Slave rebellion  

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-:''[[slave]], [[rebellion]]'' 
-A '''slave rebellion''' is an armed uprising by [[Slavery|slaves]]. Slave rebellions have occurred in nearly all societies that practice slavery, and are amongst the most feared events for slaveholders. Famous historic slave rebellions have been led by [[Denmark Vesey]]; the Roman slave [[Spartacus]]; the [[thrall]] Tunni who rebelled against the Swedish king [[Ongentheow]], a rebellion that needed Danish assistance to be quelled; the poet-prophet Ali bin Muhammad, who led imported east African slaves in Iraq during the [[Zanj Rebellion]] against the [[Abbasid Caliphate]] in the ninth century; the [[Haitian Revolution]], the only country founded by a slave revolt; [[Madison Washington]] during the [[Creole case|''Creole'' case]] in 19th century America; and [[Nanny of the Maroons|Granny Nanny of the Maroons]] who rebelled against the British in Jamaica.+A '''slave rebellion''' is an armed uprising by [[Slavery|slaves]]. Slave rebellions have occurred in nearly all societies that practice slavery or have practiced slavery in the past. A desire for freedom and the dream of successful rebellion are often the greatest objects of song, art, and culture amongst the enslaved population. Many of the events, however, are often violently opposed and suppressed by slaveholders.
-Ancient [[Sparta]] had a special type of [[Serfdom|serf]]-like ''[[helots]]''. Their masters treated them harshly and helots often resorted to rebellions. According to [[Herodotus]] (IX, 28–29), helots were seven times as numerous as Spartans. Every autumn, according to [[Plutarch]] (''Life of Lycurgus'', 28, 3–7), the Spartan [[ephor]]s would [[pro forma]] declare war on the [[helot]] population so that any Spartan citizen could kill a helot without fear of blood or guilt (''[[crypteia]]''). +The most successful slave rebellion in history was the 18th-century [[Haitian Revolution]], led by [[Toussaint Louverture]] and later [[Jean-Jacques Dessalines]] who won the war against their [[France|French]] colonial rulers, which founded the country formerly known as Saint Domingue. Other famous historic slave rebellions have been led by the Roman slave [[Spartacus]] (c. 73–71 BC), as well as the [[thrall]] (Scandinavian slave) Tunni, who rebelled against the Swedish monarch [[Ongentheow]], a rebellion that needed Danish assistance to be quelled. In the ninth century, the poet-prophet Ali bin Muhammad led imported East African slaves in Iraq during the [[Zanj Rebellion]] against the [[Abbasid Caliphate]]; [[Nanny of the Maroons]] was an 18th-century leader who rebelled against the British in Jamaica; and the [[Palmares (quilombo)|Quilombo dos Palmares]] of Brazil flourished under [[Ganga Zumba|Ganazumba]] (Ganga Zumba). The [[1811 German Coast Uprising]] in the [[Territory of Orleans]] was the largest rebellion in the continental United States; [[Denmark Vesey]] rebelled in South Carolina, and [[Madison Washington]] during the [[Creole case|''Creole'' case]] in the 19th century United States.
-In the [[Roman Empire]], though the heterogeneous nature of the slave population worked against a strong sense of solidarity, slave revolts did occur and were severely punished. Probably the most famous slave rebellion in [[Europe]] was that led by [[Spartacus]] in [[Roman Empire|Roman]] [[Italy]], the [[Third Servile War]]. This was the third in a series of unrelated [[Roman Servile Wars|Servile Wars]] fought by [[Slavery in ancient Rome|slaves to the Romans]].+Ancient [[Sparta]] had a special type of [[Serfdom|serf]] called ''[[helots]]'' who were often treated harshly, leading them to rebel. According to [[Herodotus]] (IX, 28–29), helots were seven times as numerous as Spartans. Every autumn, according to [[Plutarch]] (''Life of Lycurgus'', 28, 3–7), the Spartan [[ephor]]s would [[pro forma]] declare war on the helot population so that any Spartan citizen could kill a helot without fear of blood or guilt in order to keep them in line (''[[crypteia]]'').
-[[English peasants' revolt of 1381]] led to calls for the reform of feudalism in [[England]] and an increase in rights for serfs. Peasants' Revolt was one of a number of [[popular revolts in late medieval Europe]]. [[Richard II of England|Richard II]] agreed to reforms such as fair rents and the abolition of [[serfdom]]. Following the collapse of the revolt, the king's concessions were quickly revoked, but the rebellion is significant because it marked the beginning of the end of serfdom in medieval England.+In the [[Roman Empire]], though the heterogeneous nature of the slave population worked against a strong sense of solidarity, slave revolts did occur and were severely punished. The most famous slave rebellion in [[Europe]] was led by [[Spartacus]] in [[Roman Empire|Roman]] [[Italy]], the [[Third Servile War]]. This war resulted in the 6000 surviving rebel slaves being [[crucifixion|crucified]] along the main roads leading into Rome. This was the third in a series of unrelated [[Roman Servile Wars|Servile Wars]] fought by [[Slavery in ancient Rome|slaves against the Romans]].
-In [[Russia]], the slaves were usually classified as [[kholop]]s. A kholop's master had unlimited power over his life. Slavery remained a major institution in [[Russia]] until 1723, when [[Peter the Great]] converted the household slaves into house [[Serfdom in Russia|serfs]]. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. 16th and 17th centuries runaway serfs and kholops known as [[Cossacks]] (‘outlaws’) formed+The [[English peasants' revolt of 1381]] led to calls for the reform of [[feudalism]] in [[England]] and an increase in rights for serfs. The Peasants' Revolt was one of a number of [[popular revolts in late medieval Europe]]. [[Richard II of England|Richard II]] agreed to reforms including fair rents and the abolition of [[serfdom]]. Following the collapse of the revolt, the king's concessions were quickly revoked, but the rebellion is significant because it marked the beginning of the end of serfdom in medieval England.
-autonomous communities in the southern steppes.+
-There were numerous rebellions against the slavery and [[serfdom]], most often in conjunction with Cossack uprisings, such as the uprisings of [[Ivan Bolotnikov]] (1606-1607), [[Stenka Razin]] (1667-1671), [[Kondraty Bulavin]] (1707-1709), and [[Yemelyan Pugachev]] (1773-1775), often involving hundreds of thousands and sometimes millions. Between the end of the [[Pugachev rebellion]] and the beginning of the 19th century, there were hundreds of outbreaks across Russia.+In [[Russia]], the slaves were usually classified as [[kholop]]s. A kholop's master had unlimited power over his life. Slavery remained a major institution in [[Russia]] until 1723, when [[Peter the Great]] converted the household slaves into house [[Serfdom in Russia|serfs]]. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. During the 16th and 17th centuries, runaway serfs and kholops known as [[Cossacks]], ("outlaws") formed autonomous communities in the southern steppes. There were numerous rebellions against slavery and [[serfdom]], most often in conjunction with Cossack uprisings, such as the uprisings of [[Ivan Bolotnikov]] (1606–1607), [[Stenka Razin]] (1667–1671), Between the end of the [[Pugachev rebellion]] and the beginning of the 19th century, there were hundreds of outbreaks across Russia.
-==South America and Caribbean==+Numerous African slave rebellions and insurrections took place in North America during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. There is documented evidence of more than 250 uprisings or attempted uprisings involving 10 or more slaves. Three of the best known in the United States during the 19th century are the revolts by [[Gabriel Prosser]] in the [[Richmond, Virginia]] area in 1800, [[Denmark Vesey]] in [[Charleston, South Carolina]], in 1822, and [[Nat Turner]] in [[Southampton County, Virginia]], in 1831. Slave resistance in the [[antebellum South]] did not gain the attention of academic historians until the 1940s, when historian [[Herbert Aptheker]] started publishing the first serious scholarly work on the subject. Aptheker stressed how rebellions were rooted in the exploitative conditions of the southern slave system. He traversed libraries and archives throughout the South, managing to uncover roughly 250 similar instances.
-*[[Quilombo dos Palmares]] in Brazil most famously led by [[Zumbi]].+
-*The only slave uprising ever to be fully successful in a permanent way was the [[Haitian Revolution]], which began in 1791 and was eventually led by [[Toussaint L'Ouverture]], culminating in the independent black republic of [[Haiti]].+
-*[[Panama]] also has an extensive history of slave rebellions going back to the 16th century. Slaves were brought to the [[isthmus]] from many regions in [[Africa]] now in modern day countries like the [[Democratic Republic of the Congo|Congo]], [[Senegal]], [[Guinea]], and [[Mozambique]]. Immediately before their arrival on shore, or very soon after, many enslaved Africans revolted against their captors, or participated in mass [[maroon (people)|maroon]]age, or desertion. The freed Africans founded communities in the forests and mountains, organized [[guerrilla warfare|guerrilla]] bands known as [[Cimarron people (Panama)|Cimarrones]], and began a long guerrilla war against the [[Spain|Spanish]] [[Conquistadores]], sometimes in conjunction with nearby indigenous communities like the [[Kuna (people)|Kuna]] and the [[Guaymí]]. Despite massacres by the Spanish, the rebels fought until the Spanish crown was forced to concede to treaties that granted the Africans a life without Spanish violence and incursions. The leaders of the guerrilla revolts included [[Felipillo]], [[Bayano]], [[Juan de Dioso]], [[Domingo Congo]], Antón Mandinga, and [[Luis de Mozambique]].+
-*[[Tacky's War]] (1760)+
-*[[Suriname]], constant [[guerrilla]] warfare by [[Maroon (people)|Maroons]], in 1765-1793 by the [[Aluku]] led by [[Boni (Maroon leader)|Boni]]+
-*[[Berbice]], 1763 slave revolt, led by [[Cuffy (person)|Cuffy]]+
-*[[Cuba]], 1795, 1798, 1802, 1805, 1812 (Aponte revolt), 1825, 1827, 1829, 1833, 1834, 1835, 1838, 1839-43, 1844 (La Escalera conspiracy and revolt)+
-*[[Curaçao]], 1795 slave revolt, led by [[Tula (Curaçao)|Tula]]+
-*[[Venezuela]], [[José Leonardo Chirino's Insurrection]] 1795+
-*[[Barbados]], 1816 slave revolt, led by [[Bussa]]+
-*[[Guyana]], The [[Demerara]] Rebellion of 1795; [[Demerara rebellion of 1823]]+
-*[[Jamaica|Jamaica's]] [[Baptist War]], 1831-1832, led by the Baptist preacher, [[Samuel Sharpe]].+
-*[[Bahia]] Rebellion of 1835 (The Great Revolt)([[Brazil]])+
-*[[Bahia]] Rebellion of 1822-1830([[Brazil]])+
-*[[Bahia]] Rebellion of 1835 ([[Brazil]]).+
-*In the [[British Virgin Islands]], minor slave revolts occurred in 1790, 1823 and 1830.+
-*[[St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands]], [[1733 slave insurrection on St. John]], it was the first successful slave rebellion in the [[Western Hemisphere]]+
-== North America ==+== See also ==
-Numerous black slave rebellions and insurrections took place in [[North America]] during the 17th and 18th centuries. There is documentary evidence of more than 250 uprisings or attempted uprisings involving ten or more slaves. Three of the best known in the [[United States]] are the revolts by [[Gabriel Prosser]] in [[Virginia]] in 1800, [[Denmark Vesey]] in [[Charleston, South Carolina]] in 1822, and [[Nat Turner]] in [[Southampton County, Virginia]], in 1831.+* [[History of slavery]]
 +* [[Labour revolt]]
 +* [[List of revolutions and rebellions]]
 +* [[Slave ship]]
-The largest slave revolt in American history, however, took place outside of New Orleans in 1811. The [[1811 German Coast Uprising]] was suppressed by volunteer militias and a detachment of the United States Army, and the heads of over sixty slaves were put on pikes along the levee.  
- 
-Slave resistance in the [[antebellum South]] finally became the focus of historical scholarship in the 1940s, when historian [[Herbert Aptheker]] started publishing the first serious scholarly work on the subject. Aptheker stressed how the rebellion was rooted in the exploitative conditions of the Southern slave system. He traversed libraries and archives throughout the South, managing to uncover roughly 250 similar instances, though none of them reached the scale of the Nat Turner uprising. 
- 
-[[John Brown (abolitionist)|John Brown]] had already fought against pro-slavery forces in [[Kansas]] for several years when he decided to lead a raid on [[Harpers Ferry]], [[Virginia]] ([[West Virginia]] was not yet a [[U.S. state|state]]). This raid was a joint attack by former slaves, freed blacks, and white men who had corresponded with slaves on plantations in order to form a general uprising amongst slaves. It almost succeeded, had it not been for Brown's delay, and hundreds of slaves left their plantations to join Brown's force - and others left their plantations to join Brown in an escape to the mountains. Eventually, due to a tactical error by Brown, their force was quelled. But directly following this, slave disobedience and runaways sky-rocketed in Virginia. 
- 
-*[[Gaspar Yanga]]'s Revolt (c. 1570) near the Mexican city of [[Veracruz (city)|Veracruz]]; the group then escaped to the highlands and built a free colony 
-*[[Gloucester County, Virginia Revolt]] (1663) 
-*[[New York Slave Revolt of 1712]]  
-*[[Stono Rebellion]] (1739) 
-*[[New York Slave Insurrection of 1741]] 
-*[[Pointe Coupée Conspiracy]] (1795) 
-*[[Gabriel Prosser|Gabriel]]'s Rebellion (1800) 
-*[[Chatham Manor]] Rebellion (1805) 
-*[[1811 German Coast Uprising]], (1811) 
-*[[George Boxley]] Rebellion (1815) 
-*[[Denmark Vesey]]'s Uprising (1822) 
-*[[Nat Turner's slave rebellion]] (1831) 
-*[[Black Seminole Slave Rebellion]] (1835-1838)  
-*[[Amistad (case)|Amistad Seizure]] (1839) 
-*[[1842 Slave Revolt in the Cherokee Nation]] 
-*[[John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry]] (1859) 
- 
-==Africa== 
- 
-In 1808 and 1825 there were slave rebellions in the [[Cape Colony]], newly acquired by the British. Although the slave trade was officially abolished in the [[British Empire]] by the [[Slave Trade Act]] of 1807, and slavery itself a generation later with the [[Slavery Abolition Act 1833]], it took until 1850 to be halted in the territories which were to become [[South Africa]]. 
- 
-==Bibliography== 
-*Herbert Aptheker, ''American Negro Slave Revolts'', 6. ed., New York :  
-International Publ., 1993 - classic 
-*Matt D. Childs, ''The 1812 Aponte Rebellion in Cuba and the Struggle Against African Slavery'', Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2006 
-*David P. Geggus, ed., T''he Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World'', Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 2001 
-*Eugene D. Genovese, ''From Rebellion to Revolution: Afro-American Slave Revolts in the Making of the Modern World'', Louisiana State University Press 1980 
-*Joao Jose Reis, ''Slave Rebellion in Brazil: The Muslim Uprising of 1835 in Bahia'' (Johns Hopkins Studies in Atlantic History and Culture), Johns Hopkins Univ Press 1993 
-*Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. ''Encyclopedia of Slave Resistance and Rebellion''. Westport, CT: Greenwood, 2007. 
-*Rodriguez, Junius P., ed. ''Slavery in the United States: A Social, Political, and Historical Encyclopedia''. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2007. 
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A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. Slave rebellions have occurred in nearly all societies that practice slavery or have practiced slavery in the past. A desire for freedom and the dream of successful rebellion are often the greatest objects of song, art, and culture amongst the enslaved population. Many of the events, however, are often violently opposed and suppressed by slaveholders.

The most successful slave rebellion in history was the 18th-century Haitian Revolution, led by Toussaint Louverture and later Jean-Jacques Dessalines who won the war against their French colonial rulers, which founded the country formerly known as Saint Domingue. Other famous historic slave rebellions have been led by the Roman slave Spartacus (c. 73–71 BC), as well as the thrall (Scandinavian slave) Tunni, who rebelled against the Swedish monarch Ongentheow, a rebellion that needed Danish assistance to be quelled. In the ninth century, the poet-prophet Ali bin Muhammad led imported East African slaves in Iraq during the Zanj Rebellion against the Abbasid Caliphate; Nanny of the Maroons was an 18th-century leader who rebelled against the British in Jamaica; and the Quilombo dos Palmares of Brazil flourished under Ganazumba (Ganga Zumba). The 1811 German Coast Uprising in the Territory of Orleans was the largest rebellion in the continental United States; Denmark Vesey rebelled in South Carolina, and Madison Washington during the Creole case in the 19th century United States.

Ancient Sparta had a special type of serf called helots who were often treated harshly, leading them to rebel. According to Herodotus (IX, 28–29), helots were seven times as numerous as Spartans. Every autumn, according to Plutarch (Life of Lycurgus, 28, 3–7), the Spartan ephors would pro forma declare war on the helot population so that any Spartan citizen could kill a helot without fear of blood or guilt in order to keep them in line (crypteia).

In the Roman Empire, though the heterogeneous nature of the slave population worked against a strong sense of solidarity, slave revolts did occur and were severely punished. The most famous slave rebellion in Europe was led by Spartacus in Roman Italy, the Third Servile War. This war resulted in the 6000 surviving rebel slaves being crucified along the main roads leading into Rome. This was the third in a series of unrelated Servile Wars fought by slaves against the Romans.

The English peasants' revolt of 1381 led to calls for the reform of feudalism in England and an increase in rights for serfs. The Peasants' Revolt was one of a number of popular revolts in late medieval Europe. Richard II agreed to reforms including fair rents and the abolition of serfdom. Following the collapse of the revolt, the king's concessions were quickly revoked, but the rebellion is significant because it marked the beginning of the end of serfdom in medieval England.

In Russia, the slaves were usually classified as kholops. A kholop's master had unlimited power over his life. Slavery remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter the Great converted the household slaves into house serfs. Russian agricultural slaves were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. During the 16th and 17th centuries, runaway serfs and kholops known as Cossacks, ("outlaws") formed autonomous communities in the southern steppes. There were numerous rebellions against slavery and serfdom, most often in conjunction with Cossack uprisings, such as the uprisings of Ivan Bolotnikov (1606–1607), Stenka Razin (1667–1671), Between the end of the Pugachev rebellion and the beginning of the 19th century, there were hundreds of outbreaks across Russia.

Numerous African slave rebellions and insurrections took place in North America during the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. There is documented evidence of more than 250 uprisings or attempted uprisings involving 10 or more slaves. Three of the best known in the United States during the 19th century are the revolts by Gabriel Prosser in the Richmond, Virginia area in 1800, Denmark Vesey in Charleston, South Carolina, in 1822, and Nat Turner in Southampton County, Virginia, in 1831. Slave resistance in the antebellum South did not gain the attention of academic historians until the 1940s, when historian Herbert Aptheker started publishing the first serious scholarly work on the subject. Aptheker stressed how rebellions were rooted in the exploitative conditions of the southern slave system. He traversed libraries and archives throughout the South, managing to uncover roughly 250 similar instances.

See also





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