Counterculture Through the Ages  

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"Media, as we know it, first emerged at the beginning of the eighteenth century. Papers, journals, broadsheets, all became widely available in the new created public space of the coffeehouse. [...] The popular market for art and literature liberated writers and artists from the need for court patronage. No longer having to please their sponsors, they could experiment, and speak out as brashly as they wished." --Counterculture Through the Ages (2004) by Ken Goffman, p. 162


"The Greeks’ greatest sinner started getting some modern love when the Romantics embraced him at the start of the nineteenth century. Percy Shelley’s Prometheus Unbound got the ball rolling. Shelley completed the missing parts of Aeschylus’ tale, liberating the Greek god from his eternal suffering and setting him up as a hero for the post-Enlightenment era. As Theodore Roszak writes [in The Gendered Atom], “Prometheus Unbound is a song of the heights, a dizzy rhapsody offered to flight and the transcendence of all limits.” Indeed, where the Greeks saw hubris, Shelley saw “the highest perfection of moral and intellectual nature, impelled by the purest and the truest motives to the best and noblest ends.” If Prometheus is the champion of humankind against the cruel Greek god Zeus, Shelley uses the myth to unite mortals with God, defining man in Prometheus Unbound as “one harmonious soul of many a soul, whose nature is its own divine control.”" --Counterculture Through the Ages (2004) by Ken Goffman

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Counterculture Through the Ages is a 2004 non fiction book by Ken Goffman and Dan Joy, which traces the history of counterculture.

Contents

Blurb

As long as there has been culture, there has been counterculture. At times it moves deep below the surface of things, a stealth mode of being all but invisible to the dominant paradigm; at other times it’s in plain sight, challenging the status quo; and at still other times it erupts in a fiery burst of creative–or destructive–energy to change the world forever.
But until now the countercultural phenomenon has been one of history’s great blind spots. Individual countercultures have been explored, but never before has a book set out to demonstrate the recurring nature of counterculturalism across all times and societies, and to illustrate its dynamic role in the continuous evolution of human values and cultures.
Countercultural pundit and cyberguru R. U. Sirius brilliantly sets the record straight in this colorful, anecdotal, and wide-ranging study based on ideas developed by the late Timothy Leary with Dan Joy. With a distinctive mix of scholarly erudition and gonzo passion, Sirius and Joy identify the distinguishing characteristics of countercultures, delving into history and myth to establish beyond doubt that, for all their surface differences, countercultures share important underlying principles: individualism, anti-authoritarianism, and a belief in the possibility of personal and social transformation.
Ranging from the Socratic counterculture of ancient Athens and the outsider movements of Judaism, which left indelible marks on Western culture, to the Taoist, Sufi, and Zen Buddhist countercultures, which were equally influential in the East, to the famous countercultural moments of the last century–Paris in the twenties, Haight-Ashbury in the sixties, Tropicalismo, women’s liberation, punk rock–to the cutting-edge countercultures of the twenty-first century, which combine science, art, music, technology, politics, and religion in astonishing (and sometimes disturbing) new ways, Counterculture Through the Ages is an indispensable guidebook to where we’ve been . . . and where we’re going.

Bibliography

PART I: THE MAKINGS OF COUNTERCULTURES

CHAPTER ONE: ABRAHAM AND PROMETHEUS: Mythic Counterculture Rebels

Aeschylus, Prometheus Bound. Ginsberg, Allen, Kaddish and Other Poems, 1958–1960, City Lights Books, 1961. Goethe, Poems, 1853. Hertzberg, Arthur, with Aron Hirt-Manheimer, Jews: The Essence and Character of a People, HarperSanFrancisco, 1998. Kerényi, Carl, translated by Ralph Mannheim, Prometheus: ArchetypalImage of Human Existence, Princeton University Press, 1991. Kuhrt, Amelie, The Ancient Near East, Routledge, 1995. Lerner, Michael, Jewish Renewal: A Path to Learning and Trans formation, HarperPerennial, 1995. Nietzsche, Friedrich, translated by Douglas Smith, The Birth of Tragedy, Oxford University Press, 2000. Roszak, Theodore, The Gendered Atom, Conari Press, 1999. Rushkoff, Douglas, Nothing Sacred: The Truth About Judaism, Crown, 2003. Shelley, Percy Bysshe, Complete Poems, Modern Library, 1994. Soden, Wolfram von, The Ancient Orient: An Introduction to the Study of the Ancient Near East, Wm. B. Eerdmans, 1994. Werblowsky, R. J. Zwi, Lucifer and Prometheus, Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1952. Wilson, Robert Anton, Prometheus Rising, New Falcon Publications, 1993.

CHAPTER TWO: A DIFFERENT TYPE OF HUMAN EXCELLENCE: Defining Counterculture

Free (a.k.a. Abbie Hoffman), Revolution for the Hell of It, Pocket Books, 1968. Leary, Timothy, Flashbacks: A Personal and Cultural History of an Era, Jeremy Tarcher, 1983. Marcuse, Herbert, One-Dimensional Man, Beacon Press, 1964. Roszak, Theodore, The Making of a Counter Culture, Doubleday, 1969.

PART II: ACROSS THE SPAN OF TIMES AND PLACES

CHAPTER THREE: POLITICALLY INCORRECT: Socrates and the Socratic Counterculture

Davidson, James, Courtesans and Fishcakes, HarperCollins, 1997. Guthrie, William Keith Chambers, Socrates, Cambridge University Press, 1971. Leary, Timothy, Flashbacks: A Personal and Cultural History of an Era, Jeremy Tarcher, 1983. Munn, Mark, The School of History, University of California Press, 2000. Plato, The Portable Plato, edited by Scott Buchanan, Viking, 1948. Plato, translated by Benjamin Jowett, Apology; Crito; Phaedo; Symposium; Republic, Classics Club, 1942. Russell, Bertrand, A History of Western Philosophy, Simon & Schuster, 1945. Spielberg, Herbert, ed., The Socratic Enigma, Bobbs-Merrill, 1964. Stone, I. F., The Trial of Socrates, Little, Brown, 1988. Wilson, Pearl Cleveland, The Living Socrates, Stemmer House, 1975.

CHAPTER FOUR: LEAP INTO THE BOUNDLESS: Taoism

Chuang Tzu, The Complete Works of Chuang Tzu, translated by Burton Watson, Columbia University Press, 1968. Clarke, J. J., The Tao of the West: Western Transformations of Taoist Thought, Routledge, 2000. Fung Yu-lan, translated by Derk Bodde, A History of Chinese Philosophy Volume 2, The Period of Classical Learning, Princeton University Press, 1983. Kaltenmark, Max, Lao Tzu and Taoism, Stanford University Press, 1969. Lao-tzu, translated by Stephen Mitchell, Tao Te Ching, Harper & Row, 1988. Schipper, Kristofer, The Taoist Body, University of California Press, 1993. Watts, Alan, The Way of Liberation: Essays and Lectures on the Transformation of the Self, Weatherhill, 1983. Watts, Alan, with Al Chung-liang Huang, The Watercourse Way, Pantheon, 1975.

CHAPTER FIVE: THE HAND THAT STOPPED THE MIND: The Zen Counterculture

Fung Yu-lan, translated by Derk Bodde, A History of Chinese Philosophy, Volume 2, The Period of Classical Learning, Princeton University Press, 1983. Hyers, Conrad, The Laughing Buddha: Zen and the Comic Spirit, Longwood Academic, 1991. Kerouac, Jack, The Dharma Bums, Penguin, 1976. Nisker, Wes, Crazy Wisdom, Ten Speed Press, 1990. Smith, Huston, The Religions of Man, HarperPerennial, 1992. Snyder, Gary, Riprap and Cold Mountain Poems, Shoemaker & Hoard, 2004. Suzuki, D. T., Essays in Zen Buddhism, Grove Press, 1949. ———, An Introduction to Zen Buddhism, Grove Press, 1964. Watts, Alan, The Way of Zen, Vintage, 1957. ———, Zen and the Beat Way, Tuttle, 1997. Wu, John C. H., The Golden Age of Zen, Doubleday, 1996.

CHAPTER SIX: LOVE AND EVOLUTION: The Occult Counterculture of the Sufis

Bayman, Henry, Science, Knowledge, and Sufism, http://home. att.net/~nungan/sufiway/home.htm. Bennett, J. G., Gurdjie f: Making a New World, Bennett Books, 1992. The Drunken Universe: An Anthology of Persian Sufi Poetry, translation and commentary by Peter Lamborn Wilson and Nasrollah Pourjavady, Omega Publications, 1987. Ernst, Carl W., Sufism, Shambhala, 1997. Farzan, Massud, Another Way of Laughter: A Collection of Sufi Humor, E. P. Dutton, 1973. Rumi, The Essential Rumi, translated by Coleman Barks with John Moyne, HarperSanFrancisco, 1995. ———, Mystical Poems of Rumi 1: Jalal al-Din Rumi, translated by A. J. Arberry, University of Chicago Press, 1968. Schimmel, Annemarie, Mystical Dimensions of Islam, University of North Carolina Press, 1975. Sells, Michael A., ed., Stations of Desire: Love Elegies from Ibn ‘Arabi and New Poems, Ibis, 2000. Shah, Idries, The Sufis, Doubleday, 1964. ———, Tales of the Dervishes, E. P. Dutton, 1967. Smokey, Richard, and Jay Kinney, Hidden Wisdom, Penguin/ Arkana, 1999. Wilson, Peter Lamborn, Sacred Drift: Essays on the Margins of Islam, City Lights Books, 1993. ———, Scandal: Essays in Islamic Heresy, Autonomedia, 1988.

CHAPTER SEVEN: REMAKING LOVE: The Troubadours and the Heretic Spirit of Provence

Briffault, Robert, The Troubadours, edited by Lawrence F. Koons, Indiana University Press, 1965. Daniel, Arnaut, Pound’s Translations of Arnaut Daniel: A VariorumEdition with Commentary from Unpublished Letters, Garland, 1991. Shah, Idries, The Sufis, Doubleday, 1964.

CHAPTER EIGHT: CULTURAL AND POLITICAL REVOLUTION: The Enlightenment of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries

Ayer, A. J., Voltaire, Random House, 1986. Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn to Decadence: 1500 to the Present, 500 Years of Western Cultural Life, HarperCollins, 2000. Blanning, T. C. W., The Culture of Power and the Power of Culture, Oxford University Press, 2002. Gottschalk, Louis, with L. C. MacKinney and E. H. Pritchard, The Foundations of the Modern World, 1300–1775, Harper & Row, 1969. Paine, Thomas, Common Sense, The Rights of Man, and Other EssentialWritings of Thomas Paine, introduction by Sidney Hook, Meridian/Penguin, 1969. Simon, Julia, Mass Enlightenment: Critical Studies in Rousseau and Diderot, State University of New York Press, 1995. Voltaire, Philosophical Dictionary, translation and introduction by Peter Gay, Harcourt, Brace & World, 1962. Zinn, Howard, A People’s History of the United States, 1492– Present, HarperCollins, 1980.

CHAPTER NINE: TO EACH HIS OWN GOD: The American Transcendentalists

Baker, Carlos, Emerson Among the Eccentrics: A Group Portrait, Addison-Wesley, 1996. Blanchard, Paula, Margaret Fuller: From Transcendentalism to Revolution, Delacorte Press/Seymour Lawrence, 1978. Emerson, Ralph Waldo, The Essays of Ralph Waldo Emerson, introduction by Alfred Kazin, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1979. Hansen, Ellen, ed., The New England Transcendentalists: Life of the Mind and of the Spirit, Discovery Enterprise, 1993. Meltzer, Milton, and Walter Harding, A Thoreau Profile, Thomas Y. Crowell, 1962. Reynolds, David S., Walt Whitman’s America: A Cultural Biogra phy,Alfred A. Knopf, 1995. Rusk, Ralph, The Life of Ralph Waldo Emerson, Columbia University Press, 1949. Taylor, Bob Pepperman, America’s Bachelor Uncle: Thoreau and the American Polity, University Press of Kansas, 1996. Thoreau, Henry David, The Portable Thoreau, edited and introduced by Carl Bode, Viking Penguin, 1947. Whicher, George F., editor and introduction, The Transcendentalist Revolt: Problems in American Civilization, D. C. Heath, 1949.

CHAPTER TEN: BRILLIANT STORMS OF LAUGHTER: Bohemian Paris, 1904–1940

Barzun, Jacques, From Dawn to Decadence: 1500 to the Present, 500 Years of Western Cultural Life, HarperCollins, 2000. Fitch, Noel Riley, Sylvia Beach and the Lost Generation: A History of Literary Paris in the Twenties and Thirties, W. W. Norton, 1983. Franck, Dan, Bohemian Paris: Picasso, Modigliani, Matisse, and the Birth of Modern Art, Grove Press, 1998. Hemingway, Ernest, A Moveable Feast, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1964. ———, The Sun Also Rises, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1954. Joyce, James, Ulysses, Random House, 1934. Pizer, Donald, American Expatriate Writing and the Paris Moment:Modernism and Place, Louisiana State University Press, 1996. Plant, Sadie, Writing on Drugs, Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1999. Schalin, Leonard, Art & Physics: Parallel Visions in Space, Time & Light, Quill/William Morrow, 1991. Stein, Gertrude, The Autobiography of Alice B. Toklas, Vintage, 1990. PART III: AFTER HIROSHIMA, “THE” COUNTERCULTURE

CHAPTER ELEVEN: REBELS WITHOUT A CAUSE: The 1950s

Foster, Edward Halsey, Understanding the Beats, University of South Carolina Press, 1992. Ginsberg, Allen, Howl and Other Poems, City Lights Books, 1957. Gitlin, Todd, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage, Bantam, 1987. Kerouac, Jack, The Dharma Bums, Penguin, 1976. ———, On the Road, Penguin, 1999. Lotringer, Sylvère, ed., Burroughs Live 1960–1997, Semiotext(e), 2001. Mailer, Norman, The White Negro, City Lights Books, 1957. Miles, Barry, Ginsberg: A Biography, Simon & Schuster, 1989. Miller, Richard, Bohemia: The Protoculture Then and Now, Nelson-Hall, 1977. Shipton, Alyn, A New History of Jazz, Continuum, 2001.

CHAPTER TWELVE: WHEN YOU CHANGE WITH EVERY NEW DAY: The Youth

Counterculture, 1960–1967 Foss, Daniel, Freak Culture, E. P. Dutton, 1972. Free (a.k.a. Abbie Hoffman), Revolution for the Hell of It, Pocket Books, 1968. Gitlin, Todd, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage, Bantam, 1987. Leary, Timothy, Flashbacks: A Personal and Cultural History of an Era, Jeremy Tarcher, 1983. Lee, Martin A., and Bruce Schlain, Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion, Grove Weidenfeld, 1985. Miles, Barry, Ginsberg: A Biography, Simon & Schuster, 1989. ———, Paul McCartney: Many Years from Now, Henry Holt, 1997. Newton, Huey P., To Die for the People, Vintage, 1973. O’Neill, William L., The New Left: A History, Harlan Davidson, 2001. Roszak, Theodore, The Making of a Counter Culture, Doubleday, 1969.

CHAPTER THIRTEEN: WILD IN THE STREETS: The Youth Counterculture, 1968–1972

The Beatles, The Beatles Anthology, Chronicle, 2000. Foss, Daniel, Freak Culture, E. P. Dutton, 1972. Free (a.k.a. Abbie Hoffman), Revolution for the Hell of It, Pocket Books, 1968. Gitlin, Todd, The Sixties: Years of Hope, Days of Rage, Bantam, 1987. Leary, Timothy, with Robert Anton Wilson and George Koopman, Neuropolitics, Starseed/Peace Press, 1977. Lee, Martin A., and Bruce Schlain, Acid Dreams: The CIA, LSD and the Sixties Rebellion, Grove Weidenfeld, 1985. Lotringer, Sylvère, ed., Burroughs Live 1960–1997, Semiotext(e), 2001. Miles, Barry, Ginsberg: A Biography, Simon & Schuster, 1989. Neville, Richard, Play Power: Exploring the International Underground, Random House, 1970. Newton, Huey P., To Die for the People, Vintage, 1973. O’Neill, William L., The New Left: A History, Harlan Davidson, 2001. Roszak, Theodore, The Making of a Counter Culture, Doubleday, 1969. Rubin, Jerry, Do It! Scenarios of the Revolution, Simon & Schuster, 1970. Samberg, Paul, ed., FIRE! Reports from the Underground Press, E. P. Dutton, 1970.

CHAPTER FOURTEEN: THAT WHICH DOES NOT KILL ME MAKES ME HIPPER: The Hedonist/Nihilist Countercultures of the 1970s

Anderson, Patrick, High in America: The Incredible Story Behind the Marijuana Lobby and One Man’s E fort to Keep America Stoned and Out of Jail, Viking Press, 1981. Herman, Gary, Rock and Roll Babylon, Putnam, 1982. Leary, Timothy, The Intelligence Agents, Peace Press, 1979. Marcus, Greil, Lipstick Traces: A Secret History of the Twentieth Century, Harvard University Press, 1989. McNeil, Legs, and Gillian McCain, Please Kill Me: The Uncensored Oral History of Punk, Grove Press, 1996. Rossman, Michael, New Age Blues: On the Politics of Conscious ness, E. P. Dutton, 1979. Search and Destroy #1–6: The Complete Reprint, V/Search Publications, 1996. Warhol, Andy, The Philosophy of Andy Warhol from A to B and Back Again, Harcourt, 1975.

CHAPTER FIFTEEN: GLOBAL. DIGITAL. DOOMED?: Counterculture Leans into the Future

Dunn, Christopher, Brutality Garden: Tropicália and the Emergenceof a Brazilian Counterculture, University of North Carolina Press, 2001. George, Nelson, Hip Hop America, Viking Penguin, 1998. Huot, Claire, China’s New Cultural Scene, Duke University Press, 1990. JahSonic.com. Kelly, Kevin, Out of Control: The Rise of Neo-Biological Civilization, Perseus Publishing, 1994. Levy, Steven, Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution, Anchor, 1984. Rucker, Rudy, R. U. Sirius, and Queen Mu, eds., Mondo 2000: A User’s Guide to the New Edge, HarperPerennial, 1992. Sterling, Bruce, ed., Mirrorshades, Arbor House, 1986. Veloso, Caetano, Tropical Truth: A Story of Music and Revolution in Brazil, Alfred A. Knopf, 2002.




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