From The Art and Popular Culture Encyclopedia
A countercultural movement expresses the ethos, aspirations, and dreams of a specific population during a well-defined era. When oppositional forces reach critical mass, countercultures can trigger dramatic cultural changes.
Prominent examples of countercultures in Europe and North America include Romanticism (1790-1840), Bohemianism (1850-1910), the more fragmentary counterculture of the Beat Generation (1944-1964), the Hippie counterculture (1964-1974)
The term counterculture was first attested in the English language in 1970. Earlier countercultural milieux in 19th century Europe included the traditions of Romanticism, Bohemianism and of the Dandy.
Chronology of counterculture
Avant la lettre
Aristotle - Galileo Galilei - medieval heretics - libertine - enlightenment thinkers - French Revolution - anarchism - Bohemianism - Dandy - Marxism - modern art - avant-garde - Beat generation - Situationism (Europe) - Provo (Netherlands) - May 1968 (Paris)
Apres la lettre
The counterculture of the 1960s and early 1970s generated its own unique brand of notable literature, including comics and cartoons, and sometimes referred to as the underground press. This includes the work of Robert Crumb and Gilbert Shelton, and includes Mr. Natural; Keep on Truckin'; Fritz the Cat; Fat Freddy's Cat; Fabulous Furry Freak Brothers; the album cover art for Cheap Thrills; and contributions to International Times, The Village Voice, and Oz magazine. During the late '60s and early '70s, these comics and magazines were available for purchase in 'head shops' along with items like beads, incense, cigarette papers, tie-dye clothing, DayGlo posters, books, etc.
Counterculture Through the Ages
- As long as there has been culture, there has been counterculture. At times it moves deep below the surface of things, a stealth mode of being all but invisible to the dominant paradigm; at other times it’s in plain sight, challenging the status quo; and at still other times it erupts in a fiery burst of creative–or destructive–energy to change the world forever. --Counterculture Through the Ages (2004)
- list of counterculture films
- Lipstick Traces: A Secret History of the 20th Century
- Counterculture of the 1960s
- History of subcultures in the 20th century
- Counterculture by region