Speculative reason  

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-'''Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi''' (25 January 1743 – 10 March 1819) was an influential [[Germany|German]] [[philosopher]], [[literature|literary figure]], [[socialite]] and the younger brother of poet [[Johann Georg Jacobi]]. He is notable for coining the term [[nihilism]] and promoting it as the prime fault of [[Age of Enlightenment|Enlightenment]] thought particularly in the philosophical systems of [[Baruch Spinoza]], [[Immanuel Kant]], [[Johann Gottlieb Fichte|Johann Fichte]] and [[Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling|Friedrich Schelling]]. Instead of [[speculative reason]], he advocated ''Glaube'' (variously translated as [[faith]] or "belief") and [[revelation]]. In this sense, Jacobi anticipated present-day writers who criticize secular philosophy as relativistic and dangerous for religious faith. In his time he was also well-known among literary circles for his critique of the ''[[Sturm and Drang]]'' movement, and implicitly close associate [[Johann Wolfgang von Goethe]], and its visions of atomized individualism. His literary projects were devoted to the reconciliation of enlightenment individualism with social obligation.+'''Speculative reason''' or '''pure reason''' is theoretical (or [[logic]]al, [[Deductive reasoning|deductive]]) thought (sometimes called theoretical reason), as opposed to practical (active, willing) thought. The distinction between the two goes at least as far back as the [[Ancient Greek philosophy|ancient Greek philosophers]], such as [[Plato]] and [[Aristotle]], who distinguished between [[theory]] (''theoria,'' or a wide, [[bird's eye view]] of a topic, or clear vision of its structure) and practice (''praxis''), as well as productive knowledge (''techne'').
 + 
 +Speculative reason is contemplative, detached, and certain, whereas [[practical reason]] is engaged, involved, active, and dependent upon the specifics of the situation. Speculative reason provides the universal, necessary principles of [[logic]], such as the principle of [[non-contradiction]], which must apply everywhere, regardless of the specifics of the situation.
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 +[[Practical reason]], on the other hand, is the power of the mind engaged in deciding what to do. It is also referred to as [[moral reason]], because it involves action, decision, and particulars. Though many other thinkers have erected systems based on the distinction, two important later thinkers who have done so are [[Aquinas]] (who follows [[Aristotle]] in many respects) and [[Kant]].
 + 
 +== References ==
 +* Critique de la raison pure, by Kant, Frammarion, 2{{sup|e}} édition, 2001, Paris
 +* Kant's critical philosophy, by Karim Mojtahedi, Publisher: Amir Kabir, 1999, Tehran.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Speculative reason or pure reason is theoretical (or logical, deductive) thought (sometimes called theoretical reason), as opposed to practical (active, willing) thought. The distinction between the two goes at least as far back as the ancient Greek philosophers, such as Plato and Aristotle, who distinguished between theory (theoria, or a wide, bird's eye view of a topic, or clear vision of its structure) and practice (praxis), as well as productive knowledge (techne).

Speculative reason is contemplative, detached, and certain, whereas practical reason is engaged, involved, active, and dependent upon the specifics of the situation. Speculative reason provides the universal, necessary principles of logic, such as the principle of non-contradiction, which must apply everywhere, regardless of the specifics of the situation.

Practical reason, on the other hand, is the power of the mind engaged in deciding what to do. It is also referred to as moral reason, because it involves action, decision, and particulars. Though many other thinkers have erected systems based on the distinction, two important later thinkers who have done so are Aquinas (who follows Aristotle in many respects) and Kant.

References

  • Critique de la raison pure, by Kant, Frammarion, 2Template:Sup édition, 2001, Paris
  • Kant's critical philosophy, by Karim Mojtahedi, Publisher: Amir Kabir, 1999, Tehran.




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