Richard Evans Schultes  

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-'''Hallucinogens''' are a general group of [[pharmacology|pharmacological]] agents that can be divided into three broad categories: '''[[psychedelic drug|psychedelic]]s''', '''[[dissociative]]s''', and '''[[deliriant]]s'''. These classes of [[psychoactive drugs]] have in common that they can cause subjective changes in [[perception]], [[thought]], [[emotion]] and [[consciousness]]. Unlike other [[psychoactive drug]]s, such as [[stimulants]] and [[opioids]], these drugs do not merely amplify familiar states of mind, but rather induce experiences that are qualitatively different from those of ordinary consciousness. These experiences are often compared to non-ordinary forms of consciousness such as [[trance]], [[meditation]], [[dreams]], or [[insanity]].+'''Richard Evans Schultes''' (''SHULL-tees''; January 12, 1915 – April 10, 2001) was an American biologist. He may be considered the father of modern [[ethnobotany]], for his studies of [[indigenous peoples]]' (especially the [[indigenous peoples of the Americas]]) uses of plants, including especially [[entheogen]]ic or [[Psychedelics, dissociatives and deliriants|hallucinogenic]] plants (particularly in Mexico and the [[Amazon Rainforest|Amazon]]), for his lifelong collaborations with [[chemist]]s, and for his charismatic influence as an educator at [[Harvard University]] on a number of students and colleagues who went on to write popular books and assume influential positions in museums, botanical gardens, and popular culture.
-==Early scientific investigations==+
-Although natural hallucinogenic drugs have been known to mankind for [[millennia]], it was not until the early 20th century that they received extensive attention from [[Western world|Western]] [[science]]. Earlier beginnings include scientific studies of [[nitrous oxide]] in the late 18th century, and initial studies of the constituents of the peyote cactus in the late 19th century. Starting in 1927 with [[Kurt Beringer]]'s ''[[Der Meskalinrausch]]'' (The Mescaline Intoxication), more intensive effort began to be focused on studies of psychoactive plants. Around the same time, [[Louis Lewin]] published his extensive survey of psychoactive plants, ''[[Phantastica]]'' (1928). Important developments in the years that followed included the re-discovery of [[Mexico|Mexican]] [[psilocybin mushroom]]s (in 1936 by [[Robert J. Weitlaner]]) and [[Turbina corymbosa|Christmas vine]] (in 1939 by [[Richard Evans Schultes]]). Arguably the most important pre-[[World War II]] development was by [[Albert Hofmann]]'s 1938 discovery of the semi-[[Chemical synthesis|synthetic]] drug LSD, which was later discovered to produce hallucinogenic effects in 1943.+
-==Nature of the drugs==+His book ''The Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing, and Hallucinogenic Powers'' (1979), co-authored with chemist [[Albert Hofmann]], the discoverer of [[LSD]], is considered his greatest popular work: it has never been out of print and was revised into an expanded second edition, based on a German translation by [[Christian Rätsch]] (1998), in 2001.
-The term ''hallucinogen'' is a misnomer because these drugs do not cause [[hallucination]]s at typical doses. Hallucinations, strictly speaking, are perceptions that have no basis in reality, but that appear ''entirely'' realistic. A typical "hallucination" induced by a psychedelic drug is more accurately described as a modification of regular perception, and the subject is usually quite aware of the illusory and personal nature of their perceptions. Deliriants, such as [[diphenhydramine]] and [[atropine]], may cause hallucinations in the proper sense.+
-Psychedelics, dissociatives, and deliriants have a long history of use within medicinal and religious traditions around the world. They are used in [[shamanic]] forms of ritual [[healing]] and [[divination]], in [[initiation rites]], and in the religious rituals of [[syncretistic]] movements such as [[União do Vegetal]], [[Santo Daime]], and the [[Native American Church]]. 
-When used in religious practice, psychedelic drugs, as well as other substances like [[tobacco]], are referred to as [[entheogens]]. Also, in some states and on some reservations, certain drugs like [[peyote]] are classified as part of a recognized religious ceremony, and if used in said ceremonies, are considered legal. In Canada, mescaline is listed as prohibited under schedule III of the Controlled Drugs and Substances Acts, but peyote is specifically exempt and legally available in Canada. 
-Starting in the mid-20th century, psychedelic drugs have been the object of extensive attention in the Western world. They have been and are being explored as potential therapeutic agents in treating [[clinical depression|depression]], [[posttraumatic stress disorder]], [[obsessive–compulsive disorder]], [[alcoholism]], [[opiate]] [[addiction]], [[cluster headache]]s, and other ailments. Early military research focused on their use as incapacitating agents. Intelligence agencies tested these drugs in the hope that they would provide an effective means of [[interrogation]], with little success. 
-Yet the most popular, and at the same time most stigmatized, use of psychedelics in Western culture has been associated with the search for direct [[religious experience]], enhanced [[creativity]], personal development, and "mind expansion". The use of psychedelic drugs was a major element of the 1960s [[counterculture]], where it became associated with various social movements and a general atmosphere of rebellion and strife between generations.+==See also==
- +* [[Ethnobiology]]
-Despite prohibition, the recreational, spiritual, and medical use of psychedelics continues today. Organizations, such as [[Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies|MAPS]] and the [[Heffter Research Institute]], have arisen to foster research into their safety and efficacy, while advocacy groups such as the [[Center for Cognitive Liberty and Ethics]] push for their legalization. In addition to this activity by proponents, hallucinogens are also widely used in basic science research to understand the mind and brain. However, ever since hallucinogenic experimentation was discontinued in the late 1960s, research into the therapeutic applications of such drugs have been almost nonexistent, that is until this last decade where research has finally been allowed to resume. In some cases, this includes research in humans, like that conducted by [[Roland Griffiths]] and colleagues.+* [[Psychoactive plant]]s
- +* [[List of psychoactive plants]]
-== See also ==+
-* [[Abram Hoffer]]+
-* [[Albert Hofmann]]+
-* [[Aldous Huxley]]+
-* [[Alex Grey]]+
-* [[Alexander Shulgin]]+
-* [[Altered state of consciousness]]+
-* [[Serotonergic psychedelic|Classical psychedelic]]+
-* [[Closed-eye hallucination|Closed-eye visualization]]+
-* [[Eight-circuit model of consciousness]]+
-* [[Entheogen]]+
-* [[Erowid]]+
-* [[Humphry Osmond]]+
-* [[John C. Lilly]]+
-* [[Jonathan Ott]]+
-* [[K-hole]]+
-* [[Timothy Leary]]+
-* [[Machine elf]]+
-* ''[[Mind at Large]]''+
-* [[Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies|MAPS]]+
-* [[Near-death experience]]+
-* [[David E. Nichols]]+
-* [[Out-of-body experience]]+
-* [[Phenethylamine]]+
-* ''[[PiHKAL]]''+
-* [[Psychedelia]]+
-* [[Psychedelic drug]]+
-* [[Psychedelic experience]]+
-* [[Psychonautics]]+
-* [[Psychopharmacology]]+
-* [[Rick Strassman]]+
-* [[Terence McKenna]]+
-* ''[[The Doors of Perception]]''+
-* ''[[The Psychedelic Experience: A Manual Based on the Tibetan Book of the Dead]]''+
-* ''[[TiHKAL]]''+
-* [[Tryptamine]]+
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Richard Evans Schultes (SHULL-tees; January 12, 1915 – April 10, 2001) was an American biologist. He may be considered the father of modern ethnobotany, for his studies of indigenous peoples' (especially the indigenous peoples of the Americas) uses of plants, including especially entheogenic or hallucinogenic plants (particularly in Mexico and the Amazon), for his lifelong collaborations with chemists, and for his charismatic influence as an educator at Harvard University on a number of students and colleagues who went on to write popular books and assume influential positions in museums, botanical gardens, and popular culture.

His book The Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing, and Hallucinogenic Powers (1979), co-authored with chemist Albert Hofmann, the discoverer of LSD, is considered his greatest popular work: it has never been out of print and was revised into an expanded second edition, based on a German translation by Christian Rätsch (1998), in 2001.


See also




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Richard Evans Schultes" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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