Amity-enmity complex  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

The amity-enmity complex was a term introduced by Sir Arthur Keith. His work, A New Theory of Human Evolution (1948), posited that humans evolved as differing races, tribes, and cultures, exhibiting patriotism, morality, leadership and nationalism. Those who belong are part of the in-group, and tolerated; all others are classed as out-group, and subject to hostility; 'The code of enmity is a necessary part of the machinery of evolution. He who feels generous towards his enemy... has given up his place in the turmoil of evolutionary competition.' Conscience in humans evolved a duality; to protect and save friends, and also to hate and fight enemies.




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