Social work  

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-History of [[subculture]]s and [[underground culture]]s in the [[1950s]].+'''Social work''' is a professional and academic discipline that seeks to improve the [[quality of life]] and [[subjective well-being]] of individuals, groups, and communities through research, policy, community organizing, direct practice, [[crisis intervention]], and teaching for the benefit of those affected by social disadvantages such as poverty, mental and physical illness or disability, and [[social injustice]], including violations of their [[civil liberties]] and [[human rights]]. Research is often focused on human development, [[psychotherapy]] and [[counselling]], [[social policy]], public administration, social program evaluation, and community development. Social workers typically undergo a systematic set of training and qualifications that are distinct from those of care workers, care assistants or social care workers, who may undertake social work roles but not necessarily have the qualifications of a professional social worker. Social workers are organized into local, national, continental, and international [[professional bodies]]. It is an interdisciplinary field that incorporates theoretical bases from [[economics]], [[education]], [[sociology]], [[law]], [[medicine]], [[philosophy]], [[politics]], [[anthropology]], and [[psychology]].
 +==History==
-The [[Existentialist]]s had a profound influence upon subcultural development. [[Jean-Paul Sartre]] and [[Albert Camus]] transferred their [[French resistance]] underground campaign to the context of a cultural revolution and the American [[Beatnik|beat scene]] joined the movement. (See article: [[Underground culture]]) The emphasis on freedom of the individual influenced the [[Beat generation|beat]]s in America and Britain and this version of existential [[bohemianism]] continued through the 1950s and into the 1960s under the guise of the [[beat generation]]. [[Beard]]s and [[haircut|longer hair]] returned in another attempt at returning to the image of ''peacetime man'' and the normality which had existed before the two wars. At the same time, as a result of American post-war prosperity, a new identity emerged for youth subculture: the ''[[Youth culture|teenager]]''.+The concept of [[charity]] goes back to ancient times, and the practice of providing for the poor has roots in many ancient civilizations and world [[religion|religions]]. Even before the rise of modern European states, the church was providing social services. The earliest organized social welfare activity of the Christian church was the formation of burial societies, followed closely by provision of alms to the poor, shelter for the homeless, and care and comfort for the sick. Monasteries often served as comprehensive social service agencies, acting as hospitals, homes for the aged, orphanages, and travelers' aid stations. It was not until the emergence of industrialization and urbanization that the informal helping systems of the church and family began to break down and organized social welfare services emerged to supplant it.
-Jazz culture was transformed, by way of [[Rhythm and blues]] into [[Rock and Roll]] culture. There are various suggested candidates for which record might've been the [[First rock and roll record]]. At the same time, jazz culture itself continued but changed into a more respected form, no longer necessarily associated with wild behaviour and criminality.+The profession of social work is generally considered to have developed from three movements: the [[charity organization society]] (COS) movement, the [[settlement house]] movement, and a third, less clearly defined movement, the development of institutions to deal with the entire range of social problems. All had their most rapid growth during the nineteenth century, and all grew out of the church.
-From the 1950s onward society noticed an increase in street [[gang]] culture, random [[vandalism]] and [[graffiti]]. [[Sociologist]]s, [[psychologist]]s, [[social worker]]s and [[judge]]s all had theories as to what was causing the increase to urban [[juvenile delinquency]] but the consensus has generally tended to be that the modern urban environment offers all the bright lights and benefits of the [[modern world]] but often provides [[working class]] youths with little in reality. This theory and others were parodied in the musical ''[[West Side Story]]'' (based on [[Shakespeare]]'s ''[[Romeo and Juliet]]'') in song lyrics such as ''Jet Song'', ''America'', and ''Gee, Officer Krupke''. [[Moral panic]]s surrounding the advent of teenager subcultures and a perceived rise in adolescent criminality led to several attempts to investigate and legislate youth behavior, such as the [[Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency]].+Social work has its roots in the social and economic upheaval wrought by the [[Industrial Revolution]], in particular the societal struggle to deal with [[poverty]] and its resultant problems. Because poverty was the main focus of early social work, it was intricately linked with the idea of charity work. For instance, it is common for modern social workers to find themselves dealing with consequences arising from other "social problems" such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and discrimination based on age or on physical or mental disability.
-As American rock and roll arrived in the [[United Kingdom]], a subculture grew around it. Some of the British post-war street youths hanging around [[bombsite]]s in urban areas and getting drawn into petty [[crime]] began to dress in a variation of the zoot suit style called a [[drape suit]], with a country style [[bootlace tie]], [[winklepicker]] shoes, [[drainpipe trousers]], and [[Elvis Presley]] style slicked hair. These youths were called [[Teddy Boy (youth culture)|Teddy boy]]s. For a night out dancing at the [[palais de danse|palais]], their girlfriends would usually wear the same sort of [[poodle skirt]]s and [[crinoline]]s their counterparts in America would wear. For day-to-day wear there was a trend toward girls wearing slacks or jeans. At the time, the idea of girls wearing trousers and boys taking time over their hairstyle was socially shocking to many people.+Whereas social casework started on a more scientific footing aimed at directing and reforming individuals (at one stage supporting the notion that poverty was a disease), other models of social work arising out of the Settlement House movement, led by activists such as Jane Addams, emphasized political activism and community solutions. Currently, social work is known for its critical and holistic approach to understanding and intervening in social problems. This has led, for example, to the recognition of poverty as having a social and economic basis rooted in social policies rather than representing a personal moral defect. This trend also points to another historical development in the evolution of social work: once a profession engages in social control, it is directed at social and personal empowerment. This is not to say that modern social workers do not engage in social control (consider, for example, child protection workers), and many, if not most, social workers likely would agree that there is an ongoing tension between these forces within the profession. For example, see the debate between structural social work and [[Humanistic psychology|humanistic social work]].
-British youth divided into factions. There were the [[modern jazz]] kids, the [[trad jazz]] kids, the rock and roll teenagers and the [[skiffle]] craze. Coffee bars were a meeting place for all the types of youth and the coolest ones were said to be in [[Soho#Bohemian Soho|Soho]], [[London]]. +==See also==
- +*[[Child welfare]]
-In Britain, the political side of the Beat Generation was the [[anti-nuclear movement]] led by [[CND]]. ''Ban the Bomb'' marches became a very successful British social phenomenon. +*[[Child sexual abuse]]
- +*[[Community development]]
-Teenage music and subculture was parodied in the [[1957]] play (and [[1962]] movie) [[The Music Man]], particularly in the song ''"Ya Got Trouble"''.+*[[Poverty]]
- +*[[Social change]]
-In the United States and [[Australia]], [[Hawaii|Hawaiian]]-influenced [[Surfing]] was the new youth sport. A whole subculture grew around the sport and the associated parties, clothes, speech patterns and music. During the same time-frame [[skateboard]] riding developed as a parallel lifestyle to wave riding. Both forms of board riding continued throughout the remainder of the century and into the next. From these two sports young people learned to provide their own social structure within which they could display skills and excellence.+*[[Social development]]
- +*[[Social planning]]
-In the [[Congo Free State]] (now known as the [[Democratic Republic of the Congo]]), a youth subculture known as the [[Bills]] flourished, taking [[Western (genre)|Western movies]] and [[cowboy]]s as their main influence.+*[[Social research]]
- +*[[Social scientist]]
-In the [[Netherlands]] we see two youth groups evolving in big cities like Amsterdam, Rotterdam and Utrecht. One group, the [[Nozem]]s, similar to the British Teds, and another called the Artiestelingen, who can be compared to the bohemian artists of pre-world-war France. The Nozems spent their time listening to rock and roll music, driving motorcycles through town and picking up ladies while the Artiestelingen would discuss philosophy, paint, draw and listen to jazz music.+*[[Social theory]]
-== See also ==+*[[Welfare]]
- +
-* [[1900-World War I subcultures ]]+
-* [[World War I subcultures ]]+
-* [[1920s and 1930s subcultures ]]+
-* [[1940s subcultures ]]+
-* [[1950s subcultures ]]+
-* [[1960s subcultures ]]+
-* [[1970s subcultures ]]+
-* [[1980s subcultures ]]+
-* [[1990s subcultures ]]+
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Social work is a professional and academic discipline that seeks to improve the quality of life and subjective well-being of individuals, groups, and communities through research, policy, community organizing, direct practice, crisis intervention, and teaching for the benefit of those affected by social disadvantages such as poverty, mental and physical illness or disability, and social injustice, including violations of their civil liberties and human rights. Research is often focused on human development, psychotherapy and counselling, social policy, public administration, social program evaluation, and community development. Social workers typically undergo a systematic set of training and qualifications that are distinct from those of care workers, care assistants or social care workers, who may undertake social work roles but not necessarily have the qualifications of a professional social worker. Social workers are organized into local, national, continental, and international professional bodies. It is an interdisciplinary field that incorporates theoretical bases from economics, education, sociology, law, medicine, philosophy, politics, anthropology, and psychology.

History

The concept of charity goes back to ancient times, and the practice of providing for the poor has roots in many ancient civilizations and world religions. Even before the rise of modern European states, the church was providing social services. The earliest organized social welfare activity of the Christian church was the formation of burial societies, followed closely by provision of alms to the poor, shelter for the homeless, and care and comfort for the sick. Monasteries often served as comprehensive social service agencies, acting as hospitals, homes for the aged, orphanages, and travelers' aid stations. It was not until the emergence of industrialization and urbanization that the informal helping systems of the church and family began to break down and organized social welfare services emerged to supplant it.

The profession of social work is generally considered to have developed from three movements: the charity organization society (COS) movement, the settlement house movement, and a third, less clearly defined movement, the development of institutions to deal with the entire range of social problems. All had their most rapid growth during the nineteenth century, and all grew out of the church.

Social work has its roots in the social and economic upheaval wrought by the Industrial Revolution, in particular the societal struggle to deal with poverty and its resultant problems. Because poverty was the main focus of early social work, it was intricately linked with the idea of charity work. For instance, it is common for modern social workers to find themselves dealing with consequences arising from other "social problems" such as racism, sexism, homophobia, and discrimination based on age or on physical or mental disability.

Whereas social casework started on a more scientific footing aimed at directing and reforming individuals (at one stage supporting the notion that poverty was a disease), other models of social work arising out of the Settlement House movement, led by activists such as Jane Addams, emphasized political activism and community solutions. Currently, social work is known for its critical and holistic approach to understanding and intervening in social problems. This has led, for example, to the recognition of poverty as having a social and economic basis rooted in social policies rather than representing a personal moral defect. This trend also points to another historical development in the evolution of social work: once a profession engages in social control, it is directed at social and personal empowerment. This is not to say that modern social workers do not engage in social control (consider, for example, child protection workers), and many, if not most, social workers likely would agree that there is an ongoing tension between these forces within the profession. For example, see the debate between structural social work and humanistic social work.

See also




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