The Sandman (short story)  

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"When Nathaniel lay on the stone pavement, with his head shattered, Coppelius had disappeared in the crowd."

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

The Sandman (Der Sandmann, 1816) is a short story by E. T. A. Hoffmann. It was the first in a book of stories titled Die Nachtstücke (The Night Pieces).

The story tells of a student who carries from childhood a fear of the terrible Sandman who steals eyes. He has come to associate the Sandman in his mind with the unpleasant Coppelius who became implicated in the death of his father, and later in life he again encounters Coppelius who haunts his thoughts. Despite being engaged, he becomes enamoured of Olympia, a gynoid automaton built by Coppelius and an accomplice, believing her to be real. The discovery of the trick drives him into madness, and he ultimately jumps to his death.

Elements of the story were later adapted (very loosely) as the ballet Coppélia. Subsequently, it was also adapted as Act I of the opera Les contes d'Hoffmann.

"Der Sandmann" is extensively interpreted by Freud in a famous 1919 essay, The Uncanny ("Das Unheimliche").

Contents

Plot summary

The story is told by a narrator who claims to have known Nathanael. It begins by quoting three letters:

1. A letter from Nathanael to Lothar, brother of his fiancée Clara. Nathanael recalls his childhood terror of the legendary Sandman, who it was said would steal the eyes of children who would't go to bed and feed them to his own children who lived in the moon. Nathanael came to associate the Sandman with a mysterious nightly visitor to his father, and after discovering that the visitor was the obnoxious lawyer Coppelius coming to carry out alchemical experiments he comes to see Coppelius as the Sandman. One of these experiments caused his father's death in the presence of Coppelius, who then vanished without a trace. Nathanael believes that a barometer-seller who arrived recently at his rooms under the name Giuseppe Coppola is none other than the hated Coppelius, and he is determined to seek vengeance.

2. A letter from Clara to Nathanael, explaining that Nathanael had addressed the previous letter to her instead of to Lothar. She was touched at the account of Nathanael's childhood trauma, and discussed it with Lothar, but she is convinced that the terrors are of Nathanael's own imagining and urges him to put Coppelius/Coppola from his mind.

3. A letter from Nathanael to Lothar, in which Nathanael declares that Coppola is not, after all, Coppelius: Coppola is clearly Italian, while Coppelius was German, and Coppola is also vouched for by the new physics professor, Spalanzani, who is also Italian and has known Coppola for years. Nathanael adds that Spalanzani has a daughter, Olimpia, whose briefly glimpsed appearance has made a considerable impression on him.

Shortly after this third letter, Nathanael returns to his home town from his studies to see Clara and Lothar, and in the joy of their reunion Coppelius/Coppola is at first forgotten. Nevertheless, the encounter with Coppola has had a profound effect on Nathanael, driving him toward a gloomy mysticism which bores Clara and leads to a gradual estrangement. Indeed Nathanael's frustration leads him to call her an "inanimate, accursed automaton", which so enrages Lothar that he in turn insults Nathanael, and a duel is only narrowly averted by Clara's intervention. Nathanael pleads for Clara's forgiveness, and declares his true love for her, and a reconciliation is brought about.

Nathanael returns to complete the final year of his studies, after which he intends to return to his home town for ever. He finds his student lodgings destroyed by fire, though his possessions were rescued by his friends and moved to a new house which is opposite that of Spalanzani. His window now looks directly into that of Olimpia, and he is again struck by her beauty. Coppola calls to sell his wares, and offers "pretty eyes, pretty eyes!" which reawakens Nathanael's childish fear of the Sandman. However, it turns out that Coppola has lenses and spectacles to sell, and also small telescopes, and Nathanael buys one of these from him to set matters right after his earlier outburst. As Coppola leaves, Nathanael becomes fixated on watching Olimpia through his telescope, although her fixed gaze and motionless stance disconcert him.

Spalanzani gives a grand party at which it is reported that his daughter will be presented in public for the first time. Nathanael is invited, and becomes enraptured by Olimpia who plays the harpsichord, sings and dances. Her stiffness of movement and coldness of touch appear strange to many of the company. Nathanael dances with her repeatedly, although her timing is not quite right with the music, and eventually tells her of his passion for her, to which Olimpia replies only "Ah, ah!". In the days that follow he visits Olimpia repeatedly, reading her the poems and mysticism that had so bored Clara, and Olimpia listens to it all and replies only "Ah, ah!", which Nathanael interprets as understanding. Most other people consider her dull and stupid, although pretty, and with strangely mechanical actions.

Eventually Nathanael determines to propose to Olimpia, but when he arrives at her rooms he finds an argument in progress between Spalanzani and Coppola, who are fighting over the body of Olimpia and arguing over who made the eyes and who made the clockwork. Coppola, who is now revealed as Coppelius in truth, wins the struggle, and makes off with the lifeless and eyeless body, while the injured Spalanzani urges Nathanael to chase after him and recover the automaton to which he has devoted so many years of his life. The sight of Olimpia's eyes lying on the ground drives Nathanael to madness, however, and he flies at the professor to strangle him. He is pulled away by other people drawn by the noise of the struggle, and in a state of insanity is taken to an asylum.

Spalanzani recovers from the encounter, but is forced to leave the university because of the sensational revelation of the trick he had played in trying to pass off an automaton as a living person. Coppelius once more vanishes without trace. The narrator adds that the story of the automaton had a widespread effect on society, with many lovers taking steps to ensure they were not enamoured of puppets but of real flesh and blood.

Nathanael appears to recover from his madness and is reunited with Clara and Lothar. He resolves to marry Clara and move to a pleasant estate near his home town. On the way to visit the place, they pass through the town and climb the high steeple to look out at the view. The madness strikes Nathanael again, and he tries to hurl Clara from the steeple. She is saved by Lothar, but in the crowd that gathers below Coppelius appears, and when Nathanael sees him he cries "pretty eyes, pretty eyes!" and leaps over the railing to his death. Coppelius disappears into the crowd.

Many years afterward, the narrator concludes, it is said that Clara was seen with a kind-looking man sitting before a country house with two lively boys, and thus found the domestic happiness which Nathanael would never have given her.

Characters in "Der Sandmann"

  • Nathanael (the gift of God): narcissistic protagonist with a manic sense of mission.
  • Clara (the clear one): Nathanael's fiancée with a peaceful, judicious, yet fiery temperament.
  • Lothar: Clara's brother and Nathanael's friend
  • Nathanael's father: does alchemical experiments with Coppelius during Nathanael's childhood which lead to his death.
  • Coppelius: Fear-instilling, large and malformed man who spoiled the happiness of Nathanael and his siblings in their childhood and may be implicated in the death of Nathanael's father.
  • Coppola (ital.: eye cavities): Italian trader in barometers and lenses, in whom Nathanael recognizes Coppelius.
  • Spalanzani: physics professor with whom Nathanael is studying, and collaborator with Coppelius on building a lifelike automaton.
  • Olimpia ("she who comes from Olympus"; Classical context): "Daughter" of Nathanael's professor, who later is shown to be an automaton and is a reason for Nathanael's madness.
  • Siegmund (Protection): Attempts to save his friend Nathanael from unhappiness.

Folklore references

The story contains an example of a horrific depiction of the folklore character, the Sandman, who is traditionally said to throw sand in the eyes of children to help them fall asleep. The following excerpt is from an English translation of the story:

Most curious to know more of this Sandman and his particular connection with children, I at last asked the old woman who looked after my youngest sister what sort of man he was.

'Eh, Natty,' said she, 'don't you know that yet? He is a wicked man, who comes to children when they won't go to bed, and throws a handful of sand into their eyes, so that they start out bleeding from their heads. He puts their eyes in a bag and carries them to the crescent moon to feed his own children, who sit in the nest up there. They have crooked beaks like owls so that they can pick up the eyes of naughty human children.'

Interpretations

In the three opening letters which clarify the situation in this book , the characters and the conflict are first defined. Furthermore the psychic conflict of the protagonist,Nathannael, is represented, who is torn between hallucinations and reality. Nathanael struggles his whole life against post traumatic stress which comes from a traumatic episode with the sandman in his childhood experience. Until the end of the book it remains open whether this experience was real, or just a dream of the young Nathanael. The text clearly leaves the decision open in as much as it offers two understandings: that of Nathanael's belief that there is a dark power controlling him, and Clara's postulation (together with Lothar) against this that this is only a psychological element.

The story is partly a subjective description of the proceedings from Nathanael's viewpoint which, due to enormous psychological problems, is hardly likely to be an objective view of reality, or possibly also partially objectively portrayed, in which case the decision is not so easy to reach. Hoffman consciously leaves the reader unsure of this.

In this was the interpretation from an enlightenment perspective makes sense against the Romantic view, whereby Clara represents the enlightenment and Nathanael the Romantics.

Of central importance is the "eyes" theme (interpreted by Freud as fear of castration), the "steps", the robot and laughing. Consider eyes as a window to the soul, why would Nathanael see life in Olimpia’s eyes but not in Clara’s? Which of the women is really the robot? The doll who can integrate herself into high-society or the bourgeois girl with her enlightened scientific views?

Hoffman, well known for not conforming to society, manages to give a satirical critique of society here, which offers a lesson to both Enlightened scientists and Romantic "hoverers and floaters".

Consider the Coppelius / Coppola character not as a real physical character, but as a metaphor, like Nathanael does when he returns home. We can consider him to represent the dark side WITHIN Nathanael. Notice when this character appears during the novella, at what dramatic moments. Are they the same? Note the fight between Spalanzani and one or both of them for the “wooden doll”. We hear Coppelius’ voice but see Coppola.

Consider the motif of fists. Coppelius is always described as having fists, never hands.

"Der Sandmann" is extensively interpreted by Freud in a famous 1919 essay, The Uncanny ("Das Unheimliche").

Full text

THE SANDMAN.

BY E. T. W. HOFFMANN.

NATHANIEL TO LOTHAIRE.

CERTAINLY you must all be uneasy that I have not written for so long so very long. My mother, I am sure, is angry, and Clara will believe that I am passing my time in dissipation, entirely for- getful of the fair angel-image that is so deeply imprinted in my heart and mind. Such, however, is not the case. Daily and hourly I think of you all, and in my sweet dreams the kindly form of my lovely Clara passes before me, and smiles upon me with her bright eyes as she was wont when I appeared among you. Alas, how could I write to you in the distracted mood which has hitherto disturbed my every thought ! Something horrible has crossed my path of life. Dark forebodings of a cruel, threatening, fate spread themselves over me like dark clouds, which no friendly sunbeam can penetrate. Now will I tell you what has befallen me. I must do so, that I plainly see but if I only think of it, it will laugh out of me like mad. Ah, my dear Lothaire, how shall I begin it? How shall I make you in any way sensible that that which occurred to me a few days ago could really have such a fatal effect on my life? If you were here you could see for yourself, but now you will certainly take me for a crazy ghost-seer. In a word, the horrible thing which happened to me, and the painful impression of which I in vain en- deavour to escape, is nothing more than this; that some days ago, namely on the 30th of October, at twelve o'clock at noon, a baro- meter-dealer came into my room and offered me his wares. I bought nothing, and threatened to throw him down stairs, upon which he took himself off of his own accord.

You suspect that only relations of the most peculiar kind, and ex- erting the greatest influence over my life can give any import to this occurrence, nay, that the person of that unlucky dealer must have a hostile effect upon me. So it is, indeed. I collect myself with all my might, that patiently and quietly I may tell you so much of my early youth as will bring all plainly and clearlv in bright images be- fore your active mind. As I am about to begin I fancy that I hear you laughing and Clara saying: " Childish stories indeed!" Laugh


THE SANDMAN. 141

at me I beseech you, laugh with all your heart. But, heavens, my hair stands on end, and it seems as if I am asking you to laugh at me, in mad despair, as Franz Moor asked Daniel.* But to my story.

Excepting at dinner time I and my brothers and sisters saw my father very little during the day. He was, perhaps, busily engaged at his ordinary occupation. After supper, which, according to the old custom was served up at seven o'clock, we all went with my mother into my father's work-room, and seated ourselves at the round table. My father smoked tobacco and drank a large glass of beer. Often he told us a number of wonderful stories, and grew so warm over them that his pipe continually went out. I had to light it again, with burning paper, which I thought great sport. Often, too, he would give us picture-books, and sit in his arm-chair silent and thoughtful, puffing out such thick clouds of smoke that we all seemed to be swimming in the clouds. On such evenings as these my mother was very melancholy, and immediately the clock struck nine, she would say: " Now children, to bed to bed! . The Sand- man is coming, I can see." And certainly on all these occasions I heard something with a heavy, slow step go bouncing up the stairs. That I thought must be the Sandman. Once that dull noise and footstep were particularly fearful, and I asked my mother, while she took us away: "Eh, mamma, who is this naughty Sandman, who always drives us away from papa? What does he look like?" " There is no Sandman, dear child," replied my mother. " When I say the Sandman comes, I only mean that you are sleepy and can- not keep your eyes open, -just as if sand had been sprinkled into them." This answer of my mother's did not satisfy me nay, in my childish mind the thought soon matured itself that she only de- nied the existence of the Sandman to hinder us from being terrified at him. Certainly I always heard him coming up the stairs. Full of curiosity to hear more of this Sandman, and his particular con- nection with children, I at last asked the old woman who tended my youngest sister what sort of man he was. " Eh, Natty," said she, " do you not know that yet? He is a wicked man, who comes to children when they will not go to bed, and throws a handful of sand into their eyes, so that they start out bleeding from their heads. These eyes he puts in a bag and carries them to the half-moon to feed his own children, who sit in the nest up yonder, and have crooked beaks like owls with which they may pick up the eyes of the naughty human children."

A most frightful image of the cruel Sandman was horribly de- picted in my mind, and when in the evening I heard the noise on the stairs, I trembled with agony and alarm. My mother could get nothing out of me, but the cry of " The Sandman, the Sandman !" which was stuttered forth through my tears. I then ran into the


Two characters in Schiller's play of " Die Kauber.'


142 THE SANDMAN.

bed-room, where the frightful apparition of the Sandman terrified me during the whole night. I had already grown old enough to perceive that the nurse's tale about the Sandman and the nest of children in the half-moon could not be quite true, but, nevertheless, this Sandman remained a fearful spectre, and I was seized with the utmost horror 5 when I heard him not only come up the stairs, but violently force open my father's room-door and enter. Sometimes he staid away for a long period, but oftener his visits were in close succession. This lasted for years, and I could not accustom myself to the terrible goblin; the image of the dreadful Sandman did not become more faint. His intercourse with my father began more and more to occupy my fancy. An unconquerable fear prevented me from asking my father about it, but if I I myself could penetrate the mystery, and behold the wondrous Sandman that was the wish which grew upon me with years. The Sandman had brought me into the path of the marvellous and wonderful, which so readily finds a domicile in the mind of a child. Nothing was to me more de- lightful than to read or hear horrible stories of goblins, witches, pig- mies, &c. ; but above them all stood the Sandman, whom, in the oddest and most frightful shapes, I was always drawing with chalk or charcoal on the tables, cupboards, and walls. When I was ten years old, my mother removed me from the children's room into a little chamber, situated in a corridor near my father's room. Still, as before, we were obliged speedily to take our departure as soon as, on the stroke of nine, the unknown was heard in the house. I could hear in my little chamber how he entered my father's room, and then it soon appeared to me that a thin vapor of a singular odor dif- fused itself about the house. Stronger and stronger with my cu- riosity grew my resolution to form in some manner the Sandman's acquaintance. Often I sneaked from my room to the corridor, when my mother had passed, but never could I discover any thing, for the Sandman had always gone in at the door when I reached the place where I might have seen him. At last, urged by an irresistible im- pulse, I resolved to hide myself in my father's room and await the appearance of the Sandman.

By the silence of my father, and the melancholy of my mother, I perceived one evening that the Sandman was coming. I, therefore, feigned great weariness, left the room before nine o'clock, and hid myself in a corner close to the door. The house-door creaked, and the heavy, slow, groaning step went through the passage and towards the stairs. My mother passed me with the rest of the children. Softly very softly, I opened the door of my father's room. He sat as usually, stiff and silent, with his back turned to the door. He did not perceive me, and I swiftly darted into the room and behind the curtain, drawn before an open press, which stood close to the door, and in which my father's clothes were hanging. The steps sounded nearer and nearer there was a strange coughing and scrap- ing and murmuring without. My heart trembled with anxiety and


THE SANDMAN. 143

expectation. A sharp step close very close to the door, a smart stroke on the latch, and the door was open with a rattling noise. Screwing up my courage with all my might, I cautiously peeped out. The Sandman was standing before my father in the middle of the room, the light of the candles shone full upon his face. The Sandman, the fearful Sandman, was the old advocate Coppelius, who had often dined with us.

But the most hideous form could not have inspired me with deeper horror than this very Coppelius. Imagine a large broad- shouldered man, with a head disproportionately big, a face the co- lour of yellow ochre, a pair of gray bushy eyebrows, from beneath which a pair of green cat's eyes sparkled with the most penetrating lustre, and with a large nose curved over his upper lip. His wry mouth was often twisted into a malicious laugh, when a couple of dark red spots appeared upon his cheeks, and a strange hissing sound was heard through his compressed teeth. Coppelius always appeared in an ashen-graycoat, cut in old-fashioned style, with waistcoat and breeches of tKe~same colour, while his stockings were black, and his shoes adorned with buckles set with precious stones. The little peruke scarcely reached further than the crown of his head, the curls stood high above his large red ears, and a broad hair-bag projected stiffly from his neck, so that the silver buckle which fastened his folded cravat might be plainly seen. The whole figure was hideous and repulsive, but most disgusting to us children were his coarse brown hairy fists ; indeed, we did not like to eat what he had touched with them. This he had remarked, and it was his delight, under some pretext or other, to touch a piece of cake, or some nice fruit, that our kind mother might privately have put in our plate, in order that we, with tears in our eyes, might, from disgust and abhorrence, no longer be able to enjoy the treat intended for us. He acted in the same manner on holidays, when my father gave us a little glass of sweet wine. Then would he swiftly draw his fist over it, or perhaps he would even raise the glass to his blue lips, and laugh most devilishly, when we could only ex- press our indignation by soft sobs. He always called us the little beasts, we dared not utter a sound when he was present, and we heartily cursed the ugly, unkind man, who deliberately marred our slightest pleasures. My mother seemed to hate the repulsive Cop- pelius as much as we did, since as soon as he showed himself her liveliness, her free and cheerful rnind was changed into a gloomy solemnity. My father conducted himself towards him, as though he was a superior being, whose bad manners were to be tolerated, and who was to be kept in good humour at any rate. He need only give the slightest hint, and the favourite dishes were cooked, and the choicest wines served.

When I now saw this Coppelius, the frightful and terrific thought took possession of my soul, that indeed no one but he could be the Sandman. But the Sandman was no longer that bugbear of a


144 THE SANDMAN.

nurse's tale, who provided the owl's nest in the half-moon with children's eyes, no, he was a hideous spectral monster, who, wherever he appeared, brought with him grief, want, and destruc- tion temporal and eternal.

I was ri vetted to the spot as if enchanted. At the risk of being discovered, and as I plainly foresaw, of being severely punished, I remained with my head peeping through the curtain. My father received Coppelius with solemnity. " Now to our work !" cried the latter with a harsh, grating voice, as he flung off his coat. My father silently and gloomily drew off his night-gown, and both attired them- selves in long black frocks. Whence they took these, I did not see. My father opened the door of what I had always thought to be a cup- board, but I now saw that it was no cupboard, but rather a black hol- low, in which there was a little hearth. Coppelius entered, and a blue flame began to crackle up on the hearth. All sorts of strange uten- sils lay around. Heavens ! As my old father now stooped down to the fire, he looked quite another man. A frightful convulsive pain seemed to have distorted his mild reverend features into a hideous repulsive diabolical countenance. He looked like Coppelius : the lat- ter was brandishing red hot tongs, and with them taking shining masses busily out of the thick smoke, which he afterwards hammered. It seemed to me, as if I saw human faces around without any eyes but with deep holes instead. " Eyes here, eyes !" said Coppelius in a dull roaring voice. Overcome by the wildest terror, I shrieked out, and fell from my hiding place upon the floor. Coppelius seized me, and showing his teeth, bleated out, " Ah lime wretch, little wretch !" then dragging me up, he flung me on the hearth, where the fire began to singe my hair. "Now we have eyes enough a pretty pair of child's eyes." Thus whispered Coppelius and taking out of the flame some red-hot grains with his fists, he was about to sprinkle them in my eyes. My father upon this raised his hands in supplication, and cried : " Master, master, leave my Nathaniel his eyes !" Coppelius uttered a yelling laugh, and said : " Well let the lad have his eyes and cry his share in the world, but we will examine the mechanism of his hands and feet. And then he seized me so forcibly that my joints cracked, and screwed off my hands and feet, and then put them on again, one here and the other there. " Every thing is not right here ! As good as it was the old one has under- stood it !" So did Coppelius say, in a hissing, lisping tone, but all around me became black and dark, a sudden cramp darted through my bones and nerves and I lost all feeling. A gentle warm breath passed over my face ; I woke as out of a sleep of death. My mother had been stooping over me. " Is the Sandman yet there ?>' I stam- mered. " No, no, my dear child, he has gone away long ago, he will not hurt you !" So said my mother, and she kissed and em- braced her recovered darling.

Why should I weary you, my dear Lothaire ! Why should I be so diffuse with details, when I have so much more to tell. Suffice it to say, that I had been discovered while watching, and ill-used by


THE SANDMAN* 145

Coppelius. Agony and terror had brought on delirium and fever, of which I lay sick for several weeks. " Is the sandman still there?" That was my first sensible word and the sign of my amendment my recovery. I can now only tell you, the most frightful moment in my juvenile years. Then you will be convinced that it is no fault of my eyes, that all to me seems colourless, but that a dark fatality has actually suspended over my life a gloomy veil of clouds, which I shall perhaps only tear away in death.

Coppelius was no more to be seen ; it was said he had left the town.

About a year might have elapsed, when, according to the old custom, we sat at the round table. My father was very cheerful, and told much that was entertaining, about his travels in his youth; when, as the clock struck nine, we heard the house-door creak on the hinges, and slow steps, heavy as iron, groaned through the pas- sage and up the stairs. " That is Coppelius," said my mother, turning pale. "Yes! that is Coppelius!" repeated my father, with a faint broken voice. The tears started from my mother's eyes. "But father father!" she cried, "must it be so?" "He comes to me for the last time, I promise you," was the answer. " Only go now go with the children go go to bed. Good night !" .

I felt as if I were pressed into cold, heavy stone, my breath was stopped. My mother caught me by the arm as I stood immoveable. " Come, come, Nathaniel !" I allowed myself to be led, and entered my chamber ! " Be quiet be quiet go to bed go to sleep !" cried my mother after me ; but tormented by restlessness, and an inward anguish perfectly indescribable, I could not close my eyes. The hateful, abominable Coppelius stood before me with fiery eyes, and laughed at me maliciously. It was in vain that I endeavoured to get rid of his image. About midnight there was a frightful noise, like the firing of a gun. The whole house resounded. There was a rattling and a rustling by my door, and the house-door was closed with a violent sound. "That is Coppelius!" I cried, and I sprang out of bed in terror. There was then a shriek as if of acute incon- solable grief. I darted into my father's room; the door was open, a suffocating smoke rolled towards me, and the servant girl cried: " Ah, my master, my master !" On the floor of the smoking hearth lay my father dead, with his face burned and blackened, and hideously distorted, my sisters were shrieking and moaning around him, and my mother had fainted. " Coppelius ! cursed Satan, thou hast slain my father !" I cried, and lost my senses. When, two days afterwards, my father was laid in his coffin, his features were again as mild and gentle as they had been in his life. My soul was comforted by the thought that his compact with the de- vilish Coppelius could not have plunged him into eternal perdition.

The explosion had awakened the neighbours, the occurrence had become the common talk, and had reached the ears of the magis-

L


146 THE SAtfDMAtf.

tracy, who wished to make Coppelius answerable. He had, how- ever, vanished from the spot, without leaving a trace.

If I tell you, my dear friend, that the barometer-dealer was the accursed Coppelius himself, you will not blame me for regarding a phenomenon so unpropitious as boding some heavy calamity. He was dressed differently, but the figure and features of Coppelius are too deeply imprinted in my mind, for an error in this respect to be possible. Besides, Coppelius has not even altered his name. As I hear he gives himself out as a Piedmontese optician, and calls him- self Giuseppe Coppola.

I am determined to cope with him, and to avenge my father's death, be the issue what it may.

Tell my mother nothing of the hideous monster's appearance. Re- member me to my dear sweet Clara, to whom I will write in a calmer mood. Farewell.

CLARA TO NATHANIEL.

It is true that you have not written to me for a long time, but nevertheless I believe that I am still in your mind and thoughts. For assuredly you were thinking of me most intently, when design- ing to send your last letter to my brother Lothaire, you directed it to me, instead of him. I joyfully opened the letter, and did not perceive my error till I came to the words : " Ah, my dear Lothaire." Now, by rights I should have read no farther, but should have handed over the letter to my brother. Although you have often in your childish teasing mood, charged me with having such a quiet, womanish, steady disposition, that like the lady, even if the house were about to fall in, I should smooth down a wrong fold in the window curtain before I ran away, I can hardly tell you how your letter shocked me. I could scarcely breathe, my eyes became dizzy. Ah, my dear Nathaniel, how could such a hor- rible event have crossed your life? To be parted from you, never to see you again, the thought darted through my breast like a burn- ing dagger. I read and read. Your description of the repulsive Coppelius is terrific. For the first time I learned, how your good old father died a shocking violent death. My brother Lothaire, to whom I gave up the letter as his property, sought to calm me, but in vain. The fatal barometer-maker, Giuseppe Coppola followed me at every step, and I am almost ashamed to confess that he dis- turbed my healthy and generally peaceful sleep with all sorts of hor- rible visions. Yet soon, even the next day, I was quite changed again. Do not be offended, dearest one, if Lothaire tells you, that in spite of your strange misgiving, that Coppelius will in some man- ner injure you, I am in the same cheerful unembarrassed frame of mind as ever.

I will honestly confess to you that, according to my opinion, all the terrible things of which you speak, merely occurred in your own


SANDMAK. 147

mind, and that the actual external world had little to do with them. Old Coppelius may have been repulsive enough, but his hatred of children was what really caused the abhorrence of your children to- wards him.

In your childish mind the frightful sandman in the nursed tale was naturally associated with old Coppelius, who, even if you had not be- lieved in the sandman, would still have been a spectral monster, especially dangerous to children. The awful nightly occupation with your father, was no more than this, that both secretly made alchemi- cal experiments, and with these your mother w r as constantlydissatis- ficd, since besides a great deal of money being uselessly wasted, your father's mind being filled with a fallacious desire after higher wisdom was alienated from his family as they say, is always the case with such experimenalists. Your father no doubt, by some act of care- lessness, occasioned his own death, of which Coppelius was com- pletely guiltless. Would you believe it, that I yesterday asked our neighbour, the clever apothecary, whether such a sudden and fatal ex- plosion was possible in such chemical experiments? "Certainly," he replied, and in his way told me at great length and very cir- cumstantially how such an event might take place, uttering a num- ber of strange-sounding names, which I am unable to recollect. Now, I know you will be angry with your Clara ; you will say that her cold disposition is impenetrable to every ray of the mysterious, which often embraces man with invisible arms, that she only sees the varigated surface of the world, and has the delight of a silly child, at some gold-glittering fruit, which contains within it a deadly poison. Ah ! my dear Nathaniel ! Do you not then believe that even in free, cheerful, careless minds, here may dwell the suspicion of some dread power, which endeavours to destroy us in our own selves? Forgive me, if I, a silly girl, presume in any manner to indicate, what I really think of such an internal struggle; I shall not find out the right words after all, and you will laugh at me, not be- cause my thoughts arc foolish, but because I set about so clumsily to express them.

If there is a dark power, which with such enmity and treachery lays a thread within us, by which it holds us fast, and draws us along a path of peril and destruction, which we should not other- wise have trod; if, I say, there is such a power, it must form itself within us, or from ourselves; indeed, become identical with our- selves, for it is only in this condition that we can believe in it, and grant it the room which it requires, to accomplish its secret work. Now, if we have a mind, which is sufficiently firm, sufficiently strengthened by cheerful life, always to recognise this strange hos- tile operation as such, and calmly to follow the path which be- longs to our inclination and calling, then will the dark power fail in its attempt to gain a power, that shall be a reflection of ourselves. Lothaire adds that it is certain, that the dark physical power, if of our own accord, we have yielded ourselves up to it, often draws within us

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148 THE SANDMAN*

some strange form, which the external world has thrown in our way, so that we ourselves kindle the spirit, which, as we in our strange de- lusion believe, speaks to us in that form. It is the phantom of our own selves, the close relationship with which, and its deep operation on our mind casts us into hell, or transports us into heaven. You see, dear Nathaniel, that I and my brother Lothaire have freely given our opinion on the subject of dark powers, which subject, now I find I have not been able to write down the chief part without trouble, appears to me somewhat deep. Lothaire's last words I do not quite comprehend. I can only suspect what he means, and yet I feel as if it were all very true. I beg of you, get the ugly advocate, Coppelius, and the barometer-seller, Giuseppe Coppola, quite out of your head. Be convinced that these strange fears have no power over you, and that it is only a belief in their hostile influence that can make them hostile in reality. " If the great excitement of your mind did not speak from every line of your letter, if your situation did not give me the deepest pain, I could joke about the Sandman -Advocate, and the barometer-seller, Coppelius. Be cheerful, I have determined to ap- pear before you as your guardian-spirit, and if the ugly Coppelius takes it in his head to annoy you in your dreams, to scare him away with loud peals of laughter. I am not a bit afraid of him nor of his disgusting hands; he shall neither spoil my sweetmeats as an ad- vocate, nor my eyes as a sandman. Ever yours, my dear Nathaniel.

NATHANIEL TO LOTHAIRE.

I am very sorry that in consequence of the error occasioned by my wandering state of mind, Clara broke open the letter intended for you, and read it. She has written me a very profound philosophical epistle, in which she proves, at great length, that Coppelius and Cop- pola only exist in my own mind, and are phantoms of myself, which will be dissipated directly I recognise them as such. Indeed, one could not believe that the mind which often peers out of those bright, smiling, childish eyes, like a sweet charming dream, could define with such intelligence, in such a professor-like manner. She appeals to you you, it seems have been talking about me. I suppose you read her logical lectures, that she may learn to divide and sift every thing acutely. Pray leave it off. Besides it is quite certain that the barometer-dealer, Guiseppc Coppola, is not the advocate Coppelius. I attend the lectures of the professor of physics, who has lately ar- rived. His name is the same as that of the famous natural philo- sopher, Spalanzani, and he is of Italian origin. He has known Coppola for years, and moreover it is clear from his accent that he is really a Piedmontesc. Coppelius was a German, but I think no honest one. Calmed I am not, and though vou and Clara may consider me a gloomy visionary, I cannot get rid of the impression, which the accursed face of Coppelius makes upon me. I am glad that Coppola has left the town, as Spalanzani says. This professor is a strange fellow a little round man, with high cheek bones,


<sor I

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THE SANDMAN. 149

sharp nose, pouting lips, and little piercing eyes. Yet you will get a better notion of him than by this description, if you look at the portrait of Cagliostro, designed by Chodowiecki, in one of the Berlin annuals, Spalanzani looks like that exactly. I lately went up stairs, and perceived that the curtain, which was generally drawn com- pletely over a glass door, left a little opening on one side. I know not what curiosity impelled me to look through, a tall and very slender lady most symmetrically formed, and most splendidly attired, sat in the room by a little table on which she had laid her arms, her hands being folded together. She sat opposite to the door, so that I could completely see her angelic countenance. She did not appear to see me, and indeed there was something fixed about her eyes as if, I might almost say, she had no power of sight. It seemed to me that she was sleeping with her eyes open. I felt very uncomfortable, and therefore I slunk away into the auditorium, which was close at hand. Afterwards I learned that the form I had seen was that of Spalanzanfs daughter Olympia, whom he kept confined in a very strange and improper manner, so that no one could approach her. After all, there may be something the matter with her; she is silly perhaps, or something of the kind. But why should I write you all this? I could have conveyed it better and more circumstantially by word of mouth. Know that I shall see you in a fortnight. I must again behold my dear; sweet, angelic Clara. The ill-humour will then be dispersed, which, I must confess, has endeavoured to get the mastery over me, since that fatal, sensible letter. Therefore I do not write to her to-day. A thousand greetings, &c.


Nothing more strange and chimerical can be imagined than that which occurred to my poor friend, the young student Nathaniel, and which I, gracious reader, have undertaken to tell you. Have you, kind reader, ever known a something that has completely filled your heart, thoughts, and senses, so as to exclude every thing else? There was in you a fermentation and a boiling, and your blood in- ilamcd to the hottest glow bounded through your veins, and gave a higher colour to your cheeks. Your glance was so strange, as if you wished to perceive, in empty space, forms which to no other eyes are visible, and your, speech flowed away into dark sighs. Then your friends asked you: "What is it, revered one?" " What is the matter, dear one." And now you wished to express the inter- nal picture with all its glowing tints, with all its light and shade, and laboured hard to find words only to begin. You thought that in the very first word you ought to crowd together all the wonderful, noble, horrible, comical, frightful, that had happened, so that it might strike all the hearers at once like an electric shock. But every word, every thing that is in the form of speech, appeared to you colourless, cold and dead. You hunt and hunt, and stutter


150 THE SANDMAN.

and stammer, and tlic sober questions of your friends dart like icy breezes upon your internal fire until it is ready to go out; whereas if, like a bold painter, you had first with a few daring strokes drawn an outline of the internal picture, you might with small trouble have laid on the colours brighter and brighter, and the living throng of various forms would have carried your friends along with it, and they, like you, would have seen themselves in the pic- ture that had proceeded from your mind. Now I must confess to you, kind reader, that no one has really asked me for the history of the young Nathaniel, but you know well enough that I belong to the queer race of authors, who, if they have any thing in their mind, such as I have just described, feel as if every one who comes near them, and indeed perhaps the whole world besides, is asking them: "What is it then tell it, my dear friend?" Thus was I forcibly compelled to tell you of the momentous life of Nathaniel. The singularity and marvellousness of the story filled my entire soul, but for that very reason and because, my reader, I had to make you equally inclined to endure oddity, which is no small matter, I tormented myself to begin the history of Nathaniel in a manner as inspiring, original and striking as possible. " Once upon a time," the beautiful beginning of every tale, was too tame. " In the little

provincial town of S lived" was somewhat better, as it at least

prepared for the climax. Or should I dart at once medias in res, with " Go to the devil, cried the student Nathaniel with rage and horror in his wild looks, when the barometer-seller, Guiseppe Cop- pola?" I had indeed already written this down, when I fancied that in the wild looks of the student Nathaniel, I could detect something ludicrous, whereas the story is not comical at all. No form of lan- guage suggested itself to my mind, which even in the slightest degree seemed to reflect the colouring of the internal picture. I resolved that I would not begin it at all. So take, gentle reader, the three letters, which friend Lothaire was good enough to give me, as the sketch of the picture which I shall endeavour to colour more and more as I proceed in my narrative. Perhaps, like a good portrait- painter, I may succeed in catching many a form in such a manner, that you will find it is a likeness without having the original, and feel as if you had often seen the person with your own corporeal eyes. Perchance, dear reader, you will then believe that nothing is stranger and madder than actual life, and that this is all that the poet can conceive, as it were in the dull reflection of a dimly polished mirror.

In order that that which it is necessary in the first place to know, may be made clearer, we must add to these letters the circumstance, that shortly after the death of Nathaniel's father, Clara and Lothaire, the children of a distant relative, who had likewise died, and left them orphans, were taken by Nathaniel's mother to her own home. Clara and Nathaniel formed a strong attachment for each other, and no one in the world having any objection to make, they were be-


THE SANDMAN. 151

trotlied, when Nathaniel left tlie place to pursue his studies in

G . He is, according to the date of his last letter, hearing the

lectures of the celebrated professor of physics, Spalanzani.

Now I could proceed in my story with confidence, but at this moment Clara's image stands so plainly before me, that I cannot look another way, as indeed was always the case when she gazed at me, with one of her lively smiles. Clara could not by any means be reckoned beautiful ; that was the opinion of all who are competent judges of beauty, by their calling. Nevertheless, the architects praised the exact symmetry of her frame, and the painters considered her neck, shoulders, and bosom almost too chastely formed, but then they all fell in love with her wondrous Magdalen-hair, and above every thing prated about battonisch colouring. One of them, a most fantastical fellow, singularly compared Clara's eyes to a lake by Ruysdael, in which the pure azure of a cloudless sky, the wood and flowery field, the whole cheerful life of the rich landscape are reflected. Poets and composers went still further. " What is a lake what is a mirror!" said they, " can we look upon the girl without wondrous, heavenly songs and tunes flashing towards us from her glances, and penetrating our inmost soul, so that all there is awakened and stirred. If even then we sing nothing that is really sensible, there is not much in us, and that we can feelingly read in the delicate smile which plays on Clara's lips, when we presume to tinkle something before her, which is to pass for a song, although it is only a confused jumble of tones." So it was. Clara had the vivid fancy of a cheerful, unembarrassed child, a deep, tender, fe- minine disposition, an acute, clever understanding. The misty dreams had but a bad chance with her, since, though she did not talk, as indeed talking would have been altogether repugnant to her tacit nature, her bright glance and her firm ironical smile would say to them: " Good friends, how canyon imagine that I shall take your fleeting shadowy images for real forms with life and motion?" On this account Clara was censured by many as cold, unfeeling and prosaic; while others, who conceived life in its clear depth, greatly loved the feeling, acute, childlike girl, but none so much as Natha- niel, whose perception in art and science was clear and strong. Clara was attached to her lover with all her soul, and when he parted from her, the first cloud passed over her life. With what transport did she rush into his arms when, as he had promised in his last letter to Lothaire, he had actually returned to his native town and entered his mother's room. Nathaniel's expectations were completely fulfilled; for directly he saw Clara he thought neither of the Advocate Coppelius, nor of her " sensible" letter. All gloomy forebodings had gone.

However, Nathaniel was quite right, when he wrote to his friend Lothaire that the form of the repulsive barometer-seller, Coppola, had had a most hostile effect on his life. All felt, even in the first days, that Nathaniel had undergone a thorough change in his whole tern-


152 THE SANDMAN.

perament. He sank into a gloomy reverie , and conducted himself in a strange manner, that had never been known in him before. Every thing, his whole life, had become to him a dream and a foreboding, and he was always saying that every man, although he might think himself free, only served for the cruel sport of dark powers. These he said it was vain to resist, and man must patiently resign himself to his fate. He went even so far as to say, that it is foolish to think that we do any thing in art and science according to our own self-acting will, for the inspiration which alone enables us to produce any thing, does not proceed from within ourselves, but is the effect of a higher principle without.

To the clear-headed Clara this mysticism was in the highest degree repugnant, but contradiction appeared to be useless. Only when Nathaniel proved that Coppelius was the evil principle, which had seized him at the moment when he was listening behind the curtain, and that this repugnant principle would in some horrible manner disturb the happiness of their life, Clara grew very serious, and said: " Yes, Nathaniel, you are right. Coppelius is an evil, hos- tile principle; he can produce terrible effects, like a diabolical power that has come invisibly into life; but only then, when you will not banish him from your mind and thoughts. So long as you believe in him he really exists, and exerts his influence ; only your belief is his power."

Nathaniel, quite indignant that Clara established the demon's existence only in his own mind, would then come out with all the mystical doctrine of devils and fearful powers. But Clara would break off peevishly, by introducing some indifferent matter, to the no small annoyance of Nathaniel. He thought that such deep secrets were closed to cold, unsusceptible minds, without being clearly aware that he reckoned Clara among these subordinate natures, and therefore he constantly endeavoured to initiate her into the mys- teries. In the morning, when Clara was getting breakfast ready, he stood by her, and read out of all sorts of mystical books, till she cried: " But, dear Nathaniel, suppose I blame you as the evil prin- ciple, that has a hostile effect upon my coffee? For if to please you, I leave every thing standing still, and look in your eyes, while you read, my coffee will run into the fire, and none of you will get any breakfast."

Nathaniel closed the book at once, and hurried indignantly to his chamber. Once he had a remarkable forte for graceful, lively tales, which he wrote down, and to which Clara listened with the greatest delight; now, his creations were gloomy, incompre- hensible, formless, so that although Clara, out of compassion, did not say so, he plainly felt how little she was interested. Nothing was more insupportable to Clara than tediousncss; in her looks and in her words a mental drowsiness, not to be conquered, was ex- pressed. Nathaniel's productions were, indeed, very tedious. His indignation at Clara's cold, prosaic disposition, constantly increased,


THE SANDMAN. 153

and Clara could not overcome her dislike of Nathaniel's dark, gloomy, tedious mysticism, so that they became more and more estranged from each other in mind, without perceiving it. The form of the ugly Coppelius, as Nathaniel himself was forced to con- fess, grew more dim in his fancy, and it often cost him trouble to colour with sufficient liveliness in his pictures, when he appeared as a ghastly bugbear of fate. At last it struck him that he would make the gloomy foreboding, that Coppeliu^s would destroy his hap- piness in love, the subject of a poem. He represented himself and Clara as united by true love ; but occasionally it seemed as though a black hand darted into their life, and tore away some newly- springing joy. At last, while they were standing at the altar, the hideous Coppelius appeared, and touched Clara's lively eyes. They flashed into Nathaniel's heart, like bleeding sparks, scorching and burning, when Coppelius caught him, and flung him into a flaming, fiery circle, which flew round with the swiftness of the stream, and carried him along with it, amid its roaring. The roar is like that of the hurricane, when it fiercely lashes the foaming waves, which, like black giants with white heads, rise up for the furious combat. But through the wild tumult he hears Clara's voice: " Can you not, then, see me? Coppelius has deceived you. Those, indeed, were not my eyes, which so burned in your breast they were glowing drops of your own heart's blood. I have my eyes still only look at them!" Nathaniel reflects: "That is Clara, and I am hers for ever!" Then it seems to him as though thought forcibly entered the fiery circle, which stands still, while the noise dully ceases in the dark abyss. Nathaniel looks into Clara's eyes, but it is only death that, with Clara's eyes, kindly looks on him.

While Nathaniel composed this poem he was very calm and col- lected; he polished and improved every line, and having subjected himself to the fetters of metre, he did not rest till all was correct and melodious. When at last he had finished and read the poem aloud to himself, a wild horror seized him, and he cried out: " Whose horrible voice is that?" Soon, however, the whole appeared to him a very successful work, and he felt that it must inflame Clara's cold temperament, although he did not clearly consider for what Clara was to be excited, nor what purpose it would answer to torment her with the frightful images which threatened a horrible destiny, destructive to their love. Both of them that is to say Nathaniel and Clara were sitting in their mother's little garden, Clara very cheerful, because Nathaniel, during the three days in which he had been writing his poem, had not teased her with his dreams and his forebodings. Even Nathaniel spoke livelily and joyfully about plea- sant matters, as he used to do formerly, so that Clara said: " Now for the first time I have you acrain ! Do you not see that we have driven away the ugly Coppelius ?" Then it first struck Nathaniel that he had in his pocket the poem, which he had intended to read. He


154 THE SANDMAN.

at once drew the sheets out and began, while Clara, expecting something tedious as usual, resigned herself and began quietly to knit. But as the dark cloud rose ever blacker and blacker, she let the stocking fall and looked full into his face. He was carried along unceasingly by his poem, an internal fire deeply reddened his cheeks, tears flowed from his eyes. At last when he had concluded, he groaned in a state of utter exhaustion, and catching Clara's hand, sighed forth, as if melted into the most inconsolable grief: " Oh Clara! Clara 1" Clara pressed him gently to her bosom, and said softly, but very so- lemnly and sincerely : " Nathaniel, dearest Nathaniel, do throw that mad, senseless, insane stuff into the fire 1" Upon this Nathaniel sprang up enraged, and thrusting Clara from him, cried: " Thou inanimate, accursed automaton !" He ran off; Clara, deeply offended, shed bitter tears, and sobbed aloud: " Ah, he has never loved me, for he does not understand me." Lothaire entered the arbour; Clara was obliged to tell him all that had occurred. He loved his sister with all his soul, and every word of her complaint fell like a spark of fire into his heart, so that the indignation which he had long har- boured against the visionary Nathaniel, now broke out into the wildest rage. He ran to Nathaniel and reproached him for his senseless con- duct towards his beloved sister in hard words, which the infuriated Nathaniel retorted in the same style. The appellation of" fantastical, mad fool," was answered by that of" miserable common-place fellow." A duel was inevitable. They agreed on the following morning, according to the academical custom of the place, to fight with sharp rapiers behind the garden. Silently and gloomily they slunk about. Clara had overheard the violent dispute, and seeing the fencing- master bring the rapiers at dawn, guessed what was to occur. Hav- ing reached the place of combat, Lothaire and Nathaniel had in gloomy silence flung off their coats, and with the fierce desire of fight- ing in their flaming eyes, were about to fall upon one another, when Clara rushed through the garden door. Sobbing, she cried aloud, "Ye wild cruel men! Strike me down before you attack each other, for how shall I live longer in the world if my lover mur- ders my brother, or my brother murders my lover. 5 ' Lothaire lowered his weapon, and looked in silence on the ground ; but in Nathaniel's heart, amid the most poignant sorrow, revived all the love for the beautiful Clara, which he had felt in the best days of his happy youth. The weapon fell from his hand, he threw himself at Clara's feet. " Can you ever forgive me, my only my beloved Clara? Can you forgive me, my dear brother, Lothaire?"

Lothaire was touched by the deep contrition of his friend; all three embraced in reconciliation amid a thousand tears, and vowed eternal love and fidelity.

Nathaniel felt as though a heavy burden, which pressed him to the ground, had been rolled away, as though by resisting the dark power, which held him fast, he had saved his whole being, which had been threatened with annihilation. Three happy days he passed


THE SANDMAN. 155

with his dear friends, and then went to G , where he intended

to stay a year, and then to return to his native town for ever.

All that referred to Coppclius was kept a secret from the mother, for it was well known that she could not think of him without terror, as she, as well as Nathaniel, accused him of causing her hus- band's death.


How surprised was Nathaniel, when proceeding to his lodging, he saw that the whole house was burned down, and that only the bare walls stood up amid the ashes. However, notwithstanding the fire had broken out in the laboratory of the apothecary who lived on the ground-floor, and had therefore consumed the house from bottom to top, some bold active friends had succeeded in entering Na- thaniel's room in the upper story, in time to save the books, manu- scripts, and instruments. They carried all safe and sound into an- other house, where they took a room, which Nathaniel entered at once. He did not think it at all remarkable that he lodged opposite to Professor Spalanzani ; neither did it appear singular when he per- ceived that his window looked straight into the room where Olym- pia often sat alone, so that he could plainly recognise her figure, al- though the features of her face were indistinct and confused. At last it struck him, that Olympia often remained for hours in this at- titude, in which he had once seen her through the glass-door, sitting at a little table without any occupation, and that she plainly enough looked over at him with an unvarying glance. He was forced to confess that he had never seen a more lovely form, but with Clara in his heart, the stiff Olympia was perfectly indifferent to him. Oc- casionally, to be sure, he gave a transient look over his compendium, at the beautiful statue, but that was all. He was just writing to Clara, when he heard a light tap at the door ; it paused at his words, and the repulsive face of Coppola peeped in. Nathaniel's heart trembled within him, but remembering what Spalanzani had told him about the countryman, Coppola, and also the sacred promises he had made to Clara with respect to the Sandman Coppelius, he felt ashamed of his childish fear, and collecting himself with all his might, said as softly and civily as possible: " I do not want a barometer, my good friend; pray, go." Upon this, Coppola ad- vanced a good way into the room, and said in a hoarse voice, while his wide mouth distorted itself into a hideous laugh, and his little eyes under their long gray lashes sparkled forth piercingly: " Eh, ch 110 barometer no barometer? I have besides pretty eyes pretty eyes !" " Madman!" cried Nathaniel with horror, " how can you have eyes? Eyes?' But Coppola had already put his baro- meter aside, and plunged his hand into his wide coat-pocket, whence he drew lunettes and spectacles, which he placed upon the table " There there spectacles on the nose, those are my eyes pretty eyes 1" And so saying he drew out more and more spectacles so,


156 THE SANDMAN.

that tlic whole table began to glisten and sparkle in the most extra- ordinary manner. A thousand eyes glanced, and quivered convul- sively, and stared at Nathaniel ; yet he could not look away from the table, and Coppola kept still laying down more and more spec- tacles, while naming glances were intermingled more and more wildly, and shot their blood-red rays into Nathaniel's breast. Over- come with horror, he shrieked out: " Hold, hold, frightful man!" He seized fast by the arm Coppola, who was searching his pockets to bring out still more spectacles, although the whole table was already covered. Coppola had greatly extricated himself with a hoarse repulsive laugh, and with the words: " Ah, nothing for you but here are pretty glasses;" he had collected all the spectacles, put them up, and from the breast-pocket of his coat had drawn forth a number of telescopes large and small. As soon as the spec- tacles were removed Nathaniel felt quite easy, and thinking of Clara, perceived that the hideous phantom was but the creature of his own mind, and that Coppola was an honest optician, and could by no means be the accursed double of Coppelius. Moreover, in all the glasses which Coppola now placed on the table, there was nothing remarkable, or at least nothing so ghost-like as the spectacles, and to make matters right Nathaniel resolved to buy something of Coppola. He took up a little and very neatly worked pocket-telescope, and looked through the window to try it. Never in his life had he met a glass which brought the objects so sharply, plainly, and clearly before his eyes. Involuntarily he looked into Spalanzani's room; Olympia was sitting as usual before the little table, with her arms laid upon it, and her hands folded. For the first time could he see the wondrous beauty in the form of her face; only the eyes seemed to him singularly stiff and dead. Nevertheless, as he looked more sharply through the glass, it seemed to him as if moist morn-beams were rising in the eyes of Olympia. It was as if the power of seeing was kindled for the first time ; the glances flashed with constantly increasing liveliness. As if spell-bound, Nathaniel reclined against the window, meditating on the charming Olympia. A hemming and scraping aroused him as if from a dream. Cop- pola was standing behind him: " Tre zeccluni three ducats!" Nathaniel, who had quite forgotten the optician, quickly paid him what he asked. " Is it not so? A pretty glass a pretty glass ?" asked Coppola, in his hoarse, repulsive voice, and with his ma- licious smile. "Yes yes," replied Nathaniel, peevishly; "good bye, friend." Coppola left the room, not without casting many strange glances at Nathaniel. He heard him laugh loudly on the stairs. " Ah," thought Nathaniel, "he is laughing at me because no doubt, I have paid him too much for this little glass." While he softly uttered these words, it seemed as if a deep deadly sigh was sounding fearfully through the room, and his breath was stopped by inward anguish. He perceived, however, that it was himself that had sighed. " Clara," he said to himself, " is right in taking me for


THE SANDMAN. 157

a senseless dreamer, but it is pure madness nay, mote than mad- ness, that the stupid thought, that I have paid Coppola too much for the glass, pains me even so strangely. I cannot see the cause."" He now sat down to finish his letter to Clara ; but a glance through the window convinced him that Olympia was still sitting there, and he instantly sprang out, as if impelled by an irresistible power, seized Coppola's glass, and could not tear himself from the seduc- tive view of Olympia, till his friend and brother Sigismund, called him to go to Professor Spalanzani's lecture. The curtain was drawn close before the fatal room, and he could neither per- ceive Olympia now nor during the two following days 5 although he scarcely ever left the window, and constantly looked through Cop- pola's glass. On the third day the windows were completely co- vered. Quite in despair, and impelled by a burning wish, he ran. out of the town-gate. Olympia's form floated before him in the air, stepped forth from the bushes, and peeped at him with large beaming eyes from the clear brook. Clara's image had completely vanished from his mind; he thought of nothing but Olympia, and complained aloud and in a murmuring tone: " Ah, thou noble, sublime star of my love, hast thou only risen upon me, to vanish immediately, and leave me in dark hopeless night?"

When he was retiring to his lodging, he perceived that there was a great bustle in Spalanzani's house. The doors were wide open, all sorts of utensils were being carried in, the windows of the first floor were being taken out, maid servants were going about sweeping and dusting with great hair-brooms, and carpenters and upholsterers were knocking and hammering within. Nathaniel remained standing in the street in a state of perfect wonder, when Sigismund came up to him,, laughing, and said: Now, what do you say to our old Spalanzani?"' Nathaniel assured him that he could say nothing because he knew nothing about the professor, but on the contrary perceived with as- tonishment the mad proceedings in a house otherwise so quiet and gloomy. Pie then learnt from Sigismund that Spalanzani intended to give a grand festival on the following day, a concert and ball and that half the university was invited. It was generally reported that Spalanzani, who had so long kept his daughter most painfully from every human eye, would now let her appear for the first time.

Nathaniel found a card of invitation, and with heart beating highly went at the appointed hour to the professor's, where the coaches were; already rolling, and the lights were shining in the decorated saloons . The company was numerous and brilliant. Olympia appeared dressed with great richness and taste. Her beautifully turned face, her figure called for admiration. The somewhat strange bend of her back inwards, the wasp-like thinness of her waist, seemed to be produced by too tight lacing. In her step and deportment there was some- thing measured and stiff, which struck many as unpleasant, but it was ascribed to the constraint produced by the company. The concert began, Olympia played the piano with great dexterity, and


158 THE SANDMAN.

executed a bravura, with a voice, like the sound of a glass bell, clear, and almost cutting. Nathaniel was quite enraptured ; he stood in the hindermost row, and could not perfectly recognise Olympia's features in the dazzling light. He, therefore, quite unperceived, took out Cop- pola's glass, and looked towards the fair Olyrnpia. Ah ! then he saw, with what a longing glance she looked towards him, how every tone first resolved itself plainly in the glance of love, which penetrated, in its glowing career, his inmost soul. The artistical roulades seemed to Nathaniel the exultation of a mind illuminated with love, and when, at last, after the cadence, the long trill sounded shrilly through the saloon, he felt as if grasped by glowing arms; he could no longer restrain himself, but with mingled pain and rapture shouted out, " Olympia !" All looked at him, and many laughed. The organist of the cathedral made a more gloomy face than usual, and simply said: " Well, well." The concert had finished, the ball began. " To dance with her with her!" That was the aim of all Nathaniel's wishes, of all his efforts ; but how to gain courage to ask her, the queen of the festival? Nevertheless he himself did not know how it happened no sooner had the dancing begun, than he was standing close to Olympia, who had not yet been asked to dance, and, scarcely able to stammer out a few words, had seized her hand. The hand of Olympia was as cold as ice ; he felt a hor- rible deadly frost thrilling through him. He looked into her eye that was beaming full of love and desire, and at the same time it seemed as though the pulse began to beat, and the stream of life to glow in the cold hand. And in the soul of Nathaniel the joy of love rose still higher; he clasped the beautiful Olympia, and with her flew through the dance. He thought that his dancing was usually correct as to time, but the peculiar rhythmical steadiness with which Olympia moved, and which often put him completely out, soon showed him, that his time was very defective. However, he would dance with no other lady, and would have liked to murder any one who approached Olympia for the purpose of asking her. But this only happened twice, and to his astonishment Olympia re- mained seated after every dance, when he lost no time in making her rise again. Had he been able to see any other object besides the fair Olympia, all sorts of unfortunate quarrels would have been inevitable, for the half-soft, scarcely-suppressed laughter, which arose among the young people in every corner, was manifestly directed to Olympia, whom they pursued with very curious glances one could not tell why. Heated by the dance, and by the wine, of which he had freely partaken, Nathaniel had laid aside all his ordi- nary reserve. He sat by Olympia, with her hand in his, and, highly inflamed and inspired, told his passion, in words which no one understood neither himself nor Olympia. Yet, perhaps, she did; for she looked immovcably in his face, and sighed several times, " Ah, ah !" Upon this, Nathaniel said, " Oh, thou splendid, hea- venly lady ! Thou ray from the promised land of love thou deep


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soul, in winch all my being is reflected !" witli much more stuff of the like kind; but Olympia merely went on sighing, " Ah ah!" Professor Spalanzani occasionally passed the happy pair, and smiled on them, with a look of singular satisfaction. To Nathaniel, although he felt in quite another region, it seemed all at once as though Professor Spalanzani was gowing considerably darker; he looked around, and, to his no small horror, perceived that the two last candles in the empty saloon had burned down to their sockets, and were just going out. Music and dancing had ceased long ago. " Separation separation !" he cried, wildly, and in despair; he kissed Olympia's hand, he bent towards her mouth, when his glowing lips were met by lips cold as ice ! Just as when he touched Olympia's cold hand, he felt himself overcome by horror; the legend of the dead bride darted suddenly through his mind, but Olympia pressed him fast, and her lips seemed to recover to life at his kiss. Professor Spalanzani strode through the empty hall, his steps caused a hollow echo, and his figure, round which a flickering shadow played, had a fearful, spectral appearance. " Dost thou love me, dost thou love me, Olympia? Only this word ! Dost thou love me?" So whis- pered Nathaniel; but Olympia, as she rose, only sighed, " Ah ah !" " Yes, my gracious, my beautiful star of love," said Nathaniel, " thou hast risen upon me, and thou wilt shine, ever illuminating my inmost soul." " Ah ah !" replied Olympia, going. Nathaniel followed her ; they both stood before the professor.

" You have had a very animated conversation with my daughter," said he, smiling; " so, dear Herr Nathaniel, if you have any taste for talking with a silly girl, your visits shall be welcome."

Nathaniel departed, with a whole heaven beaming in his bosom. The next day Spalanzani's festival was the subject of conversation. Notwithstanding the professor had done every thing to appeal- splendid, the wags had all sorts of incongruities and oddities to talk about, and were particularly hard upon the dumb, stiff Olym- pia, to whom, in spite of her beautiful exterior, they ascribed absolute stupidity, and were pleased to find therein the cause why Spalanzani kept her so long concealed. Nathaniel did not hear this without increased rage; but, nevertheless, he held his peace, for, thought he, "Is it worth while to convince these fellows that it is their own stupidity that prevents them from recognising Olympia's deep, noble mind?"

One day Sigismund said to him: " Be kind enough, brother, to tell me how it was possible for a sensible fellow like you to fall in love with that wax face, that wooden doll up there?"

Nathaniel was about to fly out in a passion, but he quickly recol- lected himself, and retorted: " Tell me, Sigismund, how it is that Olympia's heavenly charms could escape your glance, which generally perceives every thing so clearly your active senses? But, for that very reason, Heaven be thanked, I have not you for my rival; otherwise, one of us must have fallen a bleeding corpse !"


160 THE SANDMAN.

Sigisrmmd plainly perceived his friend's condition, so lie skilfully gave the conversation a turn, and added, after observing that in love- affairs there was no disputing about the object : " Nevertheless it is strange, that many of us think much the same about Olympia. To us pray do not take it ill, brother, she appears singularly stiff and soulless. Her shape is symmetrical so is her face that is true ! She might pass for beautiful, if her glance were not so utterly with- out a ray of life without the power of seeing. Her pace is strangely measured, every movement seems to depend on some wound-up clockwork. Her playing her singing has the unpleasantly correct and spiritless measure of a singing machine, and the same may be said of her dancing. To us, this Olympia has been quite unplea- sant ; we wished to have nothing to do with her ; it seems as if she acts like a living being, and yet has some strange peculiarity of her own." Nathaniel did not com


completely yield to the bitter feeling, which was coming over him at these words of Sigismund ; he mas- tered his indignation, and merely said, with great earnestness, " Well may Olympia appear awful to you, cold prosaic man. Only to the poetical mind does the similarly organised develop itself. To me alone was her glance of love revealed, beaming through mind and thought; only in the love of Olympia do I find myself again. It may not suit you, that she does not indulge in idle chit- chat like other shallow minds. She utters few words, it is true, but these few words appear as genuine hieroglyphics of the inner world, full of love and deep knowledge of the spiritual life in con- templation of the eternal yonder. But you have no sense for all this, and my words are wasted on you." " God preserve you, brother," said Sigismund very mildly, almost sorrowfully; " but it seems to me, that you are in an evil way. Yoii may depend upon me, if all no, no, I will not say any thing further." All of a sudden it seemed (to Nathaniel as if the cold prosaic Sigismund meant very well to- wards him, and, therefore, he shook the proffered hand very heartily. Nathaniel had totally forgotten, that there was in the world a Ckra, whom he had once loved; his mother Lothaire all had vanished from his memory; he lived only for Olympia, with whom he sat for hours every day, uttering strange fantastical stuff about his love, about the sympathy that glowed to life, about the affinity of souls, to all of which Olympia listened with great devotion. From the very bottom of his desk, he drew out all that he had ever writ- ten. Poems, fantasies, visions, romances, tales this stock was daily increased with all sorts of extravagant sonnets, stanzas, und canzone, and he read all to Olympia for hours in succession without fatigue. Never had he known such an admirable listener. She neither embroidered nor knitted, she never looked out of window, she fed no favourite bird, she played neither with lap-dog nor pet cat, she did not twist a slip of paper nor any thing else in her hand, she was not obliged to suppress a yawn by a gentle forced cough. In short, she sat for hours, looking straight into her lover's eyes, without


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stirring, and her glance became more and more lively and animated. Only when Nathaniel rose at last, and kissed her hand and also her lips, she said " Ah, ah !" adding " good night, dearest !" " Oh deep, noble mind !" cried Nathaniel in his own room, " by thee, by thee, dear one, am I fully comprehended." He trembled with inward transport, when he considered the wonderful accordance that was revealed more and more every day in his own mind, and that of Olympia, for it seemed to him as if Olympia had spoken con- cerning him and his poetical talent out of the depths of his own mind; as if the voice had actually sounded from within himself. That must indeed have been the case, for Olympia never uttered any words whatever beyond those which have been already mentioned. Even when Nathaniel, in clear and sober moments, as for instance, when he had just woke in the morning, remembered Olympia's utter pas- sivity, and her paucity and scarcity of words, he said: "Words, words ! The glance of her heavenly eye speaks more than any lan- guage here below. Can a child of heaven adapt herself to the narrow circle which a miserable earthly necessity has drawn?" Professor Spalanzani appeared highly delighted at the intimacy of his daughter with Nathaniel. To the latter he gave the most une- quivocal signs of approbation, and when Nathaniel ventured at last to hint at an union with Olympia, he smiled with his white face, and thought " he would leave his daughter a free choice in the matter." Encouraged by these words, and with burning passion in his heart, Nathaniel resolved to implore Olympia on the very next day, that she would say directly , in plain words, that which her kind glance had told him long ago ; namely, that she loved him. He sought the ring which his mother had given him at parting, that he might give it to Olympia as a symbol of his devotion, of his life which budded forth and bloomed with her alone. Clara's letters and Lothaire's came into his hands during the search; but he flung them aside indifferently, found the ring, put it up and hastened over to Olympia. Already on the steps, in the hall he heard a strange noise, which seemed to proceed from Spalanzani's room. There was a stamping, a clattering, a pushing, a hurling against the door, intermingled with curses and imprecations. " Let go, let go, rascal ! scoundrel ! Body and soul ventured in it ? Ha, ha, ha ! that I never will consent to I, I made the eyes, I the clockwork stupid blockhead with your clockwork accursed dog of a bungling watch-maker off with you Satan stop, pipe-maker infernal beast hold begone let go !" These words were ut- tered by the voices of Spalanzani, and the hideous Coppelius, who was thus raging and clamoring. Nathaniel rushed in, overcome by the most inexpressible anguish. The professor held a female figure fast by the shoulders, the Italian Coppola grasped it by the feet, and thus they were tugging and pulling, this way and that, con- tending for the possession of it, with the unmost fury. Natha- niel started back with horror, when in the figure he recognised

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162 THE SANDMAN.

Olympia. Boiling with the wildest indignation, lie was about to rescue his beloved from these infuriated men, but at that moment, Coppola, turning himself with the force of a giant, wrenched the figure from the professor's hand, and then with the figure itself gave him a tremendous blow, which made him reel and fall backwards over the table, where vials, retorts, bottles, and glass cylinders were standing. All these were dashed to a thousand shivers. Now Coppola flung the figure across his shoulders, and, with frightful, yelling laughter, dashed down the stairs, so that the feet of the figure, which dangled in the ugliest manner, rattled with a wooden sound on every step. Nathaniel stood paralysed ; he had seen but too plainly that Olympia's waxen, deadly pale counte- nance had no eyes, but black holes instead she was, indeed, a life- less doll. Spalanzani was writhing on the floor; the pieces of glass had cut his head, heart, and arms, and the blood was spirting up, as from so many fountains. But he soon collected all his strength. " After him after him why do you pause? Coppelius, Coppe- lius, has robbed me of my best automaton a work of twenty years body and soul set upon it the clock-work the speech the walk, mine; the eyes stolen from you. The infernal rascal after him ; fetch Olympia there you have the eyes !"

And now Nathaniel saw how a pair of eyes, which lay upon the ground, were staring at him ; these Spalanzani caught up, with the un wounded hand, and flung against his heart. At this, madness seized him with its burning claws, and clutched into his soul, tear- ing to pieces all his thoughts and senses. " Ho ho ho a circle of fire 1 of fire ! turn thyself round, circle ! merrily, merrily, ho, thou wooden doll turn thyself, pretty doll !" With these words he flew at the professor and pressed in his throat. He would have strangled him, had not the noise attracted many people, who rushed in, forced open Nathaniel's grasp, and thus saved the professor, whose wounds were bound immediately. Sigismund, strong as he was, was not able to master the mad Nathaniel, who with frightful voice kept crying out: "Turn thyself, wooden doll!" and struck around him with clenched fists. At last the combined force of many succeeded in overcoming him, in flinging him to the ground, and binding him. His words were merged into a hideous roar, like that of a brute, and raging in this insane condition he was taken to the mad-house.

Before, gentle reader, I proceed to tell thec what more bcfel the unfortunate Nathaniel, I can tell tlicc, in case thou takcst an interest in the skilful optician and automaton-maker, Spalanzani, that he was completely healed of his wounds. He was, however, obliged to leave the university, because Nathaniel's story had created a sensation, and it was universally deemed an unpardonable imposition to smuggle wooden dolls instead of living persons into respectable tea-parties for such Olympia had visited with success. The lawyers called it a most subtle deception, and the more culpable, inasmuch as he had


THE SANDMAN. 163

planned it so artfully against the public, that not a single soul a few cunning students excepted had detected it, although all now wished to play the acute, and referred to various facts, which ap- peared to them suspicious. Nothing very clever was revealed in this way. For instance, could it strike any one as so very suspicious, that Olympia, according to the expression of an elegant tea-ite, had, contrary to all usage, sneezed oftener than she had yawned? " The former" remarked this elegant person, " was the self-winding-up of the concealed clockwork, which had, moreover, creaked audibly" and so on. The professor of poetry and eloquence took a pinch of snuff, clapped first the lid of his box, cleared his throat, and said, solemnly, " Ladies and gentlemen, do you not perceive how the whole affair lies? It is all an allegory a continued metaphor you understand me Sapienti sat" But many were not satisfied with this; the story of the automaton had struck deep root into their souls, and, in fact, an abominable mistrust against human figures in general, began to creep in. Many lovers, to be quite convinced that they were not enamoured of wooden dolls, would request their mistress to sing and dance a little out of time, to embroider and knit, and play with their lap-dogs, while listening to reading, &c. ; and, above all, not to listen merely, but also sometimes to talk, in such a manner as presupposed actual thought and feeling. With many did the bond of love become firmer, and more chaining, while others, on the contrary, slipped gently out of the noose. " One cannot really answer for this," said some. At tea-parties, yawn- ing prevailed to an incredible extent, and there was no sneezing at all, that all suspicion might be avoided. Spalanzani, as already stated, was obliged to decamp, to escape the criminal prosecution for fraudulently introducing an automaton into human society. Coppola had vanished also.

Nathaniel awakened as from a heavy, frightful dream ; he opened his eyes, and felt an indescribable sensation of pleasure streaming through him, with soft heavenly warmth. He was in bed in his own room, in his father's house, Clara was stooping over him, and Lothaire and his mother were standing near. '* At last, at last, oh beloved Nathaniel, hast thou recovered from thy serious illness now thou art again mine !" So spoke Clara, from the very depth of her soul, and clasped Nathaniel in her arms. But with mingled sorrow and delight did the brightly glowing tears fall from his eyes, and he deeply groaned forth: "My own my own Clara!" Sigismund, who had faithfully remained with his friend in the hour of trouble, now entered. Nathaniel stretched out his hand to him. " And thou, faithful brother, hast not deserted me?" Every trace of Na- thaniel's madness had vanished, and he soon gained strength amid the care of his mother, his beloved, and his friends. Good fortune also had visited the house, for an old penurious uncle, of whom no- thing had been expected, had died, and had left the mother, besides considerable property, an estate in a pleasant spot near the town.

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164 THE SANDMAK.

Thither Nathaniel, with his Clara, whom he now thought of marry- ing, his mother, and Lothaire, desired to go. Nathaniel had now grown milder and more docile than he had ever been, and he now understood, for the first time, the heavenly purity and the greatness of Clara's mind. No one, by the slightest hint, reminded him of the past. Only, when Sigismund took leave of him, Nathaniel said : " Heavens, brother, I was in an evil way, but a good angel led me betimes to the path of light ! Ah, that was Clara !" Sigismund did not let him carry the discourse further for fear that deeply wounding recollections might burst forth bright and flaming. It was about this time that the four happy persons thought of going to the estate. They were crossing, at noon, the streets of the city, where they had made several purchases, and the high steeple of the town-house already cast its gigantic shadow over the market-place. " Oh," said Clara, " let us ascend it once more, and look at the distant moun- tains !" No sooner said than done. Nathaniel and Clara both as- cended the steps, the mother returned home with the servant, and Lothaire, not inclined to clamber up so many steps, chose to remain below. The two lovers stood arm in arm in the highest gallery of the tower, and looked down upon the misty forests, behind which the blue mountains were rising like a gigantic city.

" Look there at that curious little gray bush, which actually seems as if it were striding towards us," said Clara. Nathaniel mechani- cally put his hand into his breast pocket he found Coppola's tele- scope, and he looked on one side. Clara was before the glass. There was a convulsive movement in his pulse and veins, pale as death, he stared at Clara, but soon streams of fire flashed and glared from his rolling eyes, and he roared frightfully, like a hunted beast. Then he sprang high into the air, and, in the intervals of a horrible laughter, shrieked out, in a piercing tone, " Wooden doll turn thy- self !" Seizing Clara with immense force he wished to hurl her down, but with the energy of a desperate death-struggle she clutched the railings. Lothaire heard the raging of the madman he heard Clara's shriek of agony fearful forebodings darted through his mind, he ran up, the door of the second flight was fastened, and the shrieks of Clara became louder and louder. Frantic with rage and anxiety, he dashed against the door, which, at last, burst open. Clara's voice became fainter and fainter. " Help help save me!" with these words the voice seemed to die in the air. " She is gone murdered by the madman !" cried Lothaire. The door of the gallery was also closed, but despair gave him a giant's strength, and he burst it from


the hinges. Heavens Clara, grasped by the mad Nathaniel, was hanging in the air over the gallery, only with one hand she still held one of the iron railings. Quick as lightning Lothaire caught his sister, drew her in, and, at the same moment, struck the madman in the face with his clenched fist, so that he reeled and let go his prey.

Lothaire ran down with his fainting sister in his arms. She


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saved. Nathaniel went raging about the gallery and bounded high in the air, crying, u Fire circle turn thyself turn thyself!" The people collected at the sound of the wild shriek, and among them, prominent by his gigantic stature, was the advocate Coppelius, who had just come to the town, and was proceeding straight to the market-place. Some wished to ascend and secure the madman, but Coppelius laughed, saying, "Ha, ha, only wait he will soon come down of his own accord," and looked up like the rest. Nathaniel suddenly stood still as if petrified; he stooped down, perceived Cop- pelius, and yelling out, " Ah, pretty eyes pretty eyes !" he sprang over the railing.

When Nathaniel lay on the stone pavement, with his head shattered, Coppelius had disappeared in the crowd.

Many years afterwards it is said that Clara was seen in a remote spot, sitting hand in hand with a kind-looking man before the door of a country house, while two lively boys played before her. From, this it may be inferred that she at last found that quiet domestic hap- piness which suited her serene and cheerful mind, and which the morbid Nathaniel would never have given her.

J.O.




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