Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Don Fernando Álvarez de Toledo y Pimentel, 3rd Duke of Alba (October 29, 1507December 11, 1582) was a Spanish general and governor of the Spanish Netherlands (1567-1573), nicknamed "the Iron Duke" by Protestants of the Low Countries because of his harsh rule and cruelty. Tales of atrocities committed during his military operations in Flanders became part of Dutch and English folklore, forming a new and central component of the Black Legend.




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Fernando Álvarez de Toledo, 3rd Duke of Alba" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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