Ancient philosophy  

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Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Aristotle gestures to the earth, representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand. Plato holds his Timaeus and gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in The Forms
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Plato (left) and Aristotle (right), a detail of The School of Athens, a fresco by Raphael. Aristotle gestures to the earth, representing his belief in knowledge through empirical observation and experience, while holding a copy of his Nicomachean Ethics in his hand. Plato holds his Timaeus and gestures to the heavens, representing his belief in The Forms

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

This page lists some links to ancient philosophy. In Europe, the spread of Christianity through the Roman world marked the end of Hellenistic philosophy and ushered in the beginnings of Medieval philosophy.

Contents

Western philosophy

Presocratic philosophers

Leucippus (first half of 5th century BC)
Democritus (460-370 BC)
Metrodorus of Chios (4th century BC)
Gorgias (483-375 BC)
Protagoras (481-420 BC)
Antiphon (480-411 BC)
Prodicus (465/450-after 399 BC)
Hippias (middle of the 5th century BC)
Thrasymachus (459-400 BC)
Callicles
Critias
Lycophron

Classical Greek philosophers

Hellenistic philosophy

Hellenistic schools of thought

Philosophers during Roman times

Indian philosophy

ancient Indian philosophy

Old Iranian philosophy

While there are ancient relations between the Indian Vedas and the Iranian Avesta, the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view on the role of man in the universe. The first charter of human rights by Cyrus the Great is widely seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by Zarathustra and developed in Zoroastrian schools of thought.

Chinese philosophy

In China, less emphasis was put upon materialism as a basis for reflecting upon the world and more emphasis was put on conduct, manners and social behaviour, as evidenced by Taoism and Confucianism.



Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Ancient philosophy" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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