Early modern warfare  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Early Modern warfare is associated with the start of the widespread use of gunpowder and the development of suitable weapons to use the explosive. Gunpowder was first invented in China and then later spread to western nations of the Middle East]]. It then found its way into Eastern Europe following the invasions of the Mongols, who had employed Chinese gunpowder-based weapons to conquer parts of Europe and the Middle East. Later it arrived into Central and Western Europe following the Crusades, when European forces discovered the substance from the Islamic forces they faced. It was brought to the Indian subcontinent by the Middle East as well in the 14th century. Prior to the 15th century, gunpowder was used on a limited basis, but its use became universal in the Early Modern Age, its apex occurring during the Napoleonic Wars from 1792 to 1815.

The understanding of "gunpowder warfare", expressed here, comes from the works of Michael Roberts who argued that a military revolution occurred in the sixteenth century that forever changed warfare, and society in general. Since he wrote in the 1950s his narrative has been augmented and challenged by other scholars. When exactly the revolution occurred is debated, and whether it was a revolution or a slow transformation is also discussed.

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Early modern warfare" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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