The Invention of Art  

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-Others have come to similar conclusions about the origin of Art, notably, Larry Shiner in "[[The Invention of Art]]"+{{Underlinked|date=January 2013}}
 + 
 +{{Infobox book
 +<!-- |italic title = (see above) -->
 +| name = The Invention of Art: A Cultural History
 +| image = [[File:The Invention of Art A Cultural History front cover.jpg|200px|alt=Cover]] -->
 +| caption =
 +| author = Larry Shiner
 +| title_orig =
 +| translator =
 +| illustrator =
 +| cover_artist =
 +| country = United States
 +| language = English
 +| series =
 +| subject =
 +| genre =
 +| publisher = Univ. of Chicago Press
 +| publisher2 =
 +| pub_date = 2003
 +| english_pub_date =
 +| media_type =
 +| pages =
 +| awards =
 +| isbn = 978-0-226-75342-3
 +| oclc =
 +| dewey =
 +| congress =
 +| preceded_by =
 +| preceded_by_quotation_marks =
 +| followed_by =
 +| followed_by_quotation_marks =
 +| wikisource =
 +}}
 +'''''The Invention of Art: A Cultural History''''' (2003) is an [[art history]] book by Dr. Larry Shiner, Emeritus Professor of Philosophy, History, and Visual Arts at the [[University of Illinois, Springfield]] <ref name="PW">{{cite journal|title=The Invention of Art: A Cultural History: review|url=http://www.publishersweekly.com/978-0-226-75342-3|journal=Publishers Weekly|accessdate=13 January 2013}}</ref><ref name="ChicagoUP">{{cite web|title=The Invention of Art: A Cultural History|url=http://press.uchicago.edu/ucp/books/book/chicago/I/bo3633486.html|publisher=The University of Chicago Press|accessdate=13 January 2013}}</ref> Shiner spent over a decade to finish the work of this book.<ref name="uis.edu">{{cite web|url=http://www.uis.edu/philosophy/faculty/research/shiner.html |title=Dr. Larry Shiner - Research - Philosophy |publisher=uis.edu |accessdate=2013-01-13}}</ref>
 + 
 +== Content ==
 + 
 +The book sees [[fine art]] as a modern invention due to [[social transformation]]s during the 18th century.<ref name="ChicagoUP" />
 + 
 +David Clowney, writing for Contemporary Aesthetics summarizes the central thesis of this book.
 + 
 +"In The Invention of Art: A Cultural History , Larry Shiner claims that [[Art]] with a capital A, [[Fine Art]], was invented in the west in the eighteenth century. The claim is not original with him; he credits [[Paul Oskar Kristeller]]’s essay “The Modern System of the Arts” as the inspiration for his work. Others have made this claim as well, among them [[Pierre Bourdieu]], [[Paul Mattick]], and [[Terry Eagleton]]. What Shiner has added is a detailed proof of the Kristeller claim using the methods of intellectual, social, cultural, and art history.
 + 
 +In brief, the thesis is this: There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. (Other traditional cultures still have a similar system.) In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, and the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life. “Art,” in other words, meant approximately the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “[[skill]]”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war,” “the art of love,” and “the art of medicine.”"<ref>{{cite journal|url=http://www.contempaesthetics.org/newvolume/pages/article.php?articleID=519|title=A Third System of the Arts? An Exploration of Some Ideas from Larry Shiner's ''The Invention of Art: A Cultural History''|journal=Contemporary Aesthetics|author=David Clowney|accessdate=05/07/2013}}</ref>
 + 
 +The book is divided into five parts
 +* ''I. Before Fine Art and Craft'' - Details the lack of any differentiation between skilled work of any type during three periods of history; classical antiquity, the middle ages, and the Renaissance. The lack of any social role separating artists from artisans, nor any concept of the aesthetic is also discussed. In the final chapter of Part I, the beginnings of some differentiation during the 17th century is described.
 +* ''II. Art Divided''
 +* ''III. Countercurrents''
 +* ''IV. The Apotheosis of Art''
 +* ''V. Beyond Art and Craft''.<ref name="ChicagoUP" />
 + 
 +==Quotes==
 +“The modern system of art is not an essence or a fate but something we have made. Art as we have generally understood it is a European invention barely two hundred years old.” (Shiner 2003, p.&nbsp;3)
 + 
 +== Reviews ==
 +Mitch Avila in the book review published in ''The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism'' wrote:<ref name="Avila">{{cite journal|last1=Avila|first1=Mitch|title=Reviews: The Invention of Art: A Cultural History by Larry Shiner|journal=The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism|volume=61|issue=4|pages=401–403|date=Autumn 2003|url=http://www.jstor.org/stable/1559075|accessdate=13 January 2013}}</ref>
 +<blockquote>Shiner aptly characterizes his narrative as one that aims to heal the unnecessarily fractured conceptions of art and art practice that mark the contemporary artworld... By showing that the essentialist conception of art, along with its normative and regulative implications, is the artifact of a particular historical and cultural world, Shiner invites us to freely respond to the manifold richness of human expression and embellishment.</blockquote>
 +Reviewer Marc Spiegler called the book "a must-read for anyone active in the arts."<ref name=Spiegler>{{cite news|last=Spiegler|first=Marc|title=Perspectives on art|url=http://articles.chicagotribune.com/2001-11-18/entertainment/0111170009_1_galleries-art-world-wendy-steiner|accessdate=14 January 2013|newspaper=Chicago Tribune|date=November 18, 2011}}</ref>
 + 
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Content

The book sees fine art as a modern invention due to social transformations during the 18th century.<ref name="ChicagoUP" />

David Clowney, writing for Contemporary Aesthetics summarizes the central thesis of this book.

"In The Invention of Art: A Cultural History , Larry Shiner claims that Art with a capital A, Fine Art, was invented in the west in the eighteenth century. The claim is not original with him; he credits Paul Oskar Kristeller’s essay “The Modern System of the Arts” as the inspiration for his work. Others have made this claim as well, among them Pierre Bourdieu, Paul Mattick, and Terry Eagleton. What Shiner has added is a detailed proof of the Kristeller claim using the methods of intellectual, social, cultural, and art history.

In brief, the thesis is this: There was a traditional “system of the arts” in the West before the eighteenth century. (Other traditional cultures still have a similar system.) In that system, an artist or artisan was a skilled maker or practitioner, a work of art was the useful product of skilled work, and the appreciation of the arts was integrally connected with their role in the rest of life. “Art,” in other words, meant approximately the same thing as the Greek word techne, or in English “skill”, a sense that has survived in phrases like “the art of war,” “the art of love,” and “the art of medicine.”"<ref>Template:Cite journal</ref>

The book is divided into five parts

  • I. Before Fine Art and Craft - Details the lack of any differentiation between skilled work of any type during three periods of history; classical antiquity, the middle ages, and the Renaissance. The lack of any social role separating artists from artisans, nor any concept of the aesthetic is also discussed. In the final chapter of Part I, the beginnings of some differentiation during the 17th century is described.
  • II. Art Divided
  • III. Countercurrents
  • IV. The Apotheosis of Art
  • V. Beyond Art and Craft.<ref name="ChicagoUP" />

Quotes

“The modern system of art is not an essence or a fate but something we have made. Art as we have generally understood it is a European invention barely two hundred years old.” (Shiner 2003, p. 3)

Reviews

Mitch Avila in the book review published in The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism wrote:<ref name="Avila">Template:Cite journal</ref>

Shiner aptly characterizes his narrative as one that aims to heal the unnecessarily fractured conceptions of art and art practice that mark the contemporary artworld... By showing that the essentialist conception of art, along with its normative and regulative implications, is the artifact of a particular historical and cultural world, Shiner invites us to freely respond to the manifold richness of human expression and embellishment.

Reviewer Marc Spiegler called the book "a must-read for anyone active in the arts."<ref name=Spiegler>Template:Cite news</ref>





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