History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art  

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(CHAPTER VII.)
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-:''http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofcaricat00wriguoft/historyofcaricat00wriguoft_djvu.txt'' 
''[[History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art]]'' ([[1865]]) is a work on [[caricature]] and [[grotesque]] in [[grotesque art|art]] and [[grotesque literature|literature]] by [[Thomas Wright (antiquarian) |Thomas Wright]] with engravings by [[Frederick William Fairholt]]. ''[[History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art]]'' ([[1865]]) is a work on [[caricature]] and [[grotesque]] in [[grotesque art|art]] and [[grotesque literature|literature]] by [[Thomas Wright (antiquarian) |Thomas Wright]] with engravings by [[Frederick William Fairholt]].
-== TOC ==+== TOC [https://archive.org/details/historyofcaricat00wriguoft]==
Preface to the New Edition ...v Preface to the New Edition ...v
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CHAPTER V ... 75 CHAPTER V ... 75
-Employment of animals in medieval satire - Popularity of fables; [[Odo de Cirington]] - [[Reynard the fox]] - [[Burnellus]] and [[Roman de Fauvel|Fauvel]] - The [[Charivari]] - Le monde bestorne - Encaustic tiles - Shoeing the goose, and feeding pigs with roses - Satirical signs; The mustard maker+Employment of animals in medieval satire - Popularity of fables; [[Odo de Cirington]] - [[Reynard the fox]] - [[Burnellus]] and [[Roman de Fauvel|Fauvel]] - The [[Charivari]] - Le monde bestorne - [[Encaustic tile]]s - Shoeing the goose, and feeding pigs with roses - Satirical signs; The mustard maker
CHAPTER VI ... 95 CHAPTER VI ... 95
Line 51: Line 50:
CHAPTER XIII ... 214 CHAPTER XIII ... 214
-The [[dance of death]] - The paintings in the chuch of La Chaise Dieu - The reign of folly - [[Sebastian Brandt]]; The ship of fools - Disturbers of Church service - Troublesome beggars - [[Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg|Geiler]]'s sermons - [[Badius]], and his ship of foolish women - The pleasures of smell - [[Erasmus]]; the praise of folly+The [[dance of death]] - The paintings in the church of La Chaise Dieu - The reign of folly - [[Sebastian Brandt]]; [[The ship of fools]] - Disturbers of Church service - Troublesome beggars - [[Johann Geiler von Kaisersberg|Geiler]]'s sermons - [[Badius]], and his ship of foolish women - The pleasures of smell - [[Erasmus]]; the praise of folly
CHAPTER XIV ... 228 CHAPTER XIV ... 228
-Popular literature and its heroes; [[Brother Rush]], [[Tyll Eulenspiegel]], the [[Wise Men of Gotham]] - Stories and jest-books - [[Skelton]], [[Scogin]], [[Tarlton]], [[Peele]]+[[Popular literature]] and its heroes; [[Brother Rush]], [[Tyll Eulenspiegel]], the [[Wise Men of Gotham]] - Stories and [[jest]]-books - [[Skelton]], [[Scogin]], [[Tarlton]], [[Peele]]
CHAPTER XV ... 244 CHAPTER XV ... 244
-The age of the Reformation - [[Thomas Murner]]; his general satires - Fruitfulness of folly - Hans Sachs - The trap for fools - Attacks on Luther - The Pope as antichrist - The pope-ass and the monk-calf - Other caricatures against the Pope - The good and bad shepherds+The age of the [[Reformation]] - [[Thomas Murner]]; his general satires - Fruitfulness of folly - [[Hans Sachs]] - The trap for fools - Attacks on [[Luther]] - The Pope as antichrist - The pope-ass and the monk-calf - Other caricatures against the Pope - The good and bad shepherds
CHAPTER XVI ... 264 CHAPTER XVI ... 264
-Origin of medieval farce and modern comedy - [[Hrothsvitha]] - Medieval notions of [[Terrence]] - The early religious plays - Mysteries and miracle plays - The farces - The drama in the Sixteenth Century+Origin of medieval [[farce]] and modern comedy - [[Hrothsvitha]] - Medieval notions of [[Terrence]] - The early religious plays - Mysteries and [[miracle play]]s - The farces - The drama in the Sixteenth Century
CHAPTER XVII ... 288 CHAPTER XVII ... 288
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CHAPTER XIX ... 312 CHAPTER XIX ... 312
-The satirical literature of the Sicteenth Century - Pasquil - [[Macaronic]] poetry - The [[Epistolae Obscurorum Vivorum]] - [[Rabelais]] - Court of the [[Queen of Navarre]], and its literary circle; [[Bonaventure des Perriers]] - [[Henri Etienne]] - The [[Ligue]], and its satire; The "[[Satire Menippe]]"+The satirical literature of the Sicteenth Century - [[Pasquil]] - [[Macaronic]] poetry - The [[Epistolae Obscurorum Vivorum]] - [[Rabelais]] - Court of the [[Queen of Navarre]], and its literary circle; [[Bonaventure des Perriers]] - [[Henri Etienne]] - The [[Ligue]], and its satire; The "[[Satire Menippe]]"
CHAPTER XX ... 347 CHAPTER XX ... 347
-Political caricature in its infancy - The Reveres du [[Jeu des Suyesses]] - Caricature in France - The Three Orders - Period of the Ligue; Caricatures against Henri III. - Caricatures against the Ligue - Caricature in France in the Seventeenth Century - Genral galas - The quarrel of ambassadors - Caricature against [[Louis XIV]]; Willima of [[Furstemberg]]+Political caricature in its infancy - The Reveres du [[Jeu des Suyesses]] - Caricature in France - [[The Three Orders]] - Period of the Ligue; Caricatures against Henri III. - Caricatures against the Ligue - Caricature in France in the Seventeenth Century - Genral galas - The quarrel of ambassadors - Caricature against [[Louis XIV]]; Willima of [[Furstemberg]]
CHAPTER XXI ... 360 CHAPTER XXI ... 360
-Early political caricature in England - The satirical writings and pictures of the Commonwealth period - Satires against the bishops; [[Bishop Williams]] - Caricatures on the Cavaliers; Sir John Suckling - The Roaring Boys; Violence of the Royalist soldiers - Contest between the Presbyterians and Independents - Grinding the King's nose - Playing-cards used as the medium for caricature; [[Haselrigge]] and [[Lambert]] - [[Shrovetide]]+Early political caricature in England - The satirical writings and pictures of the Commonwealth period - Satires against the bishops; [[Bishop Williams]] - Caricatures on the Cavaliers; Sir [[John Suckling]] - [[The Roaring Boys]]; Violence of the Royalist soldiers - Contest between the Presbyterians and Independents - Grinding the King's nose - Playing-cards used as the medium for caricature; [[Haselrigge]] and [[Lambert]] - [[Shrovetide]]
CHAPTER XXII ... 375 CHAPTER XXII ... 375
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CHAPTER XXIII ... 406 CHAPTER XXIII ... 406
-Caricature in Holland - [[Romain de Hooghe]] - The English revolution - Caricatures of Louis XIV. and James II. - Dr. [[Sacheverell]]- Caricature brought from Holland to England - Origin of the word "caricature" - Mississippi and the South Sea; The Year of Bubbles+Caricature in Holland - [[Romain de Hooghe]] - The English revolution - Caricatures of [[Louis XIV]]. and [[James II]]. - Dr. [[Sacheverell]]- Caricature brought from Holland to England - Origin of the word "caricature" - Mississippi and the South Sea; The Year of Bubbles
CHAPTER XXIV ... 420 CHAPTER XXIV ... 420
-English caricature in the age of George II. - English printsellers - Artists employed by them - Sir [[Robert Walpole]]'s long ministry - The war with France - The Newcastle administration - Opera intrigues - Ascension of George III., and Lord Bute in power+English caricature in the age of George II. - English printsellers - Artists employed by them - Sir [[Robert Walpole]]'s long ministry - The war with France - The Newcastle administration - Opera intrigues - Ascension of [[George III]]., and [[Lord Bute]] in power
CHAPTER XXV ... 434 CHAPTER XXV ... 434
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CHAPTER XXVI ... 450 CHAPTER XXVI ... 450
-The lesser caricaturists of the reign of King George III. - [[Paul Sandby]] - [[Collet]]: The Disaster, and Father Paul in his Cups - [[James Sayer]]: His caricatures in support of Pitt, and his reward - [[Carlo Kahn]]'s triumph - [[Henry Bunbury|Bunbury]]'s: His caricatures on horsemanship - [[Woodward]]: General complaint - Rowlandson's influence on the style of those whose designs he etched - John Kay of Edinburgh: Looking a Rock in the Face+The lesser caricaturists of the reign of King George III. - [[Paul Sandby]] - [[Collet]]: The Disaster, and Father Paul in his Cups - [[James Sayer]]: His caricatures in support of Pitt, and his reward - [[Carlo Kahn]]'s triumph - [[Henry Bunbury|Bunbury]]'s: His caricatures on horsemanship - [[Woodward]]: General complaint - Rowlandson's influence on the style of those whose designs he etched - [[John Kay]] of Edinburgh: Looking a Rock in the Face
CHAPTER XXVII ... 464 CHAPTER XXVII ... 464
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CHAPTER XXVIII ... 480 CHAPTER XXVIII ... 480
-Gillray's caricatures on social life - Thomas Rowlandson - His early life - He becomes a caricaturist - His style and works - His drawings - The [[Cruikshanks]]+Gillray's caricatures on social life - [[Thomas Rowlandson]] - His early life - He becomes a caricaturist - His style and works - His drawings - The [[Cruikshanks]]
Index to Names and Titles ... 495 Index to Names and Titles ... 495
 +
 +==Full text==
 +:''http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofcaricat00wriguoft/historyofcaricat00wriguoft_djvu.txt and http://www.archive.org/stream/historyofcaricat00wrig/historyofcaricat00wrig_djvu.txt''
 +
 +
 +OF
 +
 +
 +
 +fit f ifentro mb
 +
 +
 +
 +BY THOMAS\VRIGHT, E SQo , M.A., F.S.A.,
 +
 +//. M.R.S.L., &c. ;
 +
 +Corrtfponding Member of the Imperial Inftitute of France
 +(^dcademie da Infer if tions et Belles Lett res).
 +
 +
 +
 +WITH
 +
 +ILLUSTRATIONS FROM VARIOUS SOURCES,
 +
 +DRAWN AND ENGRAVED BY
 +
 +F. W. FAIR HOLT, Esa., F.S.A.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +VIRTUE BROTHERS & CO., i, AMEN CORNER,
 +
 +PATERNOSTER ROW.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +\
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +\
 +
 +
 +
 +==PREFACE==
 +
 +
 +
 +I HAVE felt fome difficulty in selecting a title for the contents of the following pages, in which it was, in fact, my defign to give, as far as may be done within fuch moderate limits, and in as popular a manner as fuch information can eafily be imparted, a general view of the Hiftory of Comic Literature and Art. Yet the word comic feems to me hardly to exprefs all the parts of the fubjed: which I have fought to bring together in my book. Moreover, the field of this hiftory is very large, and, though I have only taken as my theme one part of it, it was neceffary to circumfcribe even that, in fome degree ; and my plan, therefore, is to follow it chiefly through thofe branches which have contributed moft towards the formation of modern comic and fatiric literature and art in our own ifland.
 +
 +Thus, as the comic literature of the middle ages to
 +a very great extent, and comic art in a confiderable
 +degree alfo, were founded upon, or rather arofe out of,
 +thofe of the Romans which had preceded them, it
 +feemed defirable to give a comprehenfive hiftory of
 +this branch of literature and art as it was cultivated
 +among the peoples of antiquity. Literature and art in
 +the middle ages prefented a certain unity of general
 +character, arifing, probably, from the uniformity of the
 +influence of the Roman element of fociety, modified
 +only by its lower degree of intenfity at a greater diftance
 +from the centre, and by fecondary caufes attendant upon
 +it. To underftand the literature of any one country
 +in Weftern Europe, efpeeially during what we may
 +term the feudal period and the remark applies to art
 +equally it is neceflary to make ourfelves acquainted
 +with the whole hiftory of literature in Weftern
 +Europe during that time. The peculiarities in dif-
 +ferent countries naturally became more marked in the
 +progrefs of fociety, and more ftrongly individualifed ;
 +but it was not till towards the clofe of the feudal period
 +that the literature of each of thefe different countries
 +was becoming more entirely its own. At that period
 +the plan I have formed reftri&s itfelf, according to the
 +view ftated above. Thus, the fatirical literature of the Reformation and pictorial caricature had their cradle in Germany, and, in the earlier half of the fixteenth century, carried their influence largely into France and England ; but from that time any influence of German literature on thefe two countries ceafes. Modern fatirical literature has its models in France during the fixteenth century, and the direct influence of this literature in France upon Englifh literature continued during that and the fucceeding century, but no further. Political caricature rofe to importance in France in the fixteenth century, and was tranfplanted to Holland in the feventeenth century, and until the beginning of the eighteenth century England owed its caricature, indirectly or directly, to the French and the Dutch; but after that time a purely Englifh fchool of caricature was formed, which was entirely independent of Continental caricaturifts.
 +
 +There are two fenfes in which the word hiftory
 +may be taken in regard to literature and art. It has
 +been ufually employed to fignify a chronological account
 +of authors or artifts and their works, though this comes
 +more properly under the title of biography and biblio-
 +graphy. But there is another and a very different
 +application of the word, and this is the meaning which
 +I attach to it in the prefent volume. During the middle
 +ages, and for fome period after (in fpecial branches),
 +literature I mean poetry, fatire, and popular literature
 +of all kinds belonged to fociety, and not to the
 +individual authors, who were but workmen who gained
 +a living by fatisfying fociety's wants ; and its changes
 +in form or character depended all upon the varying
 +progrefs, and therefore changing neceffities, of fociety
 +itfelf. This is the reafon why, efpecially in the earlier
 +periods, nearly the whole mafs of the popular I may,
 +perhaps, be allowed to call it the focial literature of the
 +middle ages, is anonymous; and it was only at rare
 +intervals that fome individual rofe and made himfelf a
 +great name by the fuperiority of his talents. A certain
 +number of writers of fabliaux put their names to their
 +compofitions, probably becaufe they were names of
 +writers who had gained the reputation of telling better
 +or racier ftories than many of their fellows. In fome
 +branches of literature as in the fatirical literature of the
 +fixteenth century fociety ftill exercifed this kind of
 +influence over it; and although its great monuments
 +owe everything to the peculiar genius of their authors,
 +they were produced under the preflure of focial circumftances. To trace all thefe variations in literature
 +connected with fociety, to defcribe the influences of
 +fociety upon literature and of literature upon fociety,
 +during the progrefs of the latter, appears to me to be
 +the true meaning of the word hiftory, and it is in this
 +fenfe that I take it.
 +
 +This will explain why my hiftory of the different branches of popular literature and art ends at very different periods. The grotefque and fatirical fculpture, which adorned the eccleiiaftical buildings, ceafed with the middle ages. The ftory-books, as a part of this focial literature, came down to the fixteenth century, and the hiftory of the j eft-books which arofe out of them cannot be confidered to extend further than the beginning of the feventeenth ; for, to give a lift of jeft-books fince that time would be to compile a catalogue of books made by bookfellers for fale, copied from one another, and, till recently, each more contemptible than its predeceffor. The fchool of fatirical literature in France, at all events as far as it had any influence in England, lafted no longer than the earlier part of the feventeenth century. England can hardly be faid to have had a fchool of fatirical literature, with the exception of its comedy, which belongs properly to the feventeenth century; and its caricature belongs efpecially to the laft century and to the earlier part of the prefent, beyond which it is not a part of my plan to carry it.
 +
 +Thefe few remarks will perhaps ferve to explain what fome may conlider to be defects in my book ; and with them I venture to truft it to the indulgence of its readers. It is a fubjecl: which will have fome novelty for the Englifh reader, for I am not aware that we have any previous book devoted to it. At all events, it is not a mere compilation from other people's
 +labours.
 +
 +In conclufion, I ought, perhaps, to ftate that the
 +chapters on the Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque in
 +Art were firft printed in the Art-Journal during the
 +two paft years, but they only form a portion of the
 +prefent volume, and they have been conliderably
 +modified and enlarged.
 +
 +THOMAS WRIGHT.
 +
 +Sydney Street, Brompton,
 +Dec. 1864.
 +
 +==CONTENTS. ==
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER I.
 +
 +ORIGIN OF CARICATURE AND GROTESQUE SPIRIT OF CARICATURE IN
 +EGYPT MONSTERS: PYTHON AND GORGON GREECE THE DIO-
 +NYSIAC CEREMONIES, AND ORIGIN OF THE DRAMA THE OLD
 +COMEDY LOVE OF PARODY PARODIES ON SUBJECTS TAKEN
 +FROM GRECIAN MYTHOLOGY: THE VISIT TO THE LOVER; APOLLO
 +AT DELPHI THE PARTIALITY FOR PARODY CONTINUED AMONG
 +THE ROMANS : THE FLIGHT OF .33NEAS
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER II.
 +
 +ORIGIN OF THE STAGE IN ROME USES OF THE MASK AMONG THE
 +ROMANS SCENES FROM ROMAN COMEDY THE SANNIO AND MIMUS
 +THE ROMAN DRAMA THE ROMAN SATIRISTS CARICATURE
 +ANIMALS INTRODUCED IN THE CHARACTERS OF MEN THE PIGMIES,
 +AND THEIR INTRODUCTION INTO CARICATURE; THE FARM - YARD J
 +THE PAINTER'S STUDIO; THE PROCESSION POLITICAL CARICATURE
 +
 +IN POMPEnj THE GRAFFITI
 +
 +
 +
 +23
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER III.
 +
 +THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE MIDDLE AGES
 +THE ROMAN MTMT CONTINUED TO EXIST THE TEUTONIC AFTER-
 +DINNER ENTERTAINMENTS CLERICAL SATIRES: ARCHBISHOP HE-
 +RIGER AND THE DREAMER ', THE SUPPER OF THE SAINTS TRAN-
 +SITION FROM ANCIENT TO MEDL33VAL ART TASTE FOR MONSTROUS
 +ANIMALS, DRAGONS, ETC. ; CHURCH OF SAN FEDELE, AT COMO
 +SPIRIT OF CARICATURE AND LOVE OF GROTESQUE AMONG THE
 +ANGLO-SAXONS GROTESQUE FIGURES OF DEMONS NATURAL TEN-
 +DENCY OF THE EARLY MEDL3EVAL ARTISTS TO DRAW IN CARI-
 +CATURE EXAMPLES FROM EARLY MANUSCRIPTS AND SCULPTURES .
 +
 +
 +
 +10
 +
 +
 +
 +xii Contents.
 +
 +CHAPTER IV.
 +
 +PASK
 +THE DIABOLICAL IN CARICATURE MEDLEVAL LOVE OF THE LUDICROUS
 +
 +CAUSES WHICH MADE IT INFLUENCE THE NOTIONS OF DEMONS
 +
 +STORIES OF THE PIOUS PAINTER AND THE ERRING MONK-^J1ARE>__
 +KEB1 jmi> TTfiTTTCESS CARICATURED THE DEMONS IN THE MIRACLE
 +PLAYS THE DEMON OF NOTRE DAME 61
 +
 +CHAPTER V.
 +
 +EMPLOYMENT OF ANIMALS IN MEDIEVAL SATIRE POPULARITY OF
 +FABLES ; ODO DE CIRINGTON REYNARD THE FOX BURNELLUS AND
 +FAUVEL THE CHARIVARI LE MONDE BESTORNE ENCAUSTIC TILES
 +SHOEING THE GOOSE, AND FEEDING PIGS WITH ROSES fl A TTTUf! ATi.
 +^IGNgJ THE MUSTARD MAKER 75
 +
 +CHAPTER VI.
 +
 +THE MONKEY IN BURLESQUE AND CARICATURE TOURNAMENTS AND
 +
 +SINGLE COMBATS MONSTROUS COMBINATIONS OF ANIMAL FORMS
 +
 +__OARICATURES ON COSTUME THE HAT THE HELMET LADIES'
 +
 +
 +
 +HEAD-DRESSES THE GOWN. AND ITS LONG SLEEVES .... 95
 +
 +CHAPTER VII.
 +
 +PRESERVATION OF THE CHARACTER OF THE MTMUS AFTER THE
 +FALL OF THE EMPIRE THE MINSTREL AND JOGELOUR HISTORY
 +OF POPULAR STORIES THE FABLIAUX ACCOUNT OF THEM THE
 +CONTES DEVOTS 106
 +
 +CHAPTER VIII.
 +
 +CARICATURES OF DOMESTIC LIFE STATE OF DOMESTIC LIFE IN THE
 +MIDDLE AGES EXAMPLES OF DOMESTIC CARICATURE FROM THE
 +CARVINGS OF THE MISERERES KITCHEN SCENES DOMESTIC BRAWLS
 +THE FIGHT FOR THE BREECHES THE JUDICIAL DUEL BETWEEN
 +MAN AND WIFE AMONG THE OKBMATva AT.T.TT.^Tmsra TO WITCH-
 +_CRAFT SATIRES ON THE TRADES: THE BAKER, THE MILLER, THE
 +WINE-PEDLAR AND TAVERN KEEPER, THE ALE-WIFE, ETC. . . 118
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER IX.
 +
 +GROTESQUE FACES AND FIGURES~- J P_REVAJLENCE_^F THE TASTE FOR
 +UGLY AND GROTESQUE FACES SOME OF THE POPULAR FORMS
 +DERIVED FROM ANTIQUITY: THE TONGUE LOLLING OUT, AND THE
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Contents. xiii
 +
 +
 +
 +PAGE
 +DISTORTED MOUTH HORRIBLE SUBJECTS : THE MAN AND THE SER-
 +
 +P-RTSTTS ^AT.T.T-.OORIGAL FIGURES : GLUTTONY AND LUXURY OTHER
 +REPRESENTATIONS OF ^CLERICAL GLUTTONY AND DRUNKENNESS
 +GROTESQUE FIGURES OF INDIVIDUALS, AND GROTESQUE GROUPS
 +ORNAMENTS OF THE BORDERS OF BOOKS UNINTENTIONAL CARI-
 +CATURE J THE MOTE AND THE BEAM . . 144
 +
 +CHAPTER X.
 +
 +SATIRICAL LITERATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES JOHN DE HAUTEVTLLE
 +AND ALAN DE LILLE GOLIAS AND THE GOLIARDS THE GOLIARDIO
 +POETRY TASTE FOR PARODY PARODIES ON RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS
 +POLITICAL CARICATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES THE JEWS OF NOR-
 +WICH CARICATURE REPRESENTATIONS OF COUNTRIES LOCAL SA-
 +TIREPOLITICAL SONGS AND POEMS . . . . . . . .159
 +
 +CHAPTER XI.
 +
 +MINSTRELSY A SUBJECT OF BURLESQUE AND CARICATURE CHARACTER
 +OF THE MINSTRELS THEIR JOKES UPON THEMSELVES AND UPON
 +ONE ANOTHER VARIOUS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS REPRESENTED IN
 +THE SCULPTURES OF THE MEDIEVAL ARTISTS SIR MATTHEW
 +GOURNAY AND THE KING OF PORTUGAL DISCREDIT OF THE TABOR
 +AND BAGPIPES MERMAIDS 188
 +
 +CHAPTER XII.
 +
 +THE COURT FOOL THE NORMANS AND THEIR GABS EARLY HISTORY
 +
 +
 +
 +OF COURT rOOTifl TTTTTR OTBTVTtfgr ^^PVT^" 61 IN THE CORNISH
 +CHURCHES THE BURLESQUE SOCIETIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES
 +THE FEASTS OEJu qgii ' g J ATirr> nl? TOnT.S TTTRTB. LICENCE THE T.F.ADEN
 +MONEY OF THE FOOLS THE BISHOP'S BLESSING 200
 +
 +CHAPTER XIII.
 +
 +THE DANCE OF DEATH THE PAINTINGS IN THE CHURCH OF LA CHAISE
 +DIEU THE REIGN OF FOLLY SEBASTIAN BRANDT J THE SHIP OF
 +FOOLS DISTURBERS OF CHURCH SERVICE TROUBLESOME BEGGARS
 +GEILER'S SERMONS BADIUS, AND HIS SHIP OF FOOLISH WOMEN
 +THE PLEASURES OF SMELL ERASMUS; THE PRAISE OF FOLLY . 214
 +
 +
 +
 +xiv Contents.
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XIV.
 +
 +PAGE
 +
 +POPULAR LITERATURE AND ITS HEROES; BROTHER RUSH, TYLL
 +EULENSPIEGEL, THE WISE MEN OF GOTHAM STORIES AND JEST-
 +BOOKS SKELTON, SCOGIN, TARLTON, PEELE 228
 +
 +CHAPTER XV.
 +
 +THE AGE OF THE REFORMATION THOMAS MURNERJ HIS GENERAL
 +
 +SATIRES FRUITFULNESS OF FOLLY HANS SACHS TTTR TRAP FOR
 +
 +r FOOLS ATTACKS ON LUTHER THE POPE AS ANTICHRIST THE
 +
 +POPE-ASS AND THE MONK-CALF OTHER CARICATURES AGAINST
 +
 +THE POPE THE GOOD AND BAD SHEPHERDS ' 244
 +
 +CHAPTER XVI.
 +
 +ORIGIN OF MEDLEVAL FARCE AND MODERN COMEDY HROTSVITHA
 +MEDLEVAL NOTIONS OF TERENCE THE EARLY RELIGIOUS PLAYS '
 +MYSTERIES AND MIRACLE PLAYS THE FARCES THE DRAMA IN
 +THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY 264
 +
 +CHAPTER XVII.
 +
 +DIABLERIE IN THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY EARLY TYPES OF THE DIA-
 +BOLICAL FORMS ST. ANTHONY ST. GUTHLAC REVIVAL OF THE
 +TASTE FOR SUCH SUBJECTS IN THE BEGINNING OF THE SIXTEENTH
 +CENTURY THE FLEMISH SCHOOL OF BREUGHEL THE FRENCH
 +AND ITALIAN SCHOOLS CALLOT, SALVATOR ROSA 288
 +
 +CHAPTER XVIII.
 +
 +CALLOT AND HIS SCHOOL CALLOT' S ROMANTIC HISTORY HIS " CA-
 +PRICI," AND OTHER BURLESQUE "WORKS THE " BALLI " AND THE
 +BEGGARS IMITATORS OF CALLOT; DELLA BELLA EXAMPLES OF
 +DELLA BELLA ROMAIN DE HOOGHE OQQ
 +
 +CHAPTER XIX.
 +
 +THE SATIRICAL LITERATURE OF THE SIXTEENTH CENTURY PASQUTL
 +MACARONIC POETRY THE EPISTOL^l OBSCURORUM VIRORUM
 +R A BET. ATS COURT OF THE QUEEN OF NAVARRE, AND ITS LITE-
 +RARY CIRCLE; BONAVENTURE DBS PERIERS HENRI ETIENNE
 +
 +THE LIGUE, AND ITS SATIRE: THE " SATYRE .MENIPPEE " . . . 312
 +
 +
 +
 +Contents.
 +
 +
 +
 +xv
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XX.
 +
 +POLITICAL CARICATURE IN ITS INFANCY THE REVERS DU JEU DES
 +SUYSSES CARICATURE IN FRANCE THE THREE ORDERS PERIOD
 +
 +OF THE LIGTJE; CARICATURES AGAINST HENRI ni. CARICATURES
 +
 +AGAINST THE LIGTJE CARICATURE IN FRANCE IN THE SEVEN-
 +TEENTH CENTURY GENERAL GALAS THE QUARREL OF AMBAS-
 +SADORS CARICATURE AGAINST LOUIS XTV. J "WILLIAM OF FURS-
 +TEMBERO ......
 +
 +
 +
 +347
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XXI.
 +
 +EARLY POLITICAL CARICATURE IN ENGLAND THE SATIRICAL WHITINGS
 +AND PICTURES OF THE COMMONWEALTH PERIOD SATIRES AGAINST
 +THE BISHOPS; BISHOP WILLIAMS CARICATURES ON THE CAVA-
 +LIERS; SIR JOHN SUCKLING THE ROARING BOYS; VIOLENCE OP
 +
 +THE ROYALIST SOLDIERS CONTEST BETWEEN THE PRESBYTERIANS
 +AND INDEPENDENTS GRINDING THE KING'S NOSE PLAYING-CARDS
 +USED AS THE MEDIUM FOR CARICATURE; HASELRIGGE AND LAM-
 +BERT SHROVETIDE
 +
 +
 +
 +360
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XXII.
 +
 +ENGLISH COMEDY BEN JONSON THE OTHER WRITERS OF HIS SCHOOL
 +
 +INTERRUPTION OF DRAMATIC PERFORMANCES i.COMEDY AFTER
 +
 +THE RESTORATION THE HOWARDS BROTHERS: THE" DUJ^E OF
 +
 +BUCKINGHAM ; THE R.'B'.Tni'.A'R.HAT. WR.TX'F'.Ra nr'noyp'.'nv iy THE
 +
 +_T.ATvriBVR^PA^T my TTTP. aTy.VEJgTTR-RNT-FC (TENTPBY jNDEOENny OF TTTR
 +
 +-STAGE COLLEY GIBBER ^FOOTE 375
 +
 +
 +
 +\
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XXIII.
 +
 +
 +
 +CARICATURE IN HOLLAND ROMAIN DE HOOGHE THE ENGLISH REVO-
 +LUTION CARICATURES ON LOUIS XIV. AND JAMES II. DR. SACHE-
 +VERELL CARICATURE BROUGHT FROM HOLLAND TO ENGLAND
 +ORIGIN OF THE WORD " CARICATURE " MISSISSIPPI AND THE SOUTH
 +SEA J THE YEAR OF BUBBLES
 +
 +
 +
 +406
 +
 +
 +
 +xvi Contents.
 +
 +
 +
 +CHAPTER XXIV.
 +
 +PAGE
 +
 +ENGLISH CARICATURE IN THE AGE OF GEOEGE II. ENGLISH PRINT-
 +SELLERS ARTISTS EMPLOYED BY THEM SIR ROBERT WALPOLE'S
 +LONG MINISTRY THE WAR WITH FRANCE THE NEWCASTLE AD-
 +MINISTRATION OPERA INTRIGUES ACCESSION OF GEORGE HI., AND
 +LORD BTTTE IN POWER 420
 +
 +CHAPTER XXV.
 +
 +HOGARTH HIS EARLY HISTORY HIS SETS OF PICTURES THE HARLOT'S
 +PROGRESS THE RAKF.'S PROGRESS THE MARRIAGE A LA MODE
 +HIS OTHER PRINTS THE ANALYSIS OF BEAUTY, AND THE PERSECU-
 +TION ARISING OUT OF IT HIS PATRONAGE BY LORD BUTE CARICA-
 +TURE OF THE TIMES ATTACKS TO WHICH HE WAS EXPOSED BY IT,
 +AND WHICH HASTENED HIS DEATH 431
 +
 +CHAPTER XXVI.
 +
 +THE LESSER CARICATURISTS OF THE REIGN OF GEORGE m. PAUL
 +
 +SANDBY COLLET: THE DISASTER, AND FATHER PAUL IN HIS CUPS
 +
 +JAMES BAYER : HIS CARICATURES IN SUPPORT OF PITT, AND HIS
 +REWARD CARLO KHAN'S TRIUMPH BUNBURY'S: HIS CARICATURES
 +ON HORSEMANSHIP WOODWARD : GENERAL COMPLAINT ROWLAND-
 +SON'S INFLUENCE ON THE STYLE OF THOSE WHOSE DESIGNS HE
 +ETCHED JOHN KAY OF EDINBURGH: LOOKING A ROCK IN THE
 +FACE . . ' . I 450
 +
 +CHAPTER XXVII.
 +
 +GILLRAY HIS FIRST ATTEMPTS HIS CARICATURES BEGIN WITH THE
 +SHELBURNE MINISTRY IMPEACHMENT OF WARREN HASTINGS
 +CARICATURES ON THE KING J NEW WAY TO PAY THE NATIONAL
 +DEBT ALLEGED REASON FOR GLLLRAY'S HOSTILITY TO THE KING
 +THE KING AND THE APPLE -DUMPLINGS GILLRAY'S LATER LA-
 +BOURS HIS EDIOTCY AND DEATH 464
 +
 +CHAPTER XXVIII.
 +
 +GILLRAY'S CARICATURES ON SOCIAL LIFE THOMAS ROWLANDSON HIS
 +EARLY LIFE HE BECOMES A CARICATURIST HIS STYLE AND WORKS
 +HIS DRAWINGS THE CRUIKSHANKS 480
 +
 +
 +
 +CARICATURE AND GROTESQUE IN
 +LITERATURE AND ART.
 +
 +==CHAPTER I. ==
 +
 +ORIGIN OF CARICATURE AND GROTESftUE. SPIRIT OF CARICATURE IN
 +
 +EGYPT. MONSTERS : PYTHON AND GORGON. GREECE. THE DIONY-
 +
 +SIAC CEREMONIES, AND ORIGIN OF THE DRAMA. THE OLD COMEDY.
 +
 +LOVE OF PARODY. PARODIES ON SUBJECTS TAKEN FROM GRECIAN
 +
 +MYTHOLOGY: THE VISIT TO THE LOVER: APOLLO AT DELPHT. THE
 +PARTIALITY FOR PARODY CONTINUED AMONG THE ROMANS : THE
 +FLIGHT OF /ENEAS.
 +
 +IT is not my intention in the following pages to difcufs the queftion
 +what conftitutes the comic or the laughable, or, in other words, to
 +enter into the philofophy of the fubje6t; I defign only to trace the hiftory
 +of its outward development, the various forms it has aflumed, and its
 +focial influence. Laughter appears to be almoft a neceflity of human
 +nature, in all conditions of man's exiftence, however rude or however cul-
 +tivated j and fome cf the greateft men of all ages, men of the moft refined
 +intellects, fuch as Cicero in the ages of antiquity, and [[Erasmus]] among
 +the moderns, have been celebrated for their indulgence in it. The former
 +was fometimes called by his opponents scurra consularis, the "consular
 +jester j" and the latter, who has been fpoken of as the "[[mocking-bird]]," is
 +faid to have laughed fo immoderately over the well-known " [[Epistolæ Obscurorum Virorum]]," that he brought upon himfelf a ferious fit of illnefs. The greateft of comic writers, Ariftophanes, has always been looked upon as a model of literary perfection. An epigram in the Greek Anthology, written by the divine Plato, tells us how, when the Graces fought a temple which would not fall, they found the foul of [[Aristophanes]] :
 +
 +Al \apirtc r*/itvoc Tt Xa/JeTv OTrtp oi>xl iriffiir
 +fiv ivpov 'Apiffro<f>avov(;.
 +
 +On the other hand, the men who never laughed, the ayc'Xaorot, were
 +looked upon as the leafl refpectable of mortals.
 +
 +A tendency to [[burlesque]] and [[caricature]] appears, indeed, to be a feeling deeply implanted in human nature, and it is one of the earliest talents displayed by people in a rude state of society. An appreciation of, and sensitiveness to, [[ridicule]], and a love of that which is humorous, are found even among savages, and enter largely into their relations with their fellow men. When, before people cultivated either literature or art, the chieftain sat in his rude hall surrounded by his warriors, they amused themfelves by turning their enemies and opponents into [[mockery]], by laughing at their weaknesses, joking on their defects, whether physical or mental, and giving them [[nickname]]s in accordance therewith, in fact, caricaturing them in words, or by telling stories which were calculated to excite laughter. When the agricultural slaves (for the tillers of the land were then slaves) were indulged with a day of relief from their labours, they spent it in unrestrained [[mirth]]. And when these same people began to erect permanent buildings, and to ornament them, the favourite subjects of their ornamentation were such as presented ludicrous ideas. The warrior, too, who caricatured his enemy in his speeches over the festive board, soon fought to give a more permanent form to his ridicule, which he endeavoured to do by rude delineations on the bare rock, or on any other convenient surface which presented itself to his hand. Thus originated caricature and the grotesque in art. In fact, art itself, in its earliest forms, is caricature for it is only by that exaggeration of features which belongs to caricature, that unskilful draughtsmen could make themselves understood.
 +
 +Although we might, perhaps, find in different countries examples of
 +thefe principles in different flates of development, we cannot in any one
 +country trace the entire courfe of the development itfelf: for in all the highly
 +civilifed races of mankind, we firft become acquainted with their hiftory
 +when they had already reached a confiderable degree of refinement ; and
 +even at that period of their progrefs, our knowledge is almoft confined to
 +their religious, and to their more feverely historical, monuments. Such
 +is efpecially the cafe with Egypt, the hiftory of which country, as repre-
 +fented by its monuments of art, carries us back to the remoteft ages of
 +antiquity. Egyptian art generally prefents itfelf in a fombre and maffive
 +character, with little of gaiety or joviality in its defigns or forms. Yet, as
 +Sir Gardner Wilkinfon has remarked in his valuable work on the
 +"Manners and Cuftoms of the Ancient Egyptians," the early Egyptian
 +artifts cannot always conceal their natural tendency to the humorous,
 +which creeps out in a variety of little incidents. Thus, in a feries of
 +grave hiftorical pictures on one of the great monuments at Thebes, we
 +find a reprefentation of a wine party, where the company confifts of both
 +fexes, and which evidently mows that the ladies were not reftricted in the
 +
 +
 +No. I. An Egyptian Lady at a Feaft.
 +
 +ufe of the juice of the grape in their entertainments; and, as he adds, "the
 +painters, in illuftrating this fact, have fometimes facrificed their gallantry
 +to a love of caricature." Among the females, evidently of rank, repre-
 +fented in this fcene, " fome call the fervants to fupport them as they fit,
 +others with difficulty prevent themfelves from falling on thofe behind
 +them, and the faded flower, which is ready to drop from their heated
 +hands, is intended to be charaderiftic of their own fenfations." One
 +group, a lady whofe excels has been carried too far, and her fervant who
 +comes to her afliftance, is reprefented in our cut No. I. Sir Gardner
 +obferves that " many fimilar inftances of a talent for caricature are
 +obfervable in the compofitions of the Egyptian artills, who executed the
 +paintings of the tombs" at Thebes, which belong to a very early period
 +of the Egyptian annals. Nor is the application of this talent reftri6ted
 +always to fecular fubje&s, but we fee it at times intruding into the moft
 +facred myfteries of their religion. I give as a curious example, taken from
 +one of Sir Gardner Wilkinfon's engravings, a fcene in the reprefentation
 +of a funeral proceflion croffing the Lake of the Dead (No. 2), that
 +
 +
 +No. 2. Cataftrophe in a Funeral Procejfion.
 +
 +appears in one of theie early paintings at Thebes, in which " the love of
 +caricature common to the Egyptians is mown to have been indulged
 +even in this ferious fubjeft; and the retrograde movement of the large
 +boat, which has grounded and is puflied off the bank, ftriking the fmaller
 +one with its rudder, has overturned a large table loaded with cakes and
 +other things, upon the rowers feated below, in fpite of all the efforts of
 +the prowman, and the earneft vociferations of the alarmed fteerfman."
 +The accident which thus overthrows and fcatters the provifions intended
 +for the funeral feaft, and the confufion attendant upon it, form a ludicrous
 +fcene in the midft of a folemn picture, that would be worthy of the
 +imagination of a Rowlandfon.
 +
 +Another cut (No. 3), taken from one of the fame feries of paintings,
 +belongs to a clafs of caricatures which dates from a very remote period.
 +One of the moft natural ideas among all people would be to compare
 +men with the animals whofe y<trticular qualities they poflelfed. Thus,
 +one might be as bold as a lior, another ~s faithful as a dog, or as cunning
 +as a fox, or as fwinifh as a hog. The aame of the animal would thus
 +often be given as a nickname to the Kian, and in the fequel he would be
 +reprefented piftorially under the form of the animal. It was partly out
 +of this kind of caricature, no doubt, that the fingular clafs of apologues
 +which have been fince diftinguiflied by the name of fables arofe.
 +Connected with it was the belief in the metempfychofis, or tranfmiifion
 +of the foul into the bodies of animals after death, which formed a part of
 +feveral of the primitive religions. The earlieft examples of this clafs
 +
 +No 3. A.n Unfortunate Soul.
 +
 +of caricature of mankind are found on the Egyptian monuments, as
 +in the inftance juft referred to, which reprefents " a foul condemned to
 +return to earth under the form of a pig, having been weighed in the
 +fcales before Ofiris and been found wanting. Being placed in a boat,
 +and accompanied by two monkeys, it is difmifled the facred precincV*
 +The latter animals, it may be remarked, as they are here reprefented, are
 +the cynocephali, or dog-headed monkeys (the Jimia inuus), which were
 +facred animals among the Egyptians, and the peculiar cbarafteriftic of
 +which the dog-ihaped head is, as ufual, exaggerated by the artift.
 +The reprefentation of this return of a condemned foul under the
 +repulfive form of a pig, is painted on the left fide wall of the long
 +entrance-gallery to the tomb of King Ramefes V., in the valley of royal
 +catacombs known as the Biban-el-Molook, at Thebes. Wilkinfon gives
 +the date of the acceffion of this monarch to the throne as 1185, B.C.
 +In the original picture, Ofiris is feated on his throne at fome diftance from
 +the item of the boat, and is difmiffing it from his prefence by a wave
 +of the hand. This tomb was open in the time of the Romans, and
 +termed by them the " Tomb of Momnon j" it was greatly admired, and
 +is covered with laudatory infcriptions by Greek and Roman vifitors. One
 +of the moft interefling is placed beneath this picture, recording the name
 +of a daduchus, or torch-bearer in the Eleufinian myfteries, who vifited this
 +tomb in the reign of Conftantine.
 +
 +The practice having been once introduced of reprefenting men under
 +th^_chara^er_"of"^nTi'lialb, was Iboii' developed into otheF~applications
 +
 +
 +,Y . 4. The Cat and the Geefe.
 +
 +of the fame idea fuch as that of figuring animals employed in the
 +various Ottiupatiora of mankmd^jUKTthat of reverimg the pofitiorToTm^n
 +"and the Infenorjujimals. and reprefentmg the latter as treating their
 +human tyrant in the fame manner as they are ufually treated by him.
 +The latter idea became a very favourite one at a later period, but the
 +other is met with not unfrequently among the works of art which have
 +been faved from the wrecks of antiquity. Among the treafures of the
 +Britifh Mufeum, there is a long Egyptian pifture on papyrus, originally
 +forming a roll, confifting of reprefentations of this defcription, from which
 +I give three curious examples. The firft (fee cut No. 4) reprefents a cat
 +in charge of a drove of geefe. It will be obferved that the cat holds in
 +her hand the fame fort of rod, with a hook at the end, with which the
 +
 +
 +No. 5. The Fox turned Pifer.
 +
 +monkeys are furnifhed in the preceding pifture. The fecond (No. 5)
 +reprefents a fox carrying a bafket by means of a pole fupported on his
 +fhoulder (a method of carrying burthens frequently reprefented on the
 +monuments of ancient art), and playing on the well-known double flute,
 +or pipe. The fox foon became a %ourite__peiIbBaga in this HaiL-Of.
 +caricatures, and W Q ir^Jg!^ ? prnrpinpnt part hp afterwards-played in
 +jnedjaacaJUatire.^-Perhaps, however, the moft popular of all animals in
 +this clafs of drolleries was the monkey, which appears natural enough
 +when we conlider its fingular aptitude to mimic the a&ions of man.
 +The ancient naturalifts tell us fome curious, though not very credible,
 +ftories of the manner in which this chara&eriflic of the monkey tribes was
 +taken advantage of to entrap them, and Pliny (Hift. Na,.., lib. viii. c. 80)
 +quotes an older writer, who aflerted that they had even been taught
 +to play at draughts. Our third fubje6t from the Egyptian papyrus of the
 +Britifh Mufeum (No. 6) reprefents a fcene in which the game of draughts
 +or, more properly (peaking, the game which the Romans called the
 +
 +
 +No. 6. The Lion and the Unicorn.
 +
 +ludus latrunculorinn, and which is believed to have refembled our draughts
 +is played by two animals well known to modem heraldry, the lion and
 +the unicorn. The lion has evidently gained the victory, and is fingering
 +the money; and his bold air of fwaggering fuperiority, as well as the look
 +of furprife and difappointment of his vanquifhed opponent, are by no
 +means ill pictured. This feries of caricatures, though Egyptian, belongs
 +to the Roman period.
 +
 +The monftrous is clofely allied to the grotefque, and both come within
 +the province of caricature, when we take this term in its wideft fenfe.
 +
 +The Greeks, efpecially, were partial to reprefentations of monfters, and
 +monitrous forms are continually met with among their ornaments and works
 +of art. The type of the Egyptian monfler is reprefented in the accompany-
 +ing cut (No. 7), taken from the work of Sir Gardner Wilkinfon before
 +quoted, and is faid to be the figure of the god Typhon. It occurs frequently
 +on Egyptian monuments, with fome variation in its forms, but always
 +
 +No. 7. Typhon.
 +
 +charafterifed by the broad, coarfe, and frightful face, and by the large
 +tongue lolling out. It is interefting to us, becaufe it is the apparent
 +origin of a long feries of faces, or maflb, of this form and charafter, which
 +are continually recurring in the grotefque ornamentation, not only of the
 +Greeks and Romans, but of the middle ages. It appears to have been
 +fometimes given by the Romans to the reprefentations of people whom
 +they hated or defpifed ; and Pliny, in a curious paflage of his " Natural
 +History,"* informs us that at one time, among the pictures exhibited in
 +the Forum at Rome, there was one in which a Gaul was reprefented,
 +" thrufting out his tongue in a very unbecoming manner." The Egyptian
 +Typhons had their exact reprefentations in ancient Greece in a figure of
 +frequent occurrence, to which antiquaries have, 1 know not why, given
 +the name of Gorgon. The example in our cut No. 8, is a figure in terra*
 +cotta, now in the collection of the Royal Mufeum at Berlin, f
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 8. Gvrgirn.
 +
 +In Greece, however, the fpirit of caricature and burlefque repre-
 +fentation had aflumed a more regular form than in other countries, for it
 +was inherent in the fpirit of Grecian fociety. 'Among the population of
 +Greece, the worship of Dionyfus, or Bacchus, had taken deep root from
 +
 +
 +
 +* Plin. Hist. Nat., lib. xxxv. c. 8.
 +
 +f Panofka Terracotten des Museums Berlin, pi. Ixi. p. 154.
 +
 +
 +a very early period earlier than we can trace back and it formed the
 +nucleus of the popular religion and fuperftitions, the cradle of poetry and
 +the drama. The moft popular celebrations of the people of Greece, were
 +the Dionyfiac feftivals, and the phallic rites and proceffions which accom-
 +panied them, in which the chief adtors aflumed the difguife of fatyrs and
 +fawns, covering themfelves with goat-fkins, and disfiguring their faces by
 +rubbing them over with the lees of wine. Thus, in the guife of noify
 +bacchanals, they difplayed an unreftrained licentioufnefs of gefture and
 +language, uttering indecent jefts and abufive fpeeches, in which they
 +fpared nobody. This portion of the ceremony was the efpecial attribute
 +of a part of the performers, who accompanied the proceffion in waggons,
 +and a6ted fomething like dramatic performances, in which they uttered an
 +abundance of loofe extempore fatire on thofe who pafled or who accom
 +panied the proceffion, a little in the ftyle of the modern carnivals. It be
 +came thus the occafion for an unreftrained publication of coarfe pafquinades.
 +In the time of Pififtratus, thefe performances are aflumed to have been
 +reduced to a little more order by an individual named Thefpis, who is
 +faid to have invented mafks as a better difguife than dirty faces, and is
 +looked upon as the father of the Grecian drama. There can be no
 +doubt, indeed, that the drama arofe out of thefe popular ceremonies, and
 +it long bore the unmiftakable marks of its origin. Even the name of
 +tragedy has nothing tragic in its derivation, for it is formed from the
 +Greek word tragos (rpayoc), a goat, in the {kins of which animal the
 +fatyrs clothed themfelves, and hence the name was given alfo to thofe who
 +perfonated the fatyrs in the proceffions. A tragodus (rpayydog) was the
 +finger, whofe words accompanied the movements of a chorus of fatyrs,
 +and the term tragodia was applied to his performance. In the fame
 +manner, a comodus (KW/XW^OC) was one who accompanied fimilarly, with
 +chants of an abufive or fatirical character, a comus (*rw/ioc), or band of
 +revellers, in the more riotous and licentious portion of the performances
 +in the Bacchic feftivals. The Greek drama always betrayed its origin by
 +the circumftance that the performances took place annually, only at the
 +yearly feitivals in honour of Bacchus, of which in fat they conftituted
 +a part. Moreover, as the Greek drama became perfected, it Hill retained
 +from its origin a triple divifion, into tragedy, comedy, and the fatiric
 +drama j and, being ftill performed at the Dionyfiac feflival in Athens,
 +each dramatic author was expe6ted to produce what was called a trilogy,
 +that is, a tragedy, a fatirical play, and a comedy. So completely was all
 +this identified in the popular mind with the worlhip of Bacchus, that,
 +long afterwards, when even a tragedy did not pleafe the audience
 +by its fubjecl:, the common form of difapproval was, ri ravra irpog TOV
 +"What has this to do with Bacchus?" and, ovSev irpoe rbv
 +
 +" This has nothing to do with Bacchus."
 +
 +We have no perfect remains of the Greek fatiric drama, which was,
 +perhaps, of a temporary character, and lefs frequently preferved j but the
 +early Greek comedy is preferved in a certain number of the plays of
 +Ariftophanes, in which we can contemplate it in all its freedom of
 +character. It represented the waggon-jefting, of the age of Thefpis,
 +in its full development. In its form it was burlefque to a wanton degree
 +of extravagance, and its eflence was perfonal vilification, as well as general
 +fatire. Individuals were not oiuy attacked by the application to them of
 +abufive epithets, but they were reprefented perfonally on the llage as
 +performing every kind of contemptible adion, and as frittering all forts of
 +ludicrous and difgraceful treatment. The drama thus bore marks of
 +its origin in its extraordinary licentioufnefs^pf language and coftume, and
 +in the conftant ufe of the maflt. One of its moft favourite inftruments
 +of fatire was parody, which was employed unfparingly on everything
 +which fociety in its folermi moments refpeded againft everything that
 +the fatirift confidered worthy of being held up to public derifion or fcorn.
 +Religion itfelf, philofophy, focial manners and inftitutions even poetry
 +were all parodied in their turn. The comedies of Ariftophanes are full
 +of parodies on the poetry of the tragic and other writers of his age. He
 +is efpecially happy in parodying the poetry of the tragic dramatift
 +Euripides. The old comedy of Greece has thus been correctly defcribed
 +as the comedy of caricature j and the fpirit, and even the fcenes, of this
 +comedy, being transferred to pidorial reprefentattons, became entirely
 +identical with that branch of art to which we give the name of caricature
 +in modern times. Under the cover of bacchanalian buffoonery, a ferious
 +purpofe, it is true, was aimed at ; but the general fatire was chiefly
 +implied in the violent perfonal attacks on individuals, and thU became fo
 +offenlive that when fuch perfons obtained greater power in Athens than
 +the populace the old comedy was abolifhed.
 +
 +Ariftophanes was the greateft and moft perfect poet of the Old
 +Comedy, and his remaining comedies are as ftrongly marked reprefenta-
 +tions of the hoftility of political and focial parties in his time, as the
 +caricatures of Gillray are of party in the reign of our George III., and, we
 +may add, even more minute. They range through the memorable period
 +of the Peloponnefian war, and the earlier ones give us the regular annual
 +feries of thefe performances, as far as Ariftophanes contributed them, during
 +feveral years. The firft of them, " The Acharnians," was performed at the
 +Lenaean feaft of Bacchus in the fixth year of the Peloponnefian war, the
 +year 425 B.C., when it gained the firft prize. It is a bold attack on
 +the factious prolongation of the war through the influence of the Athenian
 +demagogues. The next, "The Knights," brought out in B.C. 424, is a
 +direft attack upon Cleon, the chief of thefe demagogues, although he is
 +not mentioned by name ; and it is recorded that, finding nobody who had
 +courage enough to make a maik reprefenting Cleon, or to play the cha-
 +racter, Ariftophanes was obliged to perform it himfelf, and that he fmeared
 +his face with lees of wine, in order to reprefent the flufhed and bloated
 +countenance of the great demagogue, thus returning to the original mode
 +of acting of the predeceflbrs of Thefpis. This, too, was the firft of the
 +comedies of Ariftophanes which he publifhed in his own name. " The
 +Clouds," publilhed in 423, is aimed at Socrates and the philofophers.
 +The fourth, " The Wafps," publifhed in B.C. 422, prefents a fatire on the
 +litigious fpirit of tne Athenians. The fifth, entitled " Peace " ("Etpjjvj/),
 +appeared in the year following, at the time of the peace of Nicias, and is
 +another fatire on the bellicofe fpirit of the Athenian democracy. The
 +next in the lift of extant plays comes after an interval of feveraJ years,
 +having been publiihed in B.C. 414, the firft year of the Sicilian war, a^d
 +relates to an irreligious movement in Athens, which had caufed a great
 +fenfation. Two Athenians are repreiented as leaving Athens, in difguft
 +at the vices and follies of their fellow citizens, and feekir.g the kingdom
 +of the birds, where they form a new ftate, by which the communication
 +between the mortals and the immortals is cut off, and is only opened
 +again by an arrangement between all the parties. In the " Lyfiftrata,''
 +believed to have been brought out in 411, when the war was ftill at its
 +height, the women of Athens are reprefented as engaging in a cunning
 +and fuccefsful plot, by which they gain poflefiion of the government of the
 +Hate, and compel their hulbands to make peace. "The Thefmo-
 +phoriazufae," appears to have been publiftied in B.C. 410 ; it is a fatire
 +upon Euripides, whofe writings were remarkable for their bitter attacks
 +on the character of the female fex, who, in this comedy, confpire againft
 +him to fecure his puniihment. The comedy of "The Frogs " was brought
 +out in the year 405 B.C., and is a fatire on the literature of the day ; it is
 +aimed efpecially at Euripides, and was perhaps written foon after his death,
 +its real fubje6t being the decline of the tragic drama, which Euripides
 +was accufed of having promoted. It is perhaps the moft witty of the
 +plays of Ariftophanes which have been preferved. "The Ecclefiazufae,"
 +publifhed in 392, is a burlefque upon the theories of republican govern-
 +ment, which were then ftarted among the philofophers, fome of which
 +differed little from our modern communifm. The ladies again, by a clever
 +confpiracy, gain the maftery in the eftate, and they decree a community
 +of goods and women, with fome laws very peculiar to that ftate of things.
 +The humour of the piece, which is extremely broad, curns upon the
 +difputes and embarraffments refulting from this ftate of things. The
 +laft of his comedies extant, " Plutus," appears to be a work of the
 +concluding years of the aftive life of Ariftophanes ; it is the leaft ftriking
 +of them all, and is rather a moral than a political fatire.
 +
 +In a comedy brought out in 426, the year before "The Archarnians,"
 +under the title of "The Babylonians," Ariftophanes appears to have given
 +great offence to the democratic party, a circumftance to which he alludes
 +more than once in the former play. However, his talents and popularity
 +feem to have carried him over the danger, and certainly nothing can have
 +exceeded the bitternefs of fatire employed in his fubfequent comedies.
 +Thofe who followed him were lefs fortunate.
 +
 +One of the lateft writers of the Old Comedy was Anaximandrides,
 +who caft a refle&ion on the ftate of Athens in parodying a line of Euripides-
 +This poet had faid,
 +
 +} 0v<rie l[3ov\tO' fj vofidiv ovSiv piXti
 +(Nature has commanded, which cares nothing for the- laws);
 +
 +which Anaximandrides changed to
 +
 +s/3ov\0' r\ vofjiwv ovSfv [liXti
 +(The state has commanded, which cares nothing for the laws).
 +
 +Nowhere is oppreflion exercifed with greater harfhnefs than under demo-
 +cratic governments ; and Anaximandrides was profecuted for this joke as
 +a crime againft the ftate, and condemned to death. As may be fuppofed,
 +liberty of fpeech ceafed to exift in Athens. We are well acquainted with
 +the character of the Old Comedy, in its greateft freedom, through the
 +writings of Ariftophanes. What was called the Middle Comedy, in
 +which political fatire was prohibited, lafted from this time until the age
 +of Philip of Macedon, when the old liberty of Greece was finally crufhed.
 +The laft form of Greek comedy followed, which is known as the
 +New Comedy, and was reprefented by fuch names as Epicharmus and
 +Menander. In the New Comedy all caricature and parody, and all
 +perfonal allufions, were entirely profcribed ; it was changed entirely into
 +a comedy of manners and domeftic life, a picture of contemporary fociety
 +under conventional names and characters. From this New Comedy was
 +taken the Roman comedy, fuch as we now have it in the plays of Plautus
 +and Terence, who were profefled imitators of Menander and the other
 +writers of the new comedy of the Greeks.
 +
 +Pictorial caricature was, of courfe, rarely to be feen on the public
 +monuments of Greece or Rome, but muft have been configned to objects
 +of a more popular character and to articles of common ufe j and, accord-
 +ingly, modern antiquarian refearch has brought it to light fomewhat
 +abundantly on the pottery of Greece and Etruna, and on the wall-paint-
 +ings of domeftic buildings in Herculaneum and Pompeii. The former
 +contains comic fcenes, efpecially parodies, which are evidently transferred
 +to them from the ftage, and which preferve the mafks and other attributes
 +ibme of which I have neceflarily^mitted proving the model from
 +which they were taken. The Greeks, as we know from many fources,
 +were extremely fond of parodies of ever)' defcription, whether literary or
 +pictorial. The fubje6t of our cut No. 9 is a good example of the parodies
 +
 +
 +No. 9. A Greek Parody.
 +
 +
 +
 +found on the Greek pottery ; it is taken from a fine Etrufcan vafe,* and
 +has been fuppofed to be a parody on the vifit of Jupiter to Alcmena.
 +This appears rather doubtful, but there can be no doubt that it is a
 +burlefque reprefentation of the vifit of a lover to the object of his afpira-
 +tions. The lover, in the comic mafk and coftume, mounts by a ladder to
 +the window at which the lady prefents herfelf, who, it muft be confefied,
 +prefents the appearance of giving her admirer a very cold reception. He
 +tries to conciliate her by a prefent of what feem to be apples, inftead of
 +
 +gold,
 +
 +* Given in Panofka, " Antiques du Cabinet Pourtal&s," pi. x.
 +
 +, but without much effed. He is attended by his fervant with a
 +torch, to give him light on the way, which mows that it is a night
 +adventure. Both matter and fervant have wreaths round their heads, and
 +the latter carries a third in his hand, which, with the contents of his
 +bafket, are alfo probably intended as prefents to the lady.
 +
 +A more unmiftakable burlefque on the vilit of Jupiter to Alcmena
 +is publifhed by Winckelmann from a vafe, formerly in the library of the
 +Vatican, and now at St. Peterfburg. The treatment of the fubject is
 +not unlike the picture juft defcribed. Alcmena appears juft in the fame
 +pofture at her chamber window, and Jupiter is carrying his ladder to
 +mount up to her, but has not yet placed it againft the wall. His
 +companion is identified with Mercury by the well-known caduceus he
 +carries in his left hand, while with his right hand he holds a lamp up
 +to the window, in order to enable Jupiter to fee the object of his amour.
 +
 +It is aftonilhing with how much boldnefs the Greeks parodied and
 +ridiculed facred fubjects. The Chriftian father, Arnobius, m writing
 +againft his heathen opponents, reproached them with this circumftance.
 +The laws, he fays, were made to protect the characters of men from
 +flander and libel, but there was no fuch protection for the characters of
 +the gods, which were treated with the greateft difrefpect.* This was
 +efpecially the cafe in their pictorial reprefentations.
 +
 +Pliny informs us that Ctefilochus, a pupil of the celebrated Apelles,
 +painted a burlefque picture of Jupiter giving birth to Bacchus, in which
 +the god was reprelented in a very ridiculous pofture. f Ancient writers
 +intimate that fimilar examples were not uncommon, and mention the
 +names of feveral comic painters, whofe works of this clafs were in repute.
 +Some of thefe were bitter perfonal caricatures, like a celebrated work of a
 +
 +painter
 +
 +* Arnobius (contra Gentes\ lib. iv..p. 150. Carmen malum conscribere, quo fama
 +alterius coinquinatur et vita, decemviralibus scitis evadere noluistis impune : ac ne
 +vestras aures convitio aliquis petulantiore pulsaret, de atrocibus formulas consti-
 +tuistis injuriis. Soli dii sunt apud vos super! inhonorati, contemtibiles, viles : in
 +quos jus est vobis datum quae quisque voluerit dicere turpitudinem, jacere quas
 +libido confinxerit atque excogitaverit formas.
 +
 +t Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. xxxv. c. 40.
 +
 +painter named Cteficles, defcribed alfo by Pliny. It appears that Stra-
 +tonice, the queen of Seleucus Nicator, had received this painter ill when
 +he vifited her court, and in revenge he executed a picture in which ihe
 +was reprefented, according to a current fcandal, as engaged in an amour
 +with a common fimerman, which he exhibited in the harbour of Ephefus,
 +and then made his efcape on ftiip-board. Pliny adds that the queen
 +admired the beauty and accuracy of the painting more than {he felt the
 +infult, and that me forbade the removal of the picture.*
 +
 +The fubject of our fecond example of the Greek caricature is better
 +known. It is taken from an oxybaphon which was brought from the
 +Continent to England, where it pafled into the collection of Mr. William
 +Hope.f The oxybaphon (6vfia<j)ov), or, as it was called by the Romans,
 +acetalulum, was a large veflel for holding vinegar, which formed one of
 +the important ornaments of the table, and was therefore very fufceptible
 +of piftorial embellifhment of this defcription. It is one of the moft remark-
 +able Greek caricatures of this kind yet known, and reprefents a parody on
 +one of the moft interefting ftories of the Grecian mythology, that of the
 +arrival of Apollo at Delphi. The artift, in his love of burlefque, has
 +fpared none of the perfonages who belonged to the ftory. The Hyper-
 +borean Apollo himfelf appears in the character of a quack doctor, on his
 +temporary ftage, covered by a fort of roof, and approached by wooden
 +fteps. On the ftage lies Apollo's luggage, confifting of a bag, a bow, and
 +his Scythian cap. Chiron (XlPQN) is reprefented as labouring under
 +the effects of age and blindnefs, and fupporting himfelf by the aid of a
 +crooked ftaff, as he repairs to the Delphian quack-doctor for relief. The
 +figure of the centaur is made to afcend by the aid of a companion, both
 +being furnilhed with the mafks and other attributes of the comic per-
 +formers. Above are the mountains, and on them the nymphs of Par-
 +naflus (NYM<J>AI), who, like all the other actors in the fcene, are difguifed
 +with malks, and thofe of a very grotefque character. On the right-hand
 +
 +* Pliny, Hist. Nat., lib. xxxv. c. 40.
 +
 +t Engraved by Ch. Lenormant et J. de Witt, "Elite des Monuments Ceramo-
 +graphiques," pi. xciv.
 +
 +fide ftands a figure which is confidered as reprefenting the epoptes, the
 +infpe&or or overfeer of the performance, who alone wears no malk.
 +Even a pun is employed to heighten the drollery of the fcene, for inftead
 +of IIY6IAS, the Pythian, placed over the head of the burlefque Apollo,
 +it feems evident that the artift had written HEI6IA2, the confoler, in
 +allufion, perhaps, to the confolation which the quack-do6tor is adminifter-
 +ing to his blind and aged vifitor.
 +
 +The Greek fpirit of parody, applied even to the moft facred fubjeds,
 +
 +No. 10. Apollo at Delphi.
 +
 +however it may have declined in Greece, was revived at Rome, and we find
 +examples of it on the walls of Pompeii and Herculaneum." They mow
 +the fame readinefs to turn into burlefque the moft facred and popular
 +legends of the Roman mythology. The example given (cut No. u),
 +from one of the wall-paintings, is peculiarly interefting, both from
 +circumftances in the drawing itfelf, and becaufe it is a parody on one of
 +the favourite national legends of the Roman people, who prided them-
 +felves on their defcent from vEneas. Virgil has told, with great effect,
 +the ftory of his hero's elcape from the deftru6tion of Troy or rather has
 +put the llory into his hero's mouth. When the devoted city was already
 +
 +No. II. The PKgh. of Mneas from Troy.
 +
 +in flames, ^Eneas took his father, Anchifes, on his moulder, and his boy,
 +lulus, or, as he was otherwife called, Afcanius, by the hand, and thus fled
 +from his home, followed by his wife
 +
 +
 +
 +Ergo age, care pater, cer-vici imponere nofirtf ,
 +
 +Ipfefubibo humeris, nee me labor ifte gra-vablt.
 +
 +Quo ret cumque cadent, unum et commune perklum,
 +
 +Unafalus ambobus em. AfiAi parvus lulus
 +
 +Sit ;, et longejer-vat vefllgla conjux.Virg. JEn., lib. ii. L 707.
 +
 +
 +Thus they hurried on, the child holding by his father's right hand, and
 +dragging after with " unequal fteps,"
 +
 +dextrte fe par-vus lulus
 +Implicuit fequiturque patrem non pajjlbus eequis. Virg. lEm., lib. ii. 1. 723.
 +
 +And thus ./Eneas bore away both father and fon, and the penates, or
 +houfehold gods, of his family, which were to be transferred to another
 +country, and become the future guardians of Rome
 +
 +j4fcanium, Anchifemque patrem, Tencrofque penates. Ib., L 747.
 +
 +In this cale we know that the delign is intended to be a parody,
 +or burlefque, upon a pi6ture which appears to have been celebrated
 +
 +No. 12. The Flight of Mneas.
 +
 +at the time, and of which at leaft two different copies are found upon
 +ancient intaglios. Tt is the only cafe I know in which both the original
 +and the parody have been preferred from this remote period, and this is
 +fo curious a circumftance, that I give in the cut on the preceding page a
 +copy of one of the intaglios.* It reprefented literally Virgil's account of
 +the ftory, and the only difference between the defign on the intaglios and
 +the one given in our firft cut is, that in the latter the perfonages are repre-
 +fented under the forms of monkeys. ./Eneas, perfonified by the ftrong and
 +vigorous animal, carrying the old monkey, Anchifes, on his left (boulder,
 +hurries forward, and at the fame time looks back on the burning city. With
 +his right hand he drags along the boy lulus, or Afcanius, who is evidently
 +proceeding non pajffilus cequis, and with difficulty keeps up with his
 +father's pace. The boy wears a Phrygian bonnet, and holds in his right
 +hand the inftrument of play which we fhould now call a " bandy "
 +the pedun. Anchifes has charge of the box, which contains the facred
 +penates. It is a curious circumftance that the monkeys in this picture are
 +the fame dog-headed animals, or cynocephali, which are found on
 +the Egyptian monuments.
 +
 +* These intaglios are engraved in the Museum Florentinum of Gorius, vol. ii.
 +pi. 30 On one of them the figures are reversed.
 +
 +When this chapter was already given tor press, I first became acquainted with an interesting paper, by [[Theodor Panofka|Panofka]], on the " [[Parodieen und Karikaturen auf Werken der Klassischen Kunst]]," in the " Abhandlungen der Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin," for the year 1854, and I can only now refer my readers to it.
 +
 +==CHAPTER II. [https://archive.org/stream/historyofcaricat00wriguoft#page/23/mode/1up][https://archive.org/stream/historyofcaricat00wrig#page/n44/mode/1up]==
 +
 +ORIGIN OF THE STAGE IN ROME. USES OF THE MASK AMONG THE ROMANS. SCENES FROM ROMAN COMEDY. THE SANNIO AND MIMUS.
 +
 +THE ROMAN DRAMA. THE ROMAN SATIRISTS. CARICATURE.
 +
 +ANIMALS INTRODUCED IN THE CHARACTERS OF MEN. THE PIGMIES,
 +
 +AND THEIR INTRODUCTION INTO CARICATURE ; THE FARM-YARD ; THE PAINTER'S STUDIO; THE PROCESSION. POLITICAL CARICATURE IN POMPEII J THE GRAFFITI.
 +
 +THE Romans appear to have never had any real tafte for the regular [[drama]], which they merely copied from the Greeks, and from the earlieft period of their hiftory we find them borrowing all their arts of this defcription from their neighbours. In Italy, as in Greece, the firft germs of [[comic literature]] may be traced in the religious feftivals, which prefented a mixture of religious worfhip and riotous feftivity, where the feafters danced and fung, and, as they became excited with wine and enthufiafm, indulged in mutual reproaches and abufe. The oldeft poetry of the Romans, which was compofed in irregular meafure, was reprefented by the [[verfus faturnini]], faid to have been fo called from their antiquity (for things of remote antiquity were believed to belong to the age of Saturn). [[Naevius]], one of the oldeft of Latin poets, is faid to have written in this verfe. Next in order of time came the [[Fescennine Verses|Fefcennine verfes]], which appear to have been diftinguifhed chiefly by .their licenfe, and received their name becaufe they were brought from Fefcennia, in Etruria, where they were employed originally in the feftivals of Ceres and Bacchus. In the year 391 of Rome, or 361 B.C., the city was vifited by a dreadful plague, and the citizens hit upon what will appear to us the rather ftrange expedient of fending for performers (ludiones) from Etruria, hoping, by employing them, to appeafe the anger of the gods. Any performer of this kind appears to have been fo little known to the Romans before this, that
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +24 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +there was not even a name for him in the language, and they were
 +obliged to adopt the Tufcan word, and call him a hiflrio, becaufe hifter in
 +that language meant a player or pantomimift. This word, we know,
 +remained in the Latin language. Thefe firft Etrurian performers appear
 +indeed to have been mere pantomimifts, who accompanied the flute with
 +all forts of mountebank tricks, geftures, dances, gefticulations, and the
 +like, mixed with fatirical fongs, and fometimes with the performance of
 +coarfe farces. The Romans had alfo a clafs of performances rather more
 +dramatic in character, confifting of ftories which were named Faluloe
 +AtdlancB, becaufe thefe performers were brought from Atella, a city of
 +the Ofci.
 +
 +A confiderable advance was made in dramatic Art in Rome about the
 +middle of the third century before Chrift. It is afcribed to a freedman
 +named Livius Andronicus, a Greet- by birth, who is faid to have brought
 +out, in the year 240 B.C., the firft regular comedy ever performed in
 +Rome. Thus we trace not only the Roman comedy, but the very rudi-
 +ments of dramatic art in Rome, either direct to the Greeks, or to the
 +Grecian colonies in Italy. With the Romans, as well as with the Greeks,
 +the theatre was a popular inftitution, open to the public, and the Hate or
 +a wealthy individual paid for the performance ; and therefore the building
 +itfelf was neceflarily of very great extent, and, in both countries open to
 +the fky, except that the Romans provided for throwing an awning over
 +it. As the Roman comedy was copied from the new comedy of the
 +Greeks, and therefore did not admit of the introduction of caricature and
 +burlefque on the ftage, thefe were left especially to the province of the
 +pantomime and farce, which the Romans, as juft ftated, had received
 +from a ftill earlier period.
 +
 +Whether the Romans borrowed the malk from the Greeks, or not, is
 +rather uncertain, but it was ufed as generally in the Roman theatres,
 +whether in comedy or tragedy, as among the Greeks. The Greek adors
 +performed upon ftilts, in order to magnify their figures, as the area of the
 +theatre was very large and uncovered, and without this help they were
 +not fo well feen at a diftance ; and one object of utility aimed at by the
 +mafk is faid to have been to make the head appear proportionate in fize
 +
 +to
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +2 5
 +
 +
 +
 +to the artificial height of the body. It may be remarked that the malk
 +feems generally to have been made to cover the whole head, reprefenting
 +the hair as well as the face, fo that the character of age or complexion
 +might be given complete. Among the Romans the ftilts were certainly
 +not in general ufe, but ftill the malk, befides its comic or tragic character,
 +is fuppofed to have ferved ufeful purpofes. The firft improvement upon
 +its original ftru6ture is faid to have been the making it of brafs, or fome
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 13. si Scene from Ten nee.
 +
 +other fonorous metal, or at leaft lining the mouth with it,fo as to reverberate,
 +and give force to the voice, and alfo to the mouth of the malk fomethingof
 +the charafter of a fpeaking-trumpet.* All thefe acceflbries could not fail to
 +detraa much from the effecT: of the ading, which muft in general have
 +been very meafured and formal, and have received moft of its importance
 +from the excellence of the poetry, and the declamatory talents of the
 +a6lors. We have pictures in which fcenes from the Roman ftage are
 +
 +accurately
 +
 +* It is said to have received its Latin name from this circumstance, ferfona, u
 +pcrjonando. See Aulus Gellius, Noct Alt., lib. v. C. 7-
 +
 +
 +
 +26
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +accurately reprefented. Several rather early manufcripts of Terence have
 +been preferved, illuftrated with drawings of the fcenes as reprefented on
 +the ftage, and thefe, though belonging to a period long fubfequent to the
 +age in which the Roman ftage exifted in its original character, are, no
 +doubt, copied from drawings of an earlier date. A German antiquary of
 +the laft century, [[Henry Berger]], publifhed in a quarto volume a feries of
 +fuch illuftrations from a manufcript of Terence in the library of the
 +Vatican at Rome, from which two examples are ielec\ed, as fhowing the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 14. Geta and Demea.
 +
 +
 +
 +ufual ftyle of Roman comic ading, and the ufe of the mafk. The firil
 +(No. 13) is the opening fcene in the Andria. On the right, two fervants
 +have brought provifions, and on the left appear Simo, the matter of the
 +houfehold, and his freedman, Sofia, who feems to be entrufted with the
 +charge of his domeftic affairs. Simo tells his fervants to go away with
 +the provifions, while he beckons Sofia to confer with him in private :
 +
 +Si. Vos ijlac intro auferte ; abite, Sofia,
 +Adejdum ; faucis te -volo. So. Difium futa
 +Netffx ut curentur refie h<ec. Si. Imo aliud.
 +
 +Terent Andr., Actus i., Scena 1.
 +
 +When
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art
 +
 +
 +
 +27
 +
 +
 +
 +When we compare thefe words with the pi6ture, we cannot but feel that
 +in the latter there is an unneceflary degree of energy put into the pofe
 +of the figures ; which is perhaps lefs the cafe in the other (No. 14), an
 +illuftration of the fixth fcene of the fifth att of the Adelphi of Terence. It
 +reprefents the meeting of Geta, a rather talkative and conceited fervant,
 +and Demea, a countryfied and churlifh old man, his acquaintance, and of
 +courfe fuperior. To Geta's falutation, Demea afks churliflily, as not at
 +firft knowing him, "Who are you?" but when he finds that it is Geta,
 +he changes fuddenly to an almoft fawning tone :
 +
 +G Sed ecc urn Demeam. Sal-vus fief
 +
 +D. OA, qui -vocare ? G. Geta. D. Geta, hominem maximi
 +Pretii ejje te kodie judica-vi animo met.
 +
 +That thefe reprefentations are truthful, the fcenes in the wall-paintings
 +of Pompeii leave us no room to doubt. One of thefe is produced in our
 +cut No. 15, which is no doubt taken from a comedy now loft, and we
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 15. Comic Scene from Pomf,eii.
 +
 +
 +
 +are ignorant whom the charaders are intended to reprefent. The pofe
 +given to the two comic figures, compared with the example given from
 +
 +Berger,
 +
 +
 +
 +28
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +Berger, would lead us to fuppofe that this over-energetic action was
 +confidered as part of the character of comic acting.
 +
 +The fubject of the Roman mafks is the more interefting, becaufe they
 +were probably the origin of many of the grotefque faces fo often met
 +with in mediaeval fculpture. The comic maflc was, indeed, a very popular
 +object among the Romans, and appears to have been taken as fymbolical
 +of everything that was droll and burlefque. From the comic fcenes of
 +the theatre, to which it was firft appropriated, it pafied to the popular
 +feftivals of a public character, fuch as the Lupercalia, with which, no
 +doubt, it was carried into the carnival of the middle ages, and to our
 +mafquerades. Among the Romans, alfo, the ufe of the maik foon pafied
 +from the public feftivals to private fupper parties. Its ufe was fo common
 +that it became a plaything among children, and was fometimes ufed as a
 +bugbear to frighten them. Our cut No. 16, taken from a painting at
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1 6. Cupidi at Play.
 +
 +Refina, reprefents two cupids playing with a malk, and ufing it for this
 +latter purpofe, that is, to frighten one another ; and it is curious that the
 +mediaeval glofs of Ugutio explains larva, a malk, as being an image,
 +"which was put over the face to frighten children."* The maik thus
 +became a favourite ornament, efpecially on lamps, and on the antefixa
 +and
 +
 +" Simulacrum quod opponitur faciei ad terrendos parvos." (Ugutio, ap.
 +
 +Ducange, v. Mafia.)
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +29
 +
 +
 +
 +and gargoyls of Roman buildings, to which were often given the form of
 +grotefque malks, monftrous faces, with great mouths wide open, and
 +other figures, like thofe of the gargoyls of the mediaeval architects.
 +
 +While the comic malk was ufed generally in the burlefque entertain-
 +ments, it alfo became diftinctive of particular characters. One of thefe
 +was the fannio, or buffoon, whofe name was derived from the Greek word
 +oarvoQ, "a fool," and who was employed in performing burlefque dances,
 +making grimaces, and in other a6ts calculated to excite the mirth of the
 +lpetator. A reprefentation of the fannio is given in our cut No. 17,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 17. The Roman Sannio, or Buffoon.
 +
 +copied from one of the engravings in the "DiHertatio de Larvis Scenicis," by the Italian antiquary [[Francesco de' Ficoroni|Ficoroni]], who took it from an engraved gem. The fannio holds in his hand what is fuppofed to be a brafs rod, and he has
 +
 +3
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +probably another in the other hand, fo that he could ftrike them together.
 +He wears the foccus, or low fhoe peculiar to the comic a&ors. This
 +buffoon was a favourite character among the Romans, who introduced
 +him conftantly into their feafts and fupper parties. The manducus was
 +another character of this defcription, reprefented with a grotefque mafk,
 +prefenting a wide mouth and tongue lolling out, and laid to have been
 +peculiar to the Atellane plays. A character in Plautus (Rud., ii. 6, 51)
 +talks of hiring himfelf as a manducus in the plays.
 +
 +" S}mdji aliquo ad ludos me pro manduco locem /"'
 +
 +The mediaeval glofles interpret manducus by joculator, " a jogelor," and
 +add that the charadteriftic from which he took his name was the practice
 +of making grimaces like a man gobbling up his food in a vulgar and
 +gluttonous manner.
 +
 +Ficoroni gives, from an engraved onyx, a figure of another burlefque
 +performer, copied in our cut No. 18, and which he compares to the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1 8. Roman Tom Fool.
 +
 +Catanian dancer of his time (his book was publilhed in 1754), who was
 +called a giangurgolo. This is confidered to reprefent the Roman mimus,
 +a clafs of performers who told with mimicry and action fcenes taken from
 +
 +common
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 3 1
 +
 +common life, and more efpecially fcandalous and indecent anecdotes, like
 +the jogelors and performers of farces in the middle ages. The Romans
 +were very much attached to thefe performances, fo much fo, that they
 +even had them at their funeral proceffions and at their funeral feafts. In
 +our figure, the mimus is reprefented naked, malked (with an exaggerated
 +nofe), and wearing what is perhaps intended as a caricature of the
 +Phrygian bonnet. In his right hand he holds a bag, or purfe, full of
 +objects which rattle and make a noife when fliaken, while the other holds
 +the crotalum, or caflanets, an inftrument in common ufe among the
 +ancients. One of the ftatues in the Barberini Palace reprefents a youth
 +in a Phrygian cap playing on the crotalum. We learn, from an early
 +authority, that it was an inftrument efpecially ufed in the fatirical and
 +burlefque dances which were fo popular among the Romans.
 +
 +As I have remarked before, the Romans had no tafte for the regular
 +drama, but they retained to the laft their love for the performances of
 +the popular mimi, or comeedi (as they were often called), the players
 +of farces, and the dancers. Thefe performed on the ftage, in the public
 +feftivals, in the ftreets, and were ufually introduced at private parties.*
 +Suetonius tells us that on one occafion, the emperor Caligula ordered a
 +poet who compofed the Atellanes (Atellance poetam) to be burnt in
 +the middle of the amphitheatre, for a pun. A more regular comedy,
 +however, did flourifh, to a certain degree, at the fame time with thefe
 +more popular compofitions. Of the works of the earlieft of the Roman
 +comic writers, Livius Andronicus and Naevius, we know only one or two
 +titles, and a few fragments quoted in the works of the later Roman
 +writers. They were followed by Plautus, who died B.C. 184, and nineteen
 +of whofe comedies are preferved and well known ; by feveral other
 +writers, whofe names are almoft forgotten, and whofe comedies are all
 +loft; and by Terence, fix of whofe comedies are preferved. Terence
 +died about the year 159 B.C. About the fame time with Terence lived
 +
 +Lucius
 +
 +
 +
 +* See, for allusions to the private employment of these performances, Pliny,
 +Epiit. i. 15, and ix. 36.
 +
 +
 +
 +32 Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +Lucius Afranius and Quin&ius Atta, who appear to clofe the lift of the
 +Roman writers of comedy.
 +
 +But another branch of comic literature had fprung out of the fatire of
 +the religious feftivities. A year after Livius Andronicus produced the
 +firft drama at Rome, in the year 239 B.C., the poet Ennius was born at
 +Rudiae, in Magna Graecia. The fatirical verfe, whether Saturnine or
 +Fefcennine, had been gradually improving in its form, although ftill very
 +rude, but Ennius is faid to have given at leaft a new polifti, and perhaps
 +a new metrical (hape, to it. The verfe was ftill irregular, but it
 +appears to have been no longer intended for recitation, accompanied by
 +the flute. The Romans looked upon Ennius not only as their earlieft epic
 +poet, but as the father of fatire, a clafs of literary compofition which
 +appears to have originated with them, and which they claimed as their
 +own.* Ennius had an imitator in M. Terentius Varro. The fatires ot
 +thefe firft writers are faid to have been very irregular compofitions, mixing
 +profe with verfe, and fometimes even Greek with Latin ; and to have
 +been rather general in their aim than perfonal. But foon after this
 +period, and rather more than a century before Chrift, came Caius
 +Lucilius, who raifed Roman fatirical literature to its perfection. Lucilius,
 +we are told, was the firft who wrote fatires in heroic verfe, or hexameters,
 +mixing with them now and then, though rarely, an iambic or trochaic
 +line. He was more refined, more pointed, and more perfonal, than his
 +predeceflbrs, and he had refcued fatire from the ftreet performer to make
 +it a clafs of literature which was to be read by the educated, and not
 +merely liftened to by the vulgar. Lucilius is faid to have written thirty
 +books of fatires, of which, unfortunately, only fome fcattered lines
 +remain.
 +
 +Lucilius had imitators, the very names of moft of whom are now for-
 +gotten, but about forty years after his death, and fixty-five years before
 +the birth of Chrift, was born Quintus Horatius Flaccus, the oldeft of the
 +fetirifts whofe works we now poflefs, and the moft polifhed of Roman
 +
 +poets.
 +
 +* Quintilian says, " Satira quidem rota nojtra eft." De Instir. Orator., lib. x. c. i.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 3 3
 +
 +
 +
 +poets. In the time of Horace, the fatire of the Romans had reached its
 +higheft degree of perfection. Of the two other great fatirifts whofe works
 +are preferred, Juvenal was born about the year 40 of the Chriftian era,
 +and Perfius in 43. During the period through which thefe writers
 +flourished, Rome faw a confiderable number of other fatirifts of the
 +fame clafs, whofe works have periftied.
 +
 +In the time of Juvenal another variety of the fame clafs of literature had
 +already fprung up, more artificial and fomewhat more indirect than the
 +other, the profe fatiric romance. Three celebrated writers reprefent this
 +fchool. Petronius, who, born about the commencement of our era,
 +died in A.D. 65, is the earlieft and moft remarkable of them. He
 +compiled a romance, defigned as a fatire on the vices of the age of Nero,
 +in which real perfons are fuppofed to be aimed at under fictitious names,
 +and which rivals in licenfe, at leaft, anything that could have been uttered
 +in the Atellanes or other farces of the mirni. Lucian, of Samofata, who
 +died an old man in the year 200, and who, though he wrote in Greek,
 +may be confidered as belonging to the Roman fchool, compofed feveral
 +fatires of this kind, in one of the moft remarkable of which, entitled
 +" Lucius, or the Afs," the author defcribes himfelf as changed by forcer)'
 +into the form of that animal, under which he paries through a number
 +of adventures which illuftrate the vices and weaknefles of contemporary
 +fociety. Apuleius, who was considerably the junior of Lucian, made this
 +novel the groundwork of his " Golden Afs," a much larger and more
 +elaborate work, written in Latin. This work of Apuleius was very
 +popular through fubfequent ages.
 +
 +Let us return to [[Roman caricature]], one form of which feems to have been efpecially a favourite among the people. It is difficult to 'imagine how the ftory of the [[pigmies and of their wars with the cranes]] originated, but it is certainly of great antiquity, as it is fpoken of in [[Homer]], and it was a very popular legend among the Romans, who eagerly fought and purchafed dwarfs to make domeftic pets of them. The [[pigmies and cranes]] occur frequently among the piftorial ornamentations of the houfes of [[Pompeii]] and [[Herculaneum]] ; and the painters of Pompeii not only reprefented them in their proper charaaer,but they made ufe of them for
 +
 +34
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +the purpofe of caricaturing the various occupations of life domeftic and focial fcenes, grave conferences, and many other fubjects, and even perfonal character. In this clafs of caricatures they gave to the pigmies, or dwarfs, very large heads, and very fmall legs and arms. I need hardly remark that this is a clafs of caricature which is very common in modern times. Our firft group of thefe pigmy caricatures (No. 19) is
 +
 +
 +The Farm-yard in Burlefque.
 +
 +taken from a painting on the walls of the Temple of Venus, at Pompeii, and reprefents the interior of a farm-yard in burlefque. The ftructure in the background is perhaps intended for a hayrick. In front of it, one of the farm fervants is attending on the poultry. The more important-looking perfonage with the paftoral ftaff is poflibly the overfeer of the farm, who is vifiting the labourers, and this probably is the caufe why their movements have aflumed fo much activity. The labourer on the right is ufing the qfilla, a wooden yoke or pole, which was carried over the moulder, with the corlis, or bafket, fufpended at each end. This was a common method of carrying, and is not unfrequently reprefented on Roman works of art. Several examples might be quoted from the antiquities of Pompeii. Our cut No. 20, from a gem in the Florentine
 +
 +Mufeum, and illuftratirig another clafs of caricature, that of introducing animals performing the actions and duties of men, reprefents a grafshopper carrying the qfilla and the carles.
 +
 +A private
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 20. An Afilla-Bearer.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +35
 +
 +
 +
 +A private houfe in Pompeii furnifhed another example of this ftyle of caricature, which is given in our cut No. 21. It reprefents the interior of a [[painter's studio|painter's fludio]], and is extremely curious on account of the numerous details of his method of operation with which it furnifhes us. The
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 21. A Painter's Studio. [https://archive.org/stream/historyofcaricat00wriguoft#page/35/mode/1up]
 +
 +painter, who is, like most of the figures in thefe pigmy caricatures, very fcantily clothed, is occupied with the portrait of another, who, by the rather exaggerated fulnefs of the gathering of his toga, is evidently intended for a darning and fafliionable patrician, though he is feated as bare-legged and bare-breeched as the artifl himfelf. Both are diftinguifhed by a large allowance of nofe. The eafel here employed refembles greatly the fame article now in ufe, and might belong to the fludio of a modern painter. Before it is a fmall table, probably formed of a flab of (lone, which ferves for a palette, on which the painter fpreads and mixes his colours. To the right a fervant, who fills the office of colour-grinder, is feated by the fide of a veflel placed over hot coals, and appears to be preparing colours, mixed, according to the directions given in old writers, with punic wax and oil. In the background is feated a ftudent, whofe attention is taken from his drawing by what is going on at the other fide of the room, where two fmall perfonages are entering, who look as if they were amateurs, and who appear to be talking about the portrait. Behind them flands a bird, and when the painting was firft
 +
 +uncovered
 +
 +
 +
 +36 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +uncovered there were two. [[François Mazois|Mazois]], who made the drawing from which our cut is taken, before the original had periflied for it was found in a (late of decay imagined that the birds typified fome well-known fingers or muficians, but they are, perhaps, merely intended for cranes, birds fo generally aflbciated with the pigmies.
 +
 +According to an ancient writer, combats of pigmies were favourite reprefentations on the walls of taverns and (hops ;* and, curioufly enough, the walls of a (hop in Pompeii have furniflied the picture reprefented in our cut No. 22, which has evidently been intended for a caricature,
 +
 +
 +No. 22. Part of a Triumphal Procejjion.
 +
 +probably a parody. All the pigmies in this picture are crowned with
 +laurel, as though the painter intended to turn to ridicule fome over-
 +pompous triumph, or fome public, perhaps religious, ceremony. The two
 +figures to the left, who are clothed in yellow and green garments, appear
 +to be difputing the poflefiion of a bowl containing a liquid. One of
 +thefe, like the two figures on the right, has a hoop thrown over his
 +fhoulder. The firft of the latter perfonages wears a violet drels, and
 +holds in his right hand a rod, and in his left a ftatuette, apparently ot a
 +
 +deity,
 +
 +* liri riav KairT}\in>v. Problem. Aristotelic Sec. x. 7.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +37
 +
 +
 +
 +deity, but its attributes are not diftinguifliable. The laft figure to the
 +right has a robe, or mantle, of two colours, red and green, and holds in
 +his hand a branch of a lily, or fome fimilar plant ; the reft of the picture
 +is loft. Behind the other figure Hands a fifth, who appears younger and
 +more refined in character than the others, and feems to be ordering or
 +directing them. His drels is red.
 +
 +We can have no doubt that political and perlbnal caricature flourifhed
 +among the Romans, as we have fome examples of it on their works of
 +art, chiefly on engraved ftones, though thefe are moftly of a character we
 +could not here conveniently introduce ; but the fame rich mine of Roman
 +art and antiquities, Pompeii, has furnifhed us with one fample of what
 +may be properly confidered as a political caricature. In the year 59 of the
 +Chriftian era, at a gladiatorial exhibition in the amphitheatre of Pompeii,
 +where the people of Nuceria were prefent, the latter exprefied themfelves
 +in fuch fcornful terms towards the Pompeians, as led to a violent quarrel,
 +which was followed by a pitched battle between the inhabitants of the
 +two towns, and the Nucerians, being defeated, carried their complaints
 +before the reigning emperor, Nero, who gave judgment in their favour,
 +and condemned the people of Pompeii to fufpenfion from all theatrical
 +amufements for ten years. The feelings of the Pompeians on this occafion
 +are difplayed in the rude drawing reprefented in our cut No. 23, which
 +is fcratched on the plafter of the external wall of a houfe in the ftreet to
 +which the Italian antiquarians have given the name of the ftreet oi
 +Mercury. A figure, completely armed, his head covered with what might
 +be taken for a mediaeval helmet, is defcending what appear to be intended
 +for the fteps of the amphitheatre. He carries in his hand a palm-branch,
 +the emblem of victory. Another palm-branch ftands ere6t by his fide,
 +and underneath is the infcription, in rather ruftic Latin, " CAMPANI
 +VICTORIA VNA CVM NVCER1NIS PERISTIS " "O Campa-
 +nians, you perifhed in the viftory together with the Nucerians." The
 +other fide cf the picture is more rudely and haftily drawn. It has been
 +fuppofed to reprefent one of the vidors dragging a prifoner, with his arms
 +bound, up a ladder to a ftage or platform, on which he was perhaps to be
 +exhibited to the jeers of the populace. Four years after this event,
 +
 +Pompeii
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +Pompeii was greatly damaged by an earthquake, and fixteen years later
 +came the eruption of Vefuvius, which buried the town, and lef". it in the
 +condition in which it is now found.
 +
 +This curious caricature belongs to a clafs of monuments to which
 +archaeologifts have given technically the Italian name of graffiti, fcratches
 +or fcrawls, of which a great number, confifting chiefly of writing, have
 +been found on the walls of Pompeii. They alfo occur among the remains
 +on other Roman fites, and one found in Rome itfelf is efpecially intereft-
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +A Popular Caricature.
 +
 +
 +
 +ing. During the alterations and extenfions which were made from time
 +to time in the palace of the Caefars, it had been found necefTary to build
 +acrols a narrow ftreet which interfered the Palatine, and, in order to give
 +fupport to the ftru&ure above, a portion of the ftreet was walled off, and
 +remained thus hermetically fealed until about the year 1857, when fome
 +excavations on the fpot brought it to view. The walls of the flreet were
 +found to be covered with thefe graffiti, among which one attracted efpecial
 +attention, and, having been carefully removed, is now preferved in the
 +mufeum of the Collegio Romano. It is a caricature upon a Chriftian
 +
 +named
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +39
 +
 +
 +
 +named Alexamenos, by fome pagan who defpifed Chriftianity. The
 +Saviour is reprefented under the form of a man with the head of an als,
 +extended upon a crofs, the Chriftian, Alexamenos, ftanding on one fide in
 +the attitude of worftiip of that period. Underneath we read the infcrip-
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +-OEQ'
 +
 +No. 24. Early Caricature upon a Chriftian,
 +
 +tion, AAEBAMENO2 CEBETE (for ffejSe-a-) EON, "Alexamenos
 +wormips God." This curious figure, which may be placed among the
 +moft interefting as well as early evidences of the truth of Gofpel hiftory,
 +is copied in our cut No. 24. It was drawn when the prevailing religion
 +at Rome was ftill pagan, and a Chriftian was an object of contempt.
 +
 +
 +
 +40 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +==CHAPTER III ==
 +
 +THE PERIOD OF TRANSITION FROM ANTIftUITY TO THE MIDDLE AGES.
 +THE ROMAN MIMI CONTINUED TO EXIST. THE TEUTONIC AFTER-
 +DINNER ENTERTAINMENTS. CLERICAL SATIRE.? , ARCHBISHOP HE-
 +
 +RI6ER AND THE DREAMER ; THE SUPPER OF THE SAINTS. TRANSI-
 +TION FROM ANCIENT TO MEDIAEVAL ART. TASTE FOR MONSTROUS
 +
 +ANIMALS, DRAGONS, ETC. j CHURCH OF SAN FEDELE, AT COMO. -
 +SPIRIT OF CARICATURE AND LOVE OF GROTESQUE AMONG THE
 +ANGLO-SAXONS. GROTESQUE FIGURES OF DEMONS. NATURAL TEN-
 +DENCY OF THE EARLY MEDIAEVAL ARTISTS TO DRAW IN CARICATURE.
 +EXAMPLES FROM EARLY MANUSCRIPTS AND SCULPTURES.
 +
 +THE tranfition from antiquity to what we ufually underftand by the
 +name of the middle ages was long and flow ; it was a period during
 +which much of the texture of the old fociety was deftroyed, while at the fame
 +time a new life was gradually given to that which remained. We know very
 +little of the comic literature of this period of tranfition ; its literary remains
 +confift chiefly of a mafs of heavy theology and of lives of faints. The
 +ftage in its perfectly dramatic form theatre and amphitheatre had dis-
 +appeared. The pure drama, indeed, appears never to have had great
 +vitality among the Romans, whofe taftes lay far more among the vulgar
 +performances of the mimics and jeflers, and among the favage fcenes of
 +the amphitheatre. While probably the performance of comedies, fuch
 +as thofe of Plautus and Terence, foon went out of fafliion, and tragedies,
 +like thofe of Seneca, were only written as literary compofitions, imitations
 +of the iimilar works which formed fo remarkable a feature in the litera-
 +ture of Greece, the Romans of all ranks loved to witnefs the loofe atti-
 +tudes of their mimi, or Men to their equally loofe fongs and ftories. The
 +theatre and the amphitheatre were ftate inftitutions, kept up at the
 +national expenfe, and, as juft ftated, they perilhed with the overthrow of
 +the weftern empire j and the fanguinary performances of the amphitheatre,
 +
 +if
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 4 1
 +
 +
 +
 +if the amphitheatre itfelf continued to be ufed (which was perhaps the
 +cafe in fome parts of weftern Europe), and they gave place to the more
 +harmlefs exhibitions of dancing bears and other tamed animals,* for
 +deliberate cruelty was not a chara&eriftic of the Teutonic race. But the
 +mimi, the performers who fung fongs and told ftories, accompanied with
 +dancing and mufic, furvived the fall of the empire, and continued to be
 +as popular as ever. St. Auguftine, in the fourth century, calls thefe
 +things nefaria, deteflable things, and fays that they were performed at
 +night.f We trace in the capitularies the continuous exiftence of thefe
 +performances during the ages which followed the empire, and, as in the
 +time of St. Auguftine, they ftill formed the amufement of no6turnal
 +aflemblies. The capitulary of Childebert profcribes thofe who pafled
 +their nights with drunkennefs, jefting, and fongs. % The council of
 +Narbonne, in the year 589, forbade people to fpend their nights "with
 +dancings and filthy fongs." The council of Maye-nce, in 813, calls thefe
 +fongs "filthy and licentious " (turpia atque luocuriofa) ; and that of Paris
 +fpeaks of them as "obfcene and filthy" (obfccena et turpia); while in
 +another they are called "frivolous and diabolic." From the bitternefs
 +with which the ecclefiaftical ordinances are exprefied, it is probable
 +that thefe performances continued to preferve much of their old
 +paganifm j yet it is curious that they are fpoken of in thefe capitularies
 +and a6ts of the councils as being ftill praftifed in the religious feftivals,
 +and even in the churches, fo tenacioufly did the old fentirnents of the
 +race keep their pofleflion of the minds of the populace, long after they
 +had embraced Chriftianity. Thefe "fongs," as they are called, continued
 +alfo to confift not only of general, but of perfonal fatire, and contained
 +
 +fcandalous
 +
 +
 +
 +* On this subject, see my " History of Domestic Manners and Sentiments,"
 +p. 65. The dancing -bear appears to have been a favourite performer among the
 +Germans at a very early period.
 +
 +f Per totam noctem cantabantur hie nefaria et a cantaforibus saltabatur.
 +Augustini Serm. 311, part v.
 +
 +t Noctes pervigiles cum ebrietate, scurrilitate, vel canticis. See the Capitulary
 +in Labbei Concil-, vol. v.
 +
 +Ut populi saltationibus et turpibus invigilant canticis.
 +
 +tt
 +
 +
 +
 +42 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +fcandalous ftories of perfons living, and well known to thofe who heard
 +them. A capitulary of the Frankifh king Childeric III., publifhed in
 +the year 744, is directed againft tbofe who compofe and fing fongs in
 +defamation of others (in blafphemiam allerius, to ufe the rather energetic
 +language of the original) ; and it is evident that this offence was a very
 +common one, for it is not unfrequently repeated in later records of this
 +character in the fame words or in words to the fame purpofe. Thus one
 +refult of the overthrow of the Roman empire was to leave comic literature
 +almoft in the fame condition in which it was found by Thefpis in Greece
 +and by Livius Andronicus in Rome. There was nothing in it which
 +would be contrary to the feelings of the new races who had now planted
 +themfelves in the Roman provinces.
 +
 +The Teutonic and Scandinavian nations had no doubt their popular
 +feftivals, in which mirth and frolic bore fway, though we know little
 +about them ; but there were circumftances in their domeftic manners
 +which implied a neceffity for amufement. After the comparatively early
 +meal, the hall of the primitive Teuton was the fcene efpecially in the
 +darker months of winter of long fittings over the feftive board, in which
 +there was much drinking and much talking, and, as we all know, fuch
 +talking could not preferve long a very ferious tone. From Bede's account
 +of the poet Caedmon, we learn that it was the praftice of the Anglo-Saxons
 +in the feventh century, at their entertainments, for all thofe prefent
 +to fing in their turns, each accompanying himfelf with a mufical
 +inftrument. From the fequel of the ftory we are led to fuppofe that
 +thefe fongs were extemporary effufions, probably mythic legends, ftories
 +of perfonal adventure, praife of themfelves, or vituperation of their
 +enemies. In the chieftain's houfehold there appears to have been
 +ufually fome individual who afted the part of the fatirift, or, as we ihould
 +perhaps now fay, the comedian. Hunferth appears as holding fome fuch
 +pofition in Beowulf ; in the later romances, Sir Kay held a fimilar pofition
 +at the court of king Arthur. At a flill later period, the place of thefe
 +heroes was occupied by the court fool. The Roman mimus muft have been
 +a welcome addition to the entertainments of the Teutonic hall, and there
 +is every reafon to think that he was cordially received. The performances
 +
 +of
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 43
 +
 +of the hall were foon delegated from the gueils to fuch hired ators, and
 +we have reprefentations of them m the illuminations of Anglo-Saxon
 +manufcripts.* Among the earlieft amufements of the Anglo-Saxon table
 +were riddles, which in every form prefent fome of the features of the
 +comic, and are capable of being made the fource of much laughter. The
 +faintly Aldhelm condefcended to write fuch riddles in Latin verfe, which
 +were, of courfe, intended for the tables of the clergy. In primitive
 +fociety, verfe was the ordinary form of conveying ideas. A large portion
 +of the celebrated collection of Anglo-Saxon poetry known as the
 +"Exeter Book," confifts of riddles, and this tafte for riddles has continued
 +to exift down to our own times. But other forms of entertainment, if
 +they did net already exift, were foon introduced. In a curious Latin poem,
 +older than the twelfth century, of which fragments only are preferred,
 +and have been publifhed under the title of " Ruodlieb," and which
 +appears to have been a tranflation of a much earlier German romance,
 +we have a curious defcription of the poft-prandial entertainments after
 +the dinner of a great Teutonic chieftain, or king. In the firtt place there
 +was a grand diftribution of rich prefents, and then were mown ftrange
 +animals, and among the reft came bears. Thefe bears flood upon their
 +hind legs, and performed fome of the offices of a man ; and when the
 +minttrels (mimi) came in, and played upon their mufical instruments, thefe
 +animals danced to the mufic, and performed all forts of ftrange tricks.
 +
 +Et parties urjl
 +
 +}ui vas tollebant, ut homo, bipedefque gerebant.
 +Afimi quandojides diglth tangunt modularity,
 +llli faltatant, neumas pedibut variabant.
 +Inter dum faliunt, fefeque fuper jaciebant,
 +Alterutrum dorjo Je portabant refidendo,
 +Amplexando fe, lufJando defduntfe.
 +
 +Then followed dancing-girls, and exhibitions of other kinds.!
 +
 +Although
 +
 +* The reader is referred, for further information on this subject, to my " History
 +of Domestic Manners and Sentiments," pp. 33-39-
 +
 +f This curious Latin poem was printed by Grimm and Schmeller, in their
 +Lateinische Gedichte des x. und xi. Jh., p. 129.
 +
 +
 +
 +44 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +Although thefe performances were profcribed by the ecclefiaftical
 +laws, they were not difcountenanced by the ecclefiaftics themfelves, who,
 +on the contrary, indulged as much in after-dinner amufements as any-
 +body. The laws againft the profane fongs are often directed efpecially
 +at the clergy ; and it is evident that among the Anglo-Saxons, as well
 +as on the Continent, not only the priefts and monks, but the nuns alfo,
 +in their love of fuch amufements, far tranfgrefied the bounds of decency.*
 +Thefe entertainments were the cradle of comic literature, but, as this
 +literature in the early ages of its hiftory was rarely committed to writing,
 +it has almoft entirely perifhed. But, at the tables of the ecclefiaftics,
 +thefe ftories were fometimes told in Latin verfe, and as Latin was not
 +fo eafily carried in the memory as the vernacular tongue, in this lan-
 +guage they were fometimes committed to writing, and thus a few
 +examples of early comic literature have fortunately been preferred. Thefe
 +confift chiefly of popular ftories, which were among the favourite amufe-
 +ments of mediaeval fociety ftories many of which are derived from the
 +earlieft period of the hiftory of our race, and are ftill cherifhed among
 +our peafantry. Such are the ftories of the Child of Snow, and of
 +the Mendacious Hunter, preferved in a manufcript of the eleventh
 +century. f The firft of thefe was a very popular ftory in the middle
 +ages. According to this early veriion, a merchant of Conftance, in
 +Switzerland, was detained abroad for feveral years, during which time
 +his wife made other acquaintance, and bore a child. On his' return, me
 +excufed her fault by telling him that on a cold wintry day me had
 +fwallowed fnow, by which fhe had conceived ; and, in revenge, the
 +buiband carried away the child, and fold it into flavery, and returning,
 +
 +told
 +
 +
 +
 +* On the character of the nuns among the Anglo-Saxons, and indeed of the
 +inmates of the monastic houses generally, I would refer my readers to the excellent
 +and interesting volume by Mr. John Thrupp, " The Anglo-Saxon Home : a
 +History of the Domestic Institutions and Customs of England from the fifth to the
 +eleventh century." London, 1862.
 +
 +f These will be found in M. Ed61estand du Meril's Po&ies Populaires Latines
 +ant6rieures au douzieme siecle, pp. 275, 276.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 45
 +
 +told its mother, that the infant which had originated in fnow, had melted
 +away under a hotter fun. Some of thefe ftories originated in the
 +different collections of fables, which were part of the favourite literature
 +of the later Roman period. Another is rather a ridiculous ftory of an
 +afs belonging to two fitters in a nunnery, which was devoured by a
 +wolf.* It is curious how foon the mediaeval clergy began to imitate
 +their pagan predeceffors in parodying religious fubjeds and forms, of
 +which we have one or two very curious examples. Vifits to purgatory,
 +hell, and paradife, in body or fpirit, were greatly in famion during the
 +earlier part of the middle ages, and afforded extremely good material
 +for fatire. In a metrical Latin ftory, preferred in a manufcript of the
 +eleventh century, we are told how a " prophet," or vifionary, went to
 +Heriger, archbilhop of Mayence from 912 to 926, and told him that
 +he had been carried in a vilion to the regions below, and defcribed them
 +as a place furrounded by thick woods. It was the Teutonic notion of
 +hell, and indeed of all fettlements of peoples ; and Heriger replied
 +with a fneer that he would fend his herdfmen there with his lean fwine
 +to fatten them. Each " mark," or land of a family or clan, in the
 +early Teutonic fettlements, was furrounded by woodland, which was
 +common to all members of the clan for fattening their fwine and
 +hunting. The falfe dreamer added, that he was afterwards carried to
 +heaven, where he faw Chrift fitting at the table and eating. John the
 +Baptift was butler, and ferved excellent wine round to the faints, who
 +were the Lord's guefts. St. Peter was the chief cook. After fome
 +remarks on the appointments to thefe two offices, archbilhop Heriger
 +alked the informant how he was received in the heavenly hall, where he
 +fat, and what he eat. He replied that he fat in a corner, and ftole from
 +the cooks a piece of liver, which he eat, and then departed. Inftead of
 +rewarding him for his information, Heriger took him on his own confeffion
 +for
 +
 +* This, and the metrical story next referred to, were printed in the " Altdeutsche
 +Blatter," edited by Moriz Haupt and Heinrich Hoffmann, vol. i. pp. 390, 392, to
 +whom I communicated them from a manuscript in the University Library at
 +Cambridge.
 +
 +
 +
 +46 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +for the theft, and ordered him to be bound to a ftake and flogged,
 +which, for the offence, was rather a light punifhment.
 +
 +Herlger ilium
 +juffit ad f alum
 +lorit ligarlf
 +Jcoplfque cedi,
 +fermone dura
 +hunc arguendo.
 +
 +Thefe lines will ferve as a fpecimen of the popular Latin verfe in which
 +thefe monkifh after-dinner ftories were written j but the moft remarkable
 +of thefe early parodies on religious fubje6ts, is one which may be defcribed
 +as the fupper of the faints ; its title is fimply Ccena. It is falfely afcribed
 +to St. Cyprian, who lived in the third century] but it is as old as the tenth
 +century, as a copy was printed by profeffor Endlicher from a manufcript
 +of that period at Vienna. It was fo popular, that it is found and known
 +to have exifted in different forms in verfe and in profe. It is a sort of
 +drollery, founded upon the wedding feaft at which the Saviour changed
 +water into wine, though that miracle is not at all introduced into it. It
 +was a great king of the Eaft, named Zoel, who held his nuptial feaft at
 +Cana of Galilee. The perfonages invited are all fcriptural, beginning with
 +Adam. Before the feaft, they wafh in the river Jordan, and the number
 +of the guefts was fo great, that feats could not be provided for them,
 +and they took their places as they could. Adam took the firft place, and
 +feated himfelf in the middle of the aflembly, and next to him Eve fat
 +upon leaves (fuper folia), fig-leaves, we may fuppofe. Cain fat on a
 +plough, Abel on a milk-pail, Noah on an ark, Japhet on tiles, Abraham
 +on a tree, Ifaac on an altar, Lot near the door, and fo with a long lift of
 +others. Two were obliged to ftand Paul, who bore it patiently, and
 +Efau, who grumbled while Job lamented bitterly becaufe he was obliged
 +to fit on a dunghill. Mofes, and others, who came late, were obliged to
 +find feats out of doors. When the king faw that all his guefls had arrived,
 +he took them into his wardrobe, and there, in the fpirit of mediaeval
 +generality, diftributed to them drefies, which had all fome burlefque
 +allufion to their particular characters. Before they were allowed to fit
 +
 +down
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 47
 +
 +down to the feaft, they were obliged to go through other ceremonies,
 +which, as well as the eating, are defcribed in the fame ftyle of cari-
 +cature. The wines, of which there was great variety, were ferved to
 +the guefts with the fame allufions to their individual characters; but
 +fome of them complained that they were badly mixed, although Jonah was
 +the butler. In the fame manner are defcribed the proceedings which
 +followed the dinner, the warning of hands, and the deffert, to the
 +latter of which Adam contributed apples, Samfon honey; while David
 +played on the harp and Mary on the tabor; Judith led the round dance;
 +Jubal played on the pfalter; Afael fung fongs, and Herodias aded the
 +part of the dancing-girl :
 +
 +Tune Adam poma miniftrat, Samjonfa-vi dulcia.
 +David cytharum percu]]it t et Maria tympana.
 +Judith choreas ducebat, et Jubal pfalteria.
 +metra canebat, faltabat Herodias.
 +
 +
 +
 +Mambres entertained the company with his magical performances ; and
 +the other incidents of a mediaeval feftival followed, throughout which the
 +fame tone of burlefque is continued ; and fo the ftory continues, to the
 +end.* We mall find thefe incipient forms of mediaeval comic literature
 +largely developed as we go on.
 +
 +The period between antiquity and the middle ages was one of fuch
 +great and general deftru6tion, that the gulf between ancient and mediaeval
 +art feems to us greater and more abrupt than it really was. The want
 +of monuments, no doubt, prevents our feeing the gradual change of one
 +into the other, but neverthelefs enough of fats remain to convince us
 +that it was not a fudden change. It is now indeed generally underftood
 +that the knowledge and practice of the arts and manufactures of the
 +Romans were handed onward from matter to pupil after the empire had
 +fallen ; and this took place efpecially in the towns, fo that the workman-
 +
 +____ {hip
 +
 +* The text of this singular composition, with a full account of the various forms
 +in which it was published, will be found in M. du Mfiril's " Ponies Populates
 +Latines ant6rieures au douzieme siecle," p- 193-
 +
 +
 +
 +4 8
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +Jhip which had been declining in character during the later periods of
 +the empire, only continued in the courfe of degradation afterwards.
 +Thus, in the firft Chriftian edifices, the builders who were employed, or
 +at leaft many of them, muft have been pagans, and they would follow
 +their old models of ornamentation, introducing the fame grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 15. Saturn Devouring /in Child.
 +
 +figures, the fame mafks and monftrous faces, and even fometimes the
 +fame fubjecls from the old mythology, to which they had been accuftomed.
 +It is to be obferved, too, that this kind of iconographical ornamentation
 +had been encroaching more and more upon the old architedural purity
 +during the latter ages of the empire, and that it was employed more
 +profufely in the later works, from which this tafte was transferred to the
 +
 +ecclefiaftical
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 40
 +
 +ecclefiaftical and to the domeftic architecture of the middle ages. After
 +the workmen themfelves had become Chriftians, they Hill found pagan
 +emblems and figures in their models, and ftill went on imitating them,
 +fometimes merely copying, and at others turning them to caricature or
 +burlefque. And this tendency continued fo long, that, at a much later
 +date, where there ftill exifted remains of Roman buildings, the mediaeval
 +architects adopted them as models, and did not hefitate to copy the
 +fculpture, although it might be evidently pagan in character. The
 +accompanying cut (No. 25) reprefents a bracket iti the church of Mont
 +Majour, near Nifmes, built in the tenth century. The fubjecl: is a
 +monftrous head eating a child, and we can hardly doubt that it was really
 +intended for a caricature on Saturn devouring one of his children.
 +
 +Sometimes the mediaeval fculptors miftook the emblematical defigns
 +of the Romans, and mifapplied them, and gave an allegorical meaning to
 +that which was not intended to be emblematical or allegorical, until the
 +fubjefts themfelves became extremely confufed. They readily employed
 +that clafs of parody of the ancients in which animals were reprefented
 +performing the aftions of men, and they had a great tafte for monfters
 +of every defcription, efpecially thofe which were made up of portions of
 +incongruous animals joined together, in contradiction to the precept of
 +Horace :
 +
 +Humano capiti cervicem piflor equinam
 +Jungerejl -velit, et varias inducere plumas,
 +Undicjue collatis membris, ut turpiter atrum
 +Dejinet in pijcem mulier formofa Juperne ,-
 +Speflatum admijfi rifum teneatis, amid ?
 +
 +The mediaeval architects loved fuch reprefentations, always and in all
 +parts, and examples are abundant. At Como, in Italy, there is a very
 +ancient and remarkable church dedicated to San Fedele (Saint Fidelis) ; it
 +has been confidered to be of fo early a date as the fifth century. The-
 +fculptures that adorn the doorway, which is triangular-headed, are
 +efpecially interefting. On one of thefe, reprefented in our cut No. 26,
 +in a compartment to the left, appears a figure of an angel, holding in one
 +hand a dwarf figure, probably intended for a child, by a lock of his hair,
 +
 +H and
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. a6. Sculpture from San Fedele, at C^mo.
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque. 5 1
 +
 +and with the other hand dire6ting his attention to a feated figure in the
 +compartment below. This latter figure has apparently the head of a
 +fheep, and as the head is furrounded with a large nimbus, and the right hand
 +is held out in the attitude of benedidtion, it may be intended to reprefent
 +the Lamb. This perfonage is feated on fomething which is difficult to make
 +out, but which looks fomewhat like a crab-filh. The boy in the com-
 +partment above carries a large bafin in his arms. The adjoining compart-
 +ment to the right contains the reprefentation of a conflict between a
 +dragon, a winged ferpent, and a winged fox. On the oppofite fide of the
 +door, two winged monfters are reprefented devouring a lamb's head. I
 +owe the drawing from which this and the preceding engraving were made
 +to my friend Mr. John Robinfon, the architect, who made the (ketches
 +while travelling with the medal of the Royal Academy. Figures of
 +dragons, as ornaments, were great favourites with the peoples of the
 +Teutonic race ; they were creatures intimately wrapped up in their
 +national mythology and romance, and they are found on all their artiftic
 +monuments mingled together in grotefque forms and groups. When the
 +Anglo-Saxons began to ornament their books, the dragon was continually
 +introduced for ornamental borders and in forming initial letters. One of
 +the latter, from an Anglo-Saxon manufcript of the tenth century (the
 +well-known manufcript of Caedmon, where it is given as an initial V), is
 +reprefented in our cut on the next page, No. 27.
 +
 +Cqriratnrp. anH hnrlp.fqnp! are naturally intended to be heard and feen_
 +publiclj^jmd would therefore be figured on fuch monuments as were
 +moft expofed to popular gaze. Such was the cafe, in the earlier periods
 +of the middle ages, chiefly with ecclefiaftical buildings, which explains
 +how they became the grand receptacles of this clals of Art. We have
 +few traces of what may be termed comic literature among our Anglo-
 +Saxon forefathers, but this is fully explained by the circumftance that
 +very little of the popular Anglo-Saxon literature has been preferred. In
 +their feftive hours the Anglo-Saxons feem to have efpecially amufed
 +themfelves in boafting of what they had done, and what they could do;
 +and thefe boafts were perhaps often of a burlefque character, like the
 +gals of the French and Anglo-Norman romancers of a later date, or fo
 +
 +extravagant
 +
 +
 +
 +Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +extravagant as to produce laughter. The chieftains appear alfo to have
 +encouraged men who could make jokes, and fatirife and caricature others ;
 +for the company of fuch men feems to have been cherifhed, and they are
 +not unfrequently introduced in the ftories. Such a perfonage, as I have
 +remarked before, is Hunferth in Beowulf ; fuch was the Sir Kay of the
 +later Arthurian romances ; and fuch too was the Norman minftrel in the
 +hiftory of Hereward, who amufed the Norman foldiers at their feafts by
 +mimicry of the manners of their Anglo-Saxon opponents. The too
 +perfonal fatire of thefe wits often led to quarrels, which ended iu
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 27. Anglo-Saxon Dragons.
 +
 +fanguinary brawls. The Anglo-Saxon love of caricature is fhown largely
 +in their proper names, which were moftly lignificant of perfonal qualities
 +their parents hoped they would poflefs ; and in thefe we remark the
 +pronenefs of the Teutonic race, as well as the peoples of antiquity, to
 +reprefent thefe qualities by the animals fuppofed to poflefs them, the
 +animals moft popular being the wolf and the bear. But it is not to be
 +expected that the hopes of the parents in giving the name would always
 +be fulfilled, and it is not an uncommon thing to find individuals lofing
 +their original names to receive in their place nicknames, or names which
 +
 +probably
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 5 3
 +
 +probably exprefied qualities they did pofiefs, and which were given to
 +them by their acquaintances. Thefe names, though often not very
 +complimentary, and even fometimes very much the contrary, completely
 +fuperfeded the original name, and were even accepted by the individuals
 +to whom they applied. The fecond names were indeed fo generally
 +acknowledged, that they were ufed in figning legal documents. An
 +Anglo-Saxon abbefs of rank, whofe real name was Hrodwaru, but who
 +was known univerfally by the name Bugga, the Bug, wrote this latter
 +name in figning charters. We can hardly doubt that fuch a name was
 +intended to afcribe to her qualities of a not agreeable character, and
 +very different to thofe implied by the original name, which perhaps
 +meant, a dweller in heaven. Another lady gained the name of the
 +Crow. It is well known that furnames did not come into ufe till long
 +after the Anglo-Saxon period, but appellatives, like thefe nicknames,
 +were often added to the name for the purpofe of diftinftion, or at
 +pleafure, and thefe, too, being given by other people, were frequently
 +fatirical. Thus, one Harold, for his fwiftnefs, was called Hare-foot j a
 +well-known Edith, for the elegant form of her neck, was called Swan-
 +neck ; and a Thurcyl, for a form of his head, which can hardly have been
 +called beautiful, was named Mare's-head. Among many other names,
 +quite as fatirical as the laft-mentioned, we find Flat-nofe, the Ugly,
 +Squint-eye, Hawk-nofe, c.
 +
 +Of Anglo-Saxon fculpture we have little left, but we have a few
 +illuminated manufcripts which prefent here and there an attempt at
 +caricature, though they are rare. It would feem, however, that the two
 +favourite fubjeds of caricature among the Anglo-Saxons were the clergy
 +and the evil one. We have .abundant evidence that, from the eighth
 +century downwards, neither the Anglo-Saxon clergy nor the Anglo-
 +Saxon nuns were generally objeds of much refpeft among the people ;
 +and their character and the manner of their lives fufHciently account for
 +it. Perhaps, alfo, it was increafed by the hoftility between the old clergy
 +and the new reformers of Dunftan's party, who would no doubt
 +caricature each other. A manufcript pfalter, in the Univerfity Library,
 +Cambridge (Ff. i, 23), of the Anglo-Saxon period, and apparently of the
 +
 +tenth
 +
 +
 +
 +54 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +tenth century, illuftrated with rather grotefque initial letters, furnimes us
 +with the figure of a jolly Anglo-Saxon monk, given in our cut No. 28,
 +and which it is hardly neceflary to Hate reprefents the letter Q. As we
 +proceed, we fhall fee the clergy continuing to furnifti a butt for the fhafts
 +of fatire through all the middle ages.
 +
 +The inclination to give to the demons (the middle ages always looked
 +upon them as innumerable) monftrous forms, which eafily ran into the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 28. A Jolly Monk.
 +
 +grotefque, was natural, and the painter, indeed, prided himfelf on drawing
 +them ugly ; but he was no doubt influenced in fo generally caricaturing
 +them, by mixing up this idea with thofe furnimed by the popular fuper-
 +ftitions of the Teutonic race, who believed in multitudes of fpirits, repre-
 +fentatives of the ancient fatyrs, who were of a playfully malicious
 +defcription, and went about plaguing mankind in a very droll manner,
 +and fometimes appeared to them in equally droll forms. They were the
 +Pucks and Robin Goodfellows of later times; but the Chriftian miflionaries
 +to the weft taught their converts to believe, and probably believed them-
 +felves, that all thefe imaginary beings were real demons, who wandered
 +over the earth for people's ruin and deftruction. Thus the grotefque
 +imagination of the converted people was introduced into the Chriftian
 +fyftem of demonology. It is a part of the fubjed to which we ihall
 +return in our next chapter ; but I will here introduce two examples of
 +
 +die
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +55
 +
 +
 +
 +the Anglo-Saxon demons. To explain the firfl. of thefe, it will be
 +neceflary to ftate that, according to the mediaeval notions, Satan, the arch
 +demon, who had fallen from heaven for his rebellion againft the Almighty,
 +was not a free agent who went about tempting mankind, but he was
 +himfelf plunged in the abyfs, where he was held in bonds, and tormented
 +by the demons who peopled the infernal regions, and alfo iflued thence
 +to feek their prey upon God's neweft creation, the earth. The hiftory of
 +Satan's fall, and the defcription of his pofition (No. 29), form the fubjeft
 +of the earlier part of the Anglo-Saxon poetry afcribed to Caedmon,
 +and it is one of the illuminations to the manufcript of Caedmon (which
 +is now preferred at Oxford), which has furnilhed us with our cut,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 29. Satan in Bonds.
 +
 +reprefenting Satan in his bonds. The fiend is here pictured bound to
 +flakes, over what appears to be a gridiron, while one of the demons,
 +rifing out of a fiery furnace, and holding in his hand an inftrument of
 +punimment, feems to be exulting over him, and at the fame time urging
 +on the troop of grotefque imps who are fwarming round and tormenting
 +their vicYtm. The next cut, No. 30, is alfo taken from an Anglo-Saxon
 +
 +manufcript
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +manuicript, preferred in the Britifh Mufeum (MS. Cotton., Tiberius,
 +C. vi.), which belongs to the earlier half of the eleventh century, and
 +contains a copy of the pfalter. It gives us the Anglo-Saxon notion of the
 +demon under another form, equally characteristic, wearing only a girdle
 +of flames, but in this cafe the efpecial fingularity
 +of the defign confifts in the eyes in the fiend's
 +wings.
 +
 +Another circumftance had no doubt an in-
 +fluence on the mediaeval tafte for grotefque and
 +caricature the natural rudenels of early mediaeval
 +art. The wn'ers of antiquity tell us of a remote
 +period of Grecian art when it was neceflary to
 +write under each figure of a picture the name of
 +what it was intended to reprefent, in order to
 +make the whole intelligible " this is a horfe,"
 +"this is a man," "this is a tree." Without being
 +quite fo rude as this, the early mediaeval artifts,
 +through ignorance of perfpective, want of know-
 +ledge of proportion, and of fkill in drawing,
 +found great difficulty in reprefenting a fcene in
 +which there was more than one figure, and in
 +which it was neceflary to diftinguifh them from
 +each other; and they were continually trying to
 +help themfelves by adopting conventional forms
 +or conventional pofitions, and by fometimes adding
 +fymbols that did not exactly reprefent what they
 +meant. The exaggeration in form confifted
 +chiefly in giving an undue prominence to fome characteriftic feature,
 +which anfwered the fame purpofe as the Anglo-Saxon nickname and dif-
 +tinctive name, and which is, in fact, one of the firft principles of all cari-
 +cature. Conventional pofitions partook much of the character of
 +conventional forms, but gave ftill greater room for grotefque. Thus the
 +very firft characteristics of mediaeval art implied the exiftence of caricature,
 +and no. doubt led to the tafte for the grotefque. The effect of this
 +
 +influence
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 30 Satan.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +57
 +
 +
 +
 +influence is apparent everywhere, and in innumerable cafes ferious
 +pictures of the graveft and moft important fubjefts are (imply and
 +abfolutely caricatures. Anglo-Saxon art ran much into this ftyle, and
 +is often very grotefque in charader. The firft example we give
 +(cut No. 31) is taken from one of the illuftrations to Alfric's Anglo-
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +ffo. 31. The Temptation.
 +
 +Saxon verfion of the Pentateuch, in the profufely illuminated manufcript
 +in the Britifti Mufeum (MS. Cotton., Claudius B iv.), which was written
 +at the end of the tenth, or beginning of the eleventh, century. It
 +reprefents the temptation and fall of man ; and the fubjecl: is treated, as
 +will be feen, in a rather grotefque manner. Eve is evidently dictating
 +to her hufband, who, in obeying her, {hows a mixture of eagernefs and
 +trepidation Adam is no lefs evidently going to fwallow the apple whole,
 +which is, perhaps, in accordance with the mediaeval legend, according to
 +which the fruit ftuck in his throat. It is hardly neceflary to remark that
 +the tree is entirely a conventional one ; and it would be difficult to
 +imagine how it came to bear apples at all. The mediaeval artifts were
 +extremely unfkilful in drawing trees j to thefe they ufually gave the
 +forms of cabbages, or fome fuch plants, of which the form was fimple, or
 +often of a mere bunch of leaves. Our next example (cut No. 32) is alfo
 +
 +i Anglo-
 +
 +
 +
 +Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +Anglo-Saxon, and is furnifhed by the manufcript'in the Britifh Mufeum
 +already mentioned (MS. Cotton., Tiberius C vi.) It probably reprefents
 +young David killing the lion, and is remarkable not only for the ftrange
 +pofture and bad proportions of the man, but for the tranquillity of the
 +animal and the exaggerated and violent action of its flayer. This is very
 +commonly the cafe in the mediaeval drawings and fculptures, the artifts
 +apparently poffefling far lefs fkill in reprefenting action in an animal than
 +in man, and therefore more rarely attempting it. Thefe illustrations are
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 32 Da-vid and tht Lion.
 +
 +both taken from illuminated manufcripts. The two which follow are
 +furnifhed by fculptures, and are of a rather later date than the preceding.
 +The abbey of St. George of Bofcherville, in the diocefe of Auxerre (in
 +Normandy), was founded by Ralph de Tancarville, one of the minifters
 +of William the Conqueror, and therefore in the latter half of the eleventh
 +century. A hiflory of this religious houfe was publiihed by a clever local
 +antiquary M. Achille Deville from whofe work we take our cut No. 33,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +59
 +
 +
 +
 +one of a few rude fculptures on the abbey church, which no doubt
 +belonged to the original fabric. It is not difficult to recognife the fubjecl:
 +as Jofeph taking the Virgin Mary with her Child into Egypt j but there
 +is fomething exceedingly droll m the unintentional caricature of the
 +faces, as well as in the whole defign. The Virgin Mary appears without
 +a nimbus, while the nimbus of the Infant Jefus is made to look very like
 +a bonnet. It may be remarked that this fubjecl: of the flight into Egypt
 +is by no means an uncommon one in mediaeval art j and a drawing of
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 33. The Flight into Egypt.
 +
 +the fame fubjeft, copied in my " Hiftory of Domeftic Manners and
 +Sentiments" (p. 115), prefents a remarkable illuftration of the contraft
 +of the fkill of a Norman fculptor and of an almoft contemporary Anglo-
 +Norman illuminator. Our cut alfo furnifhes us with evidence of the
 +error of the old opinion that ladies rode aftride in the middle ages. Even
 +one, who by his ftyle of art muft have been an obfcure local carver on
 +ftone, when he reprefented a female on horfeback, placed her in the
 +pofition which has always been confidered fuitable to the fex.
 +
 +For
 +
 +
 +
 +60 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +For the drawing of the other fculpture to which I allude, I am
 +indebted to Mr. Robinfon. It is one of the fubje6ts carved on the
 +fagade of the church of St. Gilles,. near Nifmes, and is a work of the
 +twelfth century. It appears to reprefent the young David flaying
 +the giant GoliaJi, the latter fully armed in fcale armour, and with (hield
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 34. Druid and Goliah.
 +
 +
 +
 +and fpear, like a Norman knight ; while to David the artift has given a
 +figure which is feminine in its forms. What we might take at firft fight
 +for a balket of apples, appears to be meant for a fupply of Hones for the
 +fling which the young hero carries fufpended from his neck. He has
 +flain the giant with one of thefe, and is cutting off his head with his own
 +fword.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 6 1
 +
 +
 +
 +==CHAPTER IV==
 +
 +THE DIABOLICAL IN CARICATURE. MEDIAEVAL LOVE OF THE LUDICROUS.
 +
 +CAUSES WHICH MADE IT INFLUENCE THE NOTIONS OF DEMONS.
 +
 +STORIES OF THE PIOUS PAINTER AND THE ERRING MONK. DARKNESS
 +
 +AND UGLINESS CARICATURED. THE DEMONS IN THE MIRACLE PLAYS.
 +THE DEMON OF NOTRE DAME.
 +
 +AS I have already ftated in the laft chapter, there can be no doubt that
 +the whole fyftem of the demonology of the middle ages was derived
 +from the older pagan mythology. The demons of the monkiih legends
 +were fimply the elves and hobgoblins of our forefathers, who haunted
 +woods, and fields, and waters, and delighted in mifleading or plaguing
 +mankind, though their mifchief was ufuallyof a rather mirthful character.
 +They were reprefented in claflical mythology by the fauns and latyrs,
 +who had, as we have feen, much to do with the birth of comic literature
 +among the Greeks and Romans j but thefe Teutonic elves were more
 +ubiquitous than the fatyrs, as they even haunted men's houfes, and played
 +tricks, not only of a mifchievous, but of a very familiar character. The
 +Chriftian clergy did not look upon the perfonages of the popular fuper-
 +flitions as fabulous beings, but they taught that they were all diabolical,
 +and that they were fo many agents of the evil one, conftantly employed
 +in enticing and entrapping mankind. Hence, in the mediaeval legends,
 +we frequently find demons prefenting themfelves under ludicrous forms
 +or in ludicrous fituations ; or performing atts, fuch as eating and drinking,
 +which are not in accordance with their real character; or at times even
 +letting themfelves be outwitted or entrapped by mortals in a very
 +undignified manner. Although they affumed any form they pleafed,
 +their natural form was remarkable chiefly for being extremely ugly; one
 +of them, which appeared in a wild wood, is defcribed by Giraldus
 +Cambrenfis, who wrote at the end of the twelfth century, as being hairy,
 +
 +flaggy.
 +
 +
 +
 +62
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +lhaggy, and rough, and monftroufly deformed.* According to a mediaeval
 +ftory, which was told in different forms, a great man's cellar was once
 +haunted by thefe demons, who drank all his wine, while the owner was
 +totally at a lofs to account for its rapid difappearance. After many
 +unfuccefsful attempts to difcover the depredators, fome one, probably
 +fufpe&ing the truth, fuggefted that he fhould mark one of the barrels
 +with holy water, and next morning a demon, much refembling the
 +defcription given by Giraldus, was found ftuck faft to the barrel. It is
 +told alfo of Edward the Confefibr, that he once went to fee the tribute
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 35. The Demon of the Trcafure.
 +
 +
 +
 +called the Danegeld, and it was fliown to him all packed up in great
 +barrels ready to be fent away for this appears to have been the ufual
 +mode of tranfporting large quantities of money. The faintly king had
 +the faculty of being able to fee fpiritual beings a fort of fpiritual fecond-
 +fight
 +
 +* " Formam quandam viliosam, hispidam, et hirsutam, adeoque enormiter
 +deformem." Girald. Camb., Itiner. Camb., lib. i. c. 5.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 63
 +
 +fight and he beheld feated on the largeft barrel, a devil, who was " black
 +and hideous."
 +
 +Vit un deable faer defut
 +
 +Le trefor, noir et hidus. Life of S. Edward, 1. 944.
 +
 +An early illuminator, in a manufcnpt preferred in the library of Trinity
 +College, Cambridge (MS. Trin. Col., B x. 2), has left us a pi&orial
 +reprefentation of this fcene, from which I copy his notion of the form of
 +the demon in cut No. 35. The general idea is evidently taken from the
 +figure of the goat, and the relationship between the demon and the
 +claffical fatyr is very evident.
 +
 +{Tglinpfe was an pflfcnfja] rharacteriftic of the demons, and, moreover,
 +<lheir features_have ufually a mirthful caft. as though fhpy grgatly enjoyed
 +Jhejr occupation^ There is a mediaeval flory of a young monk, who was
 +facriftan to an abbey, and had the directions of the building and orna-
 +mentation. The carvers of ftone were making admirable reprefentations
 +of hell and paradife, in the former of which the demons " feemed to take
 +great delight in well tormenting their victims "
 +
 +Qui par femblant ft delitoit
 +En ce que bien Us tormentolt.
 +
 +The facriftan, who watched the fculptors every day, was at laft moved by
 +pious zeal to try and imitate them, and he fet to work to make a devil
 +himfelf, with fuch fuccefs, that his fiend was fo black and ugly that
 +nobody could look at it without terror.
 +
 +Tant qu'un deable a fere emfrijl ;
 +Sf / miftfa polne et fa cure,
 +Que la forme fuji of cure
 +Etji /aide, que cil doutafl
 +Que entre deus oik refgardaj}.
 +
 +The facriftan, encouraged by his fuccefs for it muft be underftood that
 +his art was a fudden infpiration (as he had not been an artift before)
 +continued his work till it was completed, and then " it was fo horrible
 +and fo ugly, that all who faw it affirmed upon their oaths that they had
 +
 +
 +
 +64 ' Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +never feen fo ugly a figure either in fculpture or in painting, or one which
 +had fo repulfive an appearance, or a devil which was a better likenefs
 +than the one this monk had made for them "-
 +
 +Si horribles fu etji lez,
 +
 +Que treftou-z celi que le vcoicnt
 +
 +Seur leur ferement afermoient
 +
 +C'onquei mesji laide figure,
 +
 +Ne en faille ne en peinture,
 +
 +N^avolent a nul jor -veue,
 +
 +Qulji cuft lalde veue,
 +
 +Ne deable miex contrefet
 +
 +<$ue ell moines leur etvoit fet. Meon's Fabliaux, torn. ii. p. 414.
 +
 +The demon himfelf now took offence at the affront which had been put
 +upon him, and appearing the night following to the facriftan, reproached
 +him with having made him fo ugly, and enjoined him to break the
 +fculpture, and execute anothei reprefenting him better looking, on pain
 +of very fevere puniftiment j but, although this vifit was repeated thrice,
 +the pious monk refufed to comply. The evil one now began to work in
 +another way, and, by his cunning, he drew the facriftan into a difgraceful
 +amour with a lady of the neighbourhood, and they plotted not only to
 +elope together by night, but to rob the monaftery of its treafure, which
 +was of courfe in the keeping of the facriftan. They were difcovered, and
 +caught in their flight, laden with the treafure, and the unfaithful facriftan
 +was thrown into prifon. The fiend now appeared to him, and promifed
 +to clear him out of all his trouble on the mere condition that he fliould
 +break his ugly ftatue, and make another reprefenting him as looking
 +handfome a bargain to which the facriftan acceded without further
 +hefitation. It would thus appear that the demons did not like to be
 +reprefented ugly. In this cafe, the fiend immediately took the form and
 +place of the facriftan, while the latter went to his bed as if nothing had
 +happened. When the other monks found him there next morning, and
 +heard him difclaim all knowledge of the robbery or of the prifon, they
 +hurried to the latter place, and found the devil in chains-, who, when they
 +attempted to exorcife him, behaved in a very turbulent manner, and
 +
 +difappeared
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +difappeared from their fight. The monks believed that it was all a
 +deception of the evil one, while thfe facriftan, who was not inclined to
 +brave his difpleafure a fecond time, performed faithfully his part of the
 +contract, and made a devil who did not look ugly. In another verfion ol
 +the ftory, however, it ends differently. After the third warning, the
 +monk went in defiance of the devil, and made his picture uglier than
 +ever; in revenge for which the demon came unexpectedly and broke the
 +ladder on which he was mounted at his work, whereby the monk would
 +undoubtedly have been killed. But the Virgin, to whom he was much
 +devoted, came to his afMance, and, feizing him with her hand, and
 +holding him in the air, difappointed the devil of his purpofe. It is this
 +latter denouement which is reprefented in the cut No. 36, taken from the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 36. The Pious Sculptor.
 +
 +celebrated manufcript in the Britifh Mufeum known as " Queen Mary's
 +Pfalter " (MS. Reg. 2 B vii.). The two demons employed here prefent,
 +well defined, the air of mirthful jollity which was evidently derived from
 +the popular hobgoblins.
 +
 +There was another popular ftory, which alfo was told under feveral
 +
 +K forms.
 +
 +
 +
 +66
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +forms. The old Norman hiftorians tell it of their duke Richard Sanf-
 +Peur. There was a monk of the abbey of St. Ouen, who alfo held the
 +office of facriftan, but, neglecting the duties of his pofition, entered into
 +an intrigue with a lady who dwelt in the neighbourhood, and was accuf-
 +tomed at night to leave the abbey fecretly, and repair to her. His place
 +as facriftan enabled him thus to leave the houfe unknown to the other
 +brethren. On his way, he had to pafs the little river Robec, by means
 +of a plank or wooden bridge, and one night the demons, who had been
 +watching him on his errand of fin, caught him on the bridge, and threw
 +him over into the water, where he was drowned. One devil feized his
 +foul, and would have carried it away, but an angel came to claim him on
 +account of his good actions, and the difpute ran fo high, that duke
 +Richard, whofe piety was as great as his courage, was called in to decide
 +it. The fame manufcript from which our laft cut was taken has furniftied
 +our cut No. 37, which reprefents two demons tripping up the monk, and
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 37. The Monk" i Difafter.
 +
 +:
 +
 +throwing him very unceremonioufly into the river. The body of one of
 +the demons here affumes the form of an animal, inftead of taking,
 +like the other, that of a man, and he is, moreover, furnifhed with a
 +dragon's wings. There was one verfion of this ftory, in which it found
 +its place among the legends of the Virgin Mary, inftead of thofe of duke
 +Richard. The monk, in fpite of his failings, had been a conftant
 +worlhipper of the Virgin, and, as he was falling from the bridge into the
 +river, me ftepped forward to protect him from his perfecutors, and taking
 +hold of him with her hand, faved him from death. One of the compart-
 +ments of the rather early wall-paintings in Winchefter Cathedral reprefents
 +the icene according to this verfion of the ftory, and is copied in our cut
 +
 +No. 38. The fiends here take more fantaftic Ihapes than we have
 +
 +Nn, 38. The Demons Dif appointed.
 +
 +previously feen given to them. They remind us already of the infinitely
 +varied grotefque forms which the painters of the age of the Renaifiance
 +crowded together in fuch fubjects as " [[The Temptation of St. Anthony]]."
 +In fact these ftrange notions of the forms of the demons were not only
 +preferved through the whole period of the middle ages, but are ftill
 +hardly extinct. They appear in almoft exaggerated forms in the illuftrations
 +to books of a popular religious character which appeared in the firft ages
 +of printing. I may quote, as an example, one of the cuts of an early and
 +very rare block-book, entitled the [[Ars Moriendi]], or "Art of Dying," or,
 +in a fecond title, De Tentationilus Morientium, on the temptations to
 +which dying men are expofed. The fcene, of which a part is given in
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +68
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +the annexed cut (No. 39), is in the room of the dying man, whofe bed is fur-
 +rounded by three demons, who are come to tempt him, while his relatives
 +of both fexes are looking on quite unconfcious of their prefence. VThe
 +figures of thefe demons are particujarj^-gqrtefaue^juid-thf i r "gl.v features
 +
 +
 +
 +betray a degree of vulgar cunningj^hichjulds not a little to this effecl..
 +The one leaning over the dying man fuggeils to him the words exprefied
 +in the label iffuing from his mouth, Provideas amicis, " provide for your
 +friends " while the one whofe heajd appears to the left whifpers to him,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 39. A Med'nt-val Death- bed.
 +
 +Yntende thefauro, "think of your treafure." The dying man feems
 +grievoufly perplexed with the various thoughts thus fuggefted to him.
 +Why did the mediaeval nhr^flians think it neceffary to make the
 +
 +
 +
 +black and ugly ? The firft reply to this queftion which prefents itfelf is,
 +that the rhqrafteriftirs i ntgadedLXoJbe repreJeJited_were__the.,biaknefe-aBd
 +uglinefs of fin. This, however, is only partially the explanation of the
 +facl: ; for there can be no doubt that the notion was a popular one, and
 +that it had previoufly exifled in the popular mythology ; and, as has been
 +already remarked, the uglinefs exhibited bv them is a vnlgai-j mirthful
 +which makes you laugh inftead of fliudder. Another fcene,
 +
 +from
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +from the interefting drawings at the foot of the pages in " Queen Mary's
 +Pfalter," is given in our cut No. 40. It reprefents that moft popular
 +of mediaeval pi&ures, and, at the fame time, moft remarkable of
 +literal interpretations, hell mouth. The entrance to the infernal regions
 +was always reprefented pidorially as the mouth of a monftrous animal,
 +where the demons appeared leaving and returning. Here they are feen
 +bringing the finful fouls to their laft deftination, and it cannot be denied
 +that they are doing the work right merrily and jovially. In our cut
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 40. Condemned Souls carried to their Place of Punifhment.
 +
 +No. 41, from the manufcript in the library of Trinity College, Cambridge,
 +which furnifhed a former fubje<5t, three demons, who appear to be the
 +guardians of the entrance to the regions below for it is upon the -brow
 +above the monftrous mouth that they are ftanding prefent varieties of
 +the diabolical form. The one in the middle is the moft remarkable, for
 +he has wings not only on his fhoulders, but alfo on his knees and heels.
 +All three have horns ; in fact, the three fpecial charadteriftics of mediaeval
 +demons were horns, hoofs or, at leaft, the feet of beafts, and tails,
 +which fufficiently indicate the fource from which the popular notions of
 +thefe beings were derived. In the cathedral of Treves, there is a mural
 +painting by William of Cologne, a painter of the fifteenth- century, which
 +
 +reprefents
 +
 +
 +
 +yo Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +reprefents the entrance to the fhades, the monftrous mouth, with its
 +keepers, in ftill more grotefque forms. Our cut No. 42 gives but a
 +fmall portion of this pidure, in which the porter of the regions of punifh-
 +ment is fitting aftride the fnout of the monftrous mouth, and is founding
 +with a trumpet what may be fuppofed to be the call for thofe who are
 +condemned. Another minftrel of the fame ftamp, fpurred, though not
 +booted, fits aftride the tube of the trumpet, playing on the bagpipes; and
 +the found which iffues from the former inftrument is reprefented by a
 +hoft of fmaller imps who are fcattering themfelves about.
 +
 +It muft not be fuppofed that, in fubjedts like thefe, the drollery of the
 +fcene was accidental ; but, on the contrary, the mediaeval artifts and
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 41 . The Guardlam of Hell Mouth.
 +
 +popular writers gave them this character purpofely. The demons and
 +the executioners the latter of whom were called in Latin for/ores, and
 +in popular old Englifh phrafeology the " tormentours " were the comic
 +characters of the time, and the fcenes in the old myfteries or religious
 +plays in which they were introduced were the comic fcenes, or farce, of
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +the piece. The love of burlefque and caricature was, indeed, fo deeply
 +planted in the popular mind, that it was found necefiary to introduce
 +them even in pious works, in which fuch fcenes as the flaughter of the
 +innocents, where the " knights " and the women abufed each other in
 +vulgar language, the treatment of Chritt at the time of His trial, fome
 +parts of the fcene of the crucifixion, and the day of judgment, were
 +eflentially comic. The laft of thefe fubjects, efpecially, was a fcene of
 +mirth, becaufe it often confitted throughout of a coarfe fatire on the vices
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No 42. The Trumpeter of Evil.
 +
 +
 +
 +of the age, efpecially on thofe which were moft obnoxious to the populace,
 +fuch as the pride and vanity of the higher ranks, and the extortions and
 +frauds of ufurers, bakers, taverners, and others. In the play of " Juditium,"
 +or the day of doom, in the " Towneley Myfteries," one of the earlieft
 +collections of myfteries in the Englifh language, the whole converfation
 +among the demons is exactly of that joking kind which we might expect
 +from their countenances in the pictures. When one of them appears
 +carrying a bag full of different offences, another, his companion, is fo
 +joyful at this circumftance, that he fays it makes him laugh till he is out
 +
 +of
 +
 +
 +
 +J2. Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +of breath, or, in other words, till he is ready to burft ; and, while alking
 +if anger be not among the fins he had colle&ed, propofes to treat him
 +with fomething to drink
 +
 +Primus daemon. Peafese, I fray tne, be ftllle , I laghe that I kynke.
 +Is oghte ire in thl bille? and then falle thou drynke, Towneley Mysteries, p. 309.
 +
 +And in the continuation of the converfation, one telling of the events
 +which had preceded the announcement of Doomfday says, rather jeeringly,
 +and fomewhat exultingly, " Souls came fo thick now of late to hell, that
 +our porter at hell gate is ever held fo clofe at work, up early and down
 +late, that he never refts"
 +
 +Battles cam fo thyk ncno late unto helle t
 +
 +As ever
 +
 +Oure porter at helle gate
 +Is halden fo flrate,
 +Up erly and doivne late,
 +
 +He ryftys never. Ib., p. 314.
 +
 +With fuch popular notions on the fubjeft, we have no reafon to be
 +furprifed that the artifts of the middle ages frequently chofe the figures of
 +demons as objects on which to exercife their fkill in burlefque and carica-
 +ture, that they often introduced grotefque figures of their heads and bodies
 +in the fculptured ornamentation of building, and that they prefented them
 +in ludicrous fituations and attitudes in their pictures. They are often
 +brought in as fecondary actors in a picture in a very fingular manner, of
 +which an excellent example is furnifhed by the beautifully illuminated
 +manufcript known as " Queen Mary's Pfalter," which is copied in our cut
 +No. 43. Nothing is more certain than that in this inftance the intention
 +of the artift was perfectly ferious. Eve, under the influence of a rather
 +fingularly formed ferpent, having the head of a beautiful woman and the
 +body of a dragon, is plucking the apples and offering them to Adam, who
 +is preparing to eat one, with evident hefitation and reluctance. But three
 +demons, downright hobgoblins, appear as fecondary actors in the fcene,
 +who exercife an influence upon the principals. One is patting Eve on
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +73
 +
 +
 +
 +the ftioulder, with an air of approval and encouragement, while a fecond,
 +with wings, is urging on Adam, and apparently laughing at his appre-
 +henfions ; and a third, in a very ludicrous manner, is preventing him from
 +drawing back from the trial.
 +
 +In all the delineations of demons we have yet feen, the ludicrous is
 +the fpirit which chiefly predominates, and in no one inftance have we
 +had a figure which is really demoniacal. The devils are droll but not
 +frightful 5 they provoke laughter, or at leaft excite a fmile, but they
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 43. The Fall of Man.
 +
 +create no horror. Indeed, they torment their victims fo good-humouredly,
 +that we hardly feel for them. There is, however, one well-known
 +inftance in which the mediaeval artift has mown himfelf fully fuccefsful
 +in reprefenting the features of the fpirit of evil. On the parapet of the
 +external gallery of the cathedral church of Notre Dame in Paris, there is
 +a figure in ftone, of the ordinary flature of a man, reprefenting the demon,
 +apparently looking with fatisfa&ion upon the inhabitants of the city as
 +they were everywhere indulging in fin and wickednefs. We give a
 +Jketch of this figure in our cut No. 44. The unmixed evil horrible in
 +
 +i. its
 +
 +
 +
 +74 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +its expreffion in this countenance is marvelloufly portrayed. It is an
 +abfolute Mephiftophiles, carrying in his features a ftrange mixture of
 +hateful qualities malice, pride, envy in fat, all the deadly fins combined
 +in one diabolical whole.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 44. The Spirit of Evil.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 75
 +
 +==CHAPTER V. ==
 +
 +EMPLOYMENT OF ANIMALS IN MEDIEVAL SATIKE. POPULARITY OP
 +
 +FABLES ; ODO DE CIRINGTON. REYNARD THE FOX. BURNELLUS
 +
 +AND FAUVEL. THE CHARIVARI. LE MONDE BESTORNE. ENCAUSTIC
 +
 +TILES. SHOEING THE GOOSE, AND FEEDING PIGS WITH ROSES.
 +
 +SATIRICAL SIGNS J THE MUSTARD MAKER.
 +
 +THE people of the middle ages appear to have been great admirers
 +of animals, to have obferved clofely their various characters and
 +peculiarities, and to have been fond 01 domefticating them. Thgy-feon-
 +began to employ their_pjculiaritin m mr? 1 ^ y f rcif .irifing and caricaturinfc-
 +Jrnankind ; and among the literature bequeathed to them by the Romans,
 +they received no book more eagerly than the " Fables of JEfop," and
 +the other collections of fables which were publilhed under the empire.
 +We find no traces of fables among the original literature of the German
 +race ; but the tribes who took poffeffion of the Roman provinces no
 +fooner became acquainted with the fables of the ancients, than they
 +began to imitate them, and ftories in which animals afted the part of
 +men were multiplied immenfely, and became a very important branch
 +of mediaeval fiction.
 +
 +Among the Teutonic peoples efpecially, thefe fables often affumed very
 +grotefque forms, and the fatire they convey is very amufing. One of the
 +earlieft of thefe collections of original fables was compofed by an Englilh
 +ecclefiaftic named Odo de Cirington, who lived in the time of Henry II.
 +and Richard I. In Odo's fables, we find the animals figuring under the
 +fame popular names by which they were afterwards fo well known, fuch
 +as Reynard for the fox, Ifengrin for the wolf, Teburg for the cat, and
 +the like. Thus the fubjeft of one of them is " Ifengrin made Monk "
 +(de Ifengrino monacho). "Once," we are told, " Ifengrin defired to be a
 +monk. By dint of fervent fupplications, he obtained the confent of the
 +
 +chapter,
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +chapter, and received the tonfure, the cowl, and the other infignia of
 +monachifm. At length they put him to fchool, and he was to learn the
 +' Paternofter,' but he always replied, ' lamb ' (agnus) or 'ram' (dries).
 +The monks taught him that he ought to look upon the crucifix and upon
 +the facrament, but he ever direfted his eyes to the lambs and rams." The
 +fable is droll enough, but the moral, or application is ftill more grotefque.
 +" Such is the conduct of many of the monks, whofe only cry is ' aries,'
 +that is, good wine, and who have their eyes always fixed on fat flefh and
 +their platter ; whence the faying in "Englifh
 +
 +They thou the vulf hart Thwgh thou the hoary iuolf
 +
 +hod to prefte t conjecratc to a frieft,
 +
 +they thou him to fkole fette though thou put him to fchool
 +
 +falmes to lerne, to learn Pfalmt,
 +
 +hevere bet hife gerei ever are his ears turned
 +
 +to the grove grene" to the green grove.
 +
 +Thefe lines are in the alliterative verfe of the Anglo-Saxons, and (how
 +that fuch fables had already found their place in the popular poetry of the
 +Englifh people. Another of thefe fables is entitled " Of the Beetle
 +(fcralo) and his Wife." " A beetle, flying through the land, palled
 +among moft beautiful blooming trees, through orchards and among rofes
 +and lilies, in the moft lovely places, and at length threw himfelf upon a
 +dunghill among the dung of horfes, and found there his wife, who alked
 +him whence he came. And the beetle faid, ' I have flown all round the
 +earth and through it ; I have feen the flowers of almonds, and lilies, and
 +rofes, but I have feen no place fo pleafant as this,' pointing to the dung-
 +hill." The application is equally droll with the former and equally un-
 +complimentary to the religious part of the community. Odo de Cirington
 +tells us that, " Thus many of the clergy, monks, and laymen liflen to the
 +lives of the fathers, pafs among the lilies of the virgins, among the rofes
 +of the martyrs, and among the violets of the confeflbrs, yet nothing ever
 +appears fo pleafant and agreeable as a ftrumpet, or the tavern, or a finging
 +party, though it is but a flunking dunghill and congregation of finners."
 +
 +Popular fculpture and painting were but the tranflation of popular
 +literature, and nothing was more common to reprefent, in pictures and
 +
 +carvings,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 77
 +
 +carvings, than individual men under the forms of the animals who difplayed
 +fimilar characters or fimilar propenfities. Cunning,, treachery, and
 +intrigue were the prevailing vices of the middle ages, and they were thofe
 +alfo of the fox, who hence became a favourite character in fatire. The
 +victory of craft over force always provoked mirth. The fabulifts, or, we
 +fhould perhaps rather fay, the fatirifts, foon began to extend their canvas
 +and enlarge their picture, and, inftead of fingle examples of fraud or
 +injuftice, they introduced a variety of characters, not only foxes, but
 +wolves, and fheep, and bears, with birds alfo, as the eagle, the cock, and
 +the crow, and mixed them up together in long narratives, which thus
 +formed general fatires on the vices of contemporary fociety. In this
 +manner originated the celebrated romance of " Reynard the Fox," which
 +in various forms, from the twelfth century to the eighteenth, has enjoyed
 +a popularity which was granted probably to no other book. The plot of
 +this remarkable fatire turns chiefly on the long ftruggle between the
 +brute force of Ifengrin the Wolf, poflefled only with a fmall amount of
 +intelligence, which is eafily deceived under which character is prefented
 +the powerful feudal baron and the craftinefs of Reynard the Fox, who
 +reprefents the intelligent portion of fociety, which had to hold its ground
 +by its wits, and thefe were continually abufed to evil purpofes. Reynard
 +is fwayed by a conflant impulfe to deceive and vidimife everybody,
 +whether friends or enemies, but efpecially his uncle Ifengrin. It was
 +fomewhat the relationfhip between the ecclefiaflical and baronial
 +ariftocracy. Reynard was educated in the fchools, and intended for
 +the clerical order ; and at different times he is reprefented as a&ing
 +under the difguife of a prieft, of a monk, of a pilgrim, or even of a
 +prelate of the church. Though frequently reduced to the greateft
 +ftraits by the power of Ifengrin, Reynard has generally the better of it
 +in the end : he robs and defrauds Ifengrin continually, outrages his
 +wife, who is half in alliance with him, and draws him into all forts of
 +dangers and fufferings, for which the latter never fucceeds in obtaining
 +juftice. The old fculptors and artifts appear to have preferred exhibiting
 +Reynard in his ecclefiaftical difguifes, and in thefe he appears often in the
 +ornamentation of mediaeval architectural fculpture, in wood-carvings, in
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefaue
 +
 +
 +
 +the illuminations of manufcripts, and in other objefts of art. The popular
 +feeling againft the clergy was llrong in the middle ages, and no caricature
 +was received with more favour than thofe which expofed the immorality
 +or difhonefty of a monk or a pried. Our cut No. 45 is taken from a
 +
 +fculpture in the church of Chriftchurch, in
 +Hampmire, for the drawing of which I am
 +indebted to my friend, Mr. Llewellynn
 +Jewitt. It reprefents Reynard in the pulpit
 +preaching ; behind, or rather perhaps befide
 +him, a diminutive cock ftands upon a ftool
 +in modern times we fhould be inclined
 +to fay he was acting as clerk. Reynard's
 +coftume confifls merely of the ecclefiatlical
 +hood or cowl. Such fubje6ts are frequently
 +found on the carved feats, or mifereres, in
 +the ftalls of the old cathedrals and collegiate
 +churches. The painted glafs of the great
 +window of the north crofs-aifle of St. Martin's
 +church in Leicefter, which was deftroyed in
 +the laft century, reprefented the fox, in the
 +character of an ecclefiaftic, preaching to a
 +congregation of geefe, and addreffing them in the words Teftis eft mihi
 +Deus, quam cupiam vos omnes vifceribus meis (God is witnefs, how I
 +defire you all in my bowels), a parody on the words of the New
 +Teflament.* Our cut No. 46 is taken from one of the mifereres in the
 +church of St. Mary, at Beverley, in Yorkftiire. Two foxes are reprefented
 +in the difguife of ecclefiaftics, each furniihed with a paftoral ftaff, and
 +they appear to be receiving inftructions from a prelate or perfonage of
 +rank perhaps they are undertaking a pilgrimage of penance. But their
 +fmcerity is rendered fomewhat doubtful by the geefe concealed in their
 +
 +hoods.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 45. The Fox in the Fulfil.
 +
 +
 +
 +* An engraving of thi<= scene, modernised in character, is given in Nichols's
 +" Leicestershire," vol. i. plate 43.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +79
 +
 +
 +
 +hoods. In one of the incidents of the romance of Reynard, the hero
 +enters a monaftery and becomes a monk, in order to efcape the wrath of
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 46. Ecclefiaftical Sincerity.
 +
 +King Noble, the lion. For fome time he made an outward Ihow of
 +
 +fan&ity and felf-privation, but unknown to his brethren he fecretly helped
 +
 +himfelf freely to the good things of the
 +
 +monaftery. One day he obferved, with
 +
 +longing lips, a meflenger who brought
 +
 +four fat capons as a prefent from a lay
 +
 +neighbour to the abbot. That night,
 +
 +when all the monks had retired to reft,
 +
 +Reynard obtained admifiion to the larder,
 +
 +regaled himfelf with one of the capons,
 +
 +and as foon as he had eaten it, trufled
 +
 +the three others on his back, efcaped
 +
 +fecretly from the abbey, and, throwing
 +
 +away his monadic garment, hurried
 +
 +home with his prey. We might almoft
 +
 +imagine our cut No. 47, taken from one
 +
 +of the flails of the church of Nantwich,
 +
 +in Chelhire, to have been intended to No - 47- R*i*ard turned Mont.
 +
 +reprefent this incident, or, at leaft, a fimilar one. Our next cut, No. 48,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +8o
 +
 +
 +
 +Htftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +is taken from a ftall in the church of Bofton, in Lincolnftiire. A prelate,
 +equally falfe, is feated in his chair, with a mitre on his head, and the
 +paftoral ftaff in his right hand. His flock are reprefented by a cock and
 +hens, the former of which he holds fecurely with his right hand, while
 +he appears to be preaching to them.
 +
 +Another mediaeval fculpture has furnifhed events for a rather curious
 +hiftory, at the fame time that it is a good illuftration of our fubjeft.
 +Odo de Cirington, the fabulift, tells us how, one day, the wolf died, and
 +the lion called the animals together to celebrate his exequies. The hare
 +carried the holy water, hedgehogs bore the candles, the goats rang the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No 48. The Prelate and his Flock.
 +
 +bells, the moles dug the grave, the foxes carried the corpfe on the bier.
 +Berengarius, the bear, celebrated mafs, the ox read the gofpel, and the
 +afs the epiflle. When the mafs was concluded, and Ifengrin buried, the
 +animals made a fplendid feaft out of his goods, and wifhed for fuch
 +another funeral. Our fatirical ecclefiaftic makes an application of this
 +ftory which tells little to the credit of the monks of his time. " So it
 +frequently happens," he fays, " that when fome rich man, an extortionifl
 +or a ufurer, dies, the abbot or prior of a convent of beads, i.e. of men
 +living like beafls. caufes them to aflemble. For it commonly happens
 +that in a great convent of black or white monks (Benediftines or
 +
 +Auguftinians)
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +81
 +
 +
 +
 +Auguftinians) there are none but beafts lions by their pride, foxes by
 +their craftinefs, bears by their voracity, flinking goats by their incontinence,
 +affes by their fluggifhnefs, hedgehogs by their afperity, hares by their
 +timidity, becaufe they were cowardly where there was no fear, and oxen
 +by their laborious cultivation of their land." *
 +
 +A fcene clofely refembling that here defcribed by Odo, differing only
 +in the distribution of the characters, was tranflated from fome fuch
 +written ftory into the pi&orial language of the ancient fculptured ornamen-
 +tation of Straiburg Cathedral, where it formed, apparently, two fides of
 +the capital or entablature of a column near the chancel. The deceafed in
 +this pi&ure appears to be a fox, which was probably the animal intended
 +to be reprefented in the original, although, in the copy of it preferred, it
 +looks more like a fquirrel. The bier is carried by the goat and the boar,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 49. The Funeral of the Fo*.
 +
 +
 +
 +while a little dog underneath is taking liberties with the tail of the latter.
 +Immediately before the bier, the hare carries the lighted taper, preceded
 +by the wolf, who carries the crofs, and the bear, who holds in one hand
 +the holy-water veflel and in the other the afperfoir. This forms the
 +firft divifion of the fubje6t, and is reprefented in our cut No. 49. In the
 +
 +next
 +
 +* The Latin text of this and some others of the fables of Odo de Cirington
 +will be found in my " Selection of Latin Stories," pp, 50-52, 55-5 8 > and 80.
 +
 +
 +
 +82
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +next divifion (cut No. 50), the flag is reprefented celebrating mafs, and
 +the afs reads the Gofpel from a book which the cat fupports with
 +its head.
 +
 +This curious fculpture is faid to have been of the thirteenth century.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 50. The Mafs for the Pox.
 +
 +
 +
 +In the fifteenth century it attracted the attention of the reformers, who
 +looked upon it as an ancient proteft againft the corruptions of the mafs,
 +and one of the more diftinguifhed of them, John Fifchart, had it copied
 +and engraved on wood, and publifhed it about the year 1580, with fome
 +verfes of his own, in which it was interpreted as a fatire upon the papacy.
 +This publication gave fuch dire offence to the ecclefiaftical authorities of
 +Stralburg, that the Lutheran bookfeller who had ventured to publifh it,
 +was compelled to make a public apology in the church, and the wood-
 +engraving and all the impreffions were feized and burnt by the common
 +hangman. A few years later, however, in 1608, another engraving was
 +made, and publifhed in a large folio with Fifchart's verfes ; and it is from
 +the diminifhed copy of this fecond edition given in Flb'gelV'Gefchichte
 +des Komifches Literatur" that our cuts are taken. The original
 +fculpture was ftill more unfortunate. Its publication and explanation by
 +Fifchart was the caufe of no little fcandal among the Catholics, who tried
 +to retort upon their opponents by afferting that the figures in this funeral
 +celebration were intended to reprefent the ignorance of the Proteftant
 +preachers ; and the fculpture in the church continued to be regarded
 +by the ecclefiaflical authorities with diflatisfaclion until the year 1685,
 +
 +when
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 8 3
 +
 +when, to take away all further ground of fcandal, it was entirely
 +defaced.
 +
 +Reynard's mediaeval celebrity dates certainly from a rather early period.
 +Montflaucon has given an alphabet of ornamental initial letters, formed
 +chiefly of figures of men and animals, from a manufcript which he
 +afcrtbes to the ninth century, among which is the one
 +copied in our cut No. 51, reprefenting a fox walking
 +upon his hind legs, and carrying two frnall cocks,
 +fufpended at the ends of a crofs ftarF. It is hardly
 +neceflary to fay that this group forms the letter T.
 +Long before this, the Frankiih hiftorian Fredegarius,
 +who wrote about the middle of the feventh century,
 +introduces a fable in which the fox figures at the court
 +of the lion. The fame fable is repeated by a monkifh
 +writer of Bavaria, named Fromond, who flourifhed in No. 5 1 - The Fox
 +
 +Provided.
 +
 +the tenth century, and by another named Aimomus,
 +who lived about the year 1,000. At length, in the twelfth century,
 +Guibert de Nogent, who died about the year 1124, and who has left us
 +bis autobiography (de Vita Jua), relates an anecdote in that work, in
 +explanation of which he tells us that the wolf was then popularly
 +defignated by the name of Ifengrin j and in the fables of Odo, as we
 +have already feen, this name is commonly given to the wolf, Reynard to
 +the fox, Teburg to the cat, and fo on with the others. This only Ihows
 +that in the fables of the twelfth century the various animals were known
 +by thefe names, but it does not prove that what we know as the romance
 +of Reynard exifted. Jacob Grimm argued from the derivation and forms
 +of thefe names, that the fables themfelves, and the romance, originated
 +with the Teutonic peoples, and were indigenous to them ; but his reafons
 +appear to me to be more fpecious than conclufive, and I certainly lean to
 +the opinion of my friend Paulin Paris, that the romance of Reynard was
 +native of France,* and that it was partly founded upon old Latin legends,
 +
 +perhaps
 +
 +* Sec the dissertation by M- Paulin Paris, published in his nice popular modern
 +abridgment of the French romance, published in 1861, under the title " Les Aven-
 +
 +
 +
 +84 Hijiory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +perhaps poems. Its character is altogether feudal, and it is ftrictly a
 +picture of fociety, in France primarily, and fecondly in England and the
 +other nations of feudalifm, in the twelfth century. The earlieft form in
 +which this romance is known is in the French poem or rather poems,
 +for it coniifts of feveral branches or continuations and is fuppofed to date
 +from about the middle of the twelfth century. It foon became fo
 +popular, that it appeared in different forms in all the languages of Weftern
 +Europe, except in England, where there appears to have exifted no edition
 +of the romance of Reynard the Fox until Caxton printed his profe
 +Englifh verfion of the ftory. From that time it became, if poffible, more
 +popular in England than elfewhere, and that popularity had hardly
 +diminiflied down to the commencement of the prefent century.
 +
 +The popularity of the ftory of Reynard caufed it to be imitated in a
 +variety of fhapes, and this form of fatire, in which animals acted the part
 +of men, became altogether popular. In the latter part of the twelfth
 +century, an Anglo-Latin poet, named Nigellus Wireker, compofed a very
 +fevere fatire in elegiac verfe, under the title of Speculum Stultorum, the
 +" Mirror of Fools." It is not a wife animal like the fox, but a fimple
 +animal, the afs, who, under the name of Brunellus, pafles among the
 +various ranks and clafles of fociety, and notes their crimes and vices. A
 +profe introduction to this poem informs us that its hero is the reprefenta-
 +tive of the monks in general, who were always longing for fome new
 +acquifition which was inconfiftent with their profeflion. In fact, Brunellus
 +is abforbed with the notion that his tail was too fhort, and his great
 +ambition is to get it lengthened. For this purpofe he confults a phyfician,
 +who, after reprefenting to him in vain the folly of his purfuit, gives him
 +a receipt to make his tail grow longer, and fends him to the celebrated
 +medical fchool of Salerno to obtain the ingredients. After various
 +adventures, in the courfe of which he lofes a part of his tail inftead of its
 +being lengthened, Brunellus proceeds to the Univerfity of Paris to ftudy
 +
 +and
 +
 +tures de Maitre Renart et d'Ysengrin son compere." On the debated question of
 +the origin of the Romance, see the learned and able work by Jonckbloet, 8vo.,
 +Groningue, 1863.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 85
 +
 +
 +
 +and obtain knowledge ; and we are treated with a moft amufingly fatirical
 +account of the condition and manners of the fcholars of that time. Soon
 +convinced of his incapacity for learning, Brunellus abandons the univerfity
 +in delpair, and he refolves to enter one of the monaftic orders, the
 +character of all which he pafles in review. The greater part of the poem
 +confifts of a very bitter fatire on the corruptions of the fnonkifh orders
 +and of the Church in general. While ftill hefitating which order to
 +choofe, Brunellus falls into the hands of his old matter, from whom he
 +had run away in order to feek his fortune in the world, and he is
 +compelled to pafs the reft of his days in the fame humble and fervile
 +condition in which he had begun them.
 +
 +A more dire6t imitation of " Reynard the Fox " is found in the early
 +French romance of" Fauvel," the hero of which is neither a fox nor an afs,
 +but a horfe. People of all ranks and clafles repair to the court of Fauvel,
 +the horfe, and furnifh abundant matter for fatire on the moral, political,
 +and religious hypocrify which pervaded the whole frame of fociety. At
 +length the hero refolves to marry, and, in a finely illuminated manufcript
 +of this romance, preferred in the Imperial Library in Paris, this marriage
 +furnifties the fubjecl: of a picture, which gives the only reprefentation I
 +have met with of one of the popular ourlefque ceremonies which were fo
 +common in the middle ages.
 +
 +Among other fuch ceremonies, it was cuftomary with the populace,
 +on the occalion of a man's or woman's fecond marriage, or an ill-forted
 +match, or on the efpoufals of people who were obnoxious to their
 +neigh bours > to aflemble outfide the houfe, and greet them with difcordant
 +mufic. This cuftom is faid to have been praftifed efpecially in France,
 +and it was called a charivari. There is ftill a laft remnant of it in our
 +country in the mufic of marrow-bones and cleavers, with which the
 +marriages of butchers are popularly celebrated ; but the derivation of the
 +French name appears not to be known. It occurs in old Latin documents,
 +for it gave rife to fuch fcandalous fcenes of riot and licentiousnefs, that
 +the Church did all it could, though in vain, to fupprefs it. The earlieft
 +mention of this cuftom, furnilhed in the Gloffhrium of Ducange, is
 +contained in the fy nodal ftatutes of the church of Avignon, pafled in the
 +
 +year
 +
 +
 +
 +86
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +year 1337, from which we learn that when fuch marriages occurred,
 +people forced their way into the houfes of the married couple, and carried
 +away their goods, which they were obliged to pay a ranfom for before
 +they were returned, and the money thus raifed was fpent in getting up
 +what is called in the ftatute relating to it a Chalvaricum. It appears from
 +this flatute, that the individuals who performed the charirari accompanied
 +the happy couple to the church, and returned with them to their
 +refidence, with coarfe and indecent geftures and difcordant mufic, and
 +
 +
 +
 +b
 +No. 52. A Medittval Charivari.
 +
 +
 +
 +uttering fcurrilous and indecent abufe, and that they ended with feafting.
 +In the ftatutes of Meaux, in 1365, and in thofe of Hugh, biftiop of
 +[[Beziers]], in 1368, the fame practice is forbidden, under the name of
 +Charavallium ; and it is mentioned in a document of the year 13/2, alfo
 +quoted by Ducange, under that of Carivarium, as then exifting at Nimes.
 +Again, in 1445, the Council of Tours made a decree, forbidding, under
 +pain of excommunication, " the infolences, clamours, founds, and other
 +tumults pra&ifed at fecond and third nuptials, called by the vulgar a
 +
 +Charh-anum,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +Charivarium, on account of the many and grave evils arifing out of
 +them."* It will be obferved that thefe early allufions to the charivari
 +are found almoft folely in documents coming from the Roman towns in
 +the fouth of France, fo that this practice was probably one of the many
 +popular cuftoms derived directly from the Romans. When Cotgrave's
 +"Dictionary " was publifhed (that is, in 1632) the practice of the charivari
 +appears to have become more general in its exiftence, as well as its
 +application ; for he defcribes it as " a public defamation, or traducing of;
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 53. Continuation of the Chari-vari.
 +
 +
 +
 +a foule noife made, blacke fantus rung, to the fhame and difgrace of
 +another^ hence an infamous (or infaming) ballad fung, by an armed
 +troupe, under the window of an old dotard, married the day before unto
 +a yong wanton, in mockerie of them both." And, again, a charivaris de
 +
 +poelles
 +
 +* " Insultationes, clamores, sonos, et alios tumultus, in secundis et tenth's quo-
 +rundam nuptiis, quos charivarium vulgo appellant, propter multa et gravia incom-
 +moda, prohibemus sub pcena excommunicationis." Ducange, v. Charivarium.
 +
 +
 +
 +88 Htftory of Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +poelles is explained as " the carting of an infamous perfon, graced with
 +the harmonic of tinging kettles and frying-pan muficke."* The word is
 +now generally ufed in the fenfe of a great tumult of difcordant rrmfic,
 +produced often by a number of perfons playing different tunes on
 +different inftruments at the fame time.
 +
 +As I have ftated above, the manufcript of the romance of "Fauvel "
 +is in the Imperial Library in Paris. A copy of this illumination is
 +engraved in Jaime's " Mufee de la Caricature," from which our cuts
 +Nos. 52 and 53 are taken. It is divided into three compartments, one
 +above another, in the uppermoft of which Fauvel is feen entering the
 +nuptial chamber to his young wife, who is already in bed. The fcene in
 +the compartment below, which is copied in our cut No. 52, reprefents
 +the flreet outfide, and the mock revellers performing the charivari;
 +and this is continued in the third, or loweft, compartment, which
 +is reprefented in our cut No. 53. Down each fide of the original
 +illumination is a frame-work of windows, from which people, who
 +have been difturbed by the noife, are looking out upon the tumult.
 +It will be feen that all the performers wear malks, and that they are
 +drefled in burlefque coftume. In confirmation of the ftatement of the
 +ecclefiaftical fynods as to the licerltioufnefs of thefe exhibitions, we
 +fee one of the performers here difguifed as a woman, who lifts up his
 +drefs to expofe his perfon while dancing. The mufical inftruments
 +are no lefs grotefque than the coftumes, for they confift chiefly of kitchen
 +utenfils, fuch as frying-pans, mortars, faucepans, and the like.
 +
 +There was another feries of fubjets in which_animals wej^e. introduced
 +as the inftrumrpti of fntirr^ This fatirc coofiifed in reverfing^ the-pofilion
 +n th g animalfLpver wh'^ ^ r-H ^fn accuflomed
 +
 +
 +
 +_tp ^rgnnifeijQ_jh^Ji_3Kas--fab}^e4-ta-llie^fame treatment from the
 +animals which, in his a6tual pofition, he uies towards them. .This change
 +Qf~reTative pofition was railed ii-| old French anrl Anf;ln Nprmatij L>
 +
 +jnonde leftorni^ which was equivalent to the Englifh phrafe, " the world
 +
 +lurngd upfide down." It forms the fubjecl: of rather old verfes, I believe,
 +
 +__ both
 +
 +* Cotgrave's Dictionarie, v. Chari-var'u.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +both in French and Englifh, and individual fcenes from it are met with
 +in pi&orial reprefentation at a rather early date. During the year J 862,
 +in the courfe of accidental excavations on the lite of the Friary, at
 +Derby, a number of encauftic tiles, fuch as were ufed for the floors
 +of the interiors of churches and large buildings, were found.* The
 +ornamentation of thefe tiles, efpecially of the earlier ones, is, like ail
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 54 I'he Tablet Turned.
 +
 +mediaeval ornamentations, extremely varied, and even thefe tiles Ibnu-
 +times prefent fubje&s of a burlefque and fatirical character, though they
 +are more frequently adorned with the arms and badges of benefactors to
 +the church or convent. The tiles found on the fite of the priory at
 +Derby are believed to be of the thirteenth century, and one pattern, a
 +diminished copy of which is given in our cut No. 54, prefents a fubject
 +
 +taken
 +
 +* Mr Llewellynn Jewitt, in his excellent publication, the Reliquary, [or O< tober,
 +1861, has given an interesting paper on the encaustic tiles found on this occasion,
 +and on the conventual house to which they belonged.
 +
 +
 +
 +9
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +taken from the monde be/lorn^. The hare, matter of his old enemy, the
 +dog, has become hunter himfelf, and feated upon the dog's back he rides
 +vigoroufly to the chace, blowing his horn as he goes. The defign is
 +fpiritedly executed, and its fatirical intention is fhown by the monflrous
 +and mirthful face, with the tongue lolling out, figured on the outer
 +corner of the tile. It will be feen that four of thefe tiles are intended to
 +be joined together to make the complete piece. In an illumination
 +in a manufcript of the fourteenth century in the Britifli Mufeum
 +(MS. Reg. 10 E iv.), the hares are taking a ftill more fevere vengeance
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 55. Juftice in the Hands of the Perfccuted.
 +
 +on their old enemy. The dog has been caught, brought to trial for his
 +numerous murders, and condemned, and they are reprefented here
 +(cut No. 55) conducting him in the criminal's cart to the gallows. Our
 +cut No. 56, the fubjed of which is furnimed by one of the carved flails
 +in Sherborne Minfter (it is here copied from the engraving in Carter's
 +" Specimens of Ancient Sculpture "), reprefents another execution fcene,
 +fimilar in fpirit to the former. The geefe have feized their old enemy,
 +Reynard, and are hanging him on a gallows, while two monks, who
 +attend the execution, appear to be amufed at the energetic manner in
 +
 +which
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +9 l
 +
 +
 +
 +which the geefe perform their talk. Mr. Jewitt mentions two other
 +fubjeds belonging to this feries, one of them taken from an illuminated
 +manufcript ; they are, the moufe chafing the cat, and the horfe driving
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 56. Reynard brought to Account at Loft.
 +
 +the cart the former human carter in this cafe taking the place of the
 +horfe between the lhafts.
 +
 +"The World turned upfide down; or, the Folly of Man," has
 +continued amongft us to be a popular chap-book and child's book till
 +within a very few years, and I have now a copy before me printed in
 +London about the year 1790. It confifts of a feries of rude woodcuts,
 +with a few doggrel verfes under each. One of thefe, entitled " The Ox
 +turned Farmer," reprelents two men drawing the plough, driven by an
 +ox. In the next, a rabbit is feen turning the fpit on which a man is
 +roalling, while a cock holds a ladle and baftes. In a third, we fee a
 +tournament, in which the horfes are armed and ride upon the men.
 +Another reprelents the ox killing the butcher. In others we have birds
 +netting men and women ; the als, turned miller, employing the man-
 +miller to carry his facks ; the horfe turned groom, and currying the man ;
 +and the fifties angling for men and catching them.
 +
 +In a cleverly fculptured ornament in Beverley Minfter, represented in
 +our cut No. 57, the goofe herfelf is reprefented in a grotefque fituation,
 +
 +which
 +
 +
 +
 +9 2
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +which might almoft give her a place in " The World turned upfide
 +down," although it is a mere burlefque, without any apparent fatirical
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 57. Shoeing the Goofe.
 +
 +aim. The goofe has here taken the place of the horl'e at the black fmith's,
 +
 +who is vigoroufly nailing the fhoe on her webbed foot.
 +
 +Burlefque fubje&s of this defcription are not uncommon, eipecially
 +
 +among architectural iculpture and
 +wood-carving, and, at a rather
 +later period, on all ornamental
 +objects. The field for fuch fubje6ts
 +was fo extenfive, that the artift
 +had an almoft unlimited choice,
 +and therefore his fubjeds might be
 +almoft infinitely varied, though we
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No, 58. Food for Sivinc.
 +
 +
 +
 +ufually find them running on par-
 +ticular clafles. The old popular
 +proverbs, for inftance, furnilhed a fruitful fource for drollery, and are at
 +times delineated in an amufingly literal or practical manner. Pidorial
 +
 +proverbs
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +93
 +
 +
 +
 +proverbs and popular fayings are fometimes met with on the carved
 +mifereres. For example, in one of thofe at Rouen, in Normandy,
 +reprefented in our cut No. 58, the carver has intended to reprefent
 +the idea of the old faying, in allufion to mifplaced bounty, of throwing
 +pearls to fwine, and has given it a much more pi6turefque and pidtorially
 +intelligible form, by introducing a rather dafliing female feeding her
 +fwine with rofes, or rather offering them rofes for food, for the fwine
 +difplay no eagernefs to feed upon them.
 +
 +We meet with fuch fubjets as thefe fcattered over all mediaeval
 +works of art, and at a fomewhat later period they were transferred to
 +other objets, liich as the (igns of houfes. The cuftorn of placing figns
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 59. The Induftriout Sew.
 +
 +over the doors of (hops and taverns, was well known to the ancients, as is
 +abundantly manifefted by their frequent occurrence in the ruins of
 +Pompeii; but in the middle ages, the ufe of figns and badges was
 +univerfal, and as contrary to the apparent practice in Pompeii, where
 +certain badges were appropriatt d to certain trades and profeffions every
 +individual was free to choofe his own fign, the variety was unlimited.
 +Many ftill had reference, no doubt, to the particular calling of thofe to
 +whom they belonged, while others were of a religious character, and
 +indicated the faint under whofe protection the houfeholder had placed
 +himfelf. Some people took animals for their figns, others monftrous
 +or burlefque figures ; and, in fa6t, there were hardly any of the fubje&s of
 +
 +caricature
 +
 +
 +
 +94
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefaue
 +
 +
 +
 +caricature or burlefque familiar to the mediaeval fculptor and illuminator
 +which did not from time to time appear on thefe popular figns. A few
 +of the old figns ftill preferved, efpecially in the quaint old towns of
 +France, Germany, and the Netherlands, mow us how frequently they
 +
 +were made the inftruments of popular fatire.
 +A fign not uncommon in France was La
 +Truie qui Jile (the fow fpinning). Our cut
 +No. 59 reprefents this fubjedt as treated on
 +an old fign, a carving in baf-relief of the
 +fixteenth century, on a houfe in the Rue
 +du March e-aux-Poirees, in Rouen. The fow
 +appears here in the character of the induftrious
 +houfewife, employing herfelf in fpinning at
 +the fame time that me is attending to the
 +wants of her children. There is a fingularly
 +fatirical fign at Beauvais, on a houfe which
 +was formerly occupied by an epicier-moutardier,
 +or grocer who made muftard, in the Rue du
 +Chatel. In front of this fign, which is repre-
 +fented in our cut No. 60, appears a large
 +muftard-mill, on one fide of which ftands
 +
 +Folly with a ftaff in her hand, with which
 +
 +No. 6 . Aauiicrathn. fa }s flilT j ng ^ mu ft a rd, while an ape,
 +
 +with a fort of fardonic grin, throws in a feafoning, which may be
 +conjetured by his pofture.* The trade-mark of the individual who
 +adopted this ftrange device, is carved below.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +* See an interesting little book on this subject by M. Ed. de la Queriere,
 +entitled " Recherches sur les Enseignes des Maisons Particulieres," 8vo., Rouen,
 +1852, from which both the above examples are laken.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 95
 +
 +
 +
 +==CHAPTER VI.==
 +
 +THE MONKEY IN BURLESftUE AND CARICATURE. TOURNAMENTS ANI>
 +
 +SINGLE COMBATS. MONSTROUS COMBINATIONS OF ANIMAL FORMS. -
 +
 +CARICATURES ON COSTUME. THE HAT. THE HELMET. LADIES*
 +
 +HEAD-DRESSES. THE GOWN, AND ITS LONG SLEEVES.
 +
 +THE fox^the wolf, and their companions, were introduced as
 +inftruments of fatire, on account of their^ peculiar characters | but
 +there\vere other animals^ whicti were alfo favourites with the fatirift,
 +becaufe they difplayed an innateTnciination to imitate ; they formedTas
 +u were, natural pa
 +
 +
 +
 +the prindpaljfld_moft^r^||parkahl^^a^f^ r^pnlg^j This animal muft
 +have been known to our Anglo-Saxon forefathers from a remote period,
 +for they had a word for it in their own language apa, our ape. Monkey
 +is a more modern name, and feems to be equivalent with maniken, or a
 +little man. The earlieft Bejliaries, or popular treatifes on natural hiftory,
 +give anecdotes illuftrative of the aptnefe of this animal for imitating the
 +actions of men, and afcribe to it a degree of underftanding which would
 +almoft raife it above the level of the brute creation. Philip de Thaun.,
 +an Anglo-Norman poet of the reign of Henry 1., in his Be/iiary, tells us
 +that "the monkey, by imitation, as books fay, counterfeits what it fees,
 +and mocks people :"
 +
 +Li Jingc par figure, Ji cum nit efcrifture,
 +Ceo que II vait contrefait, de gent efcar halt,*
 +
 +He
 +
 +* See my " Popular Treatises on Science written during the Middle Ages,"
 +p. 107.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +q 6 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +He goes on to inform us, as a proof of the extraordinary inftinct of this
 +animal, that it has more affection for fome of its cubs than for others,
 +and that, when running away, it carried thofe which it liked before it,
 +and thofe it difliked behind its back. The fketch from the illuminated
 +manufcript of the Romance of the Comte
 +
 +!\A j^^ d' Artois, of the fifteenth century, which forms
 +
 +our cut No. 61, reprefents the monkey, carry-
 +ing, of courfe, its favourite child before it in
 +its flight, and what is more, it is taking that
 +flight mounted on a donkey. A monkey
 +on horfeback appears not to have been a
 +novelty, as we (hall fee in the fequel.
 +No. 61. A Monkey Alexander Neckam, a very celebrated
 +
 +Mounted. Englifh fcholar of the latter part of the
 +
 +twelfth century, and one of the moil interesting of the early mediaeval
 +writers on natural hiitory, gives us many anecdotes, which fhow us
 +how much attached our mediaeval forefathers were to domefticated
 +animals, and how common a practice it was to keep them in
 +their houfes. The baronial caftle appears often to have prefented the
 +appearance of a menagerie of animals, among which fome were of that
 +ftrong and ferocious character that rendered it neceflary to keep them in
 +clofe confinement, while others, fuch as monkeys, roamed about the
 +buildings at will. One of Neckam's ftories is very curious in regard to
 +our fubject, for it (hows that the people in thofe days exercifed their
 +tamed animals in practically caricaturing contemporary weaknefles and
 +fafhions. This writer remarks that " the nature of the ape is'fo ready at
 +acting, by ridiculous gefticulations, the reprefentations of things it has
 +feen, and thus gratifying the vain curiofity of worldly men in public
 +exhibitions, that it will even dare to imitate a military conflict. A
 +jougleur (hi/trio) was in the habit of conftantly taking two monkeys to
 +the military exercifes which are commonly called tournaments, that the
 +labour of teaching might be diminished by frequent infpection. He
 +afterwards taught two dogs to carry thefe apes, who fat on their backs,
 +furnifhed with proper arms. Nor did they want fpurs, with which they
 +
 +flrenuoufly
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +97
 +
 +
 +
 +ftrenuoufly urged on the dogs. Having broken their lances, they drew
 +out their fwords, with which they fpent many blows on each other's
 +fhields. Who at this fight could refrain from laughter ?"*
 +
 +Such contemporary caricatures of the mediaeval tournament, which
 +was in its greateft famion during the period from the twelfth to the
 +fourteenth century, appear to have been extremely popular, and are not
 +unfrequently reprefented in the borders of illuminated manufcripts.
 +The manufcript now fo well known as " Queen Mary's Pfalter "
 +(MS. Reg. 2 B vii.), and written and illuminated very early in the
 +fourteenth century, contains not a few illuftrations of this defcription.
 +One of thefe, which forms our cut No. 62, reprefents a tournament
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Ns. 62. A Tournament,
 +
 +not much unlike that defcribed by Alexander Neckam, except that
 +the monkeys are here riding upon other monkeys, and not upon
 +dogs. In fact, all the individuals here engaged are monkeys, and
 +the parody is completed by the introduction of the trumpeter on
 +one fide, and of minftrelfy, reprefented by a monkey playing on the
 +tabor, on the other ; or, perhaps, the two monkeys are fimply
 +playing on the pipe and tabor, which were looked upon as the loweft
 +defcription of minftrelfy, and are therefore the more aptly introduced
 +into the fcene.
 +
 +The fame manufcript has furnifhed us with the cut No. 63. Here
 +the
 +
 +* Alexander Neckam, De Naturis Rerum, lib. ii. c. 129.
 +o
 +
 +
 +
 +Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +the combat takes place between a monkey and a flag, the latter having
 +the claws of a griffin. They are mounted, too, on rather nondefcript
 +animals one having the head and body of a lion, with the forefeet of
 +an eagle ; the other having a head fomewhat like that of a lion, on a
 +lion's body, with the hind parts of a bear. This fubje6t may, perhaps, be
 +intended as a burlefque on the mediaeval romances, filled with combats
 +between the Chriflians and the Saracens ; for the ape who, in the
 +moralifations which accompany the Be/liaries, is faid to reprefent the devil
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 63. A Feat affirms.
 +
 +is here armed with what are evidently intended for the fabre and
 +Ihield of a Saracen, while the flag carries the fhield and lance of a
 +Chriftian knight.
 +
 +The love of the mediaeval artifts for monfirous figures of animals, and
 +for mixtures of animals and men, has been alluded to in a former chapter.
 +The combatants in the accompanying cut (No. 64), taken from the fame
 +manufcript, prefent a fort of combination of the rider and the animal, and
 +they again feem to be intended for a Saracen and a Chriftian. The
 +figure to the right, which is compofed of the body of a fatyr, with the
 +feet of a goofe and the wings of a dragon, is armed with a fimilar
 +Saracenic fabre ; while that to the left, which is on the whole lefs
 +monftrous, wields a Norman fword. F"th have human faces below the_
 +
 +idca in the grotefque of the
 +middle
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +99
 +
 +
 +
 +agea^ Our mediaeval forefathers appear to have had a decided
 +tafte for monftrofities of every defcription, and efpecially for mixtures of
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 64. A Terrible Combat.
 +
 +different kinds of animals, and of animals and men. There is no doubt,
 +
 +to judge by the anecdotes recorded by fuch writers as Giraldus
 +
 +Cambrenfis, that a belief in the exiftence of fuch
 +
 +unnatural creatures was widely entertained. In his
 +
 +account of Ireland, this writer tells us of animals
 +
 +which were half__ox and half man, half flag and
 +
 +half cow, and half dog and half monkey.* It is
 +
 +certain that there was a general belief in fuch
 +
 +animals, and nobody could be more credulous than
 +
 +Giraldus himfelf.
 +
 +The defign to caricature, which is tolerably evident
 +in the fubjefts juft given, is ftill more apparent in
 +other grotefques that adorn the borders of the
 +mediaeval manufcripts, as well as in fome of the
 +mediaeval carvings and fculpture. Thus, in our cut N 6 5 Fa/bioaaMe Dnf*
 +No. 65, taken from one of the borders in the Romance of the Comte
 +
 +d'Artois,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +* See Girald. Cambr., Topog. Hibernie, dist. ii. cc. 21, 22 ; and the Itinerary
 +of Wales, lib. ii. e. n.
 +
 +
 +
 +I oo Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +d'Artois, a manufcript of the fifteenth century, we cannot fail to
 +recognife an attempt at turning to ridicule the contemporary fafhions in
 +drefs. The hat is only an exaggerated form of one which appears to
 +have been commonly ufed in France in the latter half of the fifteenth
 +century, and which appears frequently in illuminated manufcripts
 +executed in Burgundy ; and the boot alfo belongs to the fame period.
 +The latter reappeared at different times, until at length it became
 +developed into the modern top-boots. In cut No. 66, from the fame
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 66. Heads and Hati,
 +
 +manufcript, where it forms the letter T, we have the fame form of
 +hat, ftill more exaggerated, and combined at the fame time with
 +grotefque faces.
 +
 +Caricatures on coftume are by no means uncommon among the
 +artiflic remains of the middle ages, and are not confined to illuminated
 +manufcripts. The famionable drefles of thofe days went into far more
 +ridiculous excefies of fhape than anything we fee in our times at leaft,
 +fo far as we can believe the drawings in the manufcripts ; but thefe,
 +however ferioufly intended, were conftantly degenerating into caricature,
 +from circumftances which are eafily explained, and which have, in fad,
 +been explained already in their influence on other parts of our fubjecl.
 +The mediaeval artifts in general were not very good delineators of form,
 +and their outlines are much inferior to their finifh. Confcious of this,
 +though perhaps unknowingly, they fought to remedy the defect in a fpirit
 +which has always been adopted in the early ftages of art-progrefs they
 +aimed at making themfelves underftood by giving a fpecial prominence to
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. i o I
 +
 +
 +
 +the peculiar characteriftics of the objects they wiftied to reprefent. Thefe
 +were the points which naturally attracted people's firft attention, and
 +the refemblance was felt moft by people in general when thefe points
 +were put forward in exceffive prominence in the picture. The dreffes,
 +perhaps, hardly exifled in the exact forms in which we fee them in the
 +illuminations, or at leaft thofe were only exceptions to the generally
 +more moderate forms ; and hence, in ufing thefe pictorial records as
 +materials for the hiftory of coftume, we ought to make a certain allowance
 +for exaggeration we ought, indeed, to treat them almoft as caricatures.
 +In fact, much of what we now call caricature, was then characteriftic of
 +ferious art, and of what was confidered its high development. Many of
 +the attempts which have been made of late years to introduce ancient
 +coftume on the ftage, would probably be regarded by the people who
 +lived in the age which they were intended to reprefent, as a mere defign
 +to turn them into ridicule. Neverthelels, the fafliions in drefs were,
 +efpecially from the twelfth century to the fixteenth, carried to a great
 +degree of extravagance, and were not only the objects of fatire and
 +caricature, but drew forth the indignant declamations of the Church, and
 +furnilhed a continuous theme to the preachers. The contemporary
 +chronicles abound with bitter reflections on the extravagance in coftume,
 +which was confidered as one of the outward figns of the great corruption
 +of particular periods ; and they give us not unfrequent examples of the
 +coarfe manner in which the clergy difcufled them in their fermons. The
 +readers of Chaucer will remember the manner in which this fubject is
 +treated in the " Parfon's Tale." In this refpect the fatirifts of the
 +Church went hand in hand with the pictorial caricaturifts of the illumi-
 +nated manufcripts, and of the fculptures with which we fometimes meet
 +in contemporary architectural ornamentation. In the latter, this clafe
 +of caricature is perhaps lefs frequent, but it is fometimes very expreflive.
 +The very curious mifereres in the church of Ludlow, in Shropfhire, prefent
 +the caricature reproduced in our cut No. 67. It reprefent^. an ugly^
 +and, to judge by the expreflion of the countenance, an ill-tempered old
 +jwoman, wearing the fafhionable head-dref^f the_ earlier half of the^
 +.fifteenth, century, wjiich_,feems to have been carried to its preateft
 +
 +extravagance
 +
 +
 +
 +IO2 Hiftory of Caricature and Grot efque
 +
 +
 +
 +extravagance in the beginning of the reign of Henry VI. -Itos-lheJlvle
 +jpf coiffurejcpnwn efpprially as the horned head-drefs, aqd the very nam^
 +carries with it a fort of relationfhip to an individual jwho was notorioufly
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 67. A Fafhionable Beauty,
 +
 +\\]f> fpjrit of evil. This dafhing dame of the olden time appears
 +to have ftruck terror into two unfortunates who have fallen within her
 +
 +influence, one of whom, as though he
 +took her for a new Gorgon, is attempt-
 +ing to cover himfelf with his buckler,
 +while the other, apprehending danger of
 +another kind, is prepared to defend him-
 +felf with his fword. The details of the
 +head-drefs in this figure are interefling
 +for the hiftory of coftume.
 +
 +Our next cut, No. 68, is taken from
 +a manufcript in private pofTeflion, which
 +is now rather well known among anti-
 +quaries by the name of the " Luttrell
 +Pfalter," and which belongs to the four-
 +teenth century. It feems to involve a
 +fatire on the ariftocratic order of fociety
 +on the knight who was diftinguifhed
 +
 +by his helmet, his fhield, and his armour. The individual here repre-
 +fented prefents a type which is anything but ariftocratic. While he holds
 +
 +a helmet
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Ac. 68. A Man of War.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +103
 +
 +
 +
 +a helmet in his hand to fhow the meaning of the fatire, his own helmet,
 +which he wears on his head, is fimply a bellows. He may be a knight
 +of the kitchen, or perhaps a mere quijlron, or kitchen lad.
 +
 +We have juft feen a caricature of one of the ladies' head-drefles of the
 +earlier half of the fifteenth century, and our cut No. 69, from an illuminated
 +manufcript in the Britifh Mufeum of the latter half of
 +the fame century (MS. Harl., No. 4379), furnifhes
 +us with a caricature of a head-drefs of a different
 +character, which came into fafhion 'Q.jftp rp '5 n "f_p-
 +
 +Edward TV, The horned head-drefs of the previous
 +
 +generation had been entirely laid afide, and the
 +ladies adopted in its place a fort of fteeple-fhaped
 +.head-drefs,j3r rather of the form of a fpire, made by
 +rolling a piece" of linen into the tomToT a long cone.
 +Over this lofty cap wasthrown a_
 +muflinTwhich delcended almoft to the ground, and
 +formed, as it were, two wings. A fhort tranfparent
 +veil was thrown over the face, and reached not quite
 +to the chin, refembling rather clofely the veils in ufe
 +among our ladies of the prefent day (1864). The
 +whole head-drefs, indeed, has been preferved by the
 +Norman peafantry ; for it may be obferved that,
 +during the feudal ages, the fafhions in France and
 +England were always identical. Thefe fteeple head-drefles greatly pro-
 +voked the indignation of the clergy, and zealous preachers attacked them
 +roughly in their fermons. A French monk, named Thomas Conecte,
 +diftinguifhed himfelf efpecially in this crufade, and inveighed againft
 +the head-drefs with fuch effect, that we are aflured that many of the
 +women threw down their head-drefles in the middle of the fermon, and
 +made a bonfire of them at its conclufion. The zeal of the preacher foon
 +extended itfelf to the populace, and, for a while, when ladies appeared in
 +this head-drefs in public, they were expofed to be pelted by the rabble.
 +Under fuch a double perfecution it difappeared for a moment, but when
 +the preacher was no longer prefent, it returned again, and, to ufe the
 +
 +words
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 69. A Lady's
 +Head-drejs.
 +
 +
 +
 +104 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +words of the old writer who has preferred this anecdote, " the women
 +who, like fnails in a fright, had drawn in their horns, fhot them out again
 +as foon as the danger was over." The caricaturift would hardly overlook
 +fo extravagant a fafliion, and accordingly the manufcript in the Britifh
 +Mufeum, juft mentioned, furnifhes us with the fubjeft of our cut No. 69.
 +In thofe times, when the paflions were fubjedted to no reftraint, the fine
 +ladies indulged in fuch luxury and licentioufnefs, that the caricaturift has
 +chofen as their fit reprefentaHve n fmv,\vhn ivr'nn tho rtbjfftionnbl" bp=H-
 +
 +.jlrefs in full fafhion. The original forms one of the illuftrations of a
 +copy of the hiftorian Froifiart, and was, therefore, executed in France,
 +or, more probably, in Burgundy.
 +
 +^rhe^fermons and fatires againft extravagance in coftume began at an
 +early period. The Anglo-Norman ladies, in the earlier part of the
 +twelfth century, firft brought in vogue in our ifland this extravagance in
 +
 +.fafhionj.jwhich quickly fell under the lafh of fatirift and caricaturift. It
 +was firft exhibited in the robes rather than in the head-drefs. Thefe
 +Anglo-Norman ladies are underftood to have firft introduced ftays, in
 +order to give an artificial appearance of flendernefs to their waifts ; but
 +the greateft extravagance appeared in the forms of their fleeves. The
 +robe, or gown, inftead of being loofe, as among the Anglo-Saxons, was
 +laced clofe round the body, and the fleeves, which fitted the arm tightly
 +till they reached the elbows, or fometimes nearly to the wrift, then
 +fuddenly became larger, and hung down to an extravagant length, often
 +trailing on the ground, and fometimes fhortened by means of a knot.
 +The gown, alfo, was itfelf worn very long. The clergy preached againft
 +thefe extravagances in faftiion, and at times, it is faid, with effecl: ; and
 +they fell under the vigorous lafh of the fatirift. In a clafs of fatires which
 +became extremely popular in the twelfth century, and which produced
 +in the thirteenth the immortal poem of Dante the vifions of purgatory
 +and of hell thefe contemporary extravagances in fafhion are held up to
 +public deteftation, and are made the fubjeft of fevere punifhment.
 +They werp Innlr^d yiprm gs among fhp nnjwp 1 *>"-mr nf prirlg It arofe,
 +no doubt, from this tafte from the darker fhade which fpread over men's
 +minds in the twelfth century that demons, inftead of animals, were
 +
 +introduced
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +105
 +
 +
 +
 +introduced to perfonify the evil-doers of the time. Such is the figure
 +(cut No. 70) which we take from a very interefting manufcript in the
 +Britifh Mufeum (MS. Cotton. Nero, C iv.). The demon is here drefled
 +in the fafhionable gown with its long fleeves, of which one appears to have
 +been ufaally much longer than the other. Both the gown and fleeve are
 +ihortened by means of knots, while the former is brought clofe round
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 70. Sin in Satins.
 +
 +the waift by tight lacing. It is a picture of the ufe of ftays made at the
 +time of their firft introduction.
 +
 +This fuperfluity of length in the different parts of the drefs was a
 +fubject of complaint and fatire at various and very diftant periods, and
 +contemporary illuminations of a perfectly ferious character {how that
 +tliefe complaints were not without foundation.
 +
 +
 +
 +106 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +==CHAPTER VII. ==
 +
 +
 +
 +PRESERVATION OF THE CHARACTER OF THE M1MUS AFTER THE FALL OF
 +
 +1 . THE EMPIRE. THE MINSTREL AND JOGELOUR. HISTORY OF POPULAR
 +
 +STORIES. THE FABLIAUX. ACCOUNT OF THEM. THE CONTES DEVOTS.
 +
 +I HAVE already remarked that, upon the fall of the Roman empire,
 +the popular inftitutions of the Romans were more generally
 +preferved to the middle ages than thofe of a higher and more refined
 +chara&er. This is underftood without difficulty, when we confider that
 +the lower clafs of the population in the towns, what we might perhaps
 +call the lower and middle clafles continued to exift much the fame as
 +before, while the barbarian conquerors came in and took the place of the
 +ruling clafles. The drama, which had never much hold upon the love
 +of the Roman populace, was loft, and the theatres and the amphitheatres,
 +which had been fupported only by the wealth of the imperial court and
 +of the ruling clafs, were abandoned and fell into ruin ; but the mimus,
 +who furnimed mirth to the people, continued to exift, and probably
 +underwent no immediate change in his character. It will be well to
 +ftate again the chief chara&eriftics of the ancient mimus, before we
 +proceed to defcribe his mediaeval reprefentative.
 +
 +The grand aim of the mimus was to make people laugh, and he
 +employed generally every means he knew of for effecting this purpofe,
 +by language, by geftures or motions of the body, or by drefs. Thus he
 +carried, (trapped over his loins, a wooden fword, which was called
 +gladius hiftricus and clunaculum, and wore fometimes a garment made of
 +a great number of fmall pieces of cloth of different colours, which was
 +hence called centunculus, or the hundred-patched drefs.* Thefe two
 +
 +chara&eriftics
 +
 +* "Uti me consuesse tragoedi syrmate, histrionis crotalone ad trieterica orgia, aut
 +mimi centunculo." Apuleius, Apolog.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ 07
 +
 +character! ftics have been preferred in the modern harlequin. Other
 +peculiarities of coftume may conveniently be left undefcribed j the female
 +mimae fometimes exhibited themfelves unreftri6ted by drefs. They
 +danced and fung ; repeated jokes and told merry ftories ; recited or a&ed
 +farces and fcandalous anecdotes ; performed what we now call mimicry,
 +a word derived from the name of mimus ; and they put themfelves in
 +ftrange poftures, and made frightful faces. They fometimes a6ted the
 +part of a fool or zany (morio), or of a madman. They added to thefe
 +performances that of the conjurer or juggler (prcejligiator), and played
 +tricks of fleight of hand. The mimi performed in the ftreets and public
 +places, or in the theatres, and efpecially at feftivals, and they were often
 +employed at private parties, to entertain the guefts at a fupper.
 +
 +"We trace the exiilence of this clafs of performers during the earlier
 +period of the middle ages by the expreffions of hoftility towards them
 +ufed from time to time by the ecclefiaftical writers, and the denunciations
 +of fynods and councils, which have been quoted in a former chapter.*
 +Neverthelefs, i is evident from many allufions to them, that they found
 +their way into the monaftic houfes, and were in great favour not only
 +among the monks, but among the nuns alfo; that they were introduced
 +into the religious feftivalsj and that they were tolerated even in the
 +churches. It is probable that they long continued to be known in Italy
 +and the countries near the centre of Roman influence, and where the
 +Latin language was continued, by their old name of mimus. The
 +writers of the mediaeval vocabularies appear all to have been much better
 +acquainted with the meaning of this word than of moft of the Latin
 +words of the fame clafs, and they evidently had a clafs of performers
 +exifting in their own times to whom they confidered that the name
 +applied. The Anglo-Saxon vocabularies interpret the Latin mimus by
 +glig-mon, a gleeman. In Anglo-Saxon, glig or gliu meant mirth and
 +game of every defcription, and as the Anglo-Saxon teachers who compiled
 +the vocabularies give, as fynonyms of mimus, the words fcurra, jocifta,
 +and pantomimus, it is evident that all thefe were included in the character
 +of
 +
 +* See before, p. 41 of the present volume.
 +
 +
 +
 +io8 Hijiory oj Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +of the gleeman, and that the latter was quite identical with his Roman
 +type. It was the Roman mimus introduced into Saxon England. We
 +have no traces of the exiftence of fuch a clas of performers among the
 +Teutonic race before they became acquainted with the civilifation of
 +imperial Rome. We know from drawings in contemporary illuminated
 +manufcripts that the performances of the gleeman did include mufic,
 +finging, and dancing, and alfo the tricks of mountebanks and jugglers,
 +fuch as throwing up and catching knives and balls, and performing with
 +tamed bears, &c.*
 +
 +But even among the peoples who preferred the Latin language,
 +the word mimus was gradually exchanged for others employed to fignify
 +the fame thing. The word jocus had been ufed in the fignification
 +of a jeft, playfulnefs, jocari fignified to jell, and joculator was a word
 +for a jefterj but, in the debafement of the language^'ocMS was taken in
 +the fignification of everything which created mirth. It became, in
 +the courfe of time the French word jeu, and the Italian gioco, or
 +giuoco. People introduced a form of the verb, jocare, which became the
 +French juer, to play or perform. Joculator was then ufed in -the
 +fenfe of mimus. In French the word became jogleor, or jougleor, and
 +in its later form jongleur. I may remark that, in mediaeval manu-
 +fcripts, it is almoft impoffible to diftinguifh between the u and the n, and
 +that modern writers have mifread this laft word as jongleur, and thus
 +introduced into the language a word which never exifted, and which
 +ought to be abandoned. In old Englifh, as we fee in Chaucer, the ufual
 +form was jogelere. The mediaeval joculator, or jougleur, embraced all
 +the attributes of the Roman mimus,^ and perhaps more. In the firft
 +place
 +
 +* See examples of these illuminations in my " History of Domestic Manners
 +and Sentiments," pp. 34, 35, 37, 65.
 +
 +t People in the middle ages were so fully conscious of the identity of the
 +mediaeval jougleur with the Roman mimus, that the Latin writers often use mimus
 +to signify a jougleur, and the one is interpreted by the others in the vocabularies.
 +Thus, in Latin-English vocabularies of the fifteenth century, we have
 +Hie joculator,
 +Hie mimus,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 109
 +
 +
 +
 +place he was very often a poet himfelf, and compofed the pieces which it
 +was one of his duties to ling or recite. Thefe were chiefly fongs, or
 +(lories, the latter ufually told in verfe, and fo many of them are preferred
 +in manufcripts that they form a very numerous and important clafs of
 +mediaeval literature. The fongs were commonly fatirical and abufive,
 +and they were made ufe of for purpofes of general or perfonal
 +vituperation. Out of them, indeed, grew the political fongs of a later
 +period. There were female jougleurs, and both fexes danced, and, to
 +create mirth among thofe who encouraged them, they pra&ifed a variety ^
 +of performances, fuch as mimicking people, making wry and ugly faces, ;
 +diftorting their bodies into ftrange poftures, often expofing their perfons in
 +a very unbecoming manner, and performing many vulgar and indecent
 +ads, which it is not neceflary to defcribe more particularly. They
 +carried about with them for exhibition tame bears, monkeys, and other
 +animals, taught to perform the actions of men. As early as the
 +thirteenth century, we find them including among their other accom-
 +plifhments that of dancing upon the tight-rope. Finally, the jougleurs
 +performed tricks of fleight of hand, and were often conjurers and
 +magicians. As, in modern times, the jougleurs of the middle ages
 +gradually palTed away, fleight of hand appears to have become their
 +principal accomplimment, and the name only was left in the modern
 +word juggler. The jougleurs of the middle ages, like the mimi of
 +antiquity, wandered about from place to place, and often from country
 +to country, fometimes fingly and at others in companies, exhibited their
 +performances in the roads and flreets, repaired to all great feftivals, and
 +were employed efpecially in the baronial hall, where, by their fongs,
 +llories, and other performances, they created mirth after dinner.
 +
 +This clafs of fociety had become known by another name, the origin
 +of which is not fo eafily explained. The primary meaning of the Latin
 +word mini/ler was a fervant, one who minifters to another, either in his
 +wants or in his pleafures and amufements. It was applied particularly to
 +the cup-bearer. In low Latinity, a diminutive of this word was formed,
 +minefiellus, or mini/trellus, a petty fervant, or minifter. When we firfl
 +meet with this word, which is not at a very early date, it is ufed as
 +
 +perfedly
 +
 +
 +
 +1 1 o Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +perfectly fynonymous w\thjoculator, and, as the word is certainly of Latin
 +derivation, it is clear that it was from it the middle ages derived the
 +French word meneftrel (the modern menetrier), and the Englifh minftrel.
 +The mimi or jougleurs were perhaps considered as the petty minifters to
 +the amufements of their lord, or of him who for the time employed them.
 +Until the clofe of the middle ages, the minftrel and the jougleur were
 +abfolutely identical. Poflibly the former may have been confidered the
 +more courtly of the two names. But in England, as the middle ages
 +difappeared, and loft their influence on fociety fooner than in France, the
 +word minftrel remained attached only to the mufical part of the functions
 +of the old mimus, while, as juft obferved, the juggler took the fleight of
 +hand and the mountebank tricks. In modern French, except where
 +employed technically by the antiquary, the word menetrier means
 +a fiddler.
 +
 +The jougleurs, or minftrels, formed a very numerous and important,
 +though a low and defpifed, clafs of mediaeval fociety. The duliiefs of
 +every-day life in a feudal caftle or manfion required fomething more than
 +ordinary excitement in the way of amufement, and the old family bard,
 +who continually repeated to the Teutonic chief the praifes of himfelf and
 +his anceftors, was foon felt to be a wearifome companion. The mediaeval
 +knights and their ladies wanted to laugh, and to make them laugh
 +fufHciently it required that the jokes, or tales, or comic performances,
 +mould be broad, coarfe, and racy, with a good fpicing of violence and of
 +the wonderful. Hence the jougleur was always welcome to the feudal
 +manfion, and he feldom went away diflatisfied. But the fubject of the
 +prefent chapter is rather the literature of the jougleur than his perfonal
 +hiftory, and, having traced his origin to the Roman mimus, we will now
 +proceed to one clals of his performances.
 +
 +It has been ftated that the mimus and the jougleurs told ftories. Of
 +thofe of the former, unfortunately, none are preferved, except, perhaps, in
 +a few anecdotes fcattered in the pages of fuch writers as Apuleius and
 +Lucian, and we are obliged to guefs at their character, but of the ftories
 +of the jougleurs a confiderable number has been preferved. It becomes
 +an interefting queftion how far thefe ftories have been derived from the
 +
 +mimi,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 1 1
 +
 +
 +
 +mimi, handed down traditionally from mimus to jougleur, how far they
 +are native in our race, or how far they were derived at a later date from
 +other fources. And in confidering this queftion, we muft not forget that
 +the mediaeval jougleurs were not the only reprefentatives of the mimi,
 +for among the Arabs of the Eaft alfo there had originated from them,
 +modified under different circumftances, a very important clafs of minftrels
 +and ftory-tellers, and with thefe the jougleurs of the weft were brought
 +into communication at the commencement of the crufades. There can
 +be no doubt that a very large number of the ftories of the jougleurs
 +were borrowed from the Eaft, for the evidence is furnifhed by the ftories
 +themfelves ; and there can be little doubt alfo that the jougleurs
 +improved themfelves, and underwent fome modification, by their inter-
 +courfe with Eaftern performers of the fame clafs.
 +
 +On the other hand, we have traces of the exiftence of thefe popular
 +ftories before the jougleurs can have had communication with the Eaft.
 +Thus, as already mentioned, we find, compofed in Germany, apparently
 +in the tenth century, in rhythmical Latin, the well-known ftory of the
 +wife of a merchant who bore a child during the long abfence of her
 +hufband, and who excufed herfelf by ftating that her pregnancy had been
 +the refult of fwallowing a flake of fnow in a fnow-ftorm. This, and
 +another of the fame kind, were evidently intended to be fung. Another
 +poem in popular Latin verfe, which Grimm and Schmeller, who edited
 +it,* believe may be of the eleventh century, relates a very amufing
 +ftory of an adventurer named Ujiibos, who, continually caught in
 +his own fnares, finiihes by getting the better of all his enemies, and
 +becoming rich, by mere ingenious cunning and good fortune. This ftory
 +is not met with among thofe of the jougleurs, as far as they are yet
 +known, but. curioufly enough, Lover found it exifting orally among the
 +Irifh peafantry, and inferted the Irifh ftory among his " Legends of
 +Ireland." It is a curious illuftration of the pertinacity with which the
 +popular ftories defcend along with peoples through generations from the
 +
 +remoteft
 +
 +* In a volume entitled "Lateinische Gedichte des x. und xi. Ih." 8vo.
 +Gottingen, 1838.
 +
 +
 +
 +112 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +remoteft ages of antiquity. The lame ftory is found in an oriental form
 +among the tales of the Tartars published in French by Guenlette.
 +
 +The people of the middle ages, who took their word fable from the
 +Latin fal-ula, which they appear to have underftood as a mere term for
 +any fhort narration, included under it the ftories told by the mimi and
 +jougleurs ; but, in the fondnefs of the middle ages for diminutives, by
 +which they intended to exprefs familiarity and attachment, applied to
 +them more particularly the Latin falella, which in the old French
 +became Jallel, or, more ufua\\y,fo.l-liau. The fabliaux of the jougleurs
 +form a moft important clafs of the comic literature of the middle ages.
 +They muft have been wonderfully numerous, for a very large quantity of
 +them ftill remain, and thefe are only the fmall portion of what once
 +exifted, which have efcaped perifhing like the others by the accident of
 +being written in manufcripts which have had the fortune to furvive;
 +while manufcripts containing others have no doubt perifhed, and it is
 +probable that many were only preferred orally, and never written down
 +at all.* The recital of thefe fabliaux appears to have been the favourite
 +employment of the jougleurs, and they became fo popular that the
 +mediaeval preachers turned them into fhort ftories in Latin profe, and
 +made ufe of them as illuftrations in their fermons. Many collections of
 +thefe fhort Latin ftories are found in manufcripts which had ferved as
 +note-books to the preachers,f and out of them was originally compiled
 +that celebrated mediaeval book called the " Gefta Romanorum."
 +
 +It is to be regretted that the fubjects and language of a large portion
 +of thefe fabliaux are fuch as to make it impoffible to prefent them before
 +modern readers, for they furnifh fingularly interefting and minute pictures
 +of mediaeval life in all clafles of fociety. Domeftic fcenes are among
 +thofe moft frequent, and they reprefent the interior of the mediaeval
 +
 +houfehold
 +
 +
 +
 +* Many of the Fabliaux have been printed, but the two principal collertions,
 +and to which I shall chiefly refer in the text, are those of [[Barhazan]], re-edited
 +and much enlarged by M6on, 4 vols. 8vo., 1808, and of [[Meon]], a vols. 8vo., 1823.
 +
 +t A collection of these short Latin stories was edited by the author of the
 +present work, in a volume printed for the Percy Society in 1842.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ \ 3
 +
 +houfehold in no favourable point of view. The majority of thefe tell
 +loofe ftories of hufbands deceived by their fair fpoufes, or of tricks played
 +upon unfufpe&ing damfels. In fome inftances the treatment of the
 +hufband is perhaps what may be called of a lefs objectionable character,
 +as in the fabliau of La Vilain Mire (the clown dodtor), printed in
 +Barbazan (iii. i), which was the origin of Moliere's well-known comedy
 +of" Le Medecin malgre lui." A rich peafant married the daughter of a
 +poor knight ; it was of courfe a marriage of ambition on his part, and of
 +intereft on hers one of thofe ill-forted matches which, according to feudal
 +fentiments, could never be happy, and in which the wife was confidered
 +as privileged to treat her hulband with all poflible contempt. In this
 +inflance the lady hit upon an ingenious mode of puniihing her hufband
 +for his want of fubmitfion to her ill-treatment. Meflengers from the
 +king parted that way, feeking a (kilful do6tor to cure the king's daughter
 +of a dangerous malady. The lady fecretly informed thefe mefiengers
 +that her hulband was a phyfician of extraordinary talent, but of an
 +eccentric temper, for he would never acknowledge or exercife his art
 +until firft fubjeded to a fevere beating. The hulband is feized, bound,
 +and carried by force to the king's court, where, of courfe, he denies all
 +knowledge of the healing art, but a fevere beating obliges him to com-
 +pliance, and he is fuccefsful by a combination of impudence and chance.
 +This is only the beginning of the poor man's miferies. Inftead of being
 +allowed to go home, his fame has become fo great that he is retained at
 +court for the public good, and, with a rapid fucceffion of patients, fearful
 +of the refults of his confcious ignorance, he refufes them all, and is
 +fubje6ted in every cafe to the fame ill-treatment to force his compliance.
 +The examples in which the hulband, on the other hand, outwits the wife
 +are few. A fabliau by a poet who gives himfelf the name of Cortebarbe,
 +printed alfo by Barbazan (iii. 398), relates how three blind beggars were
 +deceived by a clerc, or fcholar, of Paris, who met them on the road near
 +Compiegne. The clerk pretended to give the three beggars a bezant,
 +which was then a good fum of money, and they haftened joyfully to the
 +next tavern, where they ordered a plentiful fupper, and feafted to their
 +hearts' content. But, in fad, the clerk had not given them a bezant at
 +
 +a nil,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +i 1 4 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +all, although, as he faid 'he did fo, and they could only judge by their
 +hearing, they imagined that they had the coin, and each thought that it
 +was in the keeping of one of his companions. Thus, when the time of
 +paying came, and the money was not forthcoming, in the common belief
 +that one of the three had received the bezant and intended to keep it
 +and cheat the others, they quarrelled violently, and from abufe foon
 +came to blows. The landlord, drawn to the fpot by the uproar, and
 +informed of the ftate of the cafe, accufed the three blind men of a
 +confpiracy to cheat him, and demanded payment with great threats.
 +The clerk of Paris, who had followed them to the inn, and taken his
 +lodging there in order to witnefs the refult, delivered the blind men by
 +an equally ingenious trick which he plays upon the landlord and the
 +prieft of the parifh.
 +
 +Some of thefe ftories have for their fubje6t tricks played among
 +thieves. In one printed by Me"on (i. 124), we have the ftory of a rich
 +but fimple villan, or countryman, named Brifaut, who is robbed at
 +market by a cunning fharper, and feverely corrected by his wife for his
 +carelefihefs. Robbery, both by force and by fleight of hand and craft,
 +prevailed to an extraordinary degree during the middle ages. The plot
 +of the fabliau of Barat and Hairnet, by Jean de Boves (Barbazan, iv. 233),
 +turns upon a trial of {kill among three robbers to determine who (hall
 +commit the clevereft a6t of thievery, and the refult is, at leaft, an
 +extremely amufing ftory. It may be mentioned as an example of the
 +numerous ftories which the jougleurs certainly obtained from the Eaft,
 +that the well-known flory of the Hunchback in the " Arabian Nights "
 +appears among them in two or three different forms.
 +
 +The focial vices of the middle ages, their general licentioufnels, the
 +prevalence of injuftice and extortion, are very fully expofed to view in
 +thefe competitions, in which no clafs of fbciety is fpared. The villan, or
 +peafant, is always treated very contemptuoufly ; he formed the clafs from
 +which the jougleur received leaft benefit. But the ariftocracy, the great
 +barons, the lords of the foil, come in for their full fhare of fatire, and they
 +no doubt enjoyed the ridiculous piftures of their own order. I will not
 +venture to introduce the reader to female life in the baronial caftle, as it
 +
 +appears
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 115
 +
 +appears in many of thefe ftories, and as it is no doubt truly painted,
 +although, of courfe, in many inftances, much exaggerated. We have already
 +feen how in the flory of Reynard, the character of mediaeval fociety was
 +reprefented by the long ftruggle between brute force reprefented by the
 +wolf, the emblem of the ariftocratic clafs, and the low aftutenefs of the
 +fox, or the unariftocratic clafs. The fuccefs of the craft of the human fox
 +over the force of his lordly antagonift is often told in the fabliaux in
 +ludicrous colours. In that of [[Trubert]], printed by Meon (i. 192), the
 +" duke " of a country, with his wife and family, become repeatedly the
 +dupes of the grofs deceptions of a poor but impudent peafant. Thefe
 +fatires upon the ariftocracy were no doubt greatly enjoyed by the good
 +lourgeoifie, who, in their turn, furnifhed abundance of ftories, of the
 +drolleft defcription, to provoke the mirth of the lords of the foil, between
 +whom and themfelves there was a kind of natural antipathy. Nor are
 +the clergy fpared. The prieft is ufually defcribed as living with a
 +concubine his order forbade marrying and both are confidered as
 +fair game to the community j while the monk figures more frequently
 +as the hero of gallant adventures. Both prieft and monk are ufually
 +diftinguifhed by their felfifhnefs and love of indulgence. In the fabliau
 +Du Bouchier d' Abbeville, in Barbazan (iv. i), a butcher, on his way
 +home from the fair, feeks a night's lodging at the houfe of an inhofpitable
 +prieft, who refufes it. But when the former returns, and offers, in
 +exchange for his hofpitality, one of his fat fheep which he has purchafed
 +at the fair, and not only to kill it for their fupper, but to give all the
 +meat they do not eat to his hoft, he is willingly received into the houfe,
 +and they make an excellent fupper. By the promife of the fkin of the
 +fheep, the gueft fucceeds in feducing both the concubine and the maid-
 +fervant, and it is only after his departure the following morning, in
 +the middle of a domeftic uproar caufed by the conflicting claims of the
 +prieft, the concubine, and the maid, to the pofleflion of the fkin, that it
 +is difcovered that the butcher had ftolen the fheep from the prieft's own
 +flock.
 +
 +The fabliaux, as remarked before, form the moft important clafs of
 +the extenfive mafs of the popular literature of the middle ages, and the
 +
 +writers,
 +
 +
 +
 +1 1 6 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +writers, confident in their ftrong hold upon public favour, fometimes turn
 +round and burlefque the literature of other clafies, efpecially the long
 +heavy monotony of ftyle of the great romances of chivalry and the
 +extravagant adventures they contained, as though confcious that they
 +were gradually undermining the popularity of the romance writers.
 +One of thele poems, entitled " De Audigier," and printed in Barbazan
 +(iv. 217), is a parody on the romance writers and on their ftyle, not
 +at all wanting in fpirit or wit, but the fatire is coarfe and vulgar.
 +Another printed in Barbazan (iv. 287), under the title "De Berengier,"
 +is a fatire upon a fort of knight-errantry which had found its way into
 +mediaeval chivalry. Berengier was a knight of Lombardy, much given to
 +boafting, who had a beautiful lady for his wife. He ufed to leave her
 +alone in his caftle, under pretext of fallying forth in fearch of chivalrous
 +adventures, and, after a while, having well hacked his fword and fhield,
 +he returned to vaunt the defperate exploits he had performed. But the
 +lady was fhrewd as well as handfome, and, having fome fufpicions of his
 +truthfulnefs as well as of his courage, Ihe determined to make trial of
 +both. One morning, when her hufband rode forth as ufual, {he haftily
 +difguifed herfelf in a fuit of armour, mounted a good fteed, and hurrying
 +round by a different way, met the boaftful knight in the middle of a
 +wood, where he no fooner faw that he had to encounter a real aflailant,
 +than he difplayed the moft abjecl: cowardice, and his opponent exa&ed
 +from him an ignominious condition as the price of his efcape. On his
 +return home at night, boafting as ufual of his fuccefs, he found his lady
 +taking her revenge upon him in a ftill lefs refpeclful manner, but he was
 +filenced by her ridicule.
 +
 +The Irouv&res, or poets, who wrote the fabliaux I need hardly
 +remark that trouvere is the fame word as trolador, but in the northern
 +dialeft of the French language appear to have flourifhed chiefly from
 +the clofe of the twelfth century to the earlier part of the fourteenth.
 +They all compofed in French, which was a language then common to
 +England and France, but fome of their compofitions bear internal
 +evidence of having been compofed in England, and others are found in
 +contemporary manufcripts written in this ifland. The fcene of a fabliau,
 +
 +printed
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 117
 +
 +printed by Meon (i. 113), is laid at Colchefter; and that of La Male
 +Honte, printed in Barbazan (iii. 204), is laid in Kent. The latter,
 +however, was written by a trouvere named Hugues de Cambrai. No
 +obje&ion appears to have been entertained to the recital of thefe
 +licentious fames before the ladies of the caftle or of the domeftic circle,
 +and their general popularity was fo great, that the more pious clergy
 +feem to have thought neceflary to find Something to take their place in
 +the poft-prandial fociety of the monaflery, and efpecially of the nunnery;
 +and religious ftories were written in the fame form and metre as the
 +fabliaux. Some of thefe have been publiflied under the title of" Contes
 +Devots," and, from their general dulnefs, it may be doubted if they
 +anfwered their purpofe of furnilhing amufement fo well as the others.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 1 8 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +==CHAPTER VIII. ==
 +
 +CARICATURES OF DOMESTIC LIFE. STATE OF DOMESTIC LIFE IN THE
 +
 +MIDDLE AGES. EXAMPLES OF DOMESTIC CARICATURE FROM THE
 +
 +CARVINGS OF THE MISERERES. KITCHEN SCENES. DOMESTIC
 +
 +BRAWLS. THE FIGHT FOR THE BREECHES. THE JUDICIAL DUEL
 +
 +BETWEEN MAN AND WIFE AMONG THE GERMANS. ALLUSIONS TO
 +
 +WITCHCRAFT. SATIRES ON THE TRADES ; THE BAKER, THE MILLER,
 +
 +THE WINE-PEDLAR AND TAVERN-KEEPER, THE ALE-WIFE, ETC.
 +
 +THE influence of the jougleurs over people's minds generally, with
 +their ftories and fatirical pieces, their grimaces, their poftures, and
 +their wonderful performances, was very confiderable, and may be eafily
 +traced in mediaeval manners and fentiments. This influence would
 +naturally be exerted upon inventive art, and when a painter had to adorn
 +the margin of a book, or the fculptor to decorate the ornamental parts of
 +a building, we might expect the ideas which would firfl. prefent themfelves
 +to him to be thofe fuggefted by the jougleur's performance, for the fame
 +tafte had to be indulged in the one as in the other. The fame wit or
 +fatire would pervade them both.
 +
 +Among the moft popular fubjefts of fatire during the middle ages,
 +were domeftic fcenes. Domeflic life at that period appears to have been
 +in its general character coarfe, turbulent, and, I fhould fay, anything
 +but happy. In all its points of view, it prefented abundant fubje&s for
 +ieft and burlefque. There is little room for doubt that the Romifh
 +Church, as it exifted in the middle ages, was extremely hoftile to
 +domeftic happinefs among the middle and lower clafies, and that the
 +interference of the prieft in the family was only a fource of domeftic
 +trouble. The fatirical writings of the period, the popular tales, the
 +difcourfes of thofe who fought reform, even the pictures in the
 +
 +manufcripts
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +119
 +
 +
 +
 +manufcripts and the fculptures on the walls invariably reprefent
 +the female portion of the family as entirely under the influence of the
 +priefts, and that influence as exercifed for the worft of purpofes. They
 +encouraged faith leflhels as well as difobedience in wives, and undermined
 +the virtue of daughters, and were confequently regarded with anything
 +but kindly feeling by the male portion of the population. The prieft,
 +the wife, and the hufband, form the ufual leading characters in a
 +mediaeval farce. Subjects of this kind are not very unfrequent in the
 +illuminations of manufcripts, and more efpecially in the fculptures of
 +buildings, and thofe chiefly ecclefiaftical, in which monks or priefts are
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 71. A Mediaeval Kitchen Sune.
 +
 +
 +
 +introduced in very equivocal fituations. This part of the fubje6t, however,
 +is one into which we fliall not here venture, as we find the mediaeval
 +caricaturifts drawing plenty of materials from the lefs vicious fhades of
 +contemporary life ; and, in fat, fome of their moft amufing pictures are
 +taken from the droll, rather than from the vicious, fcenes of the interior
 +of the houfehold. Such fcenes are very frequent on the mifereres of the
 +old cathedrals and collegiate churches. Thus, in the ftalls at Worcefler
 +Cathedral, there is a droll figure of a man feated before a fire in a
 +
 +kitchen
 +
 +
 +
 +I2O Hlftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 72. An Old Lady
 +and her Friends.
 +
 +
 +
 +kitchen well ftored with flitches of bacon, he himfelf occupied in
 +attending to the boiling pot, while he warms his feet, for which purpofe
 +he has taken off his fhoes. In a fimilar carving
 +in Hereford Cathedral, a man, alfo in the kitchen,
 +is feen attempting to take liberties with the
 +cook maid, who throws a platter at his head. A
 +copy of this curious fubje6t is given in cut No. 71,
 +and the cut No. 72 is taken from a fimilar mife-
 +rere in Minfter Church, in the Ifle of Thanet. It
 +reprefents an old lady feated, occupied induftrioufly
 +in fpinning, and accompanied by her cats.
 +
 +We might eafily add other examples of
 +fimilar fubje&s from the fame fources, fuch as
 +the fcene in our cut No. 73, taken from one of
 +the ftalls of Winchefter Cathedral, which feems to be intended to
 +reprefent a witch riding away upon her cat, an enormous animal, whofe
 +
 +jovial look is only outdone by that of
 +its miftrels. The latter has carried her
 +diftaff with her, and is diligently
 +employed in fpinning. A ftall in Sher-
 +borne Minfter, given in our cut No. 74,
 +reprefents a fcene in a fchool, in which
 +an unfortunate fcholar is experiencing
 +punifhment of a rather fevere defcrip-
 +tion, to the great alarm of his com-
 +panions, on whom his difgrace is evi-
 +dently a6ting as a warning. The flog-
 +ging fcene at fchool appears to have
 +been rather a favourite fubje6t among
 +the early caricaturifts, for the fcourge
 +was looked upon in the middle ages as the grand ftimulant to fcholarfhip.
 +In thofe good old times, when a man recalled to memory his fchoolboy
 +days, he did not fay, " When I was at fchool," but, " When I was under
 +the rod."
 +
 +An
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 73. The Lady and her Cat.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +121
 +
 +
 +
 +An extenfive field for the ftudy of this interefting part of our fubjed
 +will be found in the architedural gallery in the Kenfington Mufeum,
 +which contains a large number of cafts from flails and other fculptures,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 74. Scholaftk Difdpline.
 +
 +chiefly felefted from the French cathedrals. One of theie, engraved in
 +our cut No. 75, reprefents a couple of females, feated before the kitchen
 +fire. The date of this fculpture is ftated to be 1382. To judge by their
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 75. A Point in Difpute.
 +
 +looks and attitude, there is a difagreement between them, and the object
 +in difpute feems to be a piece of meat, which one has taken out of the
 +pot and placed on a dim. This lady wields her ladle as though (he wore
 +
 +E prepared
 +
 +
 +
 +122 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +prepared to ufe it as a weapon, while her opponent is armed with tne
 +bellows. The ale-pot was not unfrequently the fubject of pictures of a
 +turbulent character, and among the grotefque and monftrous figures in
 +the margins of the noble manufcript of the fourteenth century, known as
 +the " Luttrell Pfalter," one reprefents two perfonages not only quarrelling
 +over their pots, which they appear to have emptied, but actually fighting
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 76. Want of Harmony aver the Pot.
 +
 +with them. One of them has literally broken his pot over his
 +companion's head. The fcene is copied in our cut No. 76.
 +
 +It muft be ftated, however, that the more common fubjects of thefe
 +homely fcenes are domeftic quarrels, and that the man, or his wife,
 +enjoying their firefide, or limilar bits of domeftic comfort, only make
 +their appearance ar rare intervals. Domeftic quarrels and combats
 +are much more frequent. We have already feen, in the cut No. 75,
 +two dames of the kitchen evidently beginning to quarrel over their
 +cookery. A flail in the church of Stratford-upon-Avon gives us the
 +group reprefented in our cut No. 77. The battle has here become
 +defperate, but whether the male combatant be an opprefled hufband or
 +
 +an
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +123
 +
 +
 +
 +an impertinent intruder, is not clear. The quarrel would feem to have
 +
 +arifen during the procefs of cooking, as the female, who has feized her
 +
 +opponent by the beard, has evidently
 +
 +fnatched up the ladle as the readieft
 +
 +weapon at hand. The anger appears to
 +
 +be mainly on her fide, and the rather
 +
 +tame countenance of her antagonift
 +
 +contrails flrangely with her inflamed
 +
 +features. Our next cut, No. 78, is
 +
 +taken from the fculpture of a column
 +
 +in Ely Cathedral, here copied from an
 +
 +engraving in Carter's " Specimens of
 +
 +Ancient Sculpture." A man and wife,
 +
 +apparently, are ftruggling for the pof-
 +
 +feffion of a ftafF, which is perhaps in-
 +
 +No. 77. Domeftic Strife.
 +
 +tended to be the emblem of maflery.
 +
 +As is generally reprefented to be the cafe in thefe fcenes of domeflic
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 78. A Struggle for the Maflery.
 +
 +ftrife, the woman mows more energy and more Itrength than her
 +
 +opponent,
 +
 +
 +
 +124 Hsftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +opponent, and me is evidently overcoming him. The mattery of the
 +wife over the hufband feems to have been a univerfally acknowledged
 +ftate of things. A flail in Sherborne Minfter, in Dorfet, which has
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 79. The Wife in the AJcendant.
 +
 +furniftied the fubjeft of our cut No. 79, might almoft be taken as the
 +fequel of the laft cut. The lady has pofleired herfelf of the ttaftj has
 +overthrown her huiband, and is even flriking him on the head with it
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 80. Violence Refjttd.
 +
 +when he is down. In our next cut, No. 80, which is taken from one of
 +the cafts of ftalls in the French cathedrals exhibited in the Kenfmgton
 +Mufeum, it is not quite clear which of the two is the offender, but,
 +
 +perhaps,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 125
 +
 +perhaps, in this cafe, the archer, as his profeflion is indicated by his bow
 +and arrows, has made a gallant aflault, which, although fhe does not look
 +much difpleafed at it, the offended dame certainly refifts with fpirit.
 +
 +One idea connected with this picture of domeftic antagonifm appears
 +to have been very popular from a rather early period. There is a
 +proverbial phrafe to fignify that the wife is matter in the houfehold, by
 +which it is intimated that "fhe wears the breeches." The phrafe is, it
 +muft be confefled, an odd one, and is only half underftood by modem
 +explanations ; but in mediaeval flory we learn how "fhe" firft put in
 +her claim to wear this particular article of drefs, how it was firft difputed
 +and contefted, how fhe was at times defeated, but how, as a general rule,
 +the claim was enforced. There was a French poet of the thirteenth
 +century, Hugues Piaucelles, two of whofe falliaux, or metrical tales,
 +entitled the " Fabliau d'Eftourmi," and the " Fabliau de Sire Hains et de
 +Dame Anieufe," are preferved in manufcript, and have been printed
 +in the collection of Barbazan. The fecond of thefe relates fome of the
 +adventures of a mediaeval couple, whofe houfehold was not the beft
 +regulated in the world. The name of the heroine of this ftory, Anieufe,
 +is fimply an old form of the French word ennuyeufe, and certainly dame
 +Anieufe was fufficiently "ennuyeufe" to her lord and hufband. " Sire
 +Hains," her hufband, was, it appears, a maker of " cottes " and mantles,
 +and we fhould judge alfo, by the point on which the quarrel turned, that
 +he was partial to a good dinner. Dame Anieufe was of that difagreeable
 +temper, that whenever Sire Hains told her of fome particularly nice
 +thing which he wifhed her to buy for his meal, fhe bought inftead fbme-
 +thing which fhe knew was difagreeable to him. If he ordered boiled
 +meat, fhe invariably roafted it, and further contrived that it fhould be fo
 +covered with cinders and allies that he could not eat it. This would
 +fhow that people in the middle ages (except, perhaps, profeflional cooks)
 +were very unapt at roafting meat. This Hate of things had gone on for
 +fome time, when one day Sire Hains gave orders to his wife to buy him
 +fifh for his dinner. The difobedient wife, inftead of buying fifh, provided
 +nothing for his meal but a difli of fpinage, telling him falfely that all the
 +fifh flank. This leads to a violent quarrel, in which, after fome fierce
 +
 +wrangling,
 +
 +
 +
 +126 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +wrangling, efpecially on the part of the lady, Sire Hains propofes to
 +decide their difference in a novel manner. " Early in the morning," he
 +faid, " I will take off my breeches and lay them down in the middle of
 +the court, and the one who can win them (hall be acknowledged to be
 +matter or miftrefs of the houfe."
 +
 +Le tnatinet, fans contredlre t
 +Voudrai met traits defcfiaucicr,
 +Et enmt noftre cort couchier ;
 +Et qui conquerre lei porra,
 +Par bone refon miiufterra
 +S^il ertjtre ou dame du noftre.
 +
 +Barbazan, Fabliaux, tome iii. p. 383.
 +
 +Dame Anieufe accepted the challenge with eagernefs, and each prepared
 +for the ftruggle. After due preparation, two neighbours, friend Symori
 +and Dame Aupais, having been called in as witnefies, and the obje6t of
 +difpute, the breeches, having been placed on the pavement of the court,
 +the battle began, with fome flight parody on the formalities of the
 +judicial combat. The firft blow was given by the dame, who was fo
 +eager for the fray that fhe ftruck her hulband before he had put himfelf
 +on his guard ; and the war of tongues, in which at leaft Dame Anieufe
 +had the beft of it, went on at the fame time as the other battle. Sire
 +Hains ventured a flight expoftulation on her eagernefs for the fray, in
 +anfwer to which fhe only threw in his teeth a fierce defiance to do his
 +worft. Provoked at this, Sire Hains ftruck at her, and hit her over the
 +eyebrows, fo effectively, that the fkin was difcolou ed ; and, over-confident
 +in the effeft of this firft blow, he began rather too foon to exult over his
 +wife's defeat. But Dame Anieufe was lefs difconcerted than he expe&ed,
 +and recovering quickly from the effect of the blow, (he turned upon him
 +and ftruck him on the fame part of his face with fuch force, that fhe
 +nearly knocked him over the fheepfold. Dame Anieufe, in her turn,
 +now fneered over him, and while he was recovering from his confufion,
 +her eyes fell upon the objeft of contention, and fhe rufhed to it, and laid
 +her hands upon it to carry it away. This movement roufed Sire Hains,
 +who inftandy feized another part of the article of his drefs of which he
 +
 +was
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ 27
 +
 +was thus in danger of being deprived, and began a ftruggle for poflefiion,
 +in which the faid article underwent confiderable dilapidation, and
 +fragments of it were fcattered over the court. In the mid it of this
 +ftruggle the adtual fight recommenced, by the hufband giving his wife fo
 +heavy a blow on the teeth that her mouth was filled with blood. The
 +effeft was fuch that Sire Hains already reckoned on the victory, and
 +proclaimed himfelf lord of the breeches.
 +
 +Hains Jiert fa fame enmi les den*
 +Tel cop, que la bouche dedenx
 +Li a toute em f lie dejancx.
 +" Tien ore" dift Sire Hains, " anc,
 +ye cult que je fai Hen atainte,
 +Or t'ai-je de deux colors tainte
 +yaurai let braies toutes -voies"
 +
 +But the immediate effect on Dame Anieufe was only to render her more
 +defperate. She quitted her bold on the difputed garment, and fell upon
 +her hufband with fuch a fliower of blows that he hardly knew which way
 +to turn. She was thus, however, unconfcioufly exhaufting herfelf, and
 +Sire Hains foon recovered. The battle now became fiercer than ever, and
 +the lady feemed to be gaining the upper hand, when Sire Hains gave her
 +a Ikilful blow in the ribs, which nearly broke one of them, and confider-
 +ably checked her ardour. Friend Symon here interpofed, with the praife-
 +worthy aim of reftoring peace before further harm might be done, but in
 +vain, for the lady was only rendered more obftinate by her mifhap; and he
 +agreed that it was ufelefs to interfere until one had got a more decided
 +advantage over the other. The fight therefore went on, the two com-
 +batants having now feized each other by the hair of the head, a mode of
 +combat in which the advantages were rather on the fide of the male.
 +At this moment, one of the judges, Dame Aupais, fympathifing too much
 +with Dame Anieufe, ventured fome words of encouragement, which
 +drew upon her a fevere rebuke from her colleague, Symon, who intimated
 +that if (he interfered again there might be two pairs of combatants
 +inftead of one. Meanwhile Dame Auieufe was becoming exhaufted. and
 +was evidently getting the worft of the conteft, until at length, daggering
 +
 +from
 +
 +
 +
 +128 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +from a vigorous pufh, Ihe fell back into a large balket which lay behind
 +her. Sire Hains flood over her exultingly, and Symon, as umpire,
 +pronounced him victorious. He thereupon took poffeflion of the difputed
 +article of raiment, and again inverted himfelf with it, while the lady
 +accepted faithfully the conditions impofed upon her, and we are affured
 +by the poet that me was a good and obedient wife during the reft of net
 +life. In this ftory, which affords a curious picture of mediaeval life, we
 +learn the origin of the proverb relating to the pofleffion and wearing of
 +the breeches. Hugues Piaucelles concludes hisfal-liau by recommending
 +every man who has a difobedient wife to treat her in the fame manner j
 +and mediaeval hulbands appear to have followed his advice, without fear
 +of laws againft the ill-treatment of women.
 +
 +A fubjecl: like this was well fitted for the burlefques on the ftalls, and
 +accordingly we find on one of thofe in the cathedral at Rouen, the group
 +given in our cut No. 81, which feems to reprefent the part of the ftory
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 8l. The Fight for the Breeches.
 +
 +in which both combatants feize hold of the difputed garment, and
 +ftruggle for pofieffion of it. The hufband here grafps a knife in his
 +hand, with which he feems to be threatening to cut it to pieces rather
 +than give it up. The fabliau gives the victory to the hufband, but the
 +wife was generally confidered as in a majority of cafes carrying off the
 +prize. In an extremely rare engraving by the Flemifh artift Van Mecken,
 +dated in 1480, of which I give a copy in our cut No. 82, the lady, while
 +
 +putting
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 120
 +
 +putting on the breeches, of which fhe has juft become poflefled, mows
 +an inclination to lord it rather tyrannically over her other half, whom (lie
 +has condemned to perform the domeftic drudgery of the manfion.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 82. The Breeches Won.
 +
 +In Germany, where there was ftill more roughnefs in mediaeval life,
 +what was told in England and France as a good ftory of domeftic doings,
 +was actually carried into practice under the authority of the laws. The
 +judicial duel was there adopted by the legal authorities as a mode of
 +fettling the differences between hulband and wife. Curious particulars on
 +this fubject are given in an interefling paper entitled " Some obfervations
 +on Judicial Duels as practifed in Germany," published in the twenty-
 +ninth volume of the Archaeologia of the Society of Antiquaries (p. 348).
 +Thefe obfervations are chiefly taken from a volume of directions, accom-
 +panied with drawings, for the various modes of attack and defence,
 +compiled by Paulus Kail, a celebrated teacher of defence at the court of
 +Bavaria about the year 1400. Among thefe drawings we have one
 +reprefenting the mode of combat between hufband and wife. The only
 +weapon allowed the female, but that a very formidable one, was,
 +according to thefe directions, a heavy ftone wrapped up in an elongation
 +of her chemife, while her opponent had only a fhort ftaff, and he was
 +placed up to the waift in a pit formed in the ground. The following
 +
 +
 +
 +130 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +is a literal tranflation of the directions given in the manufcript, and
 +our cut No. 83 is a copy of the drawing which illuftrates it :
 +" The woman muft be fo prepared, that a fleeve of her chemife extend
 +a fmall ell beyond her hand, like a little fack ; there indeed is put
 +a ftone weighing three pounds ; and fhe has nothing elfe but her
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 83. A Legal Combat.
 +
 +chemife, and that is bound together between the legs with a lace.
 +Then the man makes himfelf ready in the pit over againft his wife.
 +He is buried therein up to the girdle, and one hand is bound at
 +the elbow to the fide." At this time the practice of fuch combats in
 +Germany feems to have been long known, for it is ftated that in the
 +year 1200 a man and his wife fought under the fan&ion of the civic
 +authorities at Bale, in Switzerland. In a picture of a combat between
 +man and wife, from a manufcript refembling that of Paulus Kail,
 +but executed nearly a century later, the man is placed in a tub inftead
 +of a pit, with his left arm tied to his fide as before, and his right holding
 +a fliort heavy rtaff; while the woman is drefled, and not ftripped to the
 +
 +chemife,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ 3
 +
 +
 +
 +chemife, as in the former cafe. The man appears to be holding the
 +flick in fuch a manner that the fling in which the ftone was contained
 +would twift round it, and the woman would thus be at the mercy of her
 +opponent. 'In an ancient manufcript on the fcience of defence in the
 +library at Gotha, the man in the tub is reprefented as the conqueror
 +of his wife, having thus dragged her head-foremoft into the tub, where
 +fhe appears with her legs kicking up in the air.
 +
 +This was the orthodox mode of combat between man and wife,
 +but it was fometimes prattifed under more fanguinary forms. In
 +one picture given from thefe old books on the fcience of defence by
 +the writer of the paper on the fubjeft in the Archaeologia, the two
 +combatants, naked down to the waift, are reprefented fighting with
 +fharp knives, and inflicting upon each other's bodies frightful gafhes.
 +
 +A feries of flail carvings at Corbeil, near Paris, of which more will
 +be faid a little farther on in this chapter, has furniflied the curious group
 +reprefented in our cut No. 84, which is one of the rather rare pidoriai
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 84. The If itch and the Demon.
 +
 +allcfions to the fubje6t of witchcraft. It reprefents a woman who rnult,
 +by her occupation, be a witch, for fhe has ib far got the mattery of the
 +demon that fhe is fawmg off his head with a very uncomfortable looking
 +
 +inftrument.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 3 2 Hi ftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +inftrument. Another ftory of witchcraft is told in the fculpture of a
 +ftone panel at the entrance of the cathedral of Lyons, which is repre-
 +fented in our cut No. 85. One power, fuppofed to be poflefled by
 +witches, was that of transforming people to animals at will. William of
 +Malmefbury, in his Chronicle, tells a ftory of two witches in the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No, 85. The Witch and her ViEtlm.
 +
 +neighbourhood of Rome, who ufed to allure travellers into their cottage,
 +and there transform them into horfes, pigs, or other animals, which they
 +fold, and feafted themfelves with the money. One day a young man,
 +who lived by the profeflion of a jougleur, fought a night's lodging at
 +their cottage, and was received, but they turned him into an afs, and, as
 +he retained his understanding and his power of ating, they gained much
 +money by exhibiting him. At length a rich man of the neighbourhood,
 +who wanted him for his private amufement, offered the two women a
 +large fum for him, which they accepted, but they warned the new
 +pofleifor of the afs that he Ihould carefully reftrain him from going into
 +the water, as that would deprive him of his power of performing. The
 +man who had purchafed the afs afted upon this advice, and carefully kept
 +him from water, but one day, through the negligence of his keeper, the
 +
 +afs
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 133
 +
 +afs efcaped from his ftable, and, rulhing to a pond at no great diftance,
 +threw himfelf into it. Water and running water efpecially was
 +believed to deftroy the power of witchcraft or magic ; and no fooner was
 +the als immerfed in the water, than he recovered his original form of a
 +young man. He told his ftory, which foon reached the ears of the pope,
 +and the two women were feized, and confeffed their crimes. The
 +carving from Lyons Cathedral appears to reprefent fbme fuch fcene of
 +forcery. The naked woman, evidently a witch, is, perhaps, feated on a
 +man whom fhe has transformed into a goat, and me feems to be
 +whirling the cat over him in fuch a manner that it may tear his face
 +with its claws.
 +
 +There was (till another clafs of fubjefts for fatire and caricature which
 +belongs to this part of our fubjecl: I mean that of the trader and
 +manufacturer. We muft not fuppofe that fraudulent trading, that
 +deceptive and imperfect workmanfhip, that adulteration of everything
 +that could be adulterated, are peculiar to modern times. On the
 +contrary, there was no period in the world's hiftory in which diflioneft
 +dealing was carried on to fuch an extraordinary extent, in which there
 +was fo much deception ufed in manufactures, or in which adulteration
 +was praftifed on lo mamelefs a fcale, as during the middle ages. Thefe
 +vices, or, as we may, perhaps, more properly defcribe them, thefe crimes,
 +are often mentioned in the mediaeval writers, but they were not
 +eafily reprefented pi6torially, and therefore we rarely meet with direct
 +allufions to them, either in fculpture, on ftone or wood, or in the paintings
 +of illuminated manufcripts. Reprefentations of the trades themfelves
 +are not fo rare, and are fometimes droll and almoft burlefque. A
 +curious feries of fuch reprefentations of arts and trades was carved
 +on the mifereres of the church of St. Spire, at Corbeil, near Paris,
 +which only exifl now in Millin's engravings, but they feem to have
 +been works of the fifteenth century. Among them the firft place
 +is given to the various occupations neceffary for the production of bread,
 +that article fo important to the fupport of life. Thus we fee, in thefe
 +carvings at Corbeil, the labours of the reaper, cutting the wheat and
 +forming it into (heaves, the miller carrying it away to be ground into
 +
 +meal,
 +
 +
 +
 +1 34 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +meal, and the baker thrufting it into the oven, and drawing it out in the
 +lhape of loaves. Our cut No. 86, taken from one of thefe fculptures,
 +reprefents the baker either putting in or taking out the bread with his
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 86. A Baker of the Fifteenth Century.
 +
 +peel ; by the earneft manner in which he looks at it, we may fuppofe
 +that it is the latter, and that he is afcertaining if it be fufficiently baked.
 +We have an earlier reprefentation of a mediaeval oven in our cut No. 87,
 +
 +taken from the celebrated illu-
 +minated manufcript of the "Ro-
 +mance of Alexandre," in the
 +Bodleian Library at Oxford,
 +which appears to belong to an
 +early period of the fourteenth
 +century. Here the baker is evi-
 +dently going to take a loaf out
 +of the oven, for his companion
 +
 +holds a difh for the purpofe of
 +No. 87. A Mediaeval Baker.
 +
 +receiving it.
 +
 +In nothing was fraud and adulteration pradifed to fo great an extent
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 135
 +
 +as in the important article of bread, and the two occupations efpecially
 +employed in making it were objects of very great diflike and of fcornful
 +fatire. The miller was proverbially a thief. Every reader of Chaucer
 +will remember his charafter fo admirably drawn in that of the miller of
 +Trumpington, who, though he was as proud and gay " as eny pecok,"
 +was neverthelefs eminently difhoneft.
 +
 +A theef he -was for foth of corn and male,
 +
 +And that ajleigh (sly), and ujyng (practised) for toftele.
 +
 +Chaucer's Beeves Tale.
 +
 +This practice included a large college then exifting in Cambridge, but
 +now forgotten, the Soler Hall, which fuffered greatly by his depredations.
 +
 +And on a day it happed in a ftounde,
 +
 +Syk lay the mauncyple on a maledye,
 +
 +Men luenden wijly that he Jchulde dye ,
 +
 +For "which this meller Jtal hot he mele and corn
 +
 +A thoufend part more than byforn.
 +
 +For ther biforn he Jlal but curteyjly ;
 +
 +But ncnu he is a theef outrageously .
 +
 +For which the ivardeyn chidde and made fare,
 +
 +But theroffette the meller not a tare ;
 +
 +He crakked boojt, andfwor it -was natfo.
 +
 +Two of the fcholars of this college refolved to go with the corn to the
 +mill, and by their watchfulnefs prevent his depredations. Thofe who are
 +acquainted with the ftory know how the fcholars fucceeded, or rather
 +how they failed ; how the miller ftole half a bumel of their flour and
 +caufed his wife to make a cake of it ; and how the victims had their
 +revenge and recovered the cake.
 +
 +As already ftated, the baker had in thefe good old times no better
 +character than the miller, if not worfe. There was an old faying, that if
 +three perfons of three obnoxious profeffions were put together in a fack
 +and fhaken up, the firft who came out would certainly be a rogue, and
 +one of thefe was a baker. Moreover, the opinion concerning the baker
 +was fo ftrong that, as in the phrafe taken from the old legends of the
 +witches, who in their feftivals fat thirteen at a table, this number was
 +
 +popularly
 +
 +
 +
 +136 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +popularly called a devil's dozen, and was believed to be unlucky fo,
 +when the devil's name was abandoned, perhaps for the fake of euphony,
 +the name fubftituted for it was that of the baker, and the number
 +thirteen was called " a baker's dozen." The makers of nearly all forts
 +of provifions for fale were, in the middle ages, tainted with the fame
 +vice, and there was nothing from which fociety in general, efpecially in
 +the towns where few made bread for themfelves, fuffered fo much.
 +This evil is alluded to more than once in that curious educational treatife,
 +the " Dictionarius " of John de Garlande, printed in my " Volume of
 +Vocabularies." This writer, who wrote in the earlier half of the thirteenth
 +century, insinuates that the makers of pies (pajiillarii) , an article of food
 +which was greatly in repute during the middle ages, often made ufe of
 +bad eggs. The cooks, he fays further, fold, efpecially in Paris to the
 +fcholars of the univerfity, cooked meats, faufages, and fuch things,
 +which were not fit to eatj while the butchers furnimed the meat of
 +animals which had died of difeafe. Even the fpices and drugs fold by
 +the apothecaries, or epiders, were not, he fays, to be trailed. John de
 +Garlande had evidently an inclination to fatire, and he gives way to it
 +not unfrequently in the little book of which I am fpeaking. He fays
 +that the glovers of Paris cheated the fcholars of the univerfity, by felling
 +them gloves made of bad materials ; that the women who gained their
 +living by winding thread (devacuatrices, in the Latin of the time), not only
 +emptied the fcholars' purfes, but wafted their bodies alfo (it is intended as
 +a pun upon the Latin word) ; and the huckflers fold them unripe fruit
 +for ripe. The drapers, he fays, cheated people not only by felling bad
 +materials, but by meafuring them with falfe meafures ; while the hawkers,
 +who went about from houfe to houfe, robbed as well as cheated.
 +
 +M. Jubinal has publilhed in his curious volume entitled "Jongleurs
 +et Trouveres," a rather jocular poem on the bakers, written in French of,
 +perhaps, the thirteenth century, in which their art is lauded as much
 +better and more ufeful than that of the goldfmith's. The millers'
 +depredations on the corn fent to be ground at the mill, are laid to the
 +charge of the rats, which attack it by night, and the hens, which find
 +their way to it by day ; and he explains the diminution the bakings
 +
 +experienced
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 3 7
 +
 +
 +
 +experienced in the hands of the baker as ariling out of the charity of the
 +latter towards the poor and needy, to whom they gave the meal and
 +pafte before it had even been put into the oven. The celebrated Englifh
 +poet, John Lydgate, in a fhort poem preferved in a manufcript in the
 +Harleian Library in the Britiih Mufeum (MS. Harl. No. 2,255,
 +fol. 157, v), defcribes the pillory, which he calls their Baflile, as
 +the proper heritage of the miller and the baker :
 +
 +Put out hh hed, lyfl not for to dare,
 +
 +But lyk a man upon that tour to abyde.
 +For cafl of eggys -wil not oonysfpare,
 +
 +Tyl he be quallyd body, bak, andfyde.
 +
 +His heed endooryd, and of-verray pryde
 +Put out hit armys, Jhetvith abroad his face ;
 +
 +The fenejlrallys be made for hym fo nayde,
 +Claymyth to been a capteyn of that place.
 +
 +The bajiyle longith of iierray dewe ryght
 +
 +To fah bakerys, it is trewe herytage
 +Severalle to them, this hnoweth every ivyght t
 +
 +Be kynde ajjygnedfor ther frtyngftage ;
 +
 +Wheer they may freely Jkewe out ther >vifage t
 +Whan they tak oonys their pojjejflioun,
 +
 +Oivthir in youthe or in myddyl age ;
 +Men doon hem ivrong yifthey take hym down.
 +
 +Let mellerys and bakerys gadre hem a gilde t
 +
 +dnd alle of ajjent make a fraternite',
 +Undir the pillory a letil chapelle bylde,
 +
 +The place amorteyfe, and purchaje lybcrte",
 +
 +For alle thos that of ther noumbre be ;
 +What e-vir it cooft afftir that they loende,
 +
 +They may claymc, be juft aufiorite,
 +Upon that baflile to make an ende.
 +
 +The wine-dealer and the publican formed another clals in mediaeval
 +fociety who lived by fraud and dimonefty, and were the objets of fatire.
 +The latter gave both bad wine and bad meafure, and he often alfo adted
 +as a pawnbroker, and when people had drunk more than they could pay
 +for, he would take their clothes as pledges for their money. The tavern,
 +in the middle ages, was the refort of very mifcellaneous company}
 +
 +T gamblers
 +
 +
 +
 +138 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +gamblers and loofe women were always on the watch there to lead more
 +honeft people into ruin, and the tavern-keeper profited largely by their
 +gains ; and the more vulgar minftrel and " jogelour " found employment
 +there ; for the middle clafles of fociety, and even their betters, frequented
 +the tavern much more generally than at the prefent day. In the carved
 +ftalls of the church of Corbeil, the liquor merchant is reprefented by the
 +figure of a man wheeling a hogfhead in a barrow, as fhown in our cut
 +No. 88. The gravenefi and air of importance with which he regards it
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 88. The Wine Dealer.
 +
 +would lead us to fuppofe that the barrel contains wine ; and the cup and
 +jug on the ihelf above (how that it was to be fold retail. The wine-
 +fellers called out their wines from their doors, and -boafted of their
 +qualities, in order to tempt people in ; and John de Garlande aflures us
 +that when they entered, they were ferved with wine which was not
 +worth drinking. "The criers of wine," he fays, "proclaim with
 +extended throat the diluted wine they have in their taverns, offering
 +it at four pennies, at fix, at eight, and at twelve, frefli poured out
 +from the gallon calk into the cup, to tempt people." ("Volume of
 +Vocabularies/' p. 126.) The ale-wife was an efpecial fubje6t of jeft
 +
 +and
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +and fatire, and is not unfrequently reprefented on the pidorial
 +monuments of our forefathers. Our cut No. 89 is taken from one of the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +A**. 89. The Ale-Wife.
 +
 +mifereres in the church of Wellingborough, in Northamptonfhire ; the
 +ale-wife is pouring her liquor from her jug
 +into a cup to ferve a ruftic, who appears
 +to be waiting for it with impatience.
 +
 +The figure of the ale-drawer, No. 90, is
 +taken from one of the mifereres in the
 +parifh church of Ludlow, in Shropfhire.
 +The fize of his jug is fomewhat difpropor-
 +tionate to that of the barrel from which
 +he obtains the ale. The fame mifereres
 +of Ludlow Church furnifh the next fcene,
 +cut No. 91, which reprefents the end of
 +the wicked ale-wife. The day of judgment
 +is fuppcfed to have arrived, and me has
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 90. The Ale-Drawer.
 +
 +
 +
 +received her fentence. A demon, feated on one fide, is reading a lift of
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +1 40 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +the crimes (he has committed, which the magnitude of the parchment
 +fhows to be a rather copious one. Another demon (whofe head has
 +been broken off in the original) carries on his back, in a very irreverent
 +manner, the unfortunate lady, in order to throw her into hell-
 +mouth, on the other fide of the picture. She is naked with the
 +exception of the fashionable head-gear, which formed one of her vanities
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 91 . The Ale-Wfis End.
 +
 +in the world, and the carries with her the falie meafure with which (he
 +cheated her cuftomers. A demon bagpiper welcomes her on her arrival.
 +The fcene is full of wit and humour.
 +
 +The ruftic clafles, and inftances of their rufticity, are not unfrequently
 +met with in thefe interesting carvings. The flails of Corbeil prefent
 +leveral agricultural fcenes. Our cut No. 92 is taken from thofe of
 +Gloucefter cathedral, of an earlier date, and reprefents the three
 +fhepherds, aftonimed at the appearance of the ftar which announced the
 +birth of the Saviour of mankind. Like the three kings, the Shepherds
 +to whom this revelation was made were always in the middle ages
 +reprefented as three in number. In our drawing from the miferere in
 +Gloucefter cathedral, the coftume of the fhepherds is remarkably well
 +
 +depi&ed
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +14.1
 +
 +
 +
 +depided, even to the details, with the various implements appertaining
 +to their profelfion, moft of which are fufpended to their girdles. They
 +are drawn with much fpirit, and even the dog is well reprefented as
 +an efpecially active partaker in the fcene.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 92. The Shepherd* of the Eafl.
 +
 +Of the two other examples we feleft from the mifereres of Corbeil,
 +the firft reprefents the carpenter, or, as he was commonly called by our
 +Anglo-Saxon and mediaeval forefathers, the wright, which fignifies fimply
 +the "maker." The application of this higher and more general term
 +for the Almighty himfelf is called, in the Anglo-Saxon poetry, ealra
 +gefcefta wyrhta, the Maker, or Creator, of all things {hows how
 +important an art that of the carpenter was confidered in the middle ages.
 +Everything made of wood came within his province. In the Anglo-
 +Saxon " Colloquy" of archbifliop Alfric, where feme of the more ufeful
 +artifans are introduced difputing about the relative value of their feveral
 +crafts, the "wright " fays, "Who of you can do without my craft, fince
 +I make houfes and all forts of veffels (vafd), and mips for you all?"
 +("Volume of Vocabularies," p. n.) And John de Garlande, in the
 +thirteenth century, defcribes the carpenter as making, among other
 +things, tubs, and barrels, and wine-cades. The workmanlhip of thofe
 +times was exercifed, before all other materials, on wood and metals, and
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +142 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +the wright, or worker in the former material, was diftinguifhed by this
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 93. The Carpenter.
 +
 +circumftance from the fmith, or worker in metal. The carpenter is ftill
 +called a wright in Scotland. Our laft cut (No. 94), taken alfo from one
 +
 +\
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 94, The Shoemaker.
 +
 +of the mifereres at Corbeil, reprefents the flioemaker, or as he was then
 +
 +ufually
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 143
 +
 +
 +
 +ufually called, the cordwainer, becaufe the leather which he chiefly ufed
 +came from Coidova in Spain, and was thence called cordewan, or
 +cordewaine. Our fhoemaker is engaged in cutting a fkin of leather with
 +an inftrument of a rather fingular form. Shoes, and perhaps forms for
 +making (hoes, are fufpended on pegs againfl. the wall.
 +
 +
 +
 +144 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +\
 +
 +
 +
 +==CHAPTER IX. ==
 +
 +GROTESftUE FACES AND FIGURES. PREVALENCE OF THE TASTE FOE
 +
 +UGLY AND GROTESftUE FACES. SOME OF THE POPULAR FORMS
 +
 +DERIVED FROM ANTIQUITY ; THE TONGUE LOLLING OUT, AND THE
 +
 +DISTORTED MOUTH. HORRIBLE SUBJECTS : THE MAN AND THE
 +
 +SERPENTS. ALLEGORICAL FIGURES : GLUTTONY AND LUXURY.
 +
 +OTHER REPRESENTATIONS OF CLERICAL GLUTTONY AND DRUNKEN-
 +NESS. GROTESaUE FIGURES OF INDIVIDUALS, AND GROTESftUE
 +
 +GROUPS. ORNAMENTS OF THE BORDERS OF BOOKS. UNINTENTIONAL
 +
 +CARICATURE ; THE MOTE AND THE BEAM.
 +
 +THE grimaces and ftrangeppftures of the jougleurs feem to_jiaye had
 +great attracYion3or-thofe wha j witneffed thjno. _Tg unrefined and
 +uneducated minds no object conveys fo perfect a notion of mirth asan
 +ugly and diftorted face. Hence it is that among the common peafantry
 +at a country fair few exhibitions are more fatisfa6tory than that of
 +grinning through a horfe-collar. This fentiment is largely exemplified
 +in the fculpture efpecially of the middle ages, a long period, during
 +which the general character of fociety prefented that want of refinement
 +which we now obferve chiefly in its leaft cultivated claffes. Among the
 +moft common decorations of our ancient churches and other mediaeval
 +buildings, are grotefque and monftrous heads and faces. Antiquity, which
 +lent us the types of many of thefe nionftrofities, faw in her Typhons and
 +Gorgons a fignification beyond the furface of the pidure, and her
 +grotefque mafks had a general meaning, and were in a manner typical of
 +the whole field of comic literature. The maik was lefs an individual
 +grotefque to be laughed at for itfelf, than a perfonification of comedy.
 +In the middle ages, on the contrary, although in ibme cafes certain forms
 +were often regarded as typical of certain ideas, in general the defign
 +extended no farther than the forms which the artift had given to it ; the
 +
 +grotefbue
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 145
 +
 +grotefqne features, like the grinning through the horfe-collar, gave
 +fatisfadion by their mere uglinefs. Even the applications, when fuch
 +figures were intended to have one, were coarfely fatirical, without any
 +intellectuality, and, where they had a meaning beyond the plain text of
 +the fcuipture or drawing, it was not far-fetched, but plain and eafily
 +underftood. When the Anglo-Saxon drew the face of a bloated and
 +disfigured monk, he no doubt intended thereby to proclaim the popular
 +notion of the general character of monaftic life, but this was a defign
 +which nobody could mifunderftand, an interpretation which everybody
 +was prepared to give to it. We have already feen various examples of
 +this defcription of fatire, fcattered here and there among the immcnfe
 +mafs of grotefque fcuipture which has no fuch meaning. A great
 +proportion, indeed, of thefe grotefque fculptures appears to prefent mere
 +variations of a certain number of diftinft types which had been handed
 +down from a remote period, fome of them borrowed, perhaps involuntarily,
 +from antiquity. Hence we naturally look for the earlier and more
 +curious examples of this elate of art to Italy and the fouth of France,
 +where the tranfition from claflical to mediaeval was more gradual, and
 +the continued influence of claflical forms is more eafily traced. The
 +early Chriftian mafons appear to have caricatured under the form of fuch
 +grotefques the perfonages of the heathen mythology, and to this practice
 +we perhaps owe fome of the types of the mediaeval monfters. We have
 +feen in a former chapter a grotefque from the church of Monte Majour,
 +near Nifmes, the original type of which had evidently been fome
 +burlefque figure of Saturn eating one of his children. Theclafljcal
 +malic doubtlefs furnilhed the type for thofe figures, fo common in
 +mediaeval fcuipture, of faces with difproportionately large mouths - } jult
 +as another favourite clafs of grotefque faces, thole with diflended mouths
 +
 +
 +
 +and tongues lolling out, were taken originally from the Typhous and
 +Gorgons of the ancients. Many other popular types of faces rendered
 +artificially ugly are mere exaggerations of the diftnrtTnns procTticed pn ihe
 +features by different operations, iuch, iui' illfUmce, as mat of blowing
 +a horn.
 +
 +The pradice of blowing the horn, is, indeed, peculiarly calculated to
 +
 +u exhibit
 +
 +
 +
 +1 46 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +exhibit the features of the face to difadvantage, and was not overlooked
 +by the defigners of the mediaeval decorative fculpture. One of the large
 +collection of cafts of fculptures from French cathedrals exhibited in the
 +mufeum at South Kenfington, has furnifhed the two fubje&s given in our
 +cut No. 93 . The firft is reprefented as blowing a horn, but he is
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 95. Grotejque Monfters.
 +
 +
 +
 +producing the greateft poffible diftortion in his features, and especially in
 +his mouth, by drawing the horn forcibly on one fide with his left hand,
 +while he pulls his beard in the other direction with the right hand. The
 +force with which he is fuppofed to be blowing is perhaps reprefented by
 +the form given to his eyes. The face of the lower figure is in at leaft
 +comparative repose. The defign of reprefenting general diftortion in the
 +firft is further fhown by thendiculoufly unnatural pofition of the arms.
 +Such diftortion of the memoers was not unfrequently introduced to
 +heighten the. effeft of the grimace in the face ; and, as in thefe
 +examples, it was not uncommon to introduce as a further element of
 +grotefque, the bodies, or parts of the bodies, of animals, or even of
 +demons.
 +
 +Another
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +H7
 +
 +
 +
 +Another caft in the Kenfington Muleum is the lubjeft of our rut
 +No. 96, which prefents the fame idea of ftretching the mouth. The
 +lubjecl. is here exhibited by another rather mirthful looking individual,
 +but whether the exhibitor is intended to be a goblin or demon, or
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 96. Diabolical Mirth.
 +
 +whether he is merely furnimed with the wings and claws of a bat, feems
 +rather uncertain. The bat was looked upon as an unpropitious if not an
 +unholy animal ; like the owl, it was the companion of the witches, and
 +of the fpirits of darknefs. The group in our cut No. 97 is taken from
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 97. Making Facet.
 +
 +one of the carved flails in the church of Stratford-upon-Avon, and
 +reprefents a trio of grimacers. The firft of thefe three grotefque faces is
 +lolling out the tongue to an extravagant length ; the fecond is fimply
 +grinning; while the third has taken a faufage between his teeth to
 +
 +render
 +
 +
 +
 +148 Hiflory of Caricature a?id Grotefque
 +
 +render his grimace ftill more ridiculous. The number and variety of
 +fuch grotefque faces, which we find fcattered over the architectural
 +decoration of our old ecclefiaftical buildings, are fo great that I will not
 +attempt to give any more particular claffification of them. All this
 +church decoration was calculated efpecially to produce its efFed upon the
 +middle and lower clafles, and mediaeval art was, perhaps more than any-
 +thing elfe, fuited to mediaeval fociety, for it belonged to the mafs and not
 +to the individual. The man who could enjoy a match at grinning
 +through horfe-collars, muft have been charmed by the grotefque works of
 +the mediaeval ftone fculptor and wood carver ; and we may add that thefe
 +difplay, though often rather rude, a very high degree of fldll in art, a
 +great power of producing ftriking imagery.
 +
 +Theie_xnejiJLaeYal_artifts loved alfo to produce horrible objects as well as
 +laughable ones, thougheven in tEeir horrors
 +
 +
 +
 +r arming into the_grotgigue. Among the arljvmffs. fp th^ fcuTptured
 +figures, we fqmetimes meet with inftruments of pain, and very talented
 +attempts to exhibirtnTTon the features of the victims. The creed of the
 +middle ages gave great fcope for the indulgence of this tafte in the
 +infinitely varied terrors of purgatory and hell; and, not to fpeak of
 +the more crude defcriptions that are fo common in mediaeval popular
 +literature, the account to which thefe defcriptions might be turned by the
 +poet as well as the artift are well known to the reader of Dante. Coils
 +of ferpents and dragons, which were the moft ufual inftruments in the
 +tortures of the infernal regions, were always favourite objects in mediaeval
 +ornamentation, whether fculptured or drawn, in the details of architectural
 +decoration, or in the initial letters and margins of books. They are often
 +combined in forming grotefque tracery with the bodies of animals or of
 +human beings, and their movements are generally hoftile to the latter.
 +We have already feen, in previous chapters, examples of this ufe of
 +ferpents and dragons, dating from the earlieft periods of mediaeval art ;
 +and it is perhaps the moft common ftyle of ornamentation in the
 +buildings and illuminated manufcripts in our ifland from the earlier
 +Saxon times to the thirteenth century. This ornamentation is fometimes
 +ftrikingly bold and effective. In the cathedral of Wells there is a feries
 +
 +of
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 49
 +
 +of ornamental bofles, formed by faces writhing under the attacks of
 +numerous dragons, who are feizing upon the lips ; eyes, and cheeks of
 +their victims. One of thele bofles, which are of the thirteenth century,
 +is reprefented in our cut No. 98. A large, coarfely featured face is the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 98. Horror.
 +
 +victim of two dragons, one of which attacks his mouth, while the other has
 +feized him by the eye. The expreffion of the face is ftrikingly horrible.
 +
 +The higher mind of the middle ages loved to fee inner meanings
 +through outward forms ; or, at leaft, it was a fafhion which manifefted
 +itfelf moft ftrongly in the latter half of the twelfth century, to adapt
 +thefe outward forms to inward meanings by comparifons and moralifa-
 +tions : and under the effeft of this feeling certain figures were at times
 +adopted, with a view to fome other purpofe than mere ornament, though
 +this was probably an innovation upon mediaeval art. The tongue lolling
 +out, taken originally, as we have feen, from the imagery of claffic times,
 +was accepted rather early in the middle ages as the emblem or fymbol of
 +luxury ; and, when we find ft among the fculptured ornaments of the
 +architefture efpecially of fome of the larger and more important churches,
 +it implied probably an allufion to that vice at leaft the face prefented to
 +us was intended to be that of a voluptuary. Among the remarkable
 +
 +feries
 +
 +
 +
 +150 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +feries of fculptures which crown the battlements of the cloifters of
 +Magdalen College, Oxford, executed a very few years after the middle of
 +the fifteenth century, amid many figures of a very mifcellaneous character,
 +there are feveral which were thus, no doubt, intended to be reprefen-
 +tatives of vices, if not of virtues. I give two examples of thefe curious
 +fculptures.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 99. Gluttony.
 +
 +
 +
 +No. loo. Luxury.
 +
 +
 +
 +The firft, No. 99, is generally confidered to reprefent gluttony, and it
 +is a remarkable circumftance that, in a building the character of which
 +was partly ecclefiaftical, and which was erected at the expenfe and under
 +the directions of a great prelate, Bifhop Wainflete, the vice of gluttony,
 +with which the ecclefiaftical order was efpecially reproached, mould be
 +reprefented in ecclefiaftical coftume. It is an additional proof that the
 +detail of the work of the building was left entirely to the builders. The
 +coarie^bloated_ features of the face, and the "_vi}lainnng " Irm/ frrfhead^.
 +
 +are
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +are chara6teriftically executed ; and the lolling tongue may perhaps be
 +intended to intimate that, in the lives of the clergy, luxury went hand in
 +with its kindred vice. The fecond of our examples, No. 100, appears by
 +its different characteriftics (fome of which we have been unable to
 +introduce in our woodcut) to be intended to reprefent luxury itfelf.
 +Sometimes qualities of the individual man, or
 +even the clafs of fociety, are reprefented in
 +a manner far lefs difguifed by allegorical
 +clothing, and therefore much more plainly to
 +the underftanding of the vulgar. Thus in an
 +illuminated manufcript of the fourteenth cen-
 +tury, in the Britifh Mufeum (MS. Arundel,
 +No. 91), gluttony is reprefented by a monk
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No - IOI
 +
 +
 +
 +G/utton ^
 +
 +
 +
 +devouring a pie alone and in fecret, except that a little cloven-footed imp
 +holds up the dim, and feems to enjoy the profped of monaftic indulgence.
 +This picture is copied in our cut No. 101. Another manufcript of the
 +fame date (MS. Sloane, No. 2435) contains a fcene, copied in our cut
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. lol. The Monaftic Cellarer.
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 103. Drunkenneft.
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 102, reprefenting drunkennefs under the form of another monk, who
 +has obtained the keys and found his way into the cellar of his monaftery,
 +and is there indulging his love for good ale in fimilar fecrecy. It is to be
 +remarked that here, again, the vices are laid to the charge of the clergy.
 +Our cut No. 103, from a baf-relief in Ely Cathedral, given in Carter's
 +
 +" Specimens
 +
 +
 +
 +152 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +" Specimens of Ancient Sculpture," reprefents a man drinking from a
 +horn, and evidently enjoying his employment, but his coftume is not
 +fufficiently chara&eriftic to betray his quality.
 +
 +The fubjeft of grotefque faces and heads naturally leads us to that of
 +monftrous and grotefque bodies and groups of bodies, which has already
 +been p? r tly _f r rafr"l in ajjjrmer chapter, where we have noticed the
 +great love fliown in the middle ae^es for monflfdui.
 +
 +
 +
 +not only monfters of one nature, but, and that efpecially, of figures
 +formed by joining together the parts of different, and entirely diflimilar,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 104. A btrange Monfter.
 +
 +animals, of fimilar mixtures between animals and men. This, as ftated
 +above, was often effeded by joining the body of fome nondeicript animal
 +to a human head and face ; fo that, by the difproportionate fize of the
 +latter, the body, as a fecondary part of the pifture, became only an adjunft
 +to fet off ftill further the grotefque charader of the human face. More
 +importance was fometimes given to the body combined with fantaftic
 +forms, which baffle any attempt at giving an intelligible defcription.
 +The accompanying cut, No. 104, reprefents a winged monfter of this
 +
 +kind ;
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +'53
 +
 +
 +
 +kind ; it is taken from one of the cafts from French churches exhibited
 +in the Kenfington Mufeum.
 +
 +Snmptin-.PS tfrfi rrWljgv_alartift, without giving any unufual form to
 +his human figures, placed them in itrange poltures. or joined them In
 +
 +
 +
 +Jingular combinations. Thefe latter are commonly of a playful character.
 +or fometimes they reprefent droll feats of {kill, or puzzles, or other
 +fubjects, all of which have been publiftied pictorially and for the amufe-
 +ment of children down to very recent times. There were a few of thefe
 +groups which ate of rather frequent occurrence, and they were evidently
 +favourite types. One of thefe is given in the annexed cut, No. 105. It
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 105. Rolling Toffy Tur-vy.
 +
 +is taken from one of the carved mifereres of the flails in Ely cathedral, as
 +given in Carter, and reprefents two men who appear to be rolling over
 +each other. The upper figure exhibits animal's ears on his cap, which
 +feem to proclaim him a member of the fraternity of fools : the ears of
 +the lower figure are concealed from view. This group is not a rare one,
 +efpecially on fimilar monuments in France, where the architectural
 +antiquaries have a technical name for it ; and this Ihows us how even the
 +particular forms of art in the middle ages were not confined to any par-
 +ticular country, but more or lefs, and with exceptions, they pervaded all
 +
 +x thofe
 +
 +
 +
 +154 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +thofe which acknowledged the ecclefiaftical fupremacy of the church of
 +Rome ; whatever peculiarity of ftyle it took in particular countries, the
 +
 +fame forms were fpread through
 +all weftern Europe. Our next cut,
 +No. 1 06, gives another of thefe
 +curious groups, confifting, in fad, of
 +two individuals, one of which is
 +evidently an ecclefiaftic. It will
 +be feen that, as we follow this
 +round, we obtain, by means of the
 +two heads, four different figures in fo
 +
 +No. 106. A Continuous Group. many totally different pofitions. This
 +
 +group is taken from one of the very curious feats in the cathedral of
 +Rouen in Normandy, which were engraved and publifhed in an
 +interefting volume by the late Monfieur E. H.
 +Langlois.
 +
 +Among the moft interefting of the mediaeval
 +burlefque drawings are thofe which are found in
 +fuch abundance in the borders of the pages of
 +illuminated manufcripts. During the earlier
 +periods of the mediaeval miniatures, the favourite
 +objects for thefe borders were monftrous animals,
 +efpecially dragons, which could eafily be twined
 +into grotefque combinations. In courfe of time, the
 +fubjecls thus introduced became more numerous,
 +and in the fifteenth century they were very varied.
 +Strange animals ftill continued to be favourites, but
 +they were more light and elegant in their forms,
 +and were more gracefully defigned. Our cut
 +No. 107, taken from the beautifully-illuminated
 +manufcript of the romance of the "Com te d'Artois,"
 +of the fifteenth century, which has furnilhed us
 +previoufly with feveral cuts, will illuftrate my
 +The graceful lightnefs of the tracery of the foliage fhown in
 +
 +this
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Nc. 107. Bcrdcr Ornament.
 +
 +
 +
 +meaning.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +'55
 +
 +
 +
 +this defign is found in none of the earlier works of art of this clafs.
 +This, of courfe, is chiefly to be afcribed to the great advance which had
 +been made in the art of defign fince the thirteenth century. But, though
 +fo greatly improved in the ftyle of art, the fame clafs of fubjefts con-
 +tinued to be introduced in this border ornamentation long after the art
 +of printing, and that of engraving, which accompanied it, had been
 +introduced. The revolution in the ornamentation of the borders of the
 +pages of books was effefted by the artifts of the lixteenth century, at
 +which time people had become better acquainted with, and had learnt to
 +appreciate, ancient art and Roman antiquities, and they drew their
 +infpiration from a correct knowledge of what the middle ages had copied
 +blindly, but had not underftood. Among the fubje6ts of burlefque which
 +the monuments of Roman art prefented to them, the ftumpy figures of
 +the pigmies appear to have gained fpecial favour, and they are employed
 +in a manner which reminds us of the pictures found in Pompeii. Joft
 +Amman, the well-known artift, who exercifed his profeffion at Nurem-
 +berg in the latter half of the fixteenth century, engraved a fet of
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1 08. A Triumphal ProccJJhn.
 +
 +illuftrations to Ovid's Metamorphofes, which were printed at Lyons in
 +1574, and each cut and page of which is enclofed in a border of very
 +fanciful and neatly-executed burlefque. The pigmies are introduced in
 +thefe borders very freely, and are grouped with great fpirit. I felecl: as an
 +example, cut No. 108, a fcene which reprefents a triumphal proceflion
 +
 +fome
 +
 +
 +
 +156 Hijlory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +fome pigmy Alexander returning from his conquefts. The hero is feated
 +on a throne carried by an elephant, and before him a bird, perhaps a
 +vanquished crane, proclaims loudly his praife. Before them a pigmy
 +attendant marches proudly, carrying in one hand the olive branch of
 +peace, and leading in the other a ponderous but captive oftrich, as a
 +trophy of his mailer's victories. Before him again a pigmy warrior,
 +heavily armed with battle-axe and falchion, is mounting the fteps of a
 +ftage, on which a nondefcript animal, partaking fomewhat of the
 +character of a fow, but perhaps intended as a burlefque on the ftrange
 +animals which, in mediaeval romance, Alexander was faid to have
 +encountered in Egypt, blows a horn, to celebrate or announce the return
 +of the conqueror. A fnail, alfo advancing flowly up the ftage, implies,
 +perhaps, a fneer at the whole fcene.
 +
 +Neverthelefs, thefe old German, Flemifh, and Dutch artifts were ftill
 +much influenced by the mediaeval fpirit, which they difplayed in their
 +coarfe and clumfy imagination, in their neglect of everything like
 +congruity in their treatment of the fubject with regard to time and
 +place, and their naive exaggerations and blunders. Extreme examples of
 +thefe characterises are fpoken of, in which the Ifraelites croffing the Red
 +Sea are armed with muikets, and all the other accoutrements of modern
 +foldiers, and in which Abraham is preparing to facrifice his fon Ifaac by
 +mooting him with a matchlock. In delineating fcriptural fubjects, an
 +attempt is generally made to clothe the figures in an imaginary ancient
 +oriental coftume, but the landfcapes are filled with the modem caftles
 +and manfion houfes, churches, and monaileries of weftern Europe.
 +Thefe half-mediaeval artifts, too, like their more ancient predeceflbrs,
 +often fall into unintentional caricature by the exaggeration or fimplicity
 +with which they treat their fubjects. There was one fubject which the
 +artifts of this period of regeneration of art feemed to have agreed to
 +treat in a very unimaginative manner. In the beautiful Sermon on the
 +Mount, our Saviour, in condemning hafty judgments of other people's
 +actions, fays (Matt. vii. 35), "And why beholdeft thou the mote that
 +is in thy brother's eye, but confidereft not the beam that is in thine
 +own eye ? Or how wilt thou fay to thy brother, Let me pull out the
 +
 +mote
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +'57
 +
 +
 +
 +mote out of thine eye, and, behold, a beam is in thine own eye ? Thou
 +hypocrite, firft caft out the beam out of thine own eye, and then (halt
 +thou fee clearly to caft out the mote out of thy brother's eye." What-
 +ever be the exact nature of the beam which the man was expected to
 +overlook in his " own eye," it certainly was not a large beam of timber.
 +Yet fuch was the conception of it by artifts of the fixteenth century.
 +One of them, named Solomon Bernard, defigned a feries of woodcuts
 +illuftrating the New Teftament, which were publifhed at Lyons in 1553 j
 +and the manner in which he treated the fubject will be feen in our cut
 +No. 109, taken from one of the illuftrations to that book. The individual
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 109. The Mote and the Beam.
 +
 +feated is the man who has a mote in his eye, which the other, approach-
 +ing him, points out ; and he retorts by pointing to the " beam," which is
 +certainly fuch a maffive objea as could not eafily have been overlooked.
 +About thirteen years before this, an artift of Augfburg, named [[Daniel Hopfer]], had publifhed a large copper-plate engraving of this fame fubjed,
 +a reduced copy of which is given in the cut No. no. The individual
 +who fees the mote in his brother s eye, is evidently treating it m the
 +
 +character
 +
 +
 +
 +1 5 8 Htflory of Caricature and Crotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +charater of a phyfician or furgeon. It is only neceffary to add that the
 +beam in his own eye is of ftill more extraordinary dimenfions than the
 +former, and that, though it feems to efcape the notice both of himfelf
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Ac. 1 1 o. The Mote and the Beam Another Treatment.
 +
 +and his patient, it is evident that the group in the diftance contemplate it
 +with aftonimment. The building accompanying this fcene appears to be
 +a church, with paintings of faints in the windows.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +==CHAPTER X. ==
 +
 +SATIRICAL LITERATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES. JOHN DE HAUTEVILLB
 +
 +AND ALAN DE LILLE. GOLIAS AND THE GOLIARDS. THE GOLIAHDIC
 +
 +POETRY. TASTE FOR PARODY. PARODIES ON RELIGIOUS SUBJECTS.
 +
 +POLITICAL CARICATURE IN THE MIDDLE AGES. THE JEWS OF
 +
 +NORWICH. CARICATURE REPRESENTATIONS OF COUNTRIES. LOCAL
 +
 +SATIRE. POLITICAL SONGS AND POEMS.
 +
 +IN a previous chapter I have fpoken of a clafe of fatirical literature
 +which was entirely popular in its character. Not that on this account
 +it was original among the peoples who compofed mediaeval fociety, for
 +the intellectual development of the middle ages came almoft all from
 +Rome through one medium or other, although we know fo little of the
 +details of the popular literature of the Romans that we cannot always
 +trace it. The mediaeval literature of weftern Europe was moftly modelled
 +upon that of France, which was received, like its language, from Rome.
 +But when the great univerfity fyftem became eftablifhed, towards the end
 +of the eleventh century, the fcholars of weftern Europe became more
 +directly acquainted with the models of literature which antiquity had left
 +them 5 and during the twelfth century thefe found imitators fo Ikilful that
 +fome of them almoft deceive us into accepting them for claflical writers
 +themfelves. Among the firft of thefe models to attract the attention of
 +mediaeval fcholars, were the Roman fatirifls, and the ftudy of them
 +produced, during the twelfth century, a number of fatirical writers in
 +Latin profe and verfe, who are remarkable not only for their boldnefs and
 +poignancy, but for the elegance of their ftvle. I mav mention among
 +thofe of Englilh birth, John of Salisbury, Walter Mapes, and Giraldus
 +Cambrenfis, who all wrote in profe, and Nigellus Wireker, already
 +mentioned in a former chapter, and John de Hauteville, who wrote in
 +
 +verfe.
 +
 +
 +
 +160 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +verfe. The lirft of thefe, in his " Polycraticus," Walter Mapes, in his
 +book "De Nugis Curialium," and Giraldus. in his " Speculum Ecclefiae,"
 +and feveral other of his writings, lay the lalh on the corruptions and vices
 +of their contemporaries with no tender hand. The two moft remarkable
 +Englifh fatirifts of the twelfth century were John de Hauteville and
 +Nigellus Wireker. The former wrote, in the year 1184, a poem in nine
 +books of Latin hexameters, entitled, after the name of its hero, " Archi-
 +trenius," or the Arch-mourner. Architrenius is reprefented as a youth,
 +arrived at years of maturity, who forrows over the fpeftacle of human
 +vices and weaknelfes, until he refolves to go on a pilgrimage to Dame
 +Nature, in order to expoftulate with her for having made him feeble to
 +refift the temptations of the world, and to entreat her afliftance. On his
 +way, he arrives fucceffively at the court of Venus and at the abode of
 +Gluttony, which give him the occafion to dwell at confiderable length
 +on the licenfe and luxury which prevailed among his contemporaries.
 +He next reaches Paris, and vifits the famous mediaeval univerfity, and his
 +fatire on the manners of the ftudents and the fruitlefihefs of their ftudies,
 +forms a remarkable and interefting picture of the age. The pilgrim
 +next arrives at the Mount of Ambition, tempting by its beauty and by the
 +ftately palace with which it was crowned, and here we are prefented with
 +a fatire on the manners and corruptions of the court. Near to this was
 +the Hill of Prefumption, which was inhabited by ecclefiaftics of all claffes,
 +great fcholaftic do6tors and profeflbrs, monks, and the like. It is a
 +fatire on the manners of the clergy. As Architrenius turns from this
 +painful fpeclacle, he encounters a gigantic and hideous monfter named
 +Cupidity, is led into a feries of reflections upon the greedinefs and
 +avarice of the prelates, from which he is roufed by the uproar caufed by
 +a fierce combat between the prodigals and the mifers. He is fubfequently
 +carried to the ifland of far-diilant Thule, which he finds to be the refting-
 +place of the philofophers of ancient Greece, and he liftens to their
 +declamations againft the vices of mankind. After this vifit, Architrenius
 +reaches the end of his pilgrimage. He finds Nature in the form of a
 +beautiful woman, dwelling with a hoft of attendants in the midft of a
 +flowery plain, and meats with a courteous reception, but me begins by
 +
 +giving
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ 6
 +
 +
 +
 +giving him a long ledure on natural philofophy. After this is concluded,
 +Dame Nature liftens to his complaints, and, to confole him, gives him a
 +handfome woman, named Moderation, for a wife, and difmifles him with
 +a chapter of good counfels on the duties of married life. The general
 +moral intended to be inculcated appears to be that the retirement of
 +domeftic happinefs is to be preferred to the vain and heartlels turmoils of
 +adive life in all its phafes. It will be feen that the kind of allegory
 +which fubfequently produced the " Pilgrim's Progrefs/' had already made
 +its appearance in mediaeval literature.
 +
 +Another of the celebrated fatirifls of the fcholaftic ages was named
 +Alanus de Infulis, or Alan of Lille, becaufe he is underftood to have been
 +born at Lille in Flanders. He occupied the. chair of theology for many
 +years in the univerfity of Paris with great diftintion, and his learning was
 +fo extenfive that he gained the name of doSlor univerfalis, the univerfal
 +doctor. In one of his books, which is an imitation of that favourite book
 +in the middle ages "Boethius de Confolatione Philofophiae," Dame Nature,
 +in the place of Philofophy not, as in John de Hauteville, as the referee,
 +but as the complainant is introduced bitterly lamenting over the deep
 +depravity of the thirteenth century, efpecially difplayed in the prevalence
 +of vices of a revolting character. This work, which, like Boethius, confifts
 +of alternate chapters in verfe and profe, is entitled " De Planctu Naturae,"
 +the lamentation of nature. I will not, however, go on here to give a
 +lift of the graver fatirical writers, but we will proceed to another clafs of
 +fatirifts which fprang up among the mediaeval fcholars, more remarkable
 +and more peculiar in their character I mean peculiar to the middle ages.
 +
 +The fatires of the time fhow us that the ftudents in the universities
 +in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, who enjoyed a great amount
 +of independence from authority, were generally wild and riotous, and,
 +among the vaft number of youths who then devoted themfelves to a
 +fcholaftic life, we can have no doubt that the habit of diflipation became
 +permanent. Among thefe wild ftudents there exifled, probably, far more
 +wit and fatirical talent than among their fteadier and more laborious
 +brethien, and this wit, and the manner in which it was difplayed, made
 +its pofleflbrs welcome guefts at the luxurious tables of the higher and
 +
 +Y richer
 +
 +
 +
 +1 62 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +richer clergy, at which Latin feems to have been the language in ordinary
 +ufe. In all probability it was from this circumftance (in allufion to the
 +Latin word gula, as intimating their love of the table) that thefe merry
 +fcholars, who difplayed in Latin fome of the accomplishments which the
 +jougleurs profeffed in the vulgar tongue, took or received the name of
 +goliards (in the Latin of that time, goliardi, or goliardenfcs) * The
 +name at leaft appears to have been adopted towards the end of the
 +twelfth century. In the year 1229, during the minority of Louis IX.,
 +and while the government of France was in the hands of the queen-
 +mother, troubles arofe in the univerfity of Paris through the intrigues of
 +the papal legate, and the turbulence of the fcholars led to their difperfion
 +and to the temporary clofing of the fchools ; and the contemporary
 +hiftorian, Matthew Paris, tells us how " fome of the fervants of the
 +departing fcholars, or thofe whom we ufed to call goliardenfes," com-
 +pofed an indecent epigram on the rumoured familiarities between the
 +legate and the queen. But this is not the firft mention of the goliards,
 +for a flatute of the council of Treves, in 1227, forbade "all priefts to
 +permit truants, or other wandering fcholars, or goliards, to fing verfes or
 +Sanftus and Angelus Dei in the fervice of the mafs."f This probably
 +refers to parodies on the religious fervice, fuch as thofe of which I fhall
 +foon have to fpeak. From this time the goliards are frequently mentioned.
 +In ecclefiaftical ftatutes publifhed in the year 1289, it is ordered that the
 +clerks or clergy (clerici, that is, men who had their education in the
 +univerfity) fliould not be jougleurs, goliards, or buffoons ;" J and the fame
 +ftatute proclaims a heavy penalty againft thofe clerici " who perfift in the
 +
 +practice
 +
 +
 +
 +* In the mediaeval Latin, the word goliardia was introduced to express the pro-
 +fession of the goliard, and the verb g oliardizare, to signify the practice of it.
 +
 +t " Item, praecipimus ut omnes sacerdotes non permittant trutannos et alios vagos
 +scholares, aut goliardos, cantare versus super Sanflus et Angelus Dei in missis," etc-
 +Concil. Trevir., an 1227, ap. Marten, et Durand. Ampliss. Coll., vii. col. 117.
 +
 +J " Item, praecipimus quod clerici non sint joculatores, goliardi, seu bufones."
 +Stat. Synod. Caduacensis, Ruthenensis, et Tutelensis Eccles. ap. Martene, Thes.
 +Anecd., iv. col. 727.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 163
 +
 +
 +
 +pra&ice of goliardy or flage performance during a year,"* which fliows
 +that they exercifed more of the functions of the jougleur than the mere
 +finging of fongs.
 +
 +Thefe vagabond clerks made for themfelves an imaginary chieftain, or
 +prefident of their order, to whom they gave the name of Golias, probably
 +as a pun on the name of the giant who combated againft David, and, to
 +fhow further their defiance of the exiiling church government, they made
 +him a bifhop Golias epifcopus. Bimop Golias was the burlefque repre-
 +fentative of the clerical order, the general fatirift, the reformer of
 +eclefiaftical and all other corruptions. If he was not a doctor of divinity,
 +he was a mafter of arts, for he is fpoken of as Magifter Golias. But
 +above all he was the father of the Goliards, the "ribald clerks," as they
 +are called, who all belonged to his houfehold,f and they are fpoken of as
 +his children.
 +
 +Summa falus omnium, Ji/ius Marite,
 +Pafcat, fotat, -veftiat puerot Golyce ! J
 +
 +" May the Saviour of all, the Son of Mary, give food, drink, and clothes
 +to the children of Golias!" Still the name was clothed in fo much
 +myftery, that Giraldus Cambrenfis, who flourimed towards the latter end
 +of the twelfth century, believed Golias to be a real perfonage, and his
 +contemporary. It may be added that Golias not only boafts of the
 +dignity of bifhop, but he appears fometimes under the title of archipoeta,
 +the archpoet or poet-in-chief.
 +
 +Caefarius of Heifterbach, who completed his book of the miracles of
 +his time in the year 1222, tells us a curious anecdote of the character of
 +the wandering clerk. In the year before he wrote, he tells us, " It
 +happened at Bonn, in the diocefe of Cologne, that a certain wandering
 +
 +clerk,
 +
 +
 +
 +* " Cleric! .... si in goliardiavel histrionatu per annum fuerint." Ib. col. 729.
 +In one of the editions of this statute it is added, " after they have been warned three
 +times."
 +
 +f "Clerici ribaldi, maxime qui vulgo dicuntur defamila Goliai." Concil. Sen. ap.
 +Concil., torn. ix. p. 578.
 +
 +J See my " Poems of Walter Mapes," p. 70.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 64 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +clerk, named Nicholas, of the clafs they call archpoet, was grievoufly ill,
 +and when he fuppofed that he was dying, he obtained from our abbot,
 +through his own pleading, and the interceflion of the canons of the fame
 +church, admiflion into the order. What more ? He put on the tunic,
 +as it appeared to us, with much contrition, but, when the danger was
 +paft, he took it off immediately, and, throwing it down with derifion, took
 +to flight." We learn beft the character of the goliards from their own
 +poetry, a considerable quantity of which is preferred. They wandered
 +about from manfion to manfion, probably from monaftery to monaflery,
 +juft like the jougleurs, but they feem to have been efpecially welcome at
 +the tables of the prelates of the church, and, like the jougleurs, befides
 +being well feafted, they received gifts of clothing and other articles. In
 +few inftances only were they otherwife than welcome, as defcribed in the
 +rhyming epigram printed in my " Latin Poems attributed to Walter
 +Mapes." " I come uninvited," fays the goliard to the bifhop, "ready for
 +dinner; fuch is my fate, never to dine invited." The bilhop replies, "I
 +care not for vagabonds, who wander among the fields, and cottages, and
 +villages j fuch guefts are not for my table. I do not invite you, for I
 +avoid fuch as you ; yet without my will you may eat the bread you afk.
 +Warn, wipe, fit, dine, drink, wipe, and depart."
 +
 +Goliardus.
 +
 +Non in-vitatus -venlo p^andere paratus ;
 +Sic fum fatatusy nunquam pranderc "vocatus.
 +
 +Episcopus.
 +
 +Non ego euro "vagos, qul rura, mapalia, pages
 +Pcrluftranty tales nan -vult mea menja Jodalet.
 +Te nan in-vitOy tibi confimilei ego vitc ;
 +Me tamen in-vlto potieris pane fetito.
 +dbluey terge, Jede, prande t bite, terge, recede.
 +
 +In another fimilar epigram, the goliard complains of the bifliop who
 +had given him as his reward nothing but an old worn-out mantle. Moft
 +of the writers of the goliardic poetry complain of their poverty, and
 +fome of them admit that this poverty arofe from th<? tavern and the
 +love of. gambling. One of them alleges as his claim to the liberality of
 +
 +his
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. j6c
 +
 +his hoft, that, as he was a fcholar, he had not learnt to labour, that his
 +parents were knights, but he had no tafle for fighting, and that, in a
 +word, he preferred poetry to any occupation. Another fpeaks ftill more
 +to the point, and complains that he is in danger of being obliged to fell
 +his clothes. " If this garment of vair which I wear," he fays, " be fold
 +for money, it will be a great difgrace to me ; I would rather fuffer a long
 +fart. A bimop, who is the mod generous of all generous men, gave me
 +this cloak, and will have for it heaven, a greater reward than St. Martin
 +has, who only gave half of his cloak. It is needful now that the poet's
 +want be relieved by your liberality [addreffing his hearers] ; let noble men
 +give noble gifts gold, and robes, and the like."
 +
 +Si -vendatur proffer denarlum
 +
 +. Indumentum quod for to -varlum,
 +
 +Grande ml hi fet opprobrium ;
 +Malo diu pati jejunlum.
 +LargiJJlmus largorum omnium
 +Prceful dedit mihl hoc pallium)
 +Majus habens In calls pramlum
 +Quam Martinus, qul dedit medium.
 +Nunc eft opus ut -veflra copla
 +Skblevetur -vatis Inopla ;
 +Dent nobiles dona nobilia,
 +Aurum, -ueftes, et hlijimllla.
 +
 +There has been fome difference of opinion as to the country to which
 +this poetry more efpecially belongs. Giraldus Cambrenfis, writing at the
 +end of the twelfth or the beginning of the thirteenth century, evidently
 +thought that Golias was an Englifhman ; and at a later date the goliardic
 +poetry was almoft all afcribed to Giraldus's contemporary and friend, the
 +celebrated humourift, Walter Mapes. This was, no doubt, an error.
 +Jacob Grimm feemed inclined to claim them for Germany ; but Grimm,
 +on this occafion, certainly took a narrow view of the queftion. We mall
 +probably be more correct in faying that they belonged in common to all
 +the countries over which univerfity learning extended ; that in whatever
 +country a particular poem of this clafi was compofed, it became the
 +property of the whole body of thefe fcholaftic jougleurs, and that it was
 +
 +thus
 +
 +
 +
 +1 66 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotef^ue
 +
 +thus carried from one land to another, receiving fometimes alterations or
 +additions to adapt it to each. Several of thefe poems are found in
 +manufcripts written in different countries with fuch alterations and
 +additions, as, for inftance, that in the well-known " Confeffion," in the
 +Englifa copies of which we have, near the conclufion, the line
 +
 +Praful Coventrenjlum, farce confitenti ;
 +
 +an appeal to the bifhop of Coventry, which is changed, in a copy in a
 +German manufcript, to
 +
 +Elefle Colonitf, farce penitent!,
 +
 +' O eleft of Cologne, fpare me penitent." From a comparifon of what
 +remains of this poetry in manufcripts written in different countries, it
 +appears probable that the names Golias and goliard originated in the
 +univerlity of Paris, but were more efpecially popular in England, while the
 +term archipoeta was more commonly <ifed in Germany.
 +
 +In 1841 I colle&ed all the goliardic poetry which I could then find
 +in Englifti manufcripts, and edited it, under the name of Walter Mapes,
 +as one of the publications of the Camden Society.* At a rather later
 +date I gave a chapter of additional matter of the fame defcription in my
 +" Anecdota Literaria."f All the poems I have printed in thefe two
 +volumes are found in manufcripts written in England, and fome of them
 +are certainly the compofitions of Englilh writers. They are diftinguifhed
 +by remarkable facility and eafe in verfification and rhyme, and by great
 +pungency of fatire. The latter is directed efpecially againft the clerical
 +order, and none are fpared, from the pope at the fummit of the fcale
 +down to the loweft of the clergy. In the " Apocalypfis Goliae," or Golias's
 +Revelations, which appears to have been the moft popular of all thefe
 +
 +poems,
 +
 +* The Latin Poems commonly attributed to Walter Mapes, collected and edited
 +by Thomas Wright, Esq., 410., London, 1841.
 +
 +t " Anecdota Literaria ; a Collection of Short Poems in English, Latin, and
 +French, illustrative of the Literature and History of England in the Thirteenth
 +Century." Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. 8vo., London, 1844.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. \ 67
 +
 +poems,* the poet defcribes himfelf as carried up in a vifion to heaven,
 +where the vices and diforders of the various claries of the popifh clergy are
 +fuccefiively revealed to him. The pope is a devouring lion ; in hiseager-
 +nefs for pounds, he pawns books ; at the fight of a mark of money, he
 +treats Mark the Evangelift with disdain ; while he fails aloft, money alone
 +is his anchoring-place. The original lines will ferve as a fpecimen of
 +the ftyle of thefe curious compofitions, and of the love of punning which
 +was fo characteriftic of the liteiature of that age :
 +
 +Eft leo pontifex Jummus, qm dcvorat,
 +Qui libras foiens, librm imfignorat ;
 +Marcam refficict, Marcum dedccorat }
 +Infummis navigans, in nummis anchor at.
 +
 +The bifhop is in hafte to intrude himfelf into other people's paftures, and
 +fills himfelf with other people's goods. The ravenous archdeacon is com-
 +pared to an eagle, becaufe he has (harp eyes to fee his prey afar off, and
 +is fwift to leize upon it. The dean is reprefented by an animal with a
 +man's face, full of filent guile, who covers fraud with the form of juitice,
 +and by the Ihow of fimplicity would make others believe him to be pious.
 +In this fpirit the faults of the clergy, of all degrees, are minutely criticifed
 +through between four and five hundred lines ; and it muft not be forgotten
 +that it was the Englilh clergy whofe character was thus expofed.
 +
 +Tufcribes etiam, forma Jed alia,
 +Septem ecclefiit qua funt in Anglla.
 +
 +Others of thefe pieces are termed Sermons, and are addrefied, fome to
 +the bifhops and dignitaries of the church, others to the pope, others to
 +the monaflic orders, and others to the clergy in general. The court of
 +Rome, we are told, was infamous for its greedinefs ; there all right and
 +juilice were put up for fale, and no favour could be had without money.
 +In this court money occupies everybody's thoughts ; its crols i. e. the mark
 +
 +on
 +
 +
 +
 +* In my edition I have collated no less than sixteen copies which occur among
 +the MSS. in the British Museum, and in the libraries at Oxford and Cambridge,
 +and there are, no doubt, many more.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 6 8 Hi ft or y of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +on the reverie of the coin its roundnefs, and its whiteneis, all pleafe the
 +Romans ; where money fpeaks law is filent.
 +
 +Nummis in hoc curia non eft qui nan -vacet ;
 +Crux placet, rotunditas, et albedo placet,
 +Et cum totum placeat, et Romanis placet,
 +Ubi numtnui loquitur, et lex omnis facet.
 +
 +Perhaps one of the moft curious of thefe poems is the " Confeflion of
 +Golias," in which the poet is made to fatirife himfelf, and he thus gives
 +us a curious picture of the goliard's life. He complains that he is made
 +of light material, which is moved by every wind j that he wanders about
 +irregularly, like the fliip on the fea or the bird in the air, feeking worth-
 +lefs companions like himfelf. He is a flave to the charms of the fair fex.
 +He is a martyr to gambling, which often turns him out naked to the cold,
 +but he is warmed inwardly by the infpiration of his mind, and he writes
 +better poetry than ever. Lechery and gambling are two of his vices, and
 +the third is drinking. " The tavern," he fays, " I never defpifed, nor
 +mall I ever defpife it, until I fee the holy angels coming to fing the
 +eternal requiem over my corpfe. It is my defign to die in the tavern ; let
 +wine be placed to my mouth when I am expiring, that when the choirs
 +of angels come, they may fay, ' Be God propitious to this drinker ! ' The
 +lamp of the foul is lighted with cups ; the heart fteeped in netar flies up
 +to heaven ; and the wine in the tavern has for me a better flavour than
 +that which the bifhop's butler mixes with water. .... Nature gives to
 +every one his peculiar gift : I never could write fading ; a boy could beat
 +me in compofition when I am hungry ; I hate thirft and failing as much
 +as death."
 +
 +Tertio capitulo memoro tabernam :
 +Illam nullo tempore fprevi, neque fpernam,
 +Donee Janflos angelos -venientes cernam,
 +Cantantes pro mortuo requiem aternam.
 +
 +Meum eji propofitum in taberna mori ;
 +Vmdumjit appojitum morientis ori,
 +Ut dicant cum -venennt angelorum chori,
 +' Deusjit prophiut huic potatori ! '
 +
 +Poculit
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 169
 +
 +
 +
 +PocuKs accendltur animi lucerna f
 +Cor imbutum nefiare volat ad fuperna :
 +Mlhi fapit dulcius vinum in taberna,
 +Quam quod aqua mifcuit prcejulif pincerna.
 +
 +*******
 +Unicuique proprlum dat rtatura munus :
 +Ego nunquam potui fcribere jejunus ;
 +Me jejunum -vincere pojjet puer unus ;
 +Sitim et jejunium odi tanquam Junus.*
 +
 +Another of the more popular of thefe goliardic poems was the advice of
 +Golias againft marriage, a grofs fatire upon the female fex. Contrary to
 +what we might perhaps expect from their being written in Latin, many
 +of thefe metrical fatires are directed againft the vices of the laity, as well
 +as againft thofe of the clergy.
 +
 +In 1844 the celebrated German fcholar, Jacob Grimm, publifhed in
 +the " Tranfactions of the Academy of Sciences at Berlin " a felection of
 +goliardic verfes from manufcripts in Germany, which had evidently been
 +written by Germans, and fome of them containing allufions to German
 +affairs in the thirteenth century.f They prefent the fame form of verfe
 +and the fame ftyle of fatire as thofe found in England, but the name of
 +Golias is exchanged for archipoeta, the archpoet. Some of the flanzas
 +of the " Confeffion of Golias " are found in a poem in which the archpoet
 +addrefles a petition to the arch chancellor for afliftance in his diftrefs, and
 +confefles his partiality for wine. A copy of the Confeffion itfelf is alfo found
 +in this German collection, under the citle of the " Poet's Confeffion."
 +
 +The Royal Library at Munich contains a very important manufcript of
 +this goliardic Latin poetry, written in the thirteenth century. It belonged
 +originally to one of the great Benedictine abbeys in Bavaria, where it appears
 +to have been very carefully preferved, but ftill with an apparent confciouf-
 +nefs that it was not exactly a book for a religious brotherhood, which led
 +the
 +
 +* Poems attributed to Walter Mapes, p. 73. The stanzas here quoted, with
 +some others, were afterwards made up into a drinking song, which was rather
 +popular in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.
 +
 +f " Gedichte des Mittelalters auf Konig Friedrich I. den Staufar, und aus seiner
 +so wie der nachstfolgenden Zeit," 4to. Separate copies of this work were printed
 +off and distributed among mediaeval scholars
 +
 +
 +
 +170 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +the monks to omit it in the catalogue of their library, no doubt as a book
 +the pofleffion of which was not to be proclaimed publicly. When written,
 +it was evidently intended to be a careful felection of the poetry of this clafs
 +then current. One part of it confifts of poetry of a more ferious character,
 +fuch as hymns, moral poems, and efpecially fatirical pieces. In this clafs
 +there are more than one piece which are alfo found in the manufcripts
 +written in England. A very large portion of the collection confifts of love
 +fongs, which, althougn evidently treafured by the Benedictine monks, are
 +fometimes licentious in character. A third clafs confifts of drinking and
 +gambling fongs (potatoria et luforia). The general character of this poetry
 +is more playful, more ingenious and intricate in its metrical ftructure, in
 +fact, more lyric than that of the poetry we have been defcribing ; yet it
 +came, in all probability, from the fame clafs of poets the clerical jougleurs.
 +The touches of fentiment, the defcriptions of female beauty, the admiration
 +of nature, are fometimes exprefled with remarkable grace. Thus, the
 +green wood fweetly enlivened by the joyous voices of its feathered inhabi-
 +tants, the made of its branches, the thorns covered with flowers, which,
 +fays the poet, are emblematical of love, which pricks like a thorn and then
 +foothes like a flower, are taftefully defcribed in the following lines:
 +
 +Cantu nemui a-viunt
 +
 +Lafcivla canentium
 +
 +Suave delinitur t
 +
 +Fronde redimitur,
 +
 +Verna.nl fptnce florlbui
 +
 +Micantibiu,
 +
 +Venerem Jig n art tit us
 +
 +S^uia Jplna fungit, Jlot tlanJitur.
 +
 +And the following fcrap of the defcription of a beautiful damfel (hows no
 +fmall command of language and verfification
 +
 +Allicit dulcibui
 +ferbii et ofculis,
 +Labellulis
 +
 +Caftigate tumentibtu,
 +Rojeo nefiareus
 +Odor infufus on ;
 +Pariter eburneui
 +Sedat ordo dentlum
 +Par n'rveo candiri.
 +
 +The
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 171
 +
 +The whole contents of this manufcript were printed in 1847, in an o&avo
 +volume, iflued by the Literary Society at Stuttgard.* I had already
 +printed fome examples of fuch amatory Latin lyric poetry in 1838, in a
 +volume of "Early Myfteries and Latin Poems j"f but this poetry does
 +not belong properly to the fubjeft of the prefent volume, and I pafs on
 +from it.
 +
 +The goliards did not always write in verfe, for we have fome of their
 +profe compofitions, and thefe appear efpecially in the form of parodies.
 +We trace a great love for parody in the middle ages, which fpared not
 +even things the moft facred, and the examples brought forward in the
 +celebrated trial of William Hone, were mild in comparifon to fome which
 +are found fcattered here and there in mediaeval manufcripts. In my
 +Poems, attributed to Walter Mapes,J I have printed a fatire in profe
 +entitled " Magijier Golyas de quodam ablate' (i.e., Matter Golias's account
 +of a certain abbot), which has fomewhat the character of a parody upon a
 +faint's legend. The voluptuous life of the fuperior of a monaftic houfe is
 +here defcribed in a tone of banter which nothing could excel. Several
 +parodies, more dire6t in their character, are printed in the two volumes of
 +the " Reliquas Antiquae." One of thefe (vol. ii. p. 208) is a complete
 +parody on the fervice of the mafs, which is entitled in the original,
 +" Miffa de Poiatoril-us," the Mafs of the Drunkard. In this extraordinary
 +compofition, even the pater-nofler is parodied. A portion of this, with
 +great variations, is found in the German collection of the Carmina
 +Burana, under the title of Officium Luforum, the Office of the Gamblers.
 +
 +In
 +
 +
 +
 +* " Carmina Burana. Lateinische und Deutsche Lieder und Gedichfe einer
 +Handschrift des XIII. Jahrhunderts aus Benedictbeurn auf der K. Bibliothek zu
 +Munchen." 8vo. Stuttgart, 1847.
 +
 +f " Early Mysteries and other Latin Poems of the Twelfth and Thirteenth
 +Centuries," edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. 8vo. London, 1838.
 +
 +I Introduction, p. xl.
 +
 +" Reliquiae Antiquae. Scraps from Ancient Manuscripts, illustrating chiefly
 +Early English Literature and the English Language." Edited by Thomas
 +Wright, Esq., and J. O. Halliwell, Esq. a vols. 8vo. Vol. i., London, 1841;
 +vol. ii., 1843.
 +
 +
 +
 +172 HI ftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +In the " Reliquae Antiquae" (ii. 58) we have a parody on the Gofpel of
 +St. Luke, beginning with the words, Initium fallacis Evangelii fecundum
 +Lupum, this laft word being, of courfe, a fort of pun upon Lucam. Its
 +fubjeft alfo is Bacchus, and the fcene having been laid in a tavern in
 +Oxford, we have no difficulty in afcribing it to fome fcholar of that
 +univerfity in the thirteenth century. Among the Carmina Burana we
 +find a limilar parody on the Gofpel of St. Mark, which has evidently
 +belonged to one of thefe burlefques on the church fervice ; and as it is
 +lefs profane than the others, and at the fame time pidures the mediaeval
 +hatred towards the church of Rome, I will give a translation of it as an
 +example of this fingular clafs of compofitions. It is hardly neceflary to
 +remind the reader that a mark was a coin of the value of thirteen Shillings
 +and fourpence :
 +
 +" The beginning of the holy gospel according to Marks of silver. At that time
 +the pope said to the Romans : ' When the son of man shall come to the seat of
 +our majesty, first say, Friend, for what hast thou come ? But if he should persevere
 +in knocking without giving you anything, cast him out into utter darkness.' And
 +it came to pass, that a certain poor clerk came to the court of the lord the pope, and
 +cried out, saying, ' Have pity on me at least, you doorkeepers of the pope, for the
 +hand of poverty has touched me. For I am needy and poor, and therefore I seek
 +your assistance in my calamity and misery.' But they hearing this were highly
 +indignant, and said to him : ' Friend, thy poverty be with thee in perdition ; get
 +thee backward, Satan, for thou dost not savour of those things which have the
 +savour of money. Verily, verily, I say unto thee, Thou shalt not enter into the joy
 +of thy lord, until thou shalt have given thy last farthing.*
 +
 +" Then the poor man went away, and sold his cloak and his gown, and all that
 +he had, and gave it to the cardinals, and to the doorkeepers, and to the chamberlains.
 +But they said, ' And what is this among so many ?' And they cast him out of the
 +gates, and going out he wept bitterly, and was without consolation. After him
 +there came to the court a certain clerk who was rich, and gross, and fat, and
 +large, and who in a tumult had committed manslaughter. He gave first to the
 +doorkeeper, secondly to the chamberlain, third to the cardinals. But they judged
 +among themselves, that they were to receive more. Then the lord the pope, hearing
 +that the cardinals and officials had received many gifts from the clerk, became sick
 +unto death. But the rich man sent him an electuary of gold and silver, and he was
 +immediately made whole. Then the lord the pope called before him the cardinals
 +and officials, and said to them : * Brethren, see that no one deceive you with empty
 +words. For I give you an example, that, as I take, so take ye also.' "
 +
 +This mediaeval love of parody was not unfrequently difplayed in a
 +
 +more
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 173
 +
 +more popular form, and in the language of the people. In the Reliance
 +Antiques (i. 82) we have a very fingular parody in Englim on the.fermons
 +of the Catholic priefthood, a good part of which is fo written as to prefent
 +no confecutive fenfe, which circumftance itfelf implies a fneer at the
 +preachers. Thus our burlefque preacher, in the middle of his difcourfe,
 +proceeds to narrate as follows (I modernife the Englim) :
 +
 +" Sirs, what time that God and St. Peter came to Rome, Peter asked Adam a
 +full great doubtful question, and said, " Adam, Adam, why ate thou the apple un-
 +pared ?' ' Forsooth, 1 quod he, ' for I had no wardens (pears) fried.' And Peter
 +saw the fire, and dread him, and stepped into a plum-tree that hanged full of ripe
 +red cherries. And there he saw all the parrots in the sea. There he saw steeds
 +and stockfish pricking ' swose ' (?) in the water. There he saw hens and herrings that
 +hunted after harts in hedges. There he saw eels roasting larks. There he saw
 +haddocks were done on the pillory for wrong roasting of May butter ; and there he
 +saw how bakers baked butter to grease with old monks' boots. There he saw how
 +the fox preached," &c.
 +
 +The fame volume contains fome rather clever parodies on the old
 +Englim alliterative romances., compofed in a fimilar flyle of confecutive
 +nonfenfe. It is a clafs of parody which we trace to a rather early period,
 +which the French term a coq-a-l'dne, and which became fafhionable in
 +England in the feventeenth century in the form of fongs entitled
 +" Tom-a-Bedlams." M. Jubinal has printed two fuch poems in French,
 +perhaps of the thirteenth century,* and others are found fcattered
 +through the old manufcripts. There is generally fo much coarfenefs in
 +them that it is not eafy to feleft a portion for tranflation, and in fa6t their
 +point confifts in going on through the length of a poem of this kind
 +without imparting a lingle clear idea. Thus, in the fecond of thofe
 +publifhed by Jubinal, we are told how, " The fhadow of an egg carried
 +the new year upon the bottom of a pot ; two old new combs made a ball
 +to run the trot ; when it came to paying the fcot, I, who never move
 +
 +rnyfelf,
 +
 +* " Achille Jubinal, Jongleurs et Trouveres." 8vo,, Paris, 1835, p. 34; and
 +" Nouveau Recueil de Contes, Dits, Fabliaux," &c. 8vo., Paris, 1842. Vol. ii.
 +p. 208. In the first instance M. Jubinal has given to this little poem the title
 +Ref-veries, in the second, Fatrajiet.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 74 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +myfelf, cried out, without faying a word, ' Take the feather of an ox, and
 +clothe a wife fool with it.' "
 +
 +Li ombres d~"un oef
 +
 +Portoit Pan reneuf
 +
 +Sur la fonts tTun pot ;
 +
 +Deui -vie* pinges neuf
 +
 +Firent un eftuef
 +
 +Pour courre le trot }
 +
 +Qjtant <vlnt au paler fejcot^
 +
 +ye, qui onques ne me muef t
 +
 +Kfefcrlai^Ji ne dis mot :
 +
 +' Prenes la plume d'un buef,
 +
 +S?en -vejie* unfagefot.'' Jubinal, Nonv. Eec., ii. 217.
 +
 +The fpirit of the goliards continued to exift long after the name had
 +been forgotten ; and the mals of bitter fatire which they had left behind
 +them againft the whole papal fyftem, and againft the corruptions of the
 +papal church of the middle ages, were a perfect godfend to the reformers
 +of the fixteenth century, who could point to them triumphantly as
 +irrefiftible evidence in their favour. Such fcholars as Flacius Illyricus,
 +eagerly examined the manufcripts which contained this goliardic poetry,
 +and printed it, chiefly as good and effective weapons in the great religious
 +ftrife which was then convulfing European fociety. To us, befides their
 +intereft as literary compofitions, they have alfo a hiftorical value, for they
 +introduce us to a more intimate acquaintance with the character of the
 +great mental ftruggle for emancipation from mediaeval darknefs which
 +extended efpecially through the thirteenth century, and which was only
 +overcome for a while to begin more ftrongly and more fuccelsfully at a
 +ter period. They difplay to us the grofs ignorance, as well as the
 +corruption of manners, of the great mals of the mediaeval clergy.
 +^ ^Nothing can be more amufing than the fatire which fome of thefe pieces
 +
 +3v^ throw on the character of monkifh Latin. I printed in the " Reliquae
 +Antiquae," under the title of "The Abbot of Gloucefter's Feaft," a
 +complaint fuppofed to ifiue from the mouth of one of the common herd
 +of the monks, againft the felfilhnefs of their fuperiors, in which all the
 +rules of Latin grammar are entirely fet at defiance. The abbot and prior
 +of Gloucefter, with their whole convent, are invited to a feaft, and on
 +
 +their
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 175
 +
 +
 +
 +their arrival, " the abbot/' fays the complainant, " goes to fit at the top,
 +and the prior next to him, but I flood always in the back place among
 +the low people."
 +
 +Abba* ire fede furfum,
 +Et priori s juxta ipjum ,
 +Ego femfer _ftai>i dorfum
 +
 +inter rafcalilia.
 +
 +The wine was ferved liberally to the prior and the abbot, but " nothing
 +was give to us poor folks everything was for the rich."
 +
 +Vinum venit fanguinatis
 +Ad prioris et abbatis ;
 +N'Ml nobis paupertatis,
 +
 +fed ad dives omnia.
 +
 +When fome diflatisfadion was difplayed by the poor monks, which the
 +great men treated with contempt, "faid the prior to the abbot, 'They have
 +wine enough ; will you give all our drink to the poor ? What does their
 +poverty regard us ? they have little, and that is enough, fince they came
 +uninvited to our feaft.' "
 +
 +Prior dixit ad abbatis,
 +' Ipjt habent vinumfatis ;
 +Vultis dare paupertatis
 +
 +nofter potus omnia ?
 +f}uid not Jpeftat paupertatis ?
 +Pojiquam venit non vocatis
 +
 +ad nofter convivial
 +
 +Thus through feveral pages this amufing poem goes on to defcribe the
 +gluttony and drunkennefs of the abbot and prior, and the ill-treatment of
 +their inferiors. This compofition belongs to the clofe of the thirteenth
 +century. A fong very fimilar to it in character, but much fhorter, is
 +found in a manufcript of the middle of the fifteenth century, and printed
 +with the other contents of this manufcript in a little volume iflued by the
 +Percy Society.* The writer complains that the abbot and prior drunk
 +good
 +
 +* " Songs and Carols, now first printed from a Manuscript of the Fifteenth
 +Century. Edited by Thomas Wright, Esq. 8vo., London, 184.7, p. 2.
 +
 +
 +
 +176 Uljlory of Caricature and Grotejque
 +
 +
 +
 +good and high-flavoured wine, while nothing but inferior fluff was
 +ufually given to the convent ; "But," he fays, "it is better to
 +go drink good wine at the tavern, where the wines are of the beft
 +quality, and money is the butler."
 +
 +Bonum -vinum cum fa pore
 +Bibit abbas cum priore ;
 +Sed cotrvcntus de pejore
 +
 +Jemper folet bibere.
 +Bonum vinum in taberna,
 +Ubi vinajunt -valarna (for Falerna),
 +Ubi nummui eft pincerna )
 +
 +Ibi prodeft bibere.
 +
 +Partly out of the earneft, though playful, fatire defcribed in this chapter,
 +arofe political fatire, and at a later period political caricature. I have
 +before remarked that the period we call the middle ages was not that of
 +political or perfonal caricature, becaufe it wanted that means of circulating
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No, ill. Caricature upon the Jews at Kor-wich.
 +
 +
 +
 +quickly and largely which is neceflary for it. Yet, no doubt, men who
 +could draw, did, in the middle ages, fometimes amufe themfelves in
 +(ketching caricatures, which, in general, have periflied, becaufe nobody
 +cared to preferve them ; but the fad of the exiftence of fuch works is
 +
 +proved
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +177
 +
 +
 +
 +proved by a very curious example, which has been preferved, and which
 +is copied in our cut No. in. It is a caricature on the Jews of Norwich,
 +which fome one of the clerks of the king's courts in the thirteenth century
 +has drawn with a pen, on one of the official rolls of the Pell office, where
 +it has been preferved. Norwich, as it is well known, was one of the
 +principal feats of the Jews in England at this early period, and Ifaac of
 +Norwich, the crowned Jew with three faces, who towers over the other
 +figures, was no doubt fome perfonage of great importance among them.
 +Dagon, as a two-headed demon, occupies a tower, which a party of demon
 +knights is attacking. Beneath the figure of Ifaac there is a lady, whofe
 +name appears to be Avezarden, who has fome relation or other with a
 +male figure named Nolle-Mokke, in which another demon, named
 +Colbif, is interfering. As this latter name is
 +written in capital letters, we may perhaps con-
 +clude that he is the rnoft important perfonage
 +in the fcene ; but, without any knowledge of
 +the circumftances to which it relates, it would
 +be in vain to attempt to explain this curious
 +and rather elaborate caricature.
 +
 +Similar attempts at caricature, though leli
 +direct and elaborate, are found in others of our
 +national records. One of thefe, pointed out to
 +me by an excellent and refpecled friend,
 +the Rev. Lambert B. Larking, is peculiarly in-
 +terefling, as well as amufing. It belongs to the
 +Treafury of the Exchequer, and confifts of two
 +volumes of vellum called Liber A and Liber B,
 +forming a regifter of treaties, marriages, and
 +fimilar documents of the reign of Edward I.,
 +which have been very fully ufed by Rymer.
 +The clerk who was employed in writing it,
 +teems to have been, like many of thefe official
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1 1 Z. An Irishman.
 +
 +
 +
 +clerks, fomewhat of a wag, and he has amufed himfclf by drawing
 +in the margin figures of the inhabitants of the provinces of Edwanl's
 +
 +A A crown
 +
 +
 +
 +1 78 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +crown to which the documents referred. Some of thefe are evidently
 +defigned for caricature. Thus, the figure given in our cut No. 112 was
 +intended to reprefent an Irifhman. One trait, at leaft, in this caricature
 +is well known from the defcription given by Giraldus Cambrenfis, who
 +fpeaks with a fort of horror of the formidable axes which the Irifh were
 +accuftomed to carry about with them. In treating of the manner in
 +which Ireland ought to be governed when it had been entirely reduced
 +to fubje&ion, he recommends that, " in the meantime, they ought not
 +to be allowed in time of peace, on any pretence or in any place, to ufe
 +that deteftable inftrument of deflrucYion, which, by an ancient but accurfed
 +cuftom, they conftantly carry in their hands inftead of a
 +ftaff." In a chapter of his "Topography of Ireland,"
 +Giraldus treats of this " ancient and wicked cuftom "
 +of always carrying in their hand an axe, inftead of a
 +ftaff, to the danger of all perfons who had any relations
 +with them. Another Irifhman, from a drawing in the
 +fame manufcript, given in our cut No. 113, carries his
 +axe in the fame threatening attitude. The coftume of
 +thefe figures anfwers with fufficient accuracy to the de-
 +fcription given by Giraldus Cambrenfis. The drawings
 +exhibit more exadly than that writer's defcription the
 +"fmall clofe-fitting hoods, hanging a cubit's length
 +(half-a-yard) below the moulders," which, he tells us,
 +they were accuftomed to wear. This fmall hood, with the flat cap
 +attached to it, is mown better perhaps in the fecond figure than in the
 +firft. The " breeches and hofe of one piece, or hofe and breeches joined
 +together," are alfo exhibited here very diftindly, and appear to be tied
 +over the heel, but the feet are clearly naked, and evidently the ufe
 +of the " brogues " was not yet general among the Irifh of the thirteenth
 +century.
 +
 +If the Welfhman of this period was fomewhat more Icantily clothed
 +than the Irifhman, he had the advantage of him, to judge by this
 +manufcript, in wearing at leaft one fhoe. Our cut No. 114, taken from
 +it, reprefents a Welfhman armed with bow and arrow, whofe clothing
 +
 +confifts
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +179
 +
 +
 +
 +confifts apparently only of a plain tunic and a light mantle. This is
 +quite in accordance with the defcription by Giraldus Cambrenfis, who
 +tells us that in all feafons their drefs was the fame, and that, however
 +fevere the weather, " they defended themfelves from the cold only by a
 +thin cloak and tunic." Giraldus fays nothing of the practice of the
 +Welfh in wearing but one fhoe, yet it is evident that at the time of this
 +record that was their practice, for in another figure of a Welfhman, given
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +Ac. 114. A Welfo Archer.
 +
 +
 +
 +A 7 e. 115. A Weljbman with his Spear,
 +
 +
 +
 +in our cut No. TI j, we fee the fame peculiarity, and in both cafes the fhoe
 +is worn on the left foot. Giraldus merely fays that the Welmmen in
 +general, when engaged in warfare, " either walked bare-footed, or made
 +ufe of high fhoes, roughly made of untanned leather." He defcribes
 +them as armed fometimes with bows and arrows, and fometimes with
 +long fpears j and accordingly our firft example of a Welfhman from this
 +manufcript is ufing the bow, while the fecond carries the fpear, which
 +he apparently refts on the fingle fhoe of his left foot, while he brandifhes
 +a fword in his left hand. Both our Welfhmen prefent a fingularly
 +grotefque appearance.
 +
 +The
 +
 +
 +
 +1 80 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +The Gafcon is reprefented with more peaceful attributes. Gafcony
 +was the country of vineyards, from whence we drew our great fupply of
 +wines, a very important article of confumption in the middle ages.
 +
 +When the official clerk who wrote this
 +manufcript came to documents relating to
 +Gafcony, his thoughts wandered naturally
 +enough to its rich vineyards and the wine
 +they fupplied fo plentifully, and to which,
 +according to old reports, clerks feldom
 +mowed any diflike, and accordingly, in
 +the fketch, which we copy in our cut
 +No. 1 1 6, we have a Gafcon occupied
 +diligently in pruning his vine-tree. He,
 +at leaft, wears two fhoes, though his
 +clothing is of the lighted defcription.
 +He is perhaps the vinitor of the mediaeval
 +documents on this fubject, a ferf attached
 +to the vineyard. Our fecond Iketch, cut No. 117, prefents a more
 +enlarged fcene, and introduces us to the whole procefs of making wine.
 +Firft we fee a man better clothed, with fhoes (or boots) of much fuperior
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1 1 6. A Gafcon at hit Vine.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 117. The Wme Manufafiurer.
 +
 +
 +
 +make, and a hat on his head, carrying away the grapes from the vineyard
 +to the place where another man, with no clothing at all, is treading out
 +the juice in a large vat. This is ttill in fome of the wine countries
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 8 1
 +
 +
 +
 +the common method of extracting the juice from the grape. Further to
 +the left is the large calk in which the juice is put when turned into wine.
 +Satires on the people of particular localities were not uncommon
 +during the middle ages, becaufe local rivalries and confequent local feuds
 +prevailed everywhere. The records of fuch feuds were naturally of a
 +temporary character, and perifhed when the feuds and rivalries themfelves
 +ceafed to exift, but a few curious fatires of this kind have been preferved.
 +A monk of Peterborough, who lived late in the twelfth or early in the
 +thirteenth century, and for fome reafon or other nourifhed an unfriendly
 +feeling to the people of Norfolk, gave vent to his hoftility in a Ihort
 +Latin poem in what we may call goliardic verfe. He begins by abufing
 +the county itfelf, which, he fays, was as bad and unfruitful as its
 +inhabitants were vile ; and he fuggefts that the evil one, when he fled
 +from the anger of the Almighty, had parted through it and left his
 +pollution upon it. Among other anecdotes of the fimplicity and folly of
 +the people of this county, which clofely refemble the ftories of the wife
 +men of Gotham of a later date, he informs us that.one day the peafantry
 +of one diftri6t were fo grieved by the oppreflions of their feudal lord, that
 +they fubfcribed together and bought their freedom, which he fecured to
 +them by formal deed, ratified with a ponderous feal. They adjourned to
 +the tavern, and celebrated their deliverance by feafting and drinking
 +until night came on, and then, for want of a candle, they agreed to burn
 +the wax of the feal. Next day their former lord, informed of what had
 +taken place, brought them before a court, where the deed was judged to
 +be void for want of the feal, and they loft all their money, were reduced
 +to their old pofition of flavery, and treated worfe than ever. Other
 +ftories, ftill more ridiculous, are told of thefe old Norfolkians, but few of
 +them are worth repeating. Another monk, apparently, who calls himfelf
 +John de St. Omer, took up the cudgels for the people of Norfolk, and re-
 +plied to the Peterborough fatirift in fimilar language.* I have printed in
 +
 +another
 +
 +
 +
 +* Both these poems are printed in my " Early Mysteries, and other Latin Poems
 +of the Twelfth an I Thirteenth Centuries." 8vo., London, 1838.
 +
 +
 +
 +1 82 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +another collection,* a fatirical poem againft the people of a place called
 +Stockton (perhaps Stockton-on-Tees in Durham), by the monk of a
 +monaftic houfe, of which they were ferfs. It appeared that they had
 +rifen againft the tyranny of their lord, but had been unfuccefsful in
 +defending their caufe in a court of law, and the ecclefiaftical fatirift
 +exults over their defeat in a very uncharitable tone. There will be found
 +in the " Reliquae Ar.tiquae,"t a very curious fatire in Latin profe directed
 +againtt the inhabitants of Rochefter, although it is in truth aimed againft
 +Englishmen in general, and is entitled in the manufcript, which is of the
 +fourteenth century, " Proprietates Anglicorum " (the Peculiarities of
 +Engliftimen). In the firft place, we are told, that the people of Rochefter
 +had tails, and the queftion is difcufled, very fcholaftically, what fpecies
 +of animals thefe Roceftrians were. We are then told that the caufe of
 +their deformity arofe from the infolent manner in which they treated
 +St. Augulline, when he came to preach the Gofpel to the heathen Englifh.
 +After vifiting many parts of England, the faint came to Rochefter, where
 +the people, inftead of liflening to him, hooted at him through the ftreets,
 +and, in derifion, attached tails of pigs and calves to his veftments, and
 +fo turned him out of the city. The vengeance of Heaven came upon
 +them, and all who inhabited the city and the country round it, and their
 +.defcendants after them, were condemned to bear tails exactly like
 +thofe of pigs. This ftory of the tails was not an invention of the author
 +of the fatire, but was a popular legend connected with the hiftory of
 +St. Auguftine's preaching, though the fcene of the legend was laid in
 +Dorfetftiire. The writer of this fingular compofition goes on to defcribe
 +the people of Rochefter as feducers of other people, as men without
 +gratitude, and as traitors. He proceeds to fhow that Rochefter being
 +fituated in England, its vices had tainted the whole nation, and he
 +illuftrates the bafenefs of the Englifti character by a number of anecdotes
 +of worfe than doubtful authenticity. It is, in fad, a fatire on the Englifti
 +compofed in France, and leads us into the domains of political fatire.
 +Political
 +
 +* " Anecdota Literaria," p. 49. t " Reliquae Antiquae," vol. ii. p. 230.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 8 3
 +
 +Political fatire in the middle ages appeared chiefly in the form of
 +poetry and fong, and it was efpecially in England that it flourifhed, a fure
 +fign that there was in our country a more advanced feeling of popular
 +independence, and greater freedom of fpeech, than in France or
 +Germany.* M. Leroux de Lincy, who undertook to make a collection of
 +this poetry for France, found fo little during the mediaeval period that
 +came under the character of political, that he was obliged to fubftitute
 +the word "hiftbrical" in the title of his book.f Where feudalifm was
 +fupreme, indeed, the fongs which arofe out of private or public ftrife,
 +which then were almoft infeparable from fociety, contained no political
 +fentiment, but confifted chiefly of perfonal attacks on the opponents of
 +thofe who employed them. Such are the four fliort fongs written in the
 +time of the revolt of the French during the minority of St. Louis, which
 +commenced in 12265 they are all of a political character which
 +M. Leroux de Lincy has been able to collect previous to the year
 +j 2 /o, and they confift merely of perfonal taunts againft the courtiers by
 +the diflatisfied barons who were out of power. We trace a fimilar feeling
 +in fome of the popular records of our baronial wars of the reign of
 +Henry III., efpecially in a fong, in the baronial language (Anglo-Norman),
 +preferred in a fmall roll of vellum, which appears to have belonged
 +to the minftrel who chanted it in the halls of the partifans of Simon de
 +Montfort. The fragment which remains connfts of ftanzas in praife of
 +the leaders of the popular party, and in reproach of their opponents.
 +Thus of Roger de Clifford, one of earl Simon's friends, we are told that
 +" the good Roger de Clifford behaved like a noble baron, and exercifed
 +great
 +
 +* I have published from the original manuscripts the mass of the political poetry
 +composed in England during the middle ages in my three volumes "The Political
 +Songs of England, from the Reign of John to that of Edward II." 410., London,
 +1839 (issued by the Camden Society) ; and " Political Poems and Songs relating to
 +English History, composed during the Period from the Accession of Edward III.
 +to that of 'Richard III." 8vo., vol i., London, 1859; vol. ii., 1861 (published by
 +the Treasury, under the direction of the Master of the Rolls.)
 +
 +t " Receuil de Chants Historiques Fran9ais depuis le xii e . jusqu'au xviii*.
 +Siecle, par Leroux de Lincy .... Premiere Serie, xii e ., xiii e ., xiv e ., et xv*., Siecles."
 +8vo., Paris, 1841.
 +
 +
 +
 +184 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefi/uc
 +
 +great juftice ; he fuffered none, either fmall or great, or fecretly or
 +openly, to do any wrong."
 +
 +Et de Cltjfort ly ton Roger
 +Se contint cum noble ber,
 +
 +Sifu de grant juftice ;
 +Nefuffri pat petit ne grant,
 +Ne arere ne par deviant.
 +
 +Fere nul mefpnj'e.
 +
 +On the other hand, one of Montfort's opponents, the biftiop of Hereford,
 +is treated rather contemptuoufly. We are told that he "learnt well that
 +the earl was ftrong when he took the matter in hand ; before that he
 +(the bifhop) was very fierce, and thought to eat tn all the Englilh; but
 +now be is reduced to ftraits."
 +
 +Ly evejke de Herefort
 +
 +Sout bien que ly quern fu fort,
 +
 +Kant il prili raffere {
 +De-vant ce efteit mult fer t
 +Lei Englais quida tou-z manger.
 +
 +Met ore nejet que fere.
 +
 +This bifhop was Peter de Aigueblanche, one of the foreign favourites, who
 +had been intruded into the fee of Hereford, to the exclufion of a better
 +man, and had been an oppreflbr of thofe who were under his rule. The
 +barons feized him, threw him into prifon, and plundered his poffefiions,
 +and at the time this fong was written, he was fuffering under the imprifon-
 +ment which appears to have fliortened his life.
 +
 +The univerfities and the clerical body in general were deeply involved
 +in thefe political movements of the thirteenth century ; and our earlieft
 +political fongs now known are compofed in Latin, and in that form and
 +ftyle of verfe which feems to have been peculiar to the goliards, and
 +which I venture to call goliardic. Such is a forig againft the three bifhops
 +who fupported king John in his quarrel with the pope about the prefen-
 +tation to the fee of Canterbury, printed in my Political Songs. Such, too,
 +is the fong of the Welfh, and one or two others, in the fame volume.
 +And fuch, above all, is that remarkable Latin poem in which a partifan
 +
 +of
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 185
 +
 +
 +
 +of the barons, immediately after the vi6tory at Lewes, fet forth the
 +political tenets of his party, and gave the principles of Englilh liberty
 +nearly the fame broad ban's on which they fland at the prefent. It is an
 +evidence of the extent to which thefe principles were now acknowledged,
 +that in this great baronial ftruggle our political fongs began to be written
 +in the Englifh language, an acknowledgment that they concerned the
 +whole Englifh public.
 +
 +We trace little of this clafs of literature during the reign of Edward I.j
 +but, when the popular feelings became turbulent again under the reign of
 +his fon and fucceflbr, political fongs became more abundant, and their fatire
 +was directed more even than formerly againft meafures and principles,
 +and was lefs an inflrument of mere perfonal abufe. One fatirical poem
 +of this period, which I had printed from an imperfect copy in a manu-
 +fcript at Edinburgh, but of which a more complete copy was fubfequently
 +found in a manufcript in the library of St. Peter's College, Cambridge,*
 +is extremely curious as being the earliefl fatire of this kind written in
 +Englifh that we poflefs. It appears to have been written in the year
 +1320. The writer of this poem begins by telling us that his objeft is to
 +explain the caufe of the war, ruin, and manslaughter which then prevailed
 +throughout the land, and why the poor were fuffering from hunger and
 +want, the cattle perifhed in the field, and the corn was dear. Thefe he
 +afcribes to the increafing wickednefs of all orders of fociety. To begin
 +with the church, Rome was the head of all corruptions, at the papal
 +court falfehood and treachery only reigned, and the door of the pope's
 +palace was fhut againft truth. During the twelfth and following centuries
 +thefe complaints, in terms more or lefs forcible, againft the corruptions of
 +Rome, are continually repeated, and fhow that the evil muft have been
 +one under which everybody felt opprefled. The old charge of Romifh
 +fimony is repeated in this poem in very ftrong terms. " The clerk's voice
 +mall be little heard at the court of Rome, were he ever fo good, unlefs
 +he
 +
 +* " A Poem on the Times of Edward III., from a MS. preserved in the Library
 +of St. Peter's College, Cambridge." Edited by the Rev. C. Hard wick. 8vo.
 +London, 1849. (One of the publications of the Percy Society.)
 +
 +B B
 +
 +
 +
 +1 86 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +he bring filver with him j though he were the holieft man that ever was
 +born, unlefs he bring gold or filver, all his time and anxiety are loft.
 +Alas ! why love they fo much that which is periihable ? "
 +
 +Voyt of clerk Jball lytyl be heard at the court of Rome,
 +Were he never fo gode a clerk, -without Jilver and he come ;
 +Though he -were the holy ft man that ever yet ivas ibort,
 +But he bryng gold or fylver, al Ays "while is for lore
 +
 +And his thcfwght.
 +Alias ! vjhi love thei that fo much that fchal turne to novjght f
 +
 +When, on the contrary, a wicked man prefented himfelf at the pope's
 +court, he had only to carry plenty of money thither, and all went well
 +with him. According to our fatirift, the bifhops were "fools," and the
 +other dignitaries and officials of the church were influenced chiefly by the
 +love of money and felf-indulgence. The parfon began humbly, when he
 +firft obtained his benefice, but no fooner had he gathered money together,
 +than he took " a wenche " to live with him as his wife, and rode a
 +hunting with hawks and hounds like a gentleman. The priefts were
 +men with no learning, who preached by rote what they neither under-
 +ftood nor appreciated. "Truely," he fays, "it fares by our unlearned
 +priefts as by a jay in a cage, who curfes himfelf: he fpeaks good Englim,
 +but he knows not what it means. No more doe4 an unlearned prieft
 +know his gofpel that he reads daily. An unlearned prieft, then, is no
 +better than a jay."
 +
 +Certes atfo hyt fareth by a preft that is levjed,
 +At by a jay in a cage that hymfelf hath bejhrevjed :
 +Gode Englyfb he fpeketh t but he not never -what.
 +No more -wot a Inved preft hys gofpel ivat he rat
 +
 +By day.
 +Than is a levjed preft no better than a jay.
 +
 +Abbots and priors were remarkable chiefly for their pride and luxury, and
 +the monks naturally followed their examples. Thus was religion debafed
 +everywhere. The character of the phyfician is treated with equal feverity,
 +and his various tricks to obtain money are amufingly defcribed. In this
 +manner the fongfter prefents to view the failings of the various orders of
 +lay fociety alfo, the felfimnefs and opprefiive bearing of the knights and
 +
 +ariftocracy
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 1 87
 +
 +
 +
 +ariftocracy, and their extravagance in dreis and living, the negleft of
 +juftice, the ill-management of the wars, the weight of taxation, and all
 +the other evils which then affli6ted the ftate. This poem marks a period
 +in our focial hiftory, and led the way to that larger work of the fame
 +character, which came about thirty years later, the well-known " Vifions
 +of Piers Ploughman,"* one of the moft remarkable fatires, as well as one
 +of the moft remarkable poems, in the Englilh language.
 +
 +We will do no more than glance at the further progrefs of political
 +fatire which had now taken a permanent footing in Englifh literature.
 +We fee lefs of it during the reign of Edward III., the greater part of
 +which was occupied with foreign wars and triumphs, but there appeared
 +towards the clofe of his reign, a very remarkable fatire, which I have
 +printed in my "Political Poems and Songs." It is written in Latin, and
 +confifts of a pretended prophecy in verfe by an infpired monk named
 +John of Bridlington, with a mock commentary in profe in faft, a parody
 +on the commentaries in which the fcholaftics of that age difplayed their
 +learning, but in this cafe the commentary contains a bold though to us
 +rather obfcure criticifm on the whole policy of Edward's reign. The reign
 +of Richard II. was convulfed by the great ftruggle for religious reform,
 +by the infurreftions of the lower orders, and by the ambition and feuds of
 +the nobles, and produced a vaft quantity of political and religious fatire,
 +both in profe and verfe, but efpecially the latter. We muft not overlook
 +our great poet Chaucer, as one of the powerful fatirifts of this period.
 +Political fong next makes itfelf heard loudly in the wars of the Rofes.
 +It was the laft ftruggle of feudalifm in England, and the character of the
 +fong had fallen back to its earlier characteristics, in which all patriotic
 +feelings were abandoned to make place for perfonal hatred.
 +
 +
 +
 +* "The Vision and the Creed of Piers Ploughman ;" with Notes and a Glossary
 +by Thomas Wright. 2 vols. izmo. London, 1842. Second and revised edition,
 +2 vols. i2mo. London, 1856.
 +
 +
 +
 +Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +==CHAPTER XI. ==
 +
 +MINSTRELSY A SUBJECT OF BURLESQUE AND CARICATURE. CHARACTER
 +
 +OF THE MINSTRELS. THEIR JOKES UPON THEMSELVES AND UPON ONE
 +
 +ANOTHER. VARIOUS MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS REPRESENTED IN THE
 +
 +SCULPTURES OF THE MEDIAEVAL ARTISTS. SIR MATTHEW GOURNAY
 +
 +AND THE KING OF PORTUGAL. DISCREDIT OF THE TABOR AND BAG-
 +PIPES. MERMAIDS.
 +
 +ONE of the principal clafles of the fatirifts of the middle ages, the
 +minftrels, or jougleurs, were far from being unamenable to fatire
 +themfelves. They belonged generally to a low clafs of the population,
 +one that was hardly acknowledged by the law, which merely adminiftered
 +to the pleasures and amufements of others, and, though fometimes
 +liberally rewarded, they were objects rather of contempt than of refpeft.
 +Of courfe there were minftrels belonging to a clafs more refpeftable than
 +the others, but thefe were comparatively few ; and the ordinary minftrel
 +feems to have been limply an unprincipled vagabond, who hardly
 +poflefled any fettled refting-place, who wandered about from place to
 +place, and was not too nice as to the means by which he gained his
 +living perhaps fairly reprefented by the ftreet minftrel, or mountebank,
 +of the prefent day. One of his talents was that of mocking and ridiculing
 +others, and it is not to be wondered at, therefore, if he fometimes became
 +an objedt of mockery and ridicule himfelf. One of the well-known
 +minftrels of the thirteenth century, Rutebeuf, was, like many of his
 +fellows, a poet alfo, and he has left feveral fhort pieces of verfe defcriptive
 +of himfelf and of his own mode of life. In one of thefe he complains of
 +his poverty, and tells us that the world had in his time the reign of
 +St. Louis become fo degenerate, that few people gave anything to the
 +unfortunate minftrel. According to his own account, he was without
 +
 +food,
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +food, and in a fair way towards ftarvation, expofed to the cold without
 +fufficient clothing, and with nothing but ftraw for his bed.
 +
 +Je toux defroit, de fain baaille,
 +
 +Dont je fuis mart et mauba\Ul%,
 +
 +Jefuisfanz coutes et fans liss ;
 +
 +Waji fwre jufqtfa Senlix.
 +
 +Sire,Ji nefai yue/ fart aille ;
 +
 +Met cofteiz connoit le pail/its,
 +
 +Et lix de faille it" eft fas Hz,
 +
 +Et en man lit n"afors la faille. CEuvrefl de Btrtebenf, vol. i. p. 3.
 +
 +In another poem, Rutebeuf laments that he has rendered his condition
 +ftill more miferable by marrying, when he had not wherewith to keep a
 +wife and family. In a third, he complains that in the midft of his
 +poverty, his wife has brought him a child to increafe his domeflic
 +expenfes, while his horfe, on which he was accuftomed to travel to places
 +where he might exercife bis profeffion, had broken its leg, and his nurfe
 +was dunning him for money. In addition to all thefe caufes of grief, he
 +had loft the ufe of one of his eyes.
 +
 +Or a d' enfant geu ma fame }
 +Man cheval a brifie la jame
 +
 +A une lice ;
 +
 +Or veut de /' 'argent ma norrice t
 +S^ui m'cn deftraint et me felice,
 +
 +For r enfant feftre.
 +
 +Throughout his complaint, although he laments over the decline of
 +liberality among his contemporaries, he nevertheless turns his poverty into
 +a joke. In feveral other pieces of verfe he fpeaks in the fame way, half
 +joking and half lamenting over his condition, and he does not conceal that
 +the love of gambling was one of the caufes of it. " The dice," he fays,
 +" have flripped me entirely of my robe j the dice watch and fpy me ; it
 +is thefe which kill me; they affault and ruin me, to my grief."
 +
 +Li de que li detier ontfet,
 +RTont de ma robe tout desfet ;
 +
 +Li de m" orient.
 +Li de m'aguetent et effient ;
 +Li de m'ajjaillent et deffient,
 +
 +Ce foife moi. Ib., vol. L p. 27.
 +
 +And
 +
 +
 +
 +190 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +And elfewhere he intimates that what rfie minftrels fometimes gained
 +from the lavifh generofity of their hearers, foon paffed away at the tavern
 +in dice and drinking.
 +
 +One of Rutebeuf s contemporaries in the fame profeflion, Colin Mufet,
 +indulges in fimilar complaints, and fpeaks bitterly of the want of generofity
 +difplayed by the great barons of his time. In addrefling one of them
 +who had treated him ungeneroufly, he fays, "Sir Count, I have riddled
 +before you in your hoftel, and you neither gave me a gift, nor paid
 +me my wages. It is difcreditable behaviour. By the duty I owe to
 +St. Mary, I cannot continue in your fervice at this rate. My purfe is ill
 +furnifhed, and my wallet is empty."
 +
 +Sire quens, j'ai viele
 +Devant vos en voftre oftel ;
 +Si ne m'avez riens donne y
 +Ne ma gages acquitez y
 +
 +Ceft -vilanie.
 +Fol que doi fainte Marie,
 +Enfi ne -vot Jieurre-je mie,
 +M'aumofniere eft maj gprnie t
 +Et ma male mat far/it.
 +
 +He proceeds to ftate that when iie went home to his wife (for Colin
 +Mufet alfo was a married minftrel), he was ill received if his purfe
 +and wallet were empty ; but it was very different when they were full. His
 +wife then fprang forward and threw her arms round his neck ; fhe took
 +his wallet from his horfe with alacrity, while his lad conducted the
 +animal cheerfully to the liable, and his maiden killed a couple of capons,
 +and prepared them with piquant fauce. His daughter brought a comb for
 +his hair. "Then," he exclaims, "I am matter in my own houfe."
 +
 +Ma fame 'va deftrofer
 +Ma male Jam demurer ;
 +Mon garden -va abu-vrer
 +Man cheval et conreer ;
 +Ma pucele va tuer
 +Deux chapons for deporter
 +
 +A lajaufe aillie.
 +Ma file m'aforte un figne
 +En fa main par cortoifie.
 +Lorsfui de man oftel Jire.
 +
 +When
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 191
 +
 +When the minftrels could thus joke upon themfelves, we need not be
 +furprifed if they fatirifed one another. In a poem of the thirteenth,
 +century, entitled " Les deux Troveors Ribauz," two minftrels are introduced
 +on the ftage abufing and infulting one another, and while indulging in
 +mutual accufations of ignorance in their art, they difplay their ignorance
 +at the fame time by mifquoting the titles of the poems which they profefs
 +to be able to recite. One of them boafts of the variety of inftruments on
 +which he could perform :
 +
 +jfe Ju'u jugleres de <viele t
 +Sijai de mufe et defreftele,
 +Et de Aarfes et de chifonie^
 +De la gigue, de rarmonie,
 +De rjalteire, et en la rote
 +, Sai-ge bien chanter une note.
 +
 +It appears, however, that among all thefe inftruments, the viol, or fiddle,
 +was the one moft generally in ufe.
 +
 +The mediaeval monuments of art abound with burlefques and fatires
 +on the minftrels, whofe inftruments of mufic are
 +placed in the hands fbmetimes of monfters, and at
 +others in thofe of animals of a not very refined cha-
 +racter. Our cut No. 118 is taken from a manufcript
 +in the Britifti Mufeum (MS. Cotton, Domitian A. ii.),
 +and reprefents a female minftrel playing on the
 +riddle ; ihe has the upper part of a lady, and the
 +lower parts of a mare, a combination which appears
 +to have been rather familiar to the imagination of the
 +mediaeval artifts. In our cut No. 119, which is taken
 +from a copy made by Carter of one of the mifereres
 +in Ely Cathedral, it is not quite clear whether the No - 1 1 8 -.-f. Charmi "g
 +
 +J Fiddler.
 +
 +performer on the fiddle be a monfter or merely a
 +cripple 3 but perhaps the latter was intended. The inftrument, too,
 +aflumes a* rather fingular form. Our cut No 120, alfo taken from Carter,
 +was furnifhed by a fculpture in the church of St. John, at Cirencefter,
 +and reprefents a man performing on an inflrument rather clofely
 +refembling the modern hurdy-gurdy, which is evidently played by
 +
 +turning
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +192 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +turning a handle, and the mufic is produced by ftriking wires or firings
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 119. A Crippled Minftrel.
 +
 +in fide. The face is evidently intended to be that of a jovial companion.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 120. The Hurdy-Gurdy.
 +
 +Gluttony was an elpecial charaderiftic of that clafs of fociety to which
 +
 +the
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +'93
 +
 +
 +
 +the minftrcl belonged, and perhaps this was the idea intended to be con-
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 121. A Swirsljh Minftrel.
 +
 +veyed in the next pifture, No. 121, taken from one of the ftalls in Win-
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. l^^. A Mufical Mother.
 +
 +chefter Cathedral, in which a pig is performing on the fiddle, and appears
 +
 +c c to
 +
 +
 +
 +i 94 Hiflory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +to be accompanied by a juvenile of the fame fpecies of animal. One of
 +the fame flails, copied in our cut No. 122, reprefents a fow performing
 +on another fort of mufical inftrument, which is not at all uncommon in
 +mediaeval delineations. It is the double pipe or flute, which was evidently
 +borrowed from the ancients. Minftrelfy was the ufual accompaniment
 +of the mediaeval meal, and perhaps this picture is intended to be a
 +burlefque on that circumftance, as the mother is playing to her brood
 +while they are feeding. They all feem to liften quietly, except one, who
 +is evidently much more affected by the mufic than his companions. The
 +fame inftrument is placed in the hands of a rather jolly-looking female in
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. iaj. The Double Flute.
 +
 +one of the fculptures of St. John's Church in Cirencefter, copied in our
 +cut No. 123.
 +
 +Although this inftrument is rather frequently reprefented in mediaeval
 +works of art, we have no account of or allufion to it in mediaeval writers ;
 +and perhaps it was not held in very high eftimation, and was ufed only
 +by a low clafs of performers. As in many other things, the employment
 +jf particular mufical inftruments was guided, no doubt, by fafhion, new
 +ones coming in as old ones went out. Such was the cafe with the
 +
 +inftrument
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 195
 +
 +inftrument which is named in one of the above extracts, and in fome
 +other mediaeval writers, a chiffonie, and which has been fuppofed to be
 +the dulcimer, that had fallen into difcredit in the fourteenth century.
 +This inftrument is introduced in a ftory which is found in Cuvelier's
 +metrical hiftory of the celebrated warrior Bertrand du Guefclin. In the
 +courfe of the war for the expulfion of Pedro the Cruel from the throne of
 +Caftile, an Englifh knight, Sir Matthew Gournay, was fent as a fpecial
 +ambaflador to the court of Portugal. The Portuguefe monarch had in his
 +fervice two minftrels whofe performances he vaunted greatly, and on
 +whom he fet great flore, and he infifted on their performing in the
 +prefence of the new ambaflador. It turned out that they played on the
 +inftrument juft mentioned, and Sir Matthew Gournay could not refrain
 +from laughing at the performance. When the king prefled him to give
 +his opinion, he faid, with more regard for truth than politenefs, " In
 +France and Normandy, the inftruments your minftrels play upon are
 +regarded with contempt, and are only in ufe among beggars and blind
 +people, fo that they are popularly called beggar's inftruments." The king,
 +we are told, took great offence at the bluntnefs of his Englilh gueft.
 +
 +The fiddle itfelf appears at this time to have been gradually finking in
 +credit, and the poets complained that a degraded tafte for more vulgar
 +mufical inftruments was introducing itfelf. Among thefe we may mention
 +efpecially the pipe and tabor. The French antiquary, M. Jubinal, in a
 +very valuable collection of early popular poetry, publifhed under the title
 +of "Jongleurs et Trouveres," has printed a curious poem of the thirteenth
 +or fourteenth century, intended as a proteft againft the ufe of the tabor
 +and the bagpipes, which he chara&erifes as properly the mufical inftru-
 +ments of the peafantry. Yet people then, he fays, were becoming fo
 +befotted on fuch inftruments, that they introduced them in places where
 +better minftrelfy would be more fuitable. The writer thinks that the
 +introduction of fo vulgar an inftrument as the tabor into grand feftivals
 +could be looked upon in no other light than as one of the figns which
 +might be expected to be the precurfors of the coming of Antichrift. " if
 +fuch people are to come to grand feflivals as carry a bufhel [i.e. a tabor
 +made in the form of a bufhel meafure, on the end of which they beat],
 +
 +and
 +
 +
 +
 +196 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefqne
 +
 +
 +
 +and make fuch a terrible noife, it would feem that Antichrift muft now be
 +being born ; people ought to break the head of each of them with a ftafF."
 +
 +Deuffent itlels gen* -venlr a belt fefte
 +$ui f orient un boijfel, qui mainent tel tempefte,
 +II famble que Antecrift dole maintenant neftre ;
 +I? en duroit d'un bafton chajcun brifier la tefle.
 +
 +This fatirift adds, as a proof of the contempt in which the Virgin Mary
 +held fuch inftruments, that fhe never loved a tabor, or confented to hear
 +one, and that no tabor was introduced among the minftrelfy at her
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 124. The Tabor, or Drum.
 +
 +
 +
 +efpoufals. " The gentle mother of God," he fays, " loved the found of
 +the fiddle," and he goes on to prove her partiality for that inftrument by
 +citing fome of her miracles.
 +
 +Onquet le nitre Dieu, qui eft -virge honoree,
 +Et eft a-voec let angles hautement coronet,
 +N*ama ontjues tafaur, ne point ne It agree,
 +N'onyues labour n"i ot quant el fu ejpoufee.
 +La douce mere Dieu ama fan de wele.
 +
 +The
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +197
 +
 +
 +
 +The artift who carved the curious ftalls in Henry VII. 's Chapel at
 +Weftminfter, feems to have entered fully into the fpirit difplayed by this
 +fatirift, for in one of them, reprefented in our cut No. 124, he has
 +introduced a mafked demon playing on the tabor, with an expreffion
 +apparently of derifion. This tabor prefents much the form of a bufhel
 +meafure, or rather, perhaps, of a modern drum. It may be remarked
 +that the drum is, in fa6t, the fame inftrument as the tabor, or, at leaft, is
 +derived from it, and they were called by the fame names, tabor or
 +tamlour. The Engliih name drum, which has equivalents in the later
 +forms of the Teutonic diale&s, perhaps means limply fomething which
 +makes a noife, and is not, as far as I know, met with before the fixteenth
 +century. Another carving of the fame feries of ftalls at Weftminfter,
 +copied in our cut No. 125, reprefents a tame bear playing on the
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 1*5. Bruin turned Piper.
 +
 +bagpipes. This is perhaps intended to be at the fame time a fatire on
 +the inftrument itfelf, and upon the ftrange exhibitions of animals
 +domefticated and taught various fingular performances, which were then
 +fo popular.
 +
 +In
 +
 +
 +
 +1 98 Hiftory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +In our cut No. 126 we come to the fiddle again, which long fuftained
 +its place in the higheft rank of mufical inftruments. It is taken from one
 +of the fculptures on the porch of the principal entrance to the Cathedral
 +of Lyons in France, and reprefents a mermaid with her child, liftening to
 +the mufic of the fiddle. She wears a crown, and is intended, no doubt,
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. ia6. Royal Minftrelfy.
 +
 +to be one of the queens of the fea, and the introduction of the fiddle
 +under fuch circumftances can leave no doubt how highly it was eileemed.
 +The mermaid is a creature of .the imagination, which appears to have
 +been at all times a favourite object of poetry and legend. It holds an
 +important place in the mediaeval beftiaries, or popular treatifes on natural
 +hiftory, and it has only been expelled from the domains of fcience at a
 +comparatively recent date. It ftill retains its place in popular legends of
 +our fea-coafts, and more efpecially in the remoter parts of our iflands.
 +The ftories of the merrow, or Iri(b fairy, hold a prominent place among
 +my late friend Crofton Croker's "Fairy Legends of the South of
 +Ireland." The mermaid is alfo introduced not unfrequently in mediaeval
 +
 +fculpture
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art.
 +
 +
 +
 +199
 +
 +
 +
 +fculpture and carving. Our cut No. 127, reprefenting a mermaid and a
 +merman, is copied from one of the flails of Winchefter Cathedral. The
 +ufual attributes of the mermaid are a looking-glafs and comb, by the aid
 +of which fhe is drefiing her hair ; but here (he holds the comb alone.
 +
 +
 +
 +
 +No. 127. Mermaids.
 +
 +Her companion, the male, holds a fifh, which he appears to have juft
 +caught, in his hand.
 +
 +While, after the fifteenth century the profeflion of the minftrel
 +became entirely degraded, and he was looked upon more than ever as a
 +rogue and vagabond, the fiddle accompanied him, and it long remained,
 +as it ftill remains in Ireland, the favourite inftrument of the peafantry.
 +The blind fiddler, even at the prefent day, is not unknown in our rural
 +diftri&s. It has always been in England the favourite inftrument of
 +minftrelfy.
 +
 +
 +
 +2OO Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +==CHAPTER XII. ==
 +
 +THE COURT FOOL. THE NORMANS AND THEIR GABS. EARL'S HISTORY
 +
 +OF COURT FOOLS. THEIR COSTUME. CARVINGS IN THE CORNISH
 +
 +CHURCHES. THE BURLESdUE SOCIETIES OF THE MIDDLE AGES.
 +
 +THE .rFEASTS OF ASSES, AND OF FOOLS. THEIR LICENCE. THE
 +
 +LEADEN MONEY OF THE FOOLSs THE BISHOP'S BLESSING.
 +
 +FROM the employment of minftrels attached to the family, probably
 +arofe another and well-known character of later times^-the court
 +jbpl, who took the place of fnti rifl *" th f great Hnufehnlds. T do not
 +confider what we underftand by the court fool to be a character of any
 +great antiquity.
 +
 +It is fomewhat doubtful whether what we call a jeft, was really
 +appreciated in the middle ages. Puns feem to have been confidered as
 +elegant figures of fpeech in literary compofition, and we rarely meet
 +with anything like a quick and clever repartee. In the earlier ages, when
 +a party of warriors would be merry, their mirth appears to have coniilled
 +ufually in ridiculous boafts, or in rude remarks, or in fneers at enemies or
 +opponents. Thefe jefts were termed by the French and Normans gals
 +(gabce, in mediaeval Latin), a word fuppofed to have been derived from
 +the claffical Latin word cavilla, a mock or taunt j and a Ihort poem in
 +Anglo-Norman has been preferved which furnifhes a curious illuftration
 +of the meaning attached to it in the twelfth century. This poem relates
 +how Charlemagne, piqued by the taunts of his emprefs on the fuperiority
 +of Hugh the Great, emperor of Conftantinople, went to Conftantinople,
 +accompanied by his douze pairs and a thoufand knights, to verify the truth
 +of his wife's flory. They proceeded firft to Jerufalem, where, when Charle-
 +magne and his twelve peers entered the Church of the Holy Sepulchre,
 +they looked fo handfome and majeftic, that they were taken at firft for
 +
 +Chrifl
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 201
 +
 +
 +
 +Chrift and his twelve apoftles, but the myftery was foon cleared up, and
 +they were treated by the patriarch with great hofpitality during four
 +months. They then continued their progress till they reached Conftanti-
 +nople, where they were equally well received by the the emperor Hugo.
 +At night the emperor placed his guefts in a chamber furnifhed with
 +thirteen fplendid beds, one in the middle of the room, and the other
 +twelve diftributed around it, and illuminated by a large carbuncle, which
 +gave a light as bright as that of day. When Hugh left them in their
 +quarters for the night, he fent them wine and whatever was neceffary to
 +make them comfortable ; and, when alone, they proceeded to amufe
 +themfelves with gabs, or jokes, each being expefted to fay his joke in his
 +turn. Charlemagne took the lead, and boafled that if the emperor Hugh
 +would place before him his ftrongeft " bachelor," in full armour, and
 +mounted on his good fteed, he would, with one blow of his fword, cut
 +him through from the head downwards, and through the faddle and
 +horfe, and that the fword fhould, after all this, fink into the ground to
 +the handle. Charlemagne then called upon Roland for his gal, who
 +boafted that his breath was fo ftrong, that if the emperor Hugh would
 +lend him his horn, he would take it out into the fields and blow it with
 +fuch force, that the wind and noife of it would {hake down the whole
 +city of Constantinople. Oliver, whofe turn came next, boafted of exploits
 +of another defcription if he were left alone with the beautiful princefs,
 +Hugh's daughter. The reft of the peers indulged in fimilar boafts, and
 +when the gabs had gone round, they went to fleep. Now the emperor
 +of Conftantinople had very cunningly, and rather treacheroufly, made a
 +hole through the wall, by which all that pafled infide could be feen and
 +heard, and he had placed a fpy on the outfide, who gave a full account
 +of the converfation of the diflinguifhed guefts to his imperial matter.
 +Next morning Hugh called his guefts before him, told them what he had
 +heard by his fpy, and declared that each of them fhould perform his boaft,
 +or, if he failed, be put to death. Charlemagne expoftulated, and repre-
 +fented that it was the cuftom in France when people retired for the night
 +to amufe themfelves in that manner. " Such is the cuftom in France,"
 +he laid, " at Paris, and at Chartres, when the French are in bed they
 +
 +D D amufe
 +
 +
 +
 +202 Hi/lory of Caricature and Grotefque
 +
 +
 +
 +amufe themfelves and make jokes, and fay things both of wifdom and
 +of folly."
 +
 +Si eft tel cuftume en France, a Paris e a Cartres,
 +Quand Franceis font culcAiex, yuefe giuunt e gabent,
 +Eji dient ambure e fa-ver e folage.
 +
 +But Charlemagne expoftulated in vain, and they were only faved from
 +the confequence of their imprudence by the intervention of fo many
 +miracles from above.*
 +
 +In fuch trials of fkill as this, an individual muft continually have arifen
 +who excelled in fome at leart of the qualities needful for raifing mirth and
 +making him a good companion, by mowing himfelf more brilliant in wit,
 +or more biting in farcafms, or more impudent in his jokes, and he would thus
 +become the favourite mirth-maker of the court, the boon companion of
 +the chieftain and his followers in their hours of relaxation. We rind fuch
 +an individual not unufually introduced in the early romances and in the
 +mythology of nations, and he fometimes unites the character of court
 +orator with the other. Such a perfonage was the Sir Kay of the cycle of
 +the romances of king Arthur. I have remarked in a former chapter that
 +Hunferth, in the Anglo-Saxon poem of Beowulf, is defcribed as holding
 +a fomewhat fimilar pofition at the court of king Hrothgar. To go
 +farther back in the mythology of our forefathers, the Loki of Scandinavian
 +fable appears fometimes to have performed a fimilar character in the
 +affembly of his fellow deities ; and we know that, among the Greeks,
 +Homer on one occafion introduces Vulcan ating the part of joker
 +(ytXwroTTotoc) to the gods of Olympus. But all thefe have no relationlhip
 +whatever to the court-fool of modern times.
 +
 +The German writer Flogel, in his " Hiftory of Court Fools,"f has
 +
 +thrown this fubjeft into much confufion by introducing a great mafs of
 +
 +irrelevant matter ; and thofe who have fince compiled from Flb'gel, have
 +
 +made the confufion ftill greater. Much of this confufion has arifen from
 +
 +__ the
 +
 +* " Charlemagne, an Anglo-Norman Poem of the Twelfth Century, now first
 +published, by Francisque Michel," izmo., 8vo., London, 1836.
 +
 +f " Geschichte der Hofnarren, von Karl Friedrich Flogel," 8vo. Liegnitz -ind
 +Leipzig, 1789.
 +
 +
 +
 +in Literature and Art. 203
 +
 +the mifunderftanding and confounding of names and terms. The mimus,
 +the joculator, the miniftrel, or whatever name this clafs of fociety
 +went by, was not in any refpects identical with what we underftand by a
 +court fool, nor does any fuch character as the latter appear in the feudal
 +houfehold before the fourteenth century, as far as we are acquainted with
 +the focial manners and cuftoms of the olden time. The vaft extent of
 +the early French romans de gefte, or Carlovingian romances, which are
 +filled with pictures of courts both of princes and barons, in which the
 +court fool muft have been introduced had he been known at the time
 +they were compofed, that is, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries,
 +contains, I believe, no trace of fuch perfonage ; and the fame may be faid
 +of the numerous other romances, fabliaux, and in fact all the literature of
 +