Tin  

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-In a period of convalescence during 1793–94, Goya completed a set of eleven small pictures painted on [[tin]]; the pictures known as ''[[Fantasy and Invention]]'' mark a significant change in his art. These paintings no longer represent the world of popular carnival, but rather a dark, dramatic realm of fantasy and nightmare.+'''Tin''' is a [[chemical element]] with symbol&nbsp;'''Sn''' (for {{lang-la|stannum}}) and [[atomic number]]&nbsp;50. It is a [[Main group element|main group metal]] in [[group 14]] of the [[periodic table]]. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group-14 elements, [[germanium]] and [[lead]], and has two possible [[oxidation state]]s, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable [[isotope]]s in the periodic table. Tin is obtained chiefly from the [[mineral]] [[cassiterite]], where it occurs as [[tin dioxide]], SnO<sub>2</sub>.
-''[[Courtyard with Lunatics]]'' is a horrifying and imaginary vision of loneliness, fear and social alienation, a departure from the rather more superficial treatment of mental illness in the works of earlier artists such as [[William Hogarth|Hogarth]]. 
-In this painting, the ground, sealed by masonry blocks and iron gate, is occupied by patients and a single warden. The patients are variously staring, sitting, posturing, wrestling, grimacing or disciplining themselves. The top of the picture vanishes with sunlight, emphasizing the nightmarish scene below. 
-This picture can be read as an indictment of the widespread punitive treatment of the insane, who were confined with criminals, put in iron manacles, and subjected to physical punishment. And this intention is to be taken into consideration since one of the essential goals of the enlightenment was to reform the prisons and asylums, a subject common in the writings of [[Voltaire]] and others. +==See also==
-The condemnation of brutality towards prisoners (whether they were criminals or insane) was the subject of many of Goya’s later paintings.+* [[Cassiterides]] (the mythical Tin Islands)
- +* [[Stannary]]
-As he completed this painting, Goya was himself undergoing a physical and [[mental breakdown]]. It was a few weeks after the French declaration of war on Spain, and Goya’s illness was developing. A contemporary reported, “the noises in his head and deafness aren’t improving, yet his vision is much better and he is back in control of his balance.” His symptoms may indicate a prolonged viral encephalitis or possibly a series of miniature strokes resulting from high blood pressure and affecting hearing and balance centers in the brain.+* [[Terne]]
- +* [[Tin pest]]
-Other postmortem diagnostic assessment points toward paranoid dementia due to unknown brain trauma (perhaps due to the unknown illness which he reported). If this is the case, from here on - we see an insidious assault of his faculties, manifesting as paranoid features in his paintings, culminating in his black paintings and especially ''[[Saturn Devouring His Son]]''. +* [[Tin mining in Britain]]
- +* [[Tinning]]
-In 1799 he published a series of 80 prints titled ''[[Caprichos]]'' depicting what he called +* [[Whisker (metallurgy)]] (tin whiskers)
-:"...the innumerable foibles and follies to be found in any civilized society, and from the common prejudices and deceitful practices which custom, ignorance, or self-interest have made usual."+
- +
-In ''[[The Third of May 1808|The Third of May, 1808: The Execution of the Defenders of Madrid]]'', Goya attempted to "perpetuate by the means of his brush the most notable and heroic actions of our glorious insurrection against the Tyrant of Europe" The painting does not show an incident that Goya witnessed; rather it was meant as more abstract commentary.+
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Tin is a chemical element with symbol Sn (for Template:Lang-la) and atomic number 50. It is a main group metal in group 14 of the periodic table. Tin shows chemical similarity to both neighboring group-14 elements, germanium and lead, and has two possible oxidation states, +2 and the slightly more stable +4. Tin is the 49th most abundant element and has, with 10 stable isotopes, the largest number of stable isotopes in the periodic table. Tin is obtained chiefly from the mineral cassiterite, where it occurs as tin dioxide, SnO2.


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