Tor di Nona  

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 +The '''Tor di Nona'''— now a small area in [[Rome]]'s ''[[Rione]] V'' called "[[Ponte (rione of Rome)|Ponte]]", which lies in the heart of the city's historic center, between the ''via dei Coronari'' and the [[Tiber]]— commemorates an unregretted mediaeval tower which stood there. As the '''Torre dell'Annona''' it was a medieval stronghold of the [[Orsini]]; from the early 15th century, the tower acted as a pontifical prison: [[Benevenuto Cellini]] experienced the ill-famed dungeon's terrible lightless cells, one of which was known as "the pit", and [[Giordano Bruno]] was imprisoned here before being burned alive in [[Campo de' Fiori]].
-'''Der Papstesel''' (''Der Bapstesel zu Rom'') ist Titel einer 1523 in [[Lutherstadt Wittenberg|Wittenberg]] von [[Martin Luther|Luther]] und [[Melanchthon]] herausgegebenen [[Satire|satirischen]] [[Flugschrift]] mit einem ebenso genannten [[Holzschnitt]], der vermutlich nach einem italienischen [[Kupferstich]] kopiert worden ist. +When the New Prison ("''Le Carceri nuove''") was built in ''[[via Giulia]]'', Tor di Nona was rebuilt in 1667 as a theatre patronized by [[Queen Christina of Sweden]] and the best Roman company. There are many perhaps unexecuted drawings for it by [[Carlo Fontana]], bound in an album which passed into the hands of Scottish architect [[Robert Adam]], now at [[Sir John Soane's Museum]], London (''Concise Catalogue''). The theater suffered the fires and rebuildings that theaters are prone to, and was finally swept away when the embankments of the Tiber (''lungoteveri'') were built in 1888; this section was named ''Lungotevere Tor di Nona''.
-Er stellt ein Ungeheuer dar, das angeblich 1496 tot im [[Tiber]] in Rom gefunden worden war: ein [[Fabeltier]] mit Eselskopf, Rumpf einer Frau, schuppigen Armen und Beinen, Ochsenhuf und Adlerklauen als Füßen, einer bärtigen Teufelsmaske über dem Hinterteil und in einen Drachenkopf ausgehendem Schweif; im Hintergrund die [[Engelsburg]] und das damalige päpstliche Staatsgefängnis (''[[Torre di Nona]]''), zwischen beiden der Tiber mit der Inschrift: „Tevere“ und dem Datum „Janvarii 1496“. +A free-standing white marble fountain (1925) memorializes the theater in its late-18th century transformation as the '''Teatro Apollo''', with suitable theatrical masks, and a small trickle of water into a massive sarcophagus, in the somewhat theatrical classical style of [[Victor Emmanuel III of Italy|Vittorio Emmanuele III]] and [[Benito Mussolini]]. As the Teatro Apollo, the largest lyric theater of Rome, the site witnessed the Roman premieres of two operas of [[Giuseppe Verdi]], ''[[Il Trovatore]]'' and ''[[Un Ballo in Maschera]]''.
-Ein Exemplar des italienischen Kupferstichoriginals ist bis jetzt noch nicht aufgefunden worden. Doch ist es sehr wahrscheinlich, dass es uns in einer Kopie des Kupferstechers und Goldschmiedes [[Wenzel von Olmütz]] erhalten worden ist, die vielleicht dem Wittenberger Holzschnitt als Vorbild gedient hat. +Now nothing is left of the original tower nor of the theatre but their name, though '''Teatro Tor di Nona''' is a going concern in ''via degli Acquasparta'', presenting works by [[Luigi Pirandello]] and contemporary theater.
 + 
 +The quarter, which was inhabited by simple people, should have been destroyed in the forties in the wake of the [[fascism|fascist]] demolition strategy in Rome. The war, as in [[Borgo (rione of Rome)|Borgo]] and [[Via Giulia]], blocked the work. In the postwar years, although the population had already left the quarter, a strong press campaign saved Tor di Nona from destruction. Since then, and up to now, the center of Rome was never touched again by the pickaxe.
 + 
 +During the last years of [[World War II]], in Tor di Nona was also located the Roman [[black market|Mercato Nero]].
-Man sah in der Darstellung ein Spottbild auf die unter der Herrschaft des Papstes [[Alexander VI.]] entwürdigte und von Unheil aller Art heimgesuchte [[Roma (Mythologie)|Roma]], (Vgl. M. Lehrs, Wenzel von Olmütz (Dresden 1889), und [[Konrad Lange]], Der Papstesel, (Göttingen 1890)) während andere darin nur eine der im Mittelalter gewöhnlichen Darstellungen von Fabeltieren erblickten, die erst in Deutschland von den Reformatoren als Satire auf das Papsttum ausgelegt und für agitatorische Zwecke benutzt worden ist. 
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

The Tor di Nona— now a small area in Rome's Rione V called "Ponte", which lies in the heart of the city's historic center, between the via dei Coronari and the Tiber— commemorates an unregretted mediaeval tower which stood there. As the Torre dell'Annona it was a medieval stronghold of the Orsini; from the early 15th century, the tower acted as a pontifical prison: Benevenuto Cellini experienced the ill-famed dungeon's terrible lightless cells, one of which was known as "the pit", and Giordano Bruno was imprisoned here before being burned alive in Campo de' Fiori.

When the New Prison ("Le Carceri nuove") was built in via Giulia, Tor di Nona was rebuilt in 1667 as a theatre patronized by Queen Christina of Sweden and the best Roman company. There are many perhaps unexecuted drawings for it by Carlo Fontana, bound in an album which passed into the hands of Scottish architect Robert Adam, now at Sir John Soane's Museum, London (Concise Catalogue). The theater suffered the fires and rebuildings that theaters are prone to, and was finally swept away when the embankments of the Tiber (lungoteveri) were built in 1888; this section was named Lungotevere Tor di Nona.

A free-standing white marble fountain (1925) memorializes the theater in its late-18th century transformation as the Teatro Apollo, with suitable theatrical masks, and a small trickle of water into a massive sarcophagus, in the somewhat theatrical classical style of Vittorio Emmanuele III and Benito Mussolini. As the Teatro Apollo, the largest lyric theater of Rome, the site witnessed the Roman premieres of two operas of Giuseppe Verdi, Il Trovatore and Un Ballo in Maschera.

Now nothing is left of the original tower nor of the theatre but their name, though Teatro Tor di Nona is a going concern in via degli Acquasparta, presenting works by Luigi Pirandello and contemporary theater.

The quarter, which was inhabited by simple people, should have been destroyed in the forties in the wake of the fascist demolition strategy in Rome. The war, as in Borgo and Via Giulia, blocked the work. In the postwar years, although the population had already left the quarter, a strong press campaign saved Tor di Nona from destruction. Since then, and up to now, the center of Rome was never touched again by the pickaxe.

During the last years of World War II, in Tor di Nona was also located the Roman Mercato Nero.





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