Protestantism  

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 +"For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the number of [[Papist]]s, with whom we are yearly over-run, being the principal [[breeder (slang)|breeder]]s of the nation, as well as our most dangerous enemies, and who stay at home on purpose with a design to deliver the kingdom to the [[James Francis Edward Stuart|Pretender]], hoping to take their advantage by the absence of so many good [[Protestantism|Protestant]]s, who have chosen rather to leave their country, than stay at home and pay [[tithe]]s against their conscience to an episcopal curate." --"[[A Modest Proposal]]", Jonathan Swift
 +<hr>
 +[[Peasants' War]], [[Catholic–Protestant Schism]]
 +|}
 +[[Image:Gheerhaets Allegory iconoclasm.jpg|200px|thumb|This page ''{{PAGENAME}}'' is a part of the [[protestantism]] series.
 +<br>
 +<small>Illustration: ''[[The image breakers]]'', c.[[1566]] –[[1568]] by [[Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder]]</small>]]
{{Template}} {{Template}}
-'''Protestantism''' encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the [[Protestant Reformation]].+ 
 +'''Protestantism''' is one of the [[Christianity#Major denominations within Christianity|major divisions]] within [[Christianity]]. It has been defined by [[Merriam-Webster]] as "any of several [[Christian denominations|church denominations]] [[Antipapalism|denying the universal authority of the Pope]] and affirming the [[Reformation]] principles of [[Sola fide|justification by faith alone]], the [[priesthood of all believers]], and the [[Sola scriptura|primacy of the Bible]] as the only source of revealed truth" and, more broadly, to mean Christianity outside "of an [[Eastern Christianity|Orthodox]] or [[Catholic Christianity|Catholic]] church".
 + 
 +It is a movement that is widely seen as beginning in [[Germany]] by [[Martin Luther]] with ''[[The Ninety-Five Theses]]'' in 1517 as a reaction against [[History of Christian theology#Medieval Christian theology|medieval doctrines and practices]], especially in regard to [[Salvation in Christianity|salvation]], [[Justification (theology)|justification]], and [[ecclesiology]]. The doctrines of the over 33,000 Protestant denominations vary, but most include justification by [[Grace (Christianity)|grace]] through [[Faith in Christianity|faith]] alone, known as ''[[Sola Gratia]]'' and ''[[Sola Fide]]'' respectively, the [[priesthood of all believers]], and the [[Bible]] as the supreme authority in matters of faith and [[Christian ethics|morals]], known as ''[[Sola Scriptura]]'', [[Latin]] for "by scripture alone".
 + 
 +In the [[Christianity in the 16th century|16th century]], the followers of Martin Luther established the [[evangelical]] ([[Lutheran]]) churches of Germany and Scandinavia. [[Reformed churches]] in [[Reformed Church in Hungary|Hungary]], [[Church of Scotland|Scotland]], [[Swiss Reformation|Switzerland]] and [[Reformed Church of France|France]] were established by other reformers such as [[John Calvin]], [[Huldrych Zwingli]], and [[John Knox]]. The [[Church of England]] declared independence from papal authority in 1534, and was influenced by some Reformation principles, notably during the [[English Civil War]]. There were also reformation movements throughout continental Europe known as the [[Radical Reformation]] which gave rise to the [[Anabaptist]], [[Moravian Church|Moravian]], and other [[Pietism|pietistic]] movements.
 + 
== Northern Renaissance == == Northern Renaissance ==
-The Northern Renaissance was distinct from the Italian Renaissance in its [[centralization]] of political power. While Italy was dominated by independent [[city-state]]s, countries in [[central Europe|central]] and [[western Europe]] began emerging as [[nation-state]]s. The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the [[Protestant Reformation]] and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various [[Protestantism|Protestant]] groups and the [[Roman Catholic Church]].+The [[Northern Renaissance]] was distinct from the [[Italian Renaissance]] in its [[centralization]] of political power. While Italy was dominated by independent [[city-state]]s, countries in [[central Europe|central]] and [[western Europe]] began emerging as [[nation-state]]s. The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the [[Protestant Reformation]] and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various [[Protestantism|Protestant]] groups and the [[Roman Catholic Church]].
== Protestant work ethic == == Protestant work ethic ==
The '''Protestant work ethic''', sometimes called the '''Puritan work ethic''', is a [[Calvinism|Calvinist]] value emphasizing the necessity of constant [[labor]] in a person's calling as a sign of personal [[salvation]]. [[Protestantism|Protestants]] beginning with [[Martin Luther]] had reconceptualised work as a duty in the world for the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. The [[Catholicism|Catholic]] idea of [[Divine grace|good works]] was transformed into an obligation to work diligently as a sign of grace. The '''Protestant work ethic''', sometimes called the '''Puritan work ethic''', is a [[Calvinism|Calvinist]] value emphasizing the necessity of constant [[labor]] in a person's calling as a sign of personal [[salvation]]. [[Protestantism|Protestants]] beginning with [[Martin Luther]] had reconceptualised work as a duty in the world for the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. The [[Catholicism|Catholic]] idea of [[Divine grace|good works]] was transformed into an obligation to work diligently as a sign of grace.
 +==Founders: the first Protestant major reformers and theologians==
 +<!--(in alphabetical order by century.)-->
 +;Twelfth century
 +* [[Peter Waldo]], French reformer, founder of the earliest Protestant church, the [[Waldensians]]
 +
 +;Fourteenth century
 +*[[John Wycliffe]], English reformer, the "Morning Star of the Reformation".
 +
 +;Fifteenth century
 +*[[Jan Hus]], Catholic Priest and Professor, father of an early Protestant church (Moravianism), Czech reformist/dissident; burned to death in [[Constance]], [[Holy Roman Empire]] in 1415 by Roman Catholic Church authorities for unrepentant and persistent heresy. After the devastation of the Hussite Wars some of his followers founded the [[Unitas Fratrum]] in 1457, "Unity of Brethren", which was renewed under the leadership of Count [[Zinzendorf]] in [[Herrnhut]], [[Saxony]] in 1722 after its almost total destruction in the [[30 Years War]] and [[Counter Reformation]]. Today it is usually referred to in English as the [[Moravian Church]], in [[German language|German]] the [[Herrnhuter Brüdergemeine]].
 +
 +;Sixteenth century
 +*[[Jacobus Arminius]], Dutch theologian, founder of school of thought known as [[Arminianism]].
 +*[[Heinrich Bullinger]], successor of [[Zwingli]], leading reformed theologian.
 +*[[John Calvin]], French theologian, [[Protestant Reformation|Reformer]] and resident of [[Geneva, Switzerland]], he founded the school of theology known as Calvinism.
 +*[[Balthasar Hubmaier]], influential Anabaptist theologian, author of numerous works during his five years of ministry, tortured at Zwingli's behest, and executed in Vienna.
 +*[[John Knox]], Scottish Calvinist reformer.
 +*[[Abaomas Kulvietis]], jurs and a professor at Königsberg Albertina University, as well as a Reformer of the Lithuanian church.
 +*[[Martin Luther]], church reformer, Father of Protestantism, theological works guided those now known as [[Lutheranism|Lutherans]].
 +*[[Philipp Melanchthon]], early Lutheran leader.
 +*[[Menno Simons]], founder of [[Mennonitism]].
 +*[[John Smyth (1570-1612)|John Smyth]], early [[Baptist]] leader.
 +*[[Huldrych Zwingli]], founder of Swiss reformed tradition.
== See also == == See also ==
-*[[Northern Renaissance]] 
-* [[Protestant work ethic]] 
-==See also== 
*[[Anti-Catholicism]] *[[Anti-Catholicism]]
-*[[Anti-Protestantism]]+**[[Martin Luther's anti-Semitic and antipapal pamphlets]]
*[[Black Legend]] *[[Black Legend]]
-*[[Christian eschatology]]+*[[Northern Renaissance]]
-*[[Christian Flag]]+* [[Protestant work ethic]]
-*[[Detailed Christian timeline#Renaissance and Reformation|Christian timeline for Renaissance & Reformation]]+ 
-*[[History of Protestantism]]+
-*[[List of Protestant churches]]+
-*[[Protestant Reformation]]+
-*[[Protestant work ethic]]+
-*[[Islam and Protestantism]]+
{{GFDL}} {{GFDL}}

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"For first, as I have already observed, it would greatly lessen the number of Papists, with whom we are yearly over-run, being the principal breeders of the nation, as well as our most dangerous enemies, and who stay at home on purpose with a design to deliver the kingdom to the Pretender, hoping to take their advantage by the absence of so many good Protestants, who have chosen rather to leave their country, than stay at home and pay tithes against their conscience to an episcopal curate." --"A Modest Proposal", Jonathan Swift


Peasants' War, Catholic–Protestant Schism

This page Protestantism is a part of the protestantism series.  Illustration: The image breakers, c.1566 –1568 by Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder
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This page Protestantism is a part of the protestantism series.
Illustration: The image breakers, c.15661568 by Marcus Gheeraerts the Elder

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Protestantism is one of the major divisions within Christianity. It has been defined by Merriam-Webster as "any of several church denominations denying the universal authority of the Pope and affirming the Reformation principles of justification by faith alone, the priesthood of all believers, and the primacy of the Bible as the only source of revealed truth" and, more broadly, to mean Christianity outside "of an Orthodox or Catholic church".

It is a movement that is widely seen as beginning in Germany by Martin Luther with The Ninety-Five Theses in 1517 as a reaction against medieval doctrines and practices, especially in regard to salvation, justification, and ecclesiology. The doctrines of the over 33,000 Protestant denominations vary, but most include justification by grace through faith alone, known as Sola Gratia and Sola Fide respectively, the priesthood of all believers, and the Bible as the supreme authority in matters of faith and morals, known as Sola Scriptura, Latin for "by scripture alone".

In the 16th century, the followers of Martin Luther established the evangelical (Lutheran) churches of Germany and Scandinavia. Reformed churches in Hungary, Scotland, Switzerland and France were established by other reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Knox. The Church of England declared independence from papal authority in 1534, and was influenced by some Reformation principles, notably during the English Civil War. There were also reformation movements throughout continental Europe known as the Radical Reformation which gave rise to the Anabaptist, Moravian, and other pietistic movements.

Contents

Northern Renaissance

The Northern Renaissance was distinct from the Italian Renaissance in its centralization of political power. While Italy was dominated by independent city-states, countries in central and western Europe began emerging as nation-states. The Northern Renaissance was also closely linked to the Protestant Reformation and the long series of internal and external conflicts between various Protestant groups and the Roman Catholic Church.

Protestant work ethic

The Protestant work ethic, sometimes called the Puritan work ethic, is a Calvinist value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a person's calling as a sign of personal salvation. Protestants beginning with Martin Luther had reconceptualised work as a duty in the world for the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. The Catholic idea of good works was transformed into an obligation to work diligently as a sign of grace.

Founders: the first Protestant major reformers and theologians

Twelfth century
Fourteenth century
  • John Wycliffe, English reformer, the "Morning Star of the Reformation".
Fifteenth century
Sixteenth century

See also




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Protestantism" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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