Black Consciousness Movement  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

The Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) was a grassroots anti-Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960s out of the political vacuum created by the jailing and banning of the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress leadership after the Sharpeville Massacre in 1960.


Important figures in the movement

Related groups

See also

Further reading

  • Black Power in South Africa: the Evolution of an Ideology (1979) by Gail M. Gerhart
  • From Protest to Challenge Nadir and Resurgence 1964 1979 (From Protest to Challenge: a Documentary History of African Politics in South Africa, 1882–1990) (1997) by Thomas G. Karis, Gail M. Gerhart
  • White Supremacy: a Comparative Study of American and South African History (1981) by George M. Fredrickson
  • At Canaan's Edge: America in the King Years, 1965-68 (2006) by Taylor Branch
  • The Black Consciousness Movement in South African Literature, by Amatoritsero (Godwin) Ede

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Black Consciousness Movement" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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