From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
The Catholic–Protestant Schism resulted in northern Europe being predominantly Protestant and southern Europe mostly Catholic. The various Protestant faiths are primarily popular in northern Europe (above the Moerdijk), whereas Catholicism remained dominant in southern Europe. Religious hostility was to continue, one example being the Thirty Years' War (1618-1648).
The Low Countries as faultline
During the 16th century , the northern region of the Low Countries, now known as the Netherlands became increasingly Protestant (i.e. Calvinistic), while the south remained primarily Catholic. The schism resulted in the Union of Atrecht. When Philip II, son of Charles, ascended the Spanish throne he tried to abolish all Protestantism. Portions of the Netherlands revolted, beginning the Eighty Years' War between the Netherlands and Spain. For the conquered Southern Netherlands the war ended in 1585 with the Fall of Antwerp. This can be seen as the start of Belgium as one region. That same year, the northern Low Countries (i.e. the Netherlands proper) seized independence in the Act of Abjuration (Plakkaat van Verlatinghe) and started the United Provinces and the Dutch Golden Age. For them, the war lasted until 1648 (the Peace of Westphalia), when Spain recognized the independence of the Netherlands, but held onto the loyal and Catholic region of modern-day Belgium which was all that remained of the Spanish Netherlands.
- Romano-Germanic culture
- Roman catholic
- Partition of Belgium
- Calvinistisch versus bourgondisch
- Grote rivieren
- European wars of religion