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"In the early 20th century, Guillaume Apollinaire radicalized the Baudelairian poetic exploration of modern life in evoking planes, the Eiffel Tower and urban wastelands, and he brought poetry into contact with cubism through his "Calligrammes", a form of visual poetry."--Sholem Stein

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Calligrammes, subtitled Poems of war and peace 1913-1916, (French: Calligrammes; poèmes de la paix et da la guerre, 1913-1916[1]) is a collection of poems by Guillaume Apollinaire, and was first published in 1918. Calligrammes is noted for how the typeface and spatial arrangement of the words on a page plays just as much of a role in the meaning of each poem, as the words themselves - a form called a calligram. In this sense, the collection can be seen as either concrete poetry or visual poetry. Apollinaire described his work as follows:

"The Calligrammes are an idealisation of free verse poetry and typographical precision in an era when typography is reaching a briliant end to its career, at the dawn of the new means of reproduction that are the cinema and the phonograph. --Guillaume Apollinaire, in a letter to André Billy" --Michel Butor

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