Masculinity  

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 +[[Image:The Dragon Slaying the Companions of Cadmus (1588) - Hendrick Goltzius.jpg|thumb|200px|''[[The Dragon Slaying the Companions of Cadmus]]'' [[1588]] by [[Goltzius]]]]
 +[[Image:Oedipus and the Sphinx by Ingres.jpg|thumb|right|200px|''[[Oedipus and the Sphinx]]'' ([[1808]]) by [[Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres]]]]
 +[[Image:Toulouse Lautrec in drag.jpg |thumb|right|200px|This page '''''{{PAGENAME}}''''' is part of the [[gender]] series.<br><small>Illustration: ''[[Toulouse-Lautrec wearing Jane Avril's Feathered Hat and Boa]]'' (ca. 1892), photo Maurice Guibert</small>.]]
{{Template}} {{Template}}
 +'''Masculinity''' refers to qualities and behaviors judged by a particular culture to be ideally associated with or especially appropriate to [[men]] and [[boys]]. Distinct from [[male]]ness, which is a biological and physiological classification concerned with the reproductive system, masculinity principally refers to socially acquired traits and secondary sex characteristics. [[Cicero]] wrote that "a man's chief quality is courage." ''[[Virility|Virile]]'' (from Latin ''vir'', man) is a near-[[synonym]] for masculine. The [[Complementarity|complement]] of masculinity is ''[[femininity]]''.
 +== Literature review ==
 +:''[[heroic nudity]]''
 +=== Ancient ===
 +
 +[[Cicero]] wrote that "a man's chief quality is [[courage]]."
 +
 +Ancient [[literature]] goes back to about 3000 BC. It includes both explicit statements of what was expected of men in [[law]]s, and implicit suggestions about masculinity in [[myth]]s involving [[god]]s and [[hero]]es. Men throughout history have gone to meet exacting cultural standards of what is considered attractive. Kate Cooper, writing about ancient understandings of femininity, suggests that, "Wherever a woman is mentioned a man's character is being judged — and along with it what he stands for." One well-known representative of this literature is the ''[[Code of Hammurabi]]'' (from about 1750 BC).
 +*Rule 3: "If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death."
 +*Rule 128: "If a man takes a woman to wife, but has no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him."
 +
 +Scholars suggest [[integrity]] and [[social equality|equality]] as masculine values in male-male relationships, and virility in male-female relationships. [[Legend]]s of ancient heroes include: ''[[Epic of Gilgamesh|The Epic of Gilgamesh]]'', the ''[[Iliad]]'' and the ''[[Odyssey]]''. Such narratives are considered to reveal qualities in the hero that inspired [[respect]], like [[wisdom]] or [[courage]], the knowing of things that other men do not know and the taking of [[risk]]s that other men would not dare.
 +
 +=== Medieval ===
 +
 +[[Jeffrey Richards]] describes a European, "medieval masculinity which was essentially Christian and chivalric." Again ethics, courage and generosity are seen as characteristic of the portrayal of men in literary history. In Anglo Saxon, ''[[Beowulf]]'' and, in several languages, the legends of [[King Arthur]] are famous examples of medieval ideals of masculinity. The documented ideals include many examples of an "exaulted" place for women, in romance and [[courtly love]].
 +
 +==See also==
 +*[[Emasculation]]
 +*[[Model of masculinity under fascist Italy]]
 +*[[Victorian masculinity]]
 +*[[Hypermasculinity]]
 +*[[Masculism]]
 +*[[Men's spaces]]
 +*[[Toxic masculinity]]
 +==== Books ====
 +* ''[[Manliness (book)]]'' (2006)
 +
{{GFDL}} {{GFDL}}

Revision as of 17:45, 13 August 2017

This page Masculinity is part of the gender series.Illustration: Toulouse-Lautrec wearing Jane Avril's Feathered Hat and Boa (ca. 1892), photo Maurice Guibert.
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This page Masculinity is part of the gender series.
Illustration: Toulouse-Lautrec wearing Jane Avril's Feathered Hat and Boa (ca. 1892), photo Maurice Guibert.

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Masculinity refers to qualities and behaviors judged by a particular culture to be ideally associated with or especially appropriate to men and boys. Distinct from maleness, which is a biological and physiological classification concerned with the reproductive system, masculinity principally refers to socially acquired traits and secondary sex characteristics. Cicero wrote that "a man's chief quality is courage." Virile (from Latin vir, man) is a near-synonym for masculine. The complement of masculinity is femininity.

Contents

Literature review

heroic nudity

Ancient

Cicero wrote that "a man's chief quality is courage."

Ancient literature goes back to about 3000 BC. It includes both explicit statements of what was expected of men in laws, and implicit suggestions about masculinity in myths involving gods and heroes. Men throughout history have gone to meet exacting cultural standards of what is considered attractive. Kate Cooper, writing about ancient understandings of femininity, suggests that, "Wherever a woman is mentioned a man's character is being judged — and along with it what he stands for." One well-known representative of this literature is the Code of Hammurabi (from about 1750 BC).

  • Rule 3: "If any one bring an accusation of any crime before the elders, and does not prove what he has charged, he shall, if it be a capital offense charged, be put to death."
  • Rule 128: "If a man takes a woman to wife, but has no intercourse with her, this woman is no wife to him."

Scholars suggest integrity and equality as masculine values in male-male relationships, and virility in male-female relationships. Legends of ancient heroes include: The Epic of Gilgamesh, the Iliad and the Odyssey. Such narratives are considered to reveal qualities in the hero that inspired respect, like wisdom or courage, the knowing of things that other men do not know and the taking of risks that other men would not dare.

Medieval

Jeffrey Richards describes a European, "medieval masculinity which was essentially Christian and chivalric." Again ethics, courage and generosity are seen as characteristic of the portrayal of men in literary history. In Anglo Saxon, Beowulf and, in several languages, the legends of King Arthur are famous examples of medieval ideals of masculinity. The documented ideals include many examples of an "exaulted" place for women, in romance and courtly love.

See also

Books




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