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-'''Sound poetry''' is a form of literary or musical composition in which the phonetic aspects of human speech are foregrounded at the expense of more conventional [[semantic]] and [[syntax|syntactic]] values; "verse without words". By definition, sound poetry is intended primarily for [[performance poetry|performance]].+In [[linguistics]], '''syntax''' (from [[Ancient Greek]] ''syn-'', "together", and ''táxis'', "arrangement") is the study of the principles and rules for constructing [[Sentence (linguistics)|sentence]]s in [[natural language]]s. In addition to referring to the discipline, the term ''syntax'' is also used to refer directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language, as in "the [[Irish syntax|syntax of Modern Irish]]". Modern research in syntax attempts to [[descriptive linguistics|describe languages]] in terms of such rules. Many professionals in this discipline attempt to find [[Universal Grammar|general rules]] that apply to all natural languages. The term ''syntax'' is also sometimes used to refer to the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as [[logic]], artificial formal languages, and [[computer programming]] languages.
 +== See also ==
 +* [[Algebraic syntax]]
 +* [[Grammar]]
 +* [[List of syntactic phenomena]]
 +* [[Musical syntax]]
 +* [[Phrase]]
 +* [[Phrase structure rules]]
 +* ''[[Simpler Syntax]]'' (book)
 +* [[Syntax (journal)|''Syntax'']] ([[academic journal]])
 +* [[Syntactic category]]
 +* [[Syntax (programming languages)]]
 +* [[Usage]]
 +* [[X-bar theory]]
-==History and development== 
-While it is sometimes argued that the roots of sound poetry are to be found in [[oral poetry]] traditions, the writing of pure sound texts that downplay the roles of meaning and structure is a 20th century phenomenon. Early examples include F. T. Marinetti's "Zang Tumb Tumb" (1914) and a piece performed by [[Hugo Ball]] in a reading at [[Cabaret Voltaire (Zürich)|Cabaret Voltaire]] in 1915: 
-:"I created a new species of verse, 'verse without words,' or sound poems....I recited the following: 
-:::gadji beri bimba 
-:::glandridi lauli lonni cadori..." 
-::::(Albright, 2004) 
-[[Kurt Schwitters]]' ''Ursonate'' (1921-32, "Primal Sonata") is a particularly well known early example.+=== Syntactic terms ===
-The first movement [[rondo]]'s principal [[theme (music)|theme]] being a word, "fmsbwtözäu" pronounced ''Fümms bö wö tää zää Uu'', from a 1918 poem by [[Raoul Hausmann]], apparently also a sound poem. Schwitters also wrote a less well-known sound poem consisting of the sound of the letter W. (Albright, 2004)+<div style="-moz-column-count:3; column-count:3;">
 +* [[Adjective]]
 +** [[Attributive adjective and predicative adjective]]
 +* [[Adjunct (grammar)|Adjunct]]
 +* [[Adverb]]
 +* [[Antecedent-contained deletion]]
 +* [[Appositive]]
 +* [[Article (grammar)|Article]]
 +* [[Grammatical aspect|Aspect]]
 +* [[Auxiliary verb]]
 +* [[Grammatical case|Case]]
 +*[[c-command]]
 +* [[Clause]]
 +* [[Closed class word]]
 +* [[Comparative]]
 +* [[Complement (linguistics)|Complement]]
 +* [[Compound (linguistics)|Compound noun and adjective]]
 +* [[Differential Object Marking]]
 +* [[Grammatical conjugation|Conjugation]]
 +* [[Grammatical conjunction|Conjunction]]
 +* [[Dangling modifier]]
 +* [[Declension]]
 +* [[determiner (linguistics)|Determiner]]
 +* [[Dual grammatical number|Dual]] (form for two)
 +* [[Syntactic expletive|Expletive]]
 +* [[Function word]]
 +* [[Grammatical gender|Gender]]
 +* [[Gerund]]
 +*[[government and binding theory]]
 +* [[Infinitive]]
 +*[[m-command]]
 +* [[Measure word]] (classifier)
 +* [[Modal particle]]
 +* [[Movement paradox]]
-==Example sound poets==+* [[Grammatical modifier|Modifier]]
-Later prominent sound poets include [[Henri Chopin]], [[Bob Cobbing]] and [[Ada Verdun Howell]].+* [[Grammatical mood|Mood]]
 +* [[Nanosyntax]]
 +* [[Noun]]
 +* [[Grammatical number|Number]]
 +* [[Object (grammar)|Object]]
 +* [[Open class word]]
 +* [[Parasitic gap]]
 +* [[Part of speech]]
 +* [[Grammatical particle|Particle]]
 +* [[Grammatical person|Person]]
 +* [[Phrase]]
 +* [[Phrasal verb]]
 +* [[Plural]]
 +* [[Predicate (grammar)|Predicate]] (also verb phrase)
 +* [[Predicative (adjectival or nominal)]]
 +* [[Preposition]]
 +* [[Personal pronoun]]
 +* [[Pronoun]]
 +* [[Restrictive clause|Restrictiveness]]
 +* [[Sandhi]]
 +* [[Sentence (linguistics)]]
 +* [[Grammatical number|Singular]]
 +* [[Subject (grammar)|Subject]]
 +* [[Superlative]]
 +* [[Grammatical tense|Tense]]
 +* [[Uninflected word]]
 +* [[Verb]]
 +* [[Grammatical voice|Voice]]
 +* [[Wh-movement]]
 +* [[Word order]]
 +* [[Merge (linguistics)|Merge]]
 +</div>
-The poet [[Edith Sitwell]] coined the term '''''Abstract poetry''''' to describe some of her own poems which possessed more aural than literary qualities, rendering them essentially meaningless: "The poems in ''Façade'' are ''abstract'' poems--that is, they are patterns of sound. They are...virtuoso exercises in technique of extreme difficulty, in the same sense as that in which certain studies by Liszt are studies in transcendental technique in music." (Sitwell, 1949) 
-follow these links to proficient authors 
- 
-==Text-sound== 
-'''Text-sound''' may be used for sound poems which more closely resemble "fiction or even essays, as traditionally defined, than poetry" ([http://www.ubu.com/papers/kostelanetz.html]). 
- 
-==See also== 
-*[[Sound art]] 
-*[[Bob Cobbing]] 
-*[[Angel Exhaust]] 
-*[[Jas H. Duke]] 
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In linguistics, syntax (from Ancient Greek syn-, "together", and táxis, "arrangement") is the study of the principles and rules for constructing sentences in natural languages. In addition to referring to the discipline, the term syntax is also used to refer directly to the rules and principles that govern the sentence structure of any individual language, as in "the syntax of Modern Irish". Modern research in syntax attempts to describe languages in terms of such rules. Many professionals in this discipline attempt to find general rules that apply to all natural languages. The term syntax is also sometimes used to refer to the rules governing the behavior of mathematical systems, such as logic, artificial formal languages, and computer programming languages.

See also


Syntactic terms




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Syntax" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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