Benito Pérez Galdós  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Benito Pérez Galdós (May 10, 1843 – January 4, 1920) was a Spanish realist novelist. Considered second only to Cervantes in stature, he was the leading Spanish realist novelist.

He was born in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, and, when nineteen years old, he moved to Madrid, where he spent most of his adult life. In Spain, his most popular works are the early Episodios nacionales (46 volumes) and Fortunata y Jacinta, while outside Spain his Novelas españolas contemporáneas are better known.

The early novels mix historical and fictional characters and are the result of documentary research. As in Balzac's novels, some characters reappear in different novels. They cover the time from 1805 to the end of the 19th century, providing glimpses of Pérez Galdós's radical and anti-clerical views, which are developed in the contemporary novels. In Doña Perfecta (1876) a young radical arrives to a stiflingly clerical town. In Marianela (1878) a young man regains his eyesight after a life of blindness and rejects his best friend Marianela for her ugliness. In Miau (1888) a pretentious family lose their livelihood when the father, an aged civil servant, loses his job because of a change in government, and eventually kills himself.

Pérez Galdós's masterpiece is Fortunata y Jacinta (1886–1887). Almost as long as War and Peace, it concerns the fortunes of four characters: a young man-about-town, his wife, his lower-class mistress, and her husband. Ángel Guerra (1891) tells of an unbalanced man who attempts to win a devout and inaccessible woman, swinging from agnosticism to Catholicism in the process.

In 1886 then prime minister Práxedes Mateo Sagasta appointed him as the (absent) deputy for the town and district of Guayama, Puerto Rico at the Madrid parliament; he never visited the place, but had a representative inform him of the status of the area, and felt a duty to represent its inhabitants appropriately. In 1897, Pérez Galdós was elected to the Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy). In 1907 he became a deputy for the Republican Party in the parliament. He went blind in 1912 but continued to dictate his books for the rest of his life. Pérez Galdós died at the age of 76. Shortly before his death, a statue in his honour was constructed in the Parque del Retiro, the most popular park in Madrid, financed solely by public donations.

Galdós was a prolific writer, publishing 31 novels, 46 Episodios Nacionales (National Episodes), 23 plays, and the equivalent of 20 volumes of shorter fiction, journalism and other writings. He remains popular in Spain, and galdosistas (Galdós researchers) considered him Spain's equal to Dickens, Balzac and Tolstoy. As recently as 1950, few of his works were available translated to English, although he has slowly become popular in the Anglophone world.

While his plays are generally considered to be less successful than his novels, Realidad (1892) is important in the history of realism in the Spanish theatre.

His novels have yielded many cinematic adaptations: Beauty in Chains (Doña Perfecta) was directed by Elsie Jane Wilson in 1918; Viridiana (1961), by Luis Buñuel, is based upon Halma; Buñuel also adapted Nazarín (1959) and Tristana (1970); La duda was filmed in 1972 by Rafael Gil; El Abuelo (1988) (The Grandfather), by José Luis Garci, was internationally released a year later; it previously had been adapted as the Argentine film, El Abuelo (1954).

The Galdós museum in Las Palmas, Gran Canaria, features a portrait of the writer by Joaquín Sorolla.


Producción literaria

Novelas de tesis

Novelas españolas contemporáneas

Novelas espirituales

  • Ángel Guerra (1890–91)
  • Tristana (1892)
  • La loca de la casa (1892)
  • Torquemada en la cruz (1893)
  • Torquemada en el purgatorio (1894)
  • Torquemada y San Pedro (1895)
  • Nazarín (1895)
  • Halma (1895)
  • Misericordia (1897)
  • El abuelo (1897)
  • La estafeta romántica (1899)
  • Casandra (1905)
  • El caballero encantado (1909)
  • La razón de la sinrazón (1909)

Episodios nacionales




  • Crónicas de Portugal (1890)
  • Discurso de ingreso en la Real Academia Española (1897)
  • Memoranda, artículos y cuentos (1906)
  • La novela en el tranvía
  • Política española I (1923)
  • Política española II (1923)
  • Arte y crítica (1923)
  • Fisonomías sociales (1923)
  • Nuestro teatro (1923)
  • Cronicón 1883 a 1886 (1924)
  • Toledo. Su historia y su leyenda (1927)
  • Viajes y fantasías (1929)
  • Memorias (1930)

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Benito Pérez Galdós" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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