wrong."
 +
 +Et de Cltjfort ly ton Roger
 +Se contint cum noble ber,
 +
 +Sifu de grant juftice ;
 +Nefuffri pat petit ne grant,
 +Ne arere ne par deviant.
 +
 +Fere nul mefpnj'e.
 +
 +On the other hand, one of Montfort's opponents, the biftiop of Hereford,
 +is treated rather contemptuoufly. We are told that he "learnt well that
 +the earl was ftrong when he took the matter in hand ; before that he
 +(the bifhop) was very fierce, and thought to eat tn all the Englilh; but
 +now be is reduced to ftraits."
 +
 +Ly evejke de Herefort
 +
 +Sout bien que ly quern fu fort,
 +
 +Kant il prili raffere {
 +De-vant ce efteit mult fer t
 +Lei Englais quida tou-z manger.
 +
 +Met ore nejet que fere.
 +
 +This bifhop was Peter de Aigueblanche, one of the foreign favourites, who
 +had been intruded into the fee of Hereford, to the exclufion of a better
 +man, and had been an oppreflbr of thofe who were under his rule. The
 +barons feized him, threw him into prifon, and plundered his poffefiions,
 +and at the time this fong was written, he was fuffering under the imprifon-
 +ment which appears to have fliortened his life.
 +
 +The univerfities and the clerical body in general were deeply involved
 +in thefe political movements of the thirteenth century ; and our earlieft
 +political fongs now known are compofed in Latin, and in that form and
 +ftyle of verfe which feems to have been peculiar to the goliards, and
 +which I venture to call goliardic. Such is a forig againft the three bifhops
 +who fupported king John in his quarrel with the pope about the prefen-
 +tation to the fee of Canterbury, printed in my Political Songs. Such, too,
 +is the fong of the Welfh, and one or two others, in the fame volume.
 +And fuch, above all, is that remarkable Latin poem in which a partifan
 +
 +of
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 185
 +
 +
 +
 +of the barons, immediately after the vi6tory at Lewes, fet forth the
 +political tenets of his party, and gave the principles of Englilh liberty
 +nearly the fame broad ban's on which they fland at the prefent. It is an
 +evidence of the extent to which thefe principles were now acknowledged,
 +that in this great baronial ftruggle our political fongs began to be written
 +in the Englifh language, an acknowledgment that they concerned the
 +whole Englifh public.
 +
 +We trace little of this clafs of literature during the reign of Edward I.j
 +but, when the popular feelings became turbulent again under the reign of
 +his fon and fucceflbr, political fongs became more abundant, and their fatire
 +was directed more even than formerly againft meafures and principles,
 +and was lefs an inflrument of mere perfonal abufe. One fatirical poem
 +of this period, which I had printed from an imperfect copy in a manu-
 +fcript at Edinburgh, but of which a more complete copy was fubfequently
 +found in a manufcript in the library of St. Peter's College, Cambridge,*
 +is extremely curious as being the earliefl fatire of this kind written in
 +Englifh that we poflefs. It appears to have been written in the year
 +1320. The writer of this poem begins by telling us that his objeft is to
 +explain the caufe of the war, ruin, and manslaughter which then prevailed
 +throughout the land, and why the poor were fuffering from hunger and
 +want, the cattle perifhed in the field, and the corn was dear. Thefe he
 +afcribes to the increafing wickednefs of all orders of fociety. To begin
 +with the church, Rome was the head of all corruptions, at the papal
 +court falfehood and treachery only reigned, and the door of the pope's
 +palace was fhut againft truth. During the twelfth and following centuries
 +thefe complaints, in terms more or lefs forcible, againft the corruptions of
 +Rome, are continually repeated, and fhow that the evil muft have been
 +one under which everybody felt opprefled. The old charge of Romifh
 +fimony is repeated in this poem in very ftrong terms. " The clerk's voice
 +mall be little heard at the court of Rome, were he ever fo good, unlefs
 +he
 +
 +* " A Poem on the Times of Edward III., from a MS. preserved in the Library
 +of St. Peter's College, Cambridge." Edited by the Rev. C. Hard wick. 8vo.
 +London, 1849. (One of the publications of the Percy Society.)
 +
 +B B
 +
 +
 +
 +1 86 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +he bring filver with him j though he were the holieft man that ever was
 +born, unlefs he bring gold or filver, all his time and anxiety are loft.
 +Alas ! why love they fo much that which is periihable ? "
 +
 +Voyt of clerk Jball lytyl be heard at the court of Rome,
 +Were he never fo gode a clerk, -without Jilver and he come ;
 +Though he -were the holy ft man that ever yet ivas ibort,
 +But he bryng gold or fylver, al Ays "while is for lore
 +
 +And his thcfwght.
 +Alias ! vjhi love thei that fo much that fchal turne to novjght f
 +
 +When, on the contrary, a wicked man prefented himfelf at the pope's
 +court, he had only to carry plenty of money thither, and all went well
 +with him. According to our fatirift, the bifhops were "fools," and the
 +other dignitaries and officials of the church were influenced chiefly by the
 +love of money and felf-indulgence. The parfon began humbly, when he
 +firft obtained his benefice, but no fooner had he gathered money together,
 +than he took " a wenche " to live with him as his wife, and rode a
 +hunting with hawks and hounds like a gentleman. The priefts were
 +men with no learning, who preached by rote what they neither under-
 +ftood nor appreciated. "Truely," he fays, "it fares by our unlearned
 +priefts as by a jay in a cage, who curfes himfelf: he fpeaks good Englim,
 +but he knows not what it means. No more doe4 an unlearned prieft
 +know his gofpel that he reads daily. An unlearned prieft, then, is no
 +better than a jay."
 +
 +Certes atfo hyt fareth by a preft that is levjed,
 +At by a jay in a cage that hymfelf hath bejhrevjed :
 +Gode Englyfb he fpeketh t but he not never -what.
 +No more -wot a Inved preft hys gofpel ivat he rat
 +
 +By day.
 +Than is a levjed preft no better than a jay.
 +
 +Abbots and priors were remarkable chiefly for their pride and luxury, and
 +the monks naturally followed their examples. Thus was religion debafed
 +everywhere. The character of the phyfician is treated with equal feverity,
 +and his various tricks to obtain money are amufingly defcribed. In this
 +manner the fongfter prefents to view the failings of the various orders of
 +lay fociety alfo, the felfimnefs and opprefiive bearing of the knights and
 +
 +ariftocracy
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 87
 +
 +
 +
 +ariftocracy, and their extravagance in dreis and living, the negleft of
 +juftice, the ill-management of the wars, the weight of taxation, and all
 +the other evils which then affli6ted the ftate. This poem marks a period
 +in our focial hiftory, and led the way to that larger work of the fame
 +character, which came about thirty years later, the well-known " Vifions
 +of Piers Ploughman,"* one of the moft remarkable fatires, as well as one
 +of the moft remarkable poems, in the Englilh language.
 +
 +We will do no more than glance at the further progrefs of political
 +fatire which had now taken a permanent footing in Englifh literature.
 +We fee lefs of it during the reign of Edward III., the greater part of
 +which was occupied with foreign wars and triumphs, but there appeared
 +towards the clofe of his reign, a very remarkable fatire, which I have
 +printed in my "Political Poems and Songs." It is written in Latin, and
 +confifts of a pretended prophecy in verfe by an infpired monk named
 +John of Bridlington, with a mock commentary in profe in faft, a parody
 +on the commentaries in which the fcholaftics of that age difplayed their
 +learning, but in this cafe the commentary contains a bold though to us
 +rather obfcure criticifm on the whole policy of Edward's reign. The reign
 +of Richard II. was convulfed by the great ftruggle for religious reform,
 +by the infurreftions of the lower orders, and by the ambition and feuds of
 +the nobles, and produced a vaft quantity of political and religious fatire,
 +both in profe and verfe, but efpecially the latter. We muft not overlook
 +our great poet Chaucer, as one of the powerful fatirifts of this period.
 +Political fong next makes itfelf heard loudly in the wars of the Rofes.
 +It was the laft ftruggle of feudalifm in England, and the character of the
 +fong had fallen back to its earlier characteristics, in which all patriotic
 +feelings were abandoned to make place for perfonal hatred.
 +
 +
 +
 +* "The Vision and the Creed of Piers Ploughman ;" with Notes and a Glossary
 +by Thomas Wright. 2 vols. izmo. London, 1842. Second and revised edition,
 +2 vols. i2mo. London, 1856.
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XI.
 +
 +MINSTRELSY A SUBJECT OF BURLESQUE AND CARICATURE. CHARACTER
 +
 +OF THE MINSTRELS. THEIR JOKES UPON THEMSELVES AND UPON ONE
 +
 +ANOTHER. VARIOUS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS REPRESENTED IN THE
 +
 +SCULPTURES OF THE MEDIAEVAL ARTISTS. SIR MATTHEW GOURNAY
 +
 +AND THE KING OF PORTUGAL. DISCREDIT OF THE TABOR AND BAG-
 +PIPES. MERMAIDS.
 +
 +ONE of the principal clafles of the fatirifts of the middle ages, the
 +minftrels, or jougleurs, were far from being unamenable to fatire
 +themfelves. They belonged generally to a low clafs of the population,
 +one that was hardly acknowledged by the law, which merely adminiftered
 +to the pleasures and amufements of others, and, though fometimes
 +liberally rewarded, they were objects rather of contempt than of refpeft.
 +Of courfe there were minftrels belonging to a clafs more refpeftable than
 +the others, but thefe were comparatively few ; and the ordinary minftrel
 +feems to have been limply an unprincipled vagabond, who hardly
 +poflefled any fettled refting-place, who wandered about from place to
 +place, and was not too nice as to the means by which he gained his
 +living perhaps fairly reprefented by the ftreet minftrel, or mountebank,
 +of the prefent day. One of his talents was that of mocking and ridiculing
 +others, and it is not to be wondered at, therefore, if he fometimes became
 +an objedt of mockery and ridicule himfelf. One of the well-known
 +minftrels of the thirteenth century, Rutebeuf, was, like many of his
 +fellows, a poet alfo, and he has left feveral fhort pieces of verfe defcriptive
 +of himfelf and of his own mode of life. In one of thefe he complains of
 +his poverty, and tells us that the world had in his time the reign of
 +St. Louis become fo degenerate, that few people gave anything to the
 +unfortunate minftrel. According to his own account, he was without
 +
 +food,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +food, and in a fair way towards ftarvation, expofed to the cold without
 +fufficient clothing, and with nothing but ftraw for his bed.
 +
 +Je toux defroit, de fain baaille,
 +
 +Dont je fuis mart et mauba\Ul%,
 +
 +Jefuisfanz coutes et fans liss ;
 +
 +Waji fwre jufqtfa Senlix.
 +
 +Sire,Ji nefai yue/ fart aille ;
 +
 +Met cofteiz connoit le pail/its,
 +
 +Et lix de faille it" eft fas Hz,
 +
 +Et en man lit n"afors la faille. CEuvrefl de Btrtebenf, vol. i. p. 3.
 +
 +In another poem, Rutebeuf laments that he has rendered his condition
 +ftill more miferable by marrying, when he had not wherewith to keep a
 +wife and family. In a third, he complains that in the midft of his
 +poverty, his wife has brought him a child to increafe his domeflic
 +expenfes, while his horfe, on which he was accuftomed to travel to places
 +where he might exercife bis profeffion, had broken its leg, and his nurfe
 +was dunning him for money. In addition to all thefe caufes of grief, he
 +had loft the ufe of one of his eyes.
 +
 +Or a d' enfant geu ma fame }
 +Man cheval a brifie la jame
 +
 +A une lice ;
 +
 +Or veut de /' 'argent ma norrice t
 +S^ui m'cn deftraint et me felice,
 +
 +For r enfant feftre.
 +
 +Throughout his complaint, although he laments over the decline of
 +liberality among his contemporaries, he nevertheless turns his poverty into
 +a joke. In feveral other pieces of verfe he fpeaks in the fame way, half
 +joking and half lamenting over his condition, and he does not conceal that
 +the love of gambling was one of the caufes of it. " The dice," he fays,
 +" have flripped me entirely of my robe j the dice watch and fpy me ; it
 +is thefe which kill me; they affault and ruin me, to my grief."
 +
 +Li de que li detier ontfet,
 +RTont de ma robe tout desfet ;
 +
 +Li de m" orient.
 +Li de m'aguetent et effient ;
 +Li de m'ajjaillent et deffient,
 +
 +Ce foife moi. Ib., vol. L p. 27.
 +
 +And
 +
 +
 +
 +190 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +And elfewhere he intimates that what rfie minftrels fometimes gained
 +from the lavifh generofity of their hearers, foon paffed away at the tavern
 +in dice and drinking.
 +
 +One of Rutebeuf s contemporaries in the fame profeflion, Colin Mufet,
 +indulges in fimilar complaints, and fpeaks bitterly of the want of generofity
 +difplayed by the great barons of his time. In addrefling one of them
 +who had treated him ungeneroufly, he fays, "Sir Count, I have riddled
 +before you in your hoftel, and you neither gave me a gift, nor paid
 +me my wages. It is difcreditable behaviour. By the duty I owe to
 +St. Mary, I cannot continue in your fervice at this rate. My purfe is ill
 +furnifhed, and my wallet is empty."
 +
 +Sire quens, j'ai viele
 +Devant vos en voftre oftel ;
 +Si ne m'avez riens donne y
 +Ne ma gages acquitez y
 +
 +Ceft -vilanie.
 +Fol que doi fainte Marie,
 +Enfi ne -vot Jieurre-je mie,
 +M'aumofniere eft maj gprnie t
 +Et ma male mat far/it.
 +
 +He proceeds to ftate that when iie went home to his wife (for Colin
 +Mufet alfo was a married minftrel), he was ill received if his purfe
 +and wallet were empty ; but it was very different when they were full. His
 +wife then fprang forward and threw her arms round his neck ; fhe took
 +his wallet from his horfe with alacrity, while his lad conducted the
 +animal cheerfully to the liable, and his maiden killed a couple of capons,
 +and prepared them with piquant fauce. His daughter brought a comb for
 +his hair. "Then," he exclaims, "I am matter in my own houfe."
 +
 +Ma fame 'va deftrofer
 +Ma male Jam demurer ;
 +Mon garden -va abu-vrer
 +Man cheval et conreer ;
 +Ma pucele va tuer
 +Deux chapons for deporter
 +
 +A lajaufe aillie.
 +Ma file m'aforte un figne
 +En fa main par cortoifie.
 +Lorsfui de man oftel Jire.
 +
 +When
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 191
 +
 +When the minftrels could thus joke upon themfelves, we need not be
 +furprifed if they fatirifed one another. In a poem of the thirteenth,
 +century, entitled " Les deux Troveors Ribauz," two minftrels are introduced
 +on the ftage abufing and infulting one another, and while indulging in
 +mutual accufations of ignorance in their art, they difplay their ignorance
 +at the fame time by mifquoting the titles of the poems which they profefs
 +to be able to recite. One of them boafts of the variety of inftruments on
 +which he could perform :
 +
 +jfe Ju'u jugleres de <viele t
 +Sijai de mufe et defreftele,
 +Et de Aarfes et de chifonie^
 +De la gigue, de rarmonie,
 +De rjalteire, et en la rote
 +, Sai-ge bien chanter une note.
 +
 +It appears, however, that among all thefe inftruments, the viol, or fiddle,
 +was the one moft generally in ufe.
 +
 +The mediaeval monuments of art abound with burlefques and fatires
 +on the minftrels, whofe inftruments of mufic are
 +placed in the hands fbmetimes of monfters, and at
 +others in thofe of animals of a not very refined cha-
 +racter. Our cut No. 118 is taken from a manufcript
 +in the Britifti Mufeum (MS. Cotton, Domitian A. ii.),
 +and reprefents a female minftrel playing on the
 +riddle ; ihe has the upper part of a lady, and the
 +lower parts of a mare, a combination which appears
 +to have been rather familiar to the imagination of the
 +mediaeval artifts. In our cut No. 119, which is taken
 +from a copy made by Carter of one of the mifereres
 +in Ely Cathedral, it is not quite clear whether the No - 1 1 8 -.-f. Charmi "g
 +
 +J Fiddler.
 +
 +performer on the fiddle be a monfter or merely a
 +cripple 3 but perhaps the latter was intended. The inftrument, too,
 +aflumes a* rather fingular form. Our cut No 120, alfo taken from Carter,
 +was furnifhed by a fculpture in the church of St. John, at Cirencefter,
 +and reprefents a man performing on an inflrument rather clofely
 +refembling the modern hurdy-gurdy, which is evidently played by
 +
 +turning
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +192 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +turning a handle, and the mufic is produced by ftriking wires or firings
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 119. A Crippled Minftrel.
 +
 +in fide. The face is evidently intended to be that of a jovial companion.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 120. The Hurdy-Gurdy.
 +
 +Gluttony was an elpecial charaderiftic of that clafs of fociety to which
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +'93
 +
 +
 +
 +the minftrcl belonged, and perhaps this was the idea intended to be con-
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 121. A Swirsljh Minftrel.
 +
 +veyed in the next pifture, No. 121, taken from one of the ftalls in Win-
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. l^^. A Mufical Mother.
 +
 +chefter Cathedral, in which a pig is performing on the fiddle, and appears
 +
 +c c to
 +
 +
 +
 +i 94 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +to be accompanied by a juvenile of the fame fpecies of animal. One of
 +the fame flails, copied in our cut No. 122, reprefents a fow performing
 +on another fort of mufical inftrument, which is not at all uncommon in
 +mediaeval delineations. It is the double pipe or flute, which was evidently
 +borrowed from the ancients. Minftrelfy was the ufual accompaniment
 +of the mediaeval meal, and perhaps this picture is intended to be a
 +burlefque on that circumftance, as the mother is playing to her brood
 +while they are feeding. They all feem to liften quietly, except one, who
 +is evidently much more affected by the mufic than his companions. The
 +fame inftrument is placed in the hands of a rather jolly-looking female in
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. iaj. The Double Flute.
 +
 +one of the fculptures of St. John's Church in Cirencefter, copied in our
 +cut No. 123.
 +
 +Although this inftrument is rather frequently reprefented in mediaeval
 +works of art, we have no account of or allufion to it in mediaeval writers ;
 +and perhaps it was not held in very high eftimation, and was ufed only
 +by a low clafs of performers. As in many other things, the employment
 +jf particular mufical inftruments was guided, no doubt, by fafhion, new
 +ones coming in as old ones went out. Such was the cafe with the
 +
 +inftrument
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 195
 +
 +inftrument which is named in one of the above extracts, and in fome
 +other mediaeval writers, a chiffonie, and which has been fuppofed to be
 +the dulcimer, that had fallen into difcredit in the fourteenth century.
 +This inftrument is introduced in a ftory which is found in Cuvelier's
 +metrical hiftory of the celebrated warrior Bertrand du Guefclin. In the
 +courfe of the war for the expulfion of Pedro the Cruel from the throne of
 +Caftile, an Englifh knight, Sir Matthew Gournay, was fent as a fpecial
 +ambaflador to the court of Portugal. The Portuguefe monarch had in his
 +fervice two minftrels whofe performances he vaunted greatly, and on
 +whom he fet great flore, and he infifted on their performing in the
 +prefence of the new ambaflador. It turned out that they played on the
 +inftrument juft mentioned, and Sir Matthew Gournay could not refrain
 +from laughing at the performance. When the king prefled him to give
 +his opinion, he faid, with more regard for truth than politenefs, " In
 +France and Normandy, the inftruments your minftrels play upon are
 +regarded with contempt, and are only in ufe among beggars and blind
 +people, fo that they are popularly called beggar's inftruments." The king,
 +we are told, took great offence at the bluntnefs of his Englilh gueft.
 +
 +The fiddle itfelf appears at this time to have been gradually finking in
 +credit, and the poets complained that a degraded tafte for more vulgar
 +mufical inftruments was introducing itfelf. Among thefe we may mention
 +efpecially the pipe and tabor. The French antiquary, M. Jubinal, in a
 +very valuable collection of early popular poetry, publifhed under the title
 +of "Jongleurs et Trouveres," has printed a curious poem of the thirteenth
 +or fourteenth century, intended as a proteft againft the ufe of the tabor
 +and the bagpipes, which he chara&erifes as properly the mufical inftru-
 +ments of the peafantry. Yet people then, he fays, were becoming fo
 +befotted on fuch inftruments, that they introduced them in places where
 +better minftrelfy would be more fuitable. The writer thinks that the
 +introduction of fo vulgar an inftrument as the tabor into grand feftivals
 +could be looked upon in no other light than as one of the figns which
 +might be expected to be the precurfors of the coming of Antichrift. " if
 +fuch people are to come to grand feflivals as carry a bufhel [i.e. a tabor
 +made in the form of a bufhel meafure, on the end of which they beat],
 +
 +and
 +
 +
 +
 +196 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefqne
 +
 +
 +
 +and make fuch a terrible noife, it would feem that Antichrift muft now be
 +being born ; people ought to break the head of each of them with a ftafF."
 +
 +Deuffent itlels gen* -venlr a belt fefte
 +$ui f orient un boijfel, qui mainent tel tempefte,
 +II famble que Antecrift dole maintenant neftre ;
 +I? en duroit d'un bafton chajcun brifier la tefle.
 +
 +This fatirift adds, as a proof of the contempt in which the Virgin Mary
 +held fuch inftruments, that fhe never loved a tabor, or confented to hear
 +one, and that no tabor was introduced among the minftrelfy at her
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 124. The Tabor, or Drum.
 +
 +
 +
 +efpoufals. " The gentle mother of God," he fays, " loved the found of
 +the fiddle," and he goes on to prove her partiality for that inftrument by
 +citing fome of her miracles.
 +
 +Onquet le nitre Dieu, qui eft -virge honoree,
 +Et eft a-voec let angles hautement coronet,
 +N*ama ontjues tafaur, ne point ne It agree,
 +N'onyues labour n"i ot quant el fu ejpoufee.
 +La douce mere Dieu ama fan de wele.
 +
 +The
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +197
 +
 +
 +
 +The artift who carved the curious ftalls in Henry VII. 's Chapel at
 +Weftminfter, feems to have entered fully into the fpirit difplayed by this
 +fatirift, for in one of them, reprefented in our cut No. 124, he has
 +introduced a mafked demon playing on the tabor, with an expreffion
 +apparently of derifion. This tabor prefents much the form of a bufhel
 +meafure, or rather, perhaps, of a modern drum. It may be remarked
 +that the drum is, in fa6t, the fame inftrument as the tabor, or, at leaft, is
 +derived from it, and they were called by the fame names, tabor or
 +tamlour. The Engliih name drum, which has equivalents in the later
 +forms of the Teutonic diale&s, perhaps means limply fomething which
 +makes a noife, and is not, as far as I know, met with before the fixteenth
 +century. Another carving of the fame feries of ftalls at Weftminfter,
 +copied in our cut No. 125, reprefents a tame bear playing on the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1*5. Bruin turned Piper.
 +
 +bagpipes. This is perhaps intended to be at the fame time a fatire on
 +the inftrument itfelf, and upon the ftrange exhibitions of animals
 +domefticated and taught various fingular performances, which were then
 +fo popular.
 +
 +In
 +
 +
 +
 +1 98 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +In our cut No. 126 we come to the fiddle again, which long fuftained
 +its place in the higheft rank of mufical inftruments. It is taken from one
 +of the fculptures on the porch of the principal entrance to the Cathedral
 +of Lyons in France, and reprefents a mermaid with her child, liftening to
 +the mufic of the fiddle. She wears a crown, and is intended, no doubt,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. ia6. Royal Minftrelfy.
 +
 +to be one of the queens of the fea, and the introduction of the fiddle
 +under fuch circumftances can leave no doubt how highly it was eileemed.
 +The mermaid is a creature of .the imagination, which appears to have
 +been at all times a favourite object of poetry and legend. It holds an
 +important place in the mediaeval beftiaries, or popular treatifes on natural
 +hiftory, and it has only been expelled from the domains of fcience at a
 +comparatively recent date. It ftill retains its place in popular legends of
 +our fea-coafts, and more efpecially in the remoter parts of our iflands.
 +The ftories of the merrow, or Iri(b fairy, hold a prominent place among
 +my late friend Crofton Croker's "Fairy Legends of the South of
 +Ireland." The mermaid is alfo introduced not unfrequently in mediaeval
 +
 +fculpture
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +