Odo of Cheriton  

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-''[[History of Caricature and Grotesque in Literature and Art]]'' ([[1865]]) is a work on [[caricature]] and [[grotesque]] in [[grotesque art|art]] and [[grotesque literature|literature]] by [[Thomas Wright (antiquarian) |Thomas Wright]] with engravings by [[Frederick William Fairholt]].+'''Odo of Cheriton''' (''c''.1185 – 1246/47) was a [[Roman Catholic]] preacher and [[fabulist]].
-== TOC ==+
-Preface to the New Edition ...v+
-Introduction: The Meaning of the Grotesque - Frances K. Barash ... vi+He visited Paris, and it was probably there that he gained the degree of Master. Bale mentions a tradition that he was a [[Cistercian]] or a [[Præmonstratensian]]; but he can hardly have taken vows if, as seems most likely, he was the Master Odo of Cheriton mentioned in Kentish and London records from 1211 to 1247, the son of William of Cheriton, [[lord of the manor]] of [[Delce]] in [[Rochester, Kent|Rochester]]. In 1211-12 William was debited with a fine to the crown, for Odo to have the custodia of [[Cheriton, Kent|Cheriton]] church, near [[Folkestone]]. In 1233 Odo inherited his father's estates in Delce, Cheriton, and elsewhere. A charter of 1235-6 (British Museum, Harl. Ch. 49 B 45), by which he quitclaimed the rent of a shop in London, has his seal attached, bearing the figure of a monk seated at a desk, with a star above him ([[St. Odo of Cluny]]?). He died in 1247.
-Errata ... lix+Like [[Jacques de Vitry]], he introduced exempla freely into his [[sermon]]s; his best known work, a collection of moralized fables and anecdotes in [[Latin]], sometimes entitled "Parabolæ" from the opening words of the prologue (''Aperiam in parabolis os meum''), was evidently designed for preachers. Though partly composed of commonly known adaptations and extracts, it shows originality, and the moralizations are full of pungent denunciations of the prevalent vices of clergy and laity.
-Preface ... lxiii+
-Contents ... lxix+The "Parabolæ" exist in numerous manuscripts, and have been printed by [[Léopold Hervieux]] (''Fabulistes Latins'', IV, 173-255); a thirteenth century French version is extant, as is a 14th century [[Welsh language|Welsh]] version called ''Chwedlau Odo'' ("Odo's Tales"), as well as an early Spanish translation. Some of the contents reappear, along with many other exempla, in his sermons on the [[Sunday Gospels]], completed in 1219, extant in several manuscripts; an abridgment of which, prepared by [[Mathieu Makerel]], was printed by [[Jodocus Badius Ascensius]] in 1520.
 +
 +The only other extant works, certainly authentic, are ''Tractatus de Penitentia'', ''Tractatus de Passione'', and ''Sermones de Sanctis''; but the ''Speculum Laicorum'' also cites him as authority for many other exempla. [[Hauréau]]'s contention (''Journal des Savants'', 1896, 111-123), that the fabulist was a distinct person from the author of the sermons and treatises, is not supported.
-CHAPTER I ... 1 
-Origin of caricature and grotesque - Spirit of caricature in [[Egypt]] - Monsters: [[Python]] and [[Gorgon]] - Greece - The [[Dionysiac]] ceremonies, and origins of the drama - The old comedy - Love of parody - Parodies on subjects taken from [[Grecian mythology]]: The visit to the lover; [[Apollo]] at [[Delphi]] - The partiality of parody continued among the Romans: The flight of the [[Aeneas]] 
- 
-CHAPTER II ... 23 
-Origin of the stage in Rome - Uses of the [[mask]] among the Romans - Scenes from the [[Roman comedy]] - The [[Sannio]] and [[Mimus]] - The Roman drama - The Roman satirists -Caricature - Animals introduced in the characters of men - The [[Pigmies]], and their introduction into caricature; The farm-yard; The painter's studio; The procession - Political caricature in Pompeii; The graffiti 
- 
-CHAPTER III ... 40 
-The period of transition from antiquity to the Middle Ages - The Roman Mimi continued to exist - The Teutonic after-dinner entertainments - Clerical satires: Archbishop [[Heriger]] and the dreamer; The supper of the Saints - Tansition from ancient to medieval art - Taste for monstrous animals, dragons, etc.; [[Church of San Fedele]], at [[Como]] - Spirit of caricature and love of grotesque among the Anglo-Saxons - Grotesque figures of demons - Natural tendency of the early medieval arists to draw in caricature - Examples from early manuscripts and sculptures 
- 
-CHAPTER IV ... 61 
-The diabolical in literature - Medieval love of the ludicrous - Causes which made it influence the notions of demons - Stories of the pious painter and the erring monk - Darkness and ugliness caricatured - The demons in the [[miracle play]]s - The demons of [[Notre Dame]] 
- 
-CHAPTER V ... 75 
-Employment of animals in medieval satire - Popularity of fables; [[Odo de Cirington]] - [[Reynard the fox]] - [[Burnellus]] and [[Roman de Fauvel|Fauvel]] - The [[Charivari]] - Le monde bestorne - Encaustic tiles - Shoeing the goose, and feeding pigs with roses - Satirical signs; The mustard maker 
- 
-CHAPTER VI ... 95 
-The [[monkey]] on [[burlesque]] and caricature - Tournaments and single combats - Monstrous combinations of animal forms - Caricatures on costume - The hat - Te helmet - Ladies' head-dresses - The gown, and its long sleeves 
- 
-CHAPTER VII ... 106 
-Preservation of the character of the [[Mimus]] after the fall of the empire - The [[minstrel]] and the jogelour - History of popular stories -The fabliaux - Account of them - The contes devots 
- 
-CHAPTER VIII ... 118 
-Caricatures of domestic life - State of domestic life in the middle ages - Examples of domestic ccaricature from the carving sof the misereres - Kitchen scenes - Domestic brawls - The fight for the breeches - The judicial duel between man and wife among the germans - Allusions to witchcraft - Satires on the trades: The baker, the miller, the wine-pedlar and the tavern-keeper, the ale-wife, etc. 
- 
-CHAPTER IX ... 144 
-Grotesqe faces and figures - Prevalence of the taste for ugy and grotesque faces - Some of the popular forms derived from antiquity: The tongue lolling out, and the distorted mouth - Horrible subjects: The man and the serpents - Allegorical figures: [[Gluttony]] and [[luxury]] - Other representations of clerical gluttony and drunkenness - Grotesque figures of individuals, and grotesque groups - ornament sof the borders of books - Unintentional caricature; the mote and the beam 
- 
-CHAPTER X ... 159 
-Satitrical literature in the middle ages - [[John de Hauteville]] and [[Alan de Lille]] - [[Golias]] and the [[Goliard]]s - The Golliardic poetry - Taste for parody - Parodies on religious subjects - Political caricature in the middle ages - The [[Jews of Norwich]] - Caricature representations of countries - Local Satire - Political songs and poems 
- 
-CHAPTER XI ... 188 
-Minstrelsy a subject of burlesque and caricature - Character of the minstrels - Their jokes upon themselves and upon one another - Various musical instruments represented in the sculptures of the medieval artists - Sir [[Matthew Gournay]] and the ring of Portugal - Discredit of the tabor and bagpipes - Mermaids 
- 
-CHAPTER XII ... 200 
-The court fool - The Normans and their gabs - Early history of court fools - Their costume - Carvings in the Cornish churches -The burlesque societies of the middle ages - The feasts of asses, and of fools - Theor license - The leaden money of the fools - The bishop's blessing 
- 
-CHAPTER XIII ... 214 
-The [[dance of death]] - The paintings in the chuch of La Chaise Dieu - The reign of folly - [[Sebastian Brandt]]; The ship of fools - Disturbers of Church service - Troublesome beggars - Geilor's sermons - [[Radius]], and his ship of foolish women - The pleasures of smell - [[Erasmus]]; the praise of folly 
- 
-CHAPTER XIV ... 228 
-Popular literature and its heroes; [[Brother Rush]], [[Tyll Eulenspiegel]], the [[Wise Men of Gotham]] - Stories and jest-books - [[Skelton]], [[Scogin]], [[Tarlton]], [[Peele]] 
- 
-CHAPTER XV ... 244 
-The age of the Reformation - [[Thomas Murner]]; his general satires - Fruitfulness of folly - Hans Sachs - The trap for fools - Attacks on Luther - The Pope as antichrist - The pope-ass and the monk-calf - Other caricatures against the Pope - The good and bad shepherds 
- 
-CHAPTER XVI ... 264 
-Origin of medieval farce and modern comedy - [[Hrothsvitha]] - Medieval notions of [[Terrence]] - The early religious plays - Mysteries and miracle plays - The farces - The drama in the Sixteenth Century 
- 
-CHAPTER XVII ... 288 
-[[Diablerie]] in the Sixteenth Century - Early types of the diabolical forms - [[St. Anthony]] - St. [[Guthlac]] - Revival of the taste for such subjects in the beginning od the Sixteenth Century - The Flemish school of [[Breughel]] - The French and Italian schools - [[Callot]], [[Salvator Rosa]] 
- 
-CHAPTER XVIII ... 300 
-[[Callot]] and his school - Callot's romantic history - His "[[Caprichi]]," and other burlesque works - The "[[Balli]]" and the beggars - Imitators of Callot; [[Della Bella]] - Examples of Della Bella - [[Romain de Hooghe]] 
- 
-CHAPTER XIX ... 312 
-The satirical literature of the Sicteenth Century - Pasquil - [[Macaronic]] poetry - The [[Epistolae Obscurorum Vivorum]] - [[Rabelais]] - Court of the [[Queen of Navarre]], and its literary circle; [[Bonaventure des Perriers]] - [[Henri Etienne]] - The [[Ligue]], and its satire; The "[[Satire Menippe]]" 
- 
-CHAPTER XX ... 347 
-Political caricature in its infancy - The Reveres du [[Jeu des Suyesses]] - Caricature in France - The Three Orders - Period of the Ligue; Caricatures against Henri III. - Caricatures against the Ligue - Caricature in France in the Seventeenth Century - Genral galas - The quarrel of ambassadors - Caricature against [[Louis XIV]]; Willima of [[Furstemberg]] 
- 
-CHAPTER XXI ... 360 
-Early political caricature in England - The satirical writings and pictures of the Commonwealth period - Satires against the bishops; [[Bishop Williams]] - Caricatures on the Cavaliers; Sir John Suckling - The Roaring Boys; Violence of the Royalist soldiers - Contest between the Presbyterians and Independents - Grinding the King's nose - Playing-cards used as the medium for caricature; [[Haselrigge]] and [[Lambert]] - [[Shrovetide]] 
- 
-CHAPTER XXII ... 375 
-English comedy - [[Ben Jonson]] - The other writers of his school - Interruption of dramatic performances - Comedy after the Restoration - The [[Howards Brothers]]: The [[Duke of Buckingham]]; The Rehersal - Writers of comedy in the latter part of the Seventeenth Century - Indececy of the stage - [[Colley Cibber]] - [[Foote]] 
- 
-CHAPTER XXIII ... 406 
-Caricature in Holland - [[Romain de Hooghe]] - The English revolution - Caricatures of Louis XIV. and James II. - Dr. [[Sacheverell]]- Caricature brought from Holland to England - Origin of the word "caricature" - Mississippi and the South Sea; The Year of Bubbles 
- 
-CHAPTER XXIV ... 420 
-English caricature in the age of George II. - English printsellers - Artists employed by them - Sir [[Robert Walpole]]'s long ministry - The war with France - The Newcastle administration - Opera intrigues - Ascension of George III., and Lord Bute in power 
- 
-CHAPTER XXV ... 434 
-[[Hogarth]] - His early history - His sets of pictures - [[The Harlot's Progress]] - [[The Rake's Progress]] - The Marriage a ala Mode - His other prints - The analysis of beauty, and the persecution arising out of it - His patronage by Lord Bute - Caricature of the times - Attacks to which he was exposed by it, and which hastened his death 
- 
-CHAPTER XXVI ... 450 
-The lesser caricaturists of the reign of King George III. - [[Paul Sandby]] - [[Collet]]: The Disaster, and Father Paul in his Cups - [[James Sayer]]: His caricatures in support of Pitt, and his reward - [[Carlo Kahn]]'s triumph - [[Henry Bunbury|Bunbury]]'s: His caricatures on horsemanship - [[Woodward]]: General complaint - Rowlandson's influence on the style of those whose designs he etched - John Kay of Edinburgh: Looking a Rock in the Face 
- 
-CHAPTER XXVII ... 464 
-[[Gillray]] - His first attempts - His caricatures begin with the Shelburne ministry - Impeachment of [[Warren Hastings]] - Caricatures on the King; New Way to Pay the National Debt - Alleged reasons for Gillray's hostility to the King - The King and the Apple-Dumplings - Gillray's later labours - His idiotcy and death 
- 
-CHAPTER XXVIII ... 480 
-Gillray's caricatures on social life - Thomas Rowlandson - His early life - He becomes a caricaturist - His style and works - His drawings - The [[Cruikshanks]] 
- 
-Index to Names and Titles ... 495 
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Odo of Cheriton (c.1185 – 1246/47) was a Roman Catholic preacher and fabulist.

He visited Paris, and it was probably there that he gained the degree of Master. Bale mentions a tradition that he was a Cistercian or a Præmonstratensian; but he can hardly have taken vows if, as seems most likely, he was the Master Odo of Cheriton mentioned in Kentish and London records from 1211 to 1247, the son of William of Cheriton, lord of the manor of Delce in Rochester. In 1211-12 William was debited with a fine to the crown, for Odo to have the custodia of Cheriton church, near Folkestone. In 1233 Odo inherited his father's estates in Delce, Cheriton, and elsewhere. A charter of 1235-6 (British Museum, Harl. Ch. 49 B 45), by which he quitclaimed the rent of a shop in London, has his seal attached, bearing the figure of a monk seated at a desk, with a star above him (St. Odo of Cluny?). He died in 1247.

Like Jacques de Vitry, he introduced exempla freely into his sermons; his best known work, a collection of moralized fables and anecdotes in Latin, sometimes entitled "Parabolæ" from the opening words of the prologue (Aperiam in parabolis os meum), was evidently designed for preachers. Though partly composed of commonly known adaptations and extracts, it shows originality, and the moralizations are full of pungent denunciations of the prevalent vices of clergy and laity.

The "Parabolæ" exist in numerous manuscripts, and have been printed by Léopold Hervieux (Fabulistes Latins, IV, 173-255); a thirteenth century French version is extant, as is a 14th century Welsh version called Chwedlau Odo ("Odo's Tales"), as well as an early Spanish translation. Some of the contents reappear, along with many other exempla, in his sermons on the Sunday Gospels, completed in 1219, extant in several manuscripts; an abridgment of which, prepared by Mathieu Makerel, was printed by Jodocus Badius Ascensius in 1520.

The only other extant works, certainly authentic, are Tractatus de Penitentia, Tractatus de Passione, and Sermones de Sanctis; but the Speculum Laicorum also cites him as authority for many other exempla. Hauréau's contention (Journal des Savants, 1896, 111-123), that the fabulist was a distinct person from the author of the sermons and treatises, is not supported.




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