Imagines (work by Philostratus)  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Eikones (Images or Imagines) is a work in Ancient Greek in two volumes describing and explaining various artworks. The first volume is generally attributed to Philostratus of Lemnos, or possibly to his more famous father-in-law Philostratus of Athens. The second volume is by the grandson of Philostratus of Lemnos, known as Philostratus the Younger. It ostensibly describes 64 works of art seen by Philostratus in Naples. The entire work is framed in terms of explaining art, its symbols and meaning, to a young audience. The author of the work in the introduction states that the ten-year old son of his host was the immediate cause of the composition of this work and that the author will structure the book and each of its chapters as if this boy is being addressed.

Goethe, Welcker, Brunn, E. Bertrand and Wolfgang Helbig, among others, have held that the ekphrases are of actually existing works of art, while Heyne and Friederichs claim that they are imaginary paintings. In any case they are interesting as showing the way in which ancient artists treated mythological and other subjects, and are written with artistic knowledge and in attractive language. A second series of Imagines was produced by his grandson.

See also

Full text[1]

Full text of "Imagines"








T. E. PAGE, LiTT.D. E. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. W. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d.






The fronljspiece is an atlempted reconstruction of the Lyre described in 1. 10. The drawing is made from the description of Philosfratus interpreted in the light of various Greet vase paintings by J/?s>? 31. L. Fairbanks,










Printed in Great Britain

4-9704- 4-11-31









,, BOOK II 127











Introduction 3

1. Scamandcr 7

2. Comus 9

3. Fables 13

4. Menoeceus 15

5. Dwarfs 19

6. Cupids 21

7. Memnon 29

8. Amymone 33

9. A Marsh 35

10. Amphion 41

11. Phaethon 45

12. Bosphoros 49

13. Bosphoros 55

14. Semele 59

15. Ariadne 61

16. Pasiphae 65

17. Hippodameia . 69

18. Bacchantes 73

19. The Tyrrhenian Pirates 75

20. Satyrs 81

21. Olympus 83

22. Midas 85

23. Narcissus 89

24. Hyacinthus 93

25. Andrians 97

26. Birth of Hermes 99

27. Amphiaraus 105

28. Hunters 107

29. Perseus 115

30. Pelops 119

31. Xenia 123



Book II


1. Singers 129

2. The Education of Achillea- 133

3. Female Centaurs 139

4. Hippolytus 141

0. Rhodogoune 145

6. Arricliion 149

7. Antilochus 155

8. Melcs 159

9. Pantheia 165

10. Cassandra 171

11. Pan 177

12. Pindar 179

13. The Gvraean Pvocks 181

14. Thessaly 185

15. Glaucus Pontius 187

16. Palaemon 191

17. Islands 195

18. Cyclops 211

19. Phorbas 215

20. Atlas 219

21. Antaeus 223

22. Heracles among the Pygmies 229

23. The Madness of Heracles 231

24. Theiodamas 237

25. The Burial of Abderus 239

26. Xenia 243

27. The Birth of Athena 245

28. Looms 249

29. Antigone 253

30. Evadne 255

31. Themistocles 259

32. Palaestra 263

33. Dodona 267

34. Horae 269

Philostratus the Younger, Imagines

Prooemium 283

1. Achilles on Scyros 287

Pyrrhus on Scyros 291




2. IMarsyas 295

3. Hunters 297

4. Heracles or Acheloiis 303

5. Heracles in Swaddling-clothes 307

6. Orpheus 309

7. Medea among the Colchians 313

8. Boys at Play 317

9. Pelops 321

10. Pyrrhus or the Mysians 325

11. The Argo or Aeetes 343

12. Hesione 347

13. Sophocles 351

14. Hyacinthus 353

15. Meleager 357

16. Nessus 361

17. Philoctetes 365

Callistratus, Descriptions

1. On a Satyr 377

2. On the Statue of Bacchante 381

3. On the Statue of Eros 385

4. On the Statue of an Indian 389

5. On the Statue of Narcissus 391

6. On the Statue of Opportunity at Sicyon .... 395

7. On the Statue of Orpheus 401

8. On the Statue of Dionysus 403

9. On the Statue of Memnon 407

10. On the Statue of Paean 411

11. On the Statue of a Youth 413

12. On the Statue of a Centaur 417

13. On the Statue of Medea 419

14. On the Figure of Athamas 421



Philostratus the Elder

Frontispiece : The Lyre. From a drawing.


1. — The Nile with Dwarfs. Marble statue in the

Vatican. From a photograph . . . To face 19

2. — Erotes Wrestling and Boxing. From a sarco- phagus in Florence. Baumeister, Denkmdler, I. 502 25

3. — Death of Memnon. Red-figured vase painting. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, Inventory 97. 368. From a photograph To face 29

4. — Poseidon and Amymone. Red-figured vase paint- ing. Lenormant-De Witte, ^/iie ceVa/n., III. 18 35

5. — Fallof Phaethon. Arretine bowl in Boston. From a drawing. Chase, Arretine Pottery in the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, No. 66 . To face 47

6. — Ariadne deserted. Red-figured vase painting in

Boston, Inventory 00. 349 .... To face 63

7. — Wooden Cow made by Daedalus. From a drawing. Pompeian wall painting. Bomische Mittheil- xingen, XI. (1896), p. 50 67

8. — Race of Oenomaiis and Pelops, with Eros. Roscher,

Lex. Myth., III. 782 To face 69

9. — Death of Pentheus. Red-figured vase painting in

Boston. Inventory 10. 221a .... To face 73 10. — Marsyas brought in bonds to Midas. Red-figured vase painting. Monumenti delV Instituto, IV., PI. 10 87



11. — Narcissus gazing into a Pool. Pompeian wall- painting. Roscher, Lex. Myth. III. 19 . . . 89

12. — Hyacinthus wounded b}' the Discus. Furtwiingler,

Antike Gemmen, PI. XX. 31 95

13. — Descent of Aniphiaraiis into the Earth. Kelief on an Etruscan urn. Roscher, Lex Myth. I. 299 .

To face 105

14. — Boar Hunt. Relief on a sarcophagus. Hamdi Bey- Reinach, Une necropcle a Sidon, PI. XVI. 2 .

To face 109

15. — Perseus and Andromeda. Red-figured vase paint- ing. Roscher, Lex. 3Iyth. 111. 2053 . . To face 115

16. — Quadriga. Coin of Syracuse. From a drawing . 121

17. — Education of Achilles. Pompeian wall painting.

Roscher, Lex. Myth. I. 26 135

18. — Head of Female Centaur. Red-figured vase paint- ing in Boston, Inventory 13. 306 . . To face 139

19. — The Death of Hippolvtus. Red-figured vase paint- ing. Arch. Zeit. 1883, PI. VI. . . . To face 141

20. — Nose with "up-curved" Nostrils. Red-figured vase painting. Pfuhl, Malerei der Griechen, 415 c.

7' o face 171

21. — Helios with Rays. Coin of Rhodes. From a

drawing. Roscher, Lex. 3Iyth. I. 2003 ... 219

22. — Atlas bent under the Heavens. ^Marble statue in

Naples. From a drawing . 221

23. — Madness of Heracles. Red-figured vase paiiiting.

Baumeister, Denkmdler, I. 665 . . . To face 233

24. — Spiderweb with Cables. From a drawing . . . 251

25. — Palaestra. Medallion on Roman terracotta jar. From a drawing. Inscriptions : Schoeneus (father of Atalante), Atalante Hippomedon, Palaestra. The hexameter inscription above is omitted. Cf. Gaz. Arch. 1889, p. 56 ... . 265


26. — Marsyas : Slave whetting knife. Marble statue

in Florence. Clarac, Mus. Sculpt., PI. 543, 1141 295


Fir;. PAGE

27. — Heracles strangling tlie Serpents. Coin of Thebes.

From a drawing. Brit. M us. Cat, Central Greece,

PI. XIV. 8 307

28. — x\nimals charmed by the Music of Orpheus. Pom-

peian wall-painting. Roscher, Lex. Myth. III.

1178 311

29. — Boys at Play (the children of Medea). Pompeian

wall-painting. Baumeister, Denkmdler, I. 142 . 317 30. — Calydonian Hunt. Marble sarcophagus in the

Capitoline Museum. Baumeister, Denhndler,

II. 918 To face 357

31. — Deianeira at the Death of Xessus. Pompeian wall

painting. Baumeister, Denkmdler, I. 667 To face 363


32. — Satyr playing Flute. From a drawing. Brunn-

Bruckman, 435 377

33. — Palatine Eros. Marble statue in the Louvre.

Roscher, Lex. 3Iyfh. I. 1360 387

34. — Narcissus. Marble statue (called Ganymede) in

the Museo Chiaramonti. Clarac. 3Ii(s. Sculpt.

PI. 407, 703 391

35. — Opportunity. Marble relief. Arch. Zeit. XXXIII.

Pl.Ll 397

36. — Dionysus. Marble statue in the Louvre. Clarac,

2l'us. Sculpt. PI. 275, 1574 405

37. — Dionysus. Marble statue in Madrid. Clarac,

3Ius. Sculpt. PI. 690, B, 1598 a 407



The important Manuscripts are as follows :

Philostkatus the Elder

Laurcntianus, LXVIX (30), XIII cent, F. Parisiensis, gr. 1696, XIV cent., P. Vindohonensis, 331, XIV cent, V^. Vatkanus, 1898, XIII cent., V2. 98, XIII cent, V.

Philostratus the Younger Laurentianus, LVIII (32), XII cent. :


Laurentianus, LIX (15), XI cent., Nos. 1-5. Parisiensis, f^r, 1696, XIV cent., Nos. 1-7. Vaticanus, 1898, XIII cent., Nos. 9-14.


Olearius: Leipzig, 1709. Heyne : Gottingen, 1796. Jacobs: Leipzig, 1797, 1825. Kayser : Turin, 1842-1846.

Westermann : Paris, 1849 (witli Latin translations), 1878.




K. Friedrichs : Die Philostratischen Bilder.

Erlangen, 1860; and Jahr. Phil. Suppl. V

(1864), 134 f. H. Brunn : Die Philostratischen Geindlde gegen

K. Friedrichs vertheidigt ; and Jahr. Phil.

Suppl. IV (1861), 179 f.; XVII (1871), If.,

81 f. Matz : De Philostratorum in describendis imaginihus

fide. Bonn, 1867 ; and Philol XXXI (1872),

585 f. C. Nemitz : De Philostratorum imaginihus. ^"ratisl.

1875. E. Bertrand : Un critique d'art dans l'a7diqnite :

Philostrate et son ecole. Paris, 1887. A. Bougot : Philostrate l' Ancien : nne o^alerie

antique. Paris, 1881.





The position of the sophists in the literary, the educational, and the social world was never more important than during the second and third centuries A.D. They wandered from one centre to another, or they occupied established chairs of rhetoric in some principal city, attracting to their lecture halls the youth who desired a higher education and men who took pleasure in rhetorical display. They were the university professors of their day, treating science and history and philosophy as well as literature and the different forms of rhetoric in their discourses. It was characteristic of the men and of their age, however, that lecturers and hearers alike laid the emphasis on the form of the discourse, and that subject-matter was completely subordinated to the mode of presentation,

A Lemnian family furnished three or four success- ful exponents of this art in the period under dis- cussion, all of them bearing the name of Philostratus. Suidas mentions a Philostratus (1) son of Verus, as having written the dialogue entitled Xero^ Ilavius Philostratus (2), probably his son or grandson, was born about a.d. 170 and educated in Athens under the most famous sophists of his day. He is the

^ Included in the MS. of Lucian.



author of the Life of Apollonius of Tyana,^ of the Lives of the Sophists, and presumably of some minor works extant under his name. He calls himself a Lemnian (£/;. 70), though he is generally known as Philostratus the Athenian " in distinction from his son-in-law, the son of Nervianus, whom he refers to as '• Philostratus the Lemnian" (/7/. soph. 617, 627-8). Philostratus son of Nervianus (3), who was born about A.D. 190 (for he was twenty- four years old in the reign of Caracalla, Fit. soph. 623), is generally regarded as the author of the earlier series of Imagines.'^ His grandson, of the same name, and referred to as Philostratus the Younger (4), wrote about A.D. 300 a series of Imagines of much the same type as his grandfather's.

Philostratus son of Nervianus (3) has been called the "father of art criticism," but the phrase is hardly appropriate, for Lucian, Polemon, Apuleius and other writers had previously made paintings and sculpture the subject of their discourse. The re- newed interest in art in this period, a critical, rather than a creative interest, and the need of new themes for the rhetorical discourses of the sophist, made it natural for these lecturers to find their themes in works of art. Philostratus points out that his interest is in the paintings themselves, not in the lives of the painters nor in their historical relation to each other {infra, p. 5). That rhetoric should take its themes from painting is all the more natural be- cause painting in Greece had so commonly taken its themes from literature. It will be found that

^ Translated by Conybeare in L C. L.

^ Cf. allusions to Athens in the Imagines, ivfra Index uixler "Athens, Attica, which show his interest in Athens."



all but six or eight of the paintings described by Philostratus are based either directly on literary sources or on the myths which found expression both in literature and painting. We may even say that in this epoch literature and painting actually vied with each other in the presentation of the same themes. Certainly Philostratus seems to try to out- do the painter whose work he is describings and often passes beyond the limits of pictorial art without stopping to note what the picture itself gives and what he adds to make his account of the theme more attractive.

The failure of our author to confine himself closely to what was depicted in the painting he is describing may be regarded as his inheritance from the descriptions of works of art in earlier Greek literature. From the Homeric poems on- w^ard the poet's skill is used in describing works of art. The cup of Nestor is quite simply described {Iliad, 11. 632 f.) ; on the other hand Homer's account of the Shield of Achilles is very elaborate (Iliad, 18. 483 f.), including the description in detail of one scene after another^ scenes which may have been suggested by some simple means, but which can hardly have been wrought with all the detail given by the poet. Such description becomes a definite type of literary ornament, and the poet who uses it feels no need to limit himself very closely to some actual object which he had seen or might have seen. So Euripides describes statues which were used to adorn the sterns of ships (Iph. Aid. 230 f.), and puts in the mouth of Ion an account of the treasures in the temple of Apollo {Ion, 192 f., 1133 f.). Apollonius of Rhodes tells of the mantle


wrouglit by Pallas for Jason^ and gives a detailed account of scenes mainly mythological with which it was decorated (Argon. 1. 730 f.). Later Greek writers^ as well as the Latin poets, adopt the same literary device and pass with the same freedom from the actual description of a work of art to elements of the story which presumably could not be or were not included in the painting or statue or embroidered scene they were describing. It is by no means unnatural that Philostratus, for whom description is not a side issue but the main purpose, should retain the same freedom. If we recall that he claims to be speaking in the presence of the paintings themselves, we can hardly blame his procedure as lacking in clearness.

Foreign as the procedure is to our point of view, it is the tendency of Philostratus to discuss paintings almost as if they were w^orks of literary art. The scene or scenes are described for the story they tell, and for the sentiment they express in this story. The excellence of the picture for him lies in its effective delineation of character, in the pathos of the situation, or in the play of emotion it repre- sents. Its technical excellence is rarely mentioned, and then only as a means for successful represent- ation. Of colour we read only that it is brilliant ; of drawing only that it is able to give perspective. Composition and design are not mentioned. The painter's insight, which enables him to see a new reality in his subject and to depict it in such wise as to make the world larger and richer for one who sees his work, is unknown to Philostratus. In a word, the whole discussion centres on literary pro- blems rather than on problems of painting.



This point of view explains itself^ however, if we turn to extant paintings of the Graeco-Roman period. Most of these have been found in Campania, at Pompeii and elsewhere. While the Campanian wall-paintings carry on in a measure the tradition of Greek painting, the spirit of Greek art has practically disappeared, and these late paintings show much the same literary tendency as that which appears in the paintings described by Philostratus. Helbig^ finds it possible to classify Campanian wall- paintings under rubrics familiar to literature, as epic in their style, or tragic, or idyllic. For example, the painter like the poet may treat stories of gods and heroes in a grand manner, emphasizing the greatness of the beings he depicts and the superior importance of their actions as compared with the activities of ordinary men. Representations of the deeds of Heracles and of Theseus in painting were commonly of this character. The appeal of such paintings is like the appeal of epic poetry, in that they directed attention away from man's ordinary activities, as relatively insignificant, to a world in which everything was on a higher, nobler plane. Among the descriptions of Philostratus the Amphia- raus (1,27)2 and the Gyrae (II, 13) illustrate the epic style in painting. Campanian paintings, decorative as was their aim, include many that were based on tragic myths and emphasized the great conflicts in life which were the basis of the tragic drama. The conflict of emotion when Medea plans to slay her children, the conflicts in the stories of Oedipus and of Hippolytus, furnished themes for

^ Untersuchungen zv.r cawpanischen JVandmalerei. 2 Book I, Description 27.


the painter as well as for the poet. The Menoeceiis of Philostratus (I, 4) and the Cassandra (II, 19) describe paintings in the manner of tragedy. Philostratus describes no paintings which are re- lated to comedy ; we do, however, find several paintings which depict light, humorous themes based on mythology, like the thefts of Hermes (I, 26), the Theiodamas (II, 24) and the Pygmies (I I, 22). Perhaps in greater number are paintings in the idyllic manner, depicting a landscape in which is some scene that expresses tender human sentiment ; as, for example, Perseus freeing Andro- meda or Pelops winning Hij)podameia as his bride. The Cyclops of Philostratus (II, 18) and the Olympus (I, 20-21) are the examples of the idyllic manner in his paintings. Such genre scenes as the Female Centaurs (II, 3) and the Singers (II, 1) may be classed here ; and the sentiment for nature in pure landscape, e.g. the Marsh (I, 9) and the Islands (II, 17), is not unrelated to idyllic poetry. It is characteristic of Hellenistic sculpture, if not of later painting, to present idealized portraits of historical characters, portraits which express to the eye the characters which the historian portrayed in language. The Themistocles of Philostratus (II, 31) is such a portrait, and the Pantheia (II, 9) is described as a historical portrait based on the description of Xenophon. It should be noted, however, that in general the historical paintings of Philostratus merely draw the material from history instead of mythology, and emphasize now the tragedy, now the simple beauty of the scene in the same way as paintings with a mythological content.

Granted that painting in this epoch was intimately


allied with literature, the question arises whether paintings described by Philostratus were actually based on some literary w^ork. In a few cases, but only in a few cases, is such a connection clear. The Scamander (I, 1), the Memnon (I, 7), the Antilochus (II, 7) may be regarded as illustrations for the Iliad ; the Hippolytus (II, 4), the Pentheus (I, 18), and the Madness of Heracles (II, 23) follow the version of Euripides very closely, though not with literal exactness ; and the Antigone hardly varies from the treatment by Sophocles. While it is reasonable to assume that these paintings were actually based on the extant literary treatment of the same themes, it would not be strange if Philostratus overstressed the dependence on litera- ture, for, as we have seen, it is his method to discuss the story of the painting as it may have appeared in literature instead of limiting himself to what he saw in the painting.

No reader can forget that Philostratus is a sophist^ that his first preoccupation is the literary form in which he writes his descriptions. Whatever the paintings themselves may have been, it is his aim to emphasize and develop the sentiment, be it epic or tragic or idyllic, which he found in the paintings. The very subjects of the paintings show that the sentiment existed, and all the powders of his literary art were used in exploiting it. For the moment he is attempting to w^nte tragedy or again to develop a sentiment for the beauties of nature. However tedious he may become, however foreign to our ideas his method may be, the reader must remember that he is simply trying to outdo the paintings he describes in this appeal to the emotions. In this



connection it is not uninteresting]^ to read Goethe's version of these pictures [Philostrats GemaeJdc, 1818),^ in wliich lie goes beyond Piiilostratus himself in the word painting of sentiment.

In the Introduction Piiilostratus clearly states the aim of the Imagines. They were written as lectures or rhetorical exercises to display the powers of the sophist. In so far as he was a teacher, they were models to be followed by his pupils ; at the same time, because they dealt with works of art, they served to stimulate the imagination and to train a-sthetic taste according to the standards then in vogue. We have no right to expect literal and complete descriptions by which the paintings could be reconstructed in detail ; some of them can be reconstructed in a measure, while others baffle the attempt ; but this type of descrij)tion is not the sophist's aim. Further, he explicitly states that he leaves to others the history of painters and painting. One reference to a painter with whom he once studied (p. 5) is the single case in which the name of a painter appears. Nor are we to expect technical data about paintings. Rarely he speaks about draughtsmanship and only as something to be assumed, or of perspective only as a curious device of the j)ainter's, or of correct proportion as an essential element in the truth of painting, or of the successful use of shadow to bring out form in three dimensions. Rhetorically he lays stress on brilliant colours, but colour plays a relatively small part in his descriptions. Following the tradition of literary allusions to painting, he lays much stress on the illusion of reality, but one may suspect that his in-

^ See Note at the end of this Introduction.


terest in it is largely because it is a useful rhetorical device. The reader is never allowed to forget the boy who represents the audience of Philostratus and the writer's effort to develop imagination in his hearers. Philostratus as a rhetorician must be judged by his aim and by the standards of his age. While we miss the "very pure Attic Greek" and the "extreme beauty and force" of his description which his grandson praises (infra, p. 283), we cannot fail to be impressed by his effort to repro- duce the language of the golden age of Greek literature. He evidently seeks the simplicity w^hich is suitable to the audience he presupposes; none the less a simplicity more studied or more often interrupted by grandiloquent and complicated passages would be difficult to imagine. The loose nominatives, the choppy phrases, the frequent parentheses are apparently intended to give the illusion of a casual conversation about the paintings. A relative simplicity is attained in certain short descriptions (Pan, II, 11 ; Thessaly, II, 14 ; Pygmies, II, 22) ; but such complicated ones as the Arrichion (II, 6) or the Cupids (I, 6), and the grandiloquent treatment of the Gyrae (II, 13) or the Evadne (II, 30) pass quite beyond the sphere of simple conversations. Moreover, the figures of speech,^ the paradoxical expressions and the tricks of phrase- making,2 often become quite laboured. Even the

^ p. 183 : "As if using the flames as a sail." p. 123 : " Pelops glows with the radiance of his shoulder, as does the night with the evening star."

2 p. 75: "From those locks he derived vigour, and he imparted vigour to them ; but this was itself his madness, that he would not join Dionysus in madness."


effort to write ^' pure Attic Greek" is almost buried under tlie mass of literary allusion and quotation, till it becomes itself a device of rhetoric. Words or phrases are quoted from Homer more than a hundred times, from Euripides more than forty times, from Pindar twenty-five times ; and in all some twenty authors furnish recognized quotations. Such is the acquaintance with the classics which was demanded both of the sophist and of his hearers. Tiie frequent introduction into the descriptions of bits of curious knowledge is to be regarded as a rhetorical device which is appropriate to the discourses of a sophist "professor," and which lends another interest to the paintings as well as to the description of them. This curious know- ledge has a wide range. It has to do with geo- graphy : the fertility of Egypt (1, 5), the detailed explanation of Tempe and the draining of the Thessalian plains (II, 14; II, 17, 4), the account of volcanic springs and streams (II, 17, 5), the nature of the river Alpheius (II, 6, 1). It deals with material things : the painter's pigments (I, 28), the origin of amber (I, 11), the origin of limestone (I, 12, 2), the nature of bitumen and sulphur (II, 17, 5), the fiery element in the universe (I, 11, 1). It includes both fact and fancy as to plants and animals: the relation of trees to soil (I, 9, 1), the sexual instinct in date palms (I, 9), the characteristics

p. 147 : " She prays to conquer men even as now she has conquered them ; for I do not think she loves to be loved."

p. 157: "His bright hair is his pride," ko/xS. . . . kSjutj ; cf. 300, 13 K.

p. 144: A mouth "most sweet to kiss, most difficult to describe."

p. 167 : "A beautiful burial offering are these arms." xxiv


of tunny-fish (I, 13, 7), the habits of the wild boar (I, 28, 1), of ants (II, 22, 1), of gulls (II, 17, 11) and of spiders (II, 28), the details of the tortoise- shell (I, 19, 2), the different breeds of dogs (I, 28, 5), the fertility of the hare (I, 6, 6). It does not omit the field of medicine : the disease of Heracles (II, 23), the effect of eating owl's eggs (II, 17, 8), the use of gulls' stomachs as a remedy (II, 17, 11). And naturally it covers the various forms of human activity : occupations like agriculture (I, 6, 2) and hunting (I, 28) and fishing (I, 13) and carpentry (I, 16, 2), religious rites (II, 24, 4; II, 33), athletic games (II, 6, 4-5; II, 25, 2), war and the use of the chariot in war (I, 1, 2 ; I, 4, 2 ; I, 17, 1). All these curious facts may be supposed to have educational significance, but they are introduced primarily as a rhetorical device to stimulate the interest of the hearer or reader.

The method of presentation of course varies with the theme. Frequently Philostratus begins with references to the story as given by Homer or by some other writer. More commonly he states rather abruptly the striking points of the picture [e.g. II, 5), then develops the mythological or historical theme before he describes the picture itself, and concludes with an effort after striking sentiment or phrase. His actual descriptions of paintings are rather meagre ; his praise of the beauty of men and women and landscape is the main end of his rhetoric ; as he says (p. 5), his effort is to praise the skill of the painter and to cultivate the taste of the observer.

The estimate placed on this work of Philostratus depends largely on the spirit in which it is


approached. Goethe^ filled \vith iindiscriminating enthusiasm for all the products of Greece and Rome which had been developed by Winckelmann and his associates, found the Imagines as thrilling in form as the paintings they described were admirable. FriedrichSj applying to these paintings the standards of the great periods of Greek art, questioned whether they could be called Greek, and even whether they existed outside the sophist's imagina- tion. It remained for Brunn with his wider and more critical knowledge to show that the paintings described by Philostratus were not in any way foreign to later Greek art. Whether they were all actual paintings, whether some M-ere real paint- ings and others created by the imagination of the sophist, whether there ever was such a gallery as is described, we have no means of knowing. Two points, however, are clear. First, Philostratus was primarily a sophist, who developed the description of paintings as a form of literary art ; he would be quite consistent in describing paintings that were figments of his imagination, provided only he succeeded in preserving the illusion that he dealt with existing paintings. Secondly, there is little or nothing to indicate any inconsistency between the paintings existing in his day and the paintings he describes. The student of late Greek paintings is fully justified in treating these examples as data for his study, whether or not they were actual paintings.



(Ed. Cotta, 1868, Vol. XXVI, 276 f.)

In 1818 Goethe published an essay on the paintings of Philostratus in which he refers to the enthusiasm of the Weimarsche Kunstfreunde " for this work, and to the extended study which they had given it. His essay was intended, he says, to preserve some of the results of this study, as the times were not favourable for the publication of the elaborate edition, with illustrations, which they had hoped to make. To his translation of a series of the Descriptions reference has already been made (p. xix).

Goethe finds the greatest difficulty for the appreciation of Philostratus' work in what he calls the confused arrangement of the Descriptions. He arranges them under nine headings as follows : 1. Heroic, tragic subjects; II. Love and Wooing; III. Birth and Education ; IV. Deeds of Heracles ; V. Athletic Contests; VI. Hunters and Hunting; VII. Poetry, Song, and Dance; VIII. Landscapes, including pictures of the sea ; IX. Still Life. This arrangement serves to emphasize the variety of the paintings described by Philostratus, even if it is not very logical. In the following list are included Goethe's references to ancient and modern paintings.

I. Heroic, tragic subjects.

1. The death of Antilochus. Book II, Descrip- tion 7.


2. The death and burial of Memnon. I, 7.

3. The Scamander overcome by Hephaestus. I, 1.

4. The death of Menoeceus. I, 4.

5. The death of Hippolytus. II, 4.

Hippolytus and Phaedra. Ilercul. Altcrih?- iii. pi. 15.

6. Antigone's burial of her brother. II, 29.

7. Evadne's death on her husband's pyre. II, 30.

8. Pantheia's death on her husband's pyre. II, 9.

9. The death of Ajax. II, 13.

10. The sufferings of Philoctetes. Phil. Jun. 17.

11. The death of Phaethon. I, 11.

Icarus mourned by his father. Ilercul.

Alterth. iv. pi. 63. Phrixus and Helle. Ibid. iii. 4.

12. Hvacinthus, beloved of A])ollo. Phil. Jun. 14.

13. The death of Hyacinthus. I, 24.

"Cephalus and Procris," by Giulio Romano.

14. Amphiaraus and his oracle. I, 27.

15. Cassandra.

16. Rhodogoune victorious. II, 5.

Victor and goddess of victory. Hercul, Alterth. iii. pi. 39.

17. Themistocles. 11, 32.

II. Love and IVooing.

18. Cupids at play. I, 6.

Birth of V^enus. Ilercul. Alterth. iv. pi. 3.

1 Gori, Le antichite di Ercolano, 1757 ; German translation, C. G. V. Muir, 1777-1802.



19. Poseidon and Amvmone. I, 7.

Theseus and the rescued children. Hercul.

Alterth. i. pi. 5. Ariadne deserted. IhicL ii. pis. 14-15.

20. Ariadne asleep. I^ 15.

Ariadne asleep. Ibid. ii. pi. 16. Leda with the swan. Ibid. iii. pi. 8. Leda on the Eurotas ; birth of twins from the egg. Giuiio Romano.

21. Pelops as suitor. I, 30.

22. Pelops as suitor. Phil. Jun. 9.

23. Pelops winning Hippodameia, I, 17.

24. The coming of the Argonauts. Phil. Jun. 8.

25. Glaucus prophesying to the Argonauts. II, 15.

26. Jason and Medea. Phil. Jun. 7.

27. The return of the Argonauts. Phil. Jun. 11.

28. Perseus and Andromeda. I, 29.

29. C3^clops and Galatea. II, 18.

Cyclops in love. Hercul. Alterth. i. p. 10.

30. Pasiphae's love for the bull. I, 16.

31. Meles and Critheis. II, 8.

Ill, Birth and Educcdion.

32. Birth of Athena. II, 27.

33. Semele and the birth of Bacchus. I, 11.

Fauns and Nvmphs. Hercul. Altetih. ii. pi. 12.

34. Birth of Hermes. I, 26.

35. Achilles brought up by Cheiron. II, 2.

Achilles and Cheiron. Hercul Alterih. i. pi. 8.

36. Achilles on Scyros. Phil. Jun. 1.

37. Centaur families, II, 4.



IV. Heracles.

38. The deeds of Heracles as a babe. Phil. Jun. 5.

Heracles as a babe. Ilercid. Alleiih. i. pi. 7.

39. Achelous and Deianeira. Phil. Jun. 4.

40. Deianeira rescued from Xessus. Phil. Jun. 16.

41. Antaeus overcome. W, 21.

42. Hesione freed by Heracles. Phil. Jun. 12.

Heracles and Hesione. Hercul. Alterth, iv. pi. 64.

43. Atlas and Heracles. II, 20.

Hylas and Nymi)hs. Ilercul. A Iter/ h. iv. pi. 6, and Giulio Romano.

44. Death of Abderus. H, 25.

Heracles as a father. Ilercul. Alterth. i. pi. 6.

45. Heracles insane. II, 23.

Heracles and Admetus. Weimarsche Kunst- freunde.

46. Theiodamas. II, 24.

47. Heracles and the pygmies. II, 22.

Heracles and the pygmies. Giulio Romano.

V. Athletic Contests.

48. Palaestra. II, 33.

49. Arrichion. II, 6.

50. Phorbas killed by Apollo. II, 19.

VI. Hunters and Hunting.

51. Meleager and Atalante. Phil. Jun. 15.

^' Meleager and Atalante." Giulio Romano.

52. Boar-hunt. I, 28.

53. Hunters feasting. Phil. Jun. 3.

54. Narcissus as a hunter. I, 23.



VII. Poetry, Song, and Dance.

55. Pan and Nymphs. II, 11.

56. Midas and Satyrs. I, 22.

57. Olympus blowing the flute. I, 21.

Olympus taught by Pan. Hercul. Alterih. i. pi. 9.

58. Olympus and Satyrs. I, 20.

"Olympus playing the flute." Hannibal Carracci.

59. The defeat of Marsyas. Phil. Jun. 2.

60. Amphion and the walls of Thebes. I, 10.

61. Aesop and the Fables. I, 3.

62. Orpheus charming animals, plants and stones.

Phil. Jun. 6. Orpheus charming animals. Antique gem.

63. The birth of Pindar. II, 12.

64. Sophocles and Melpomene. Phil. Jun. 13.

65. Aphrodite hymned by maidens. II, 1.

VIII. Landscapes, including Pictures of the Sea.

66. Dionysus and the Tyrrhenian pirates. I, 19.

67. x\ndros, island favoured by Dionysus. I, 25.

68. Palaemon. II, 16.

69. Bosphorus. I, 12.

70. The Nile. I, 5.

The Nile. Mosaic by Palestrina.

71. The Islands. II, 17.

72. Thessaly freed from water when Poseidon opens

Tempe. II, 14.

73. Marsh. 1, 9.



71. Fishermen catching tunny-fisli. I, 13.

"Catching dolphins/' by GiiiHo Romano. Cf. Hercid. Alterth. ii. pi. 50.

75. Dodona. II, 34.

76. ComuSj a feast at night. I, 2.

IX. Still Life.

77. Xenia. I, 31.

78. Xenia. II, 26. Cf. Ilercul. Alterth. ii. pi. 56 f.

79. Spider webs. II, 29.




294 K. (1) "OcTTf? /x?) ciaTrd^eTai ti]v ^coypacptav, aSiKel rrjv aXijOeiav, aSi/cet koI aocpiav, orroarf e? 7roi7]Ta(i i]K€L — (f^opci yap tat] ajiKpolv e? ra tmv r)p(oa)v epya Kal ecST] — ^vpfierpLav re ov/c eTTaivel,

6 hC r)v KoX \6yov i) re^vr) aTrreraL. Kal fiovXo- fxevcp fxev ao^l^ecOaL Secov to euprj/j-a Blci re ra iv yfj eiSr], oiToaa tov<; \€LfiMva<; at ^flpac ypd- (povai, hid re ra iv ovpavw (f)at.v6fjL€va, /3aaavL- ^ovTL he TTjv yeveaiv t?}? re^i^?;? /j.L/jii](Ti<; fxev

10 evprjjia Trpeaffvrarov fcal ^vyyevearaTcv rrj (j)v<jer evpov Se avryv aocpol avSpe<^ to /j,€v ^(i)ypa<plav, to Be Tr\aaTLKi)v (f)i]aavTe<;.

(2) 7T\aaTLKi]<; /nev ovv iroWa etSr] — Kal yap avTO TO irXdTTeiv Kal t) iv tm ')(a\Kw jiifxriaL^

15 Kal ol ^eo^'T69 ttjv XvySlvrjv rj tiiv Yiapiav \i6ov Kal 6 iXe(pa<; Kal vi] Aua i) yXvcpLKr] irXaaTiKi] — ^(oypa(f)ia Be ^v/jL^efiXrjTat jxev iK %pct)/xaTa)i^, iTpdTTei he ov tovto /jlovov, dXXa koI irXeiw (TO(f>i^eTai diTo tovtov €V0<; ovto<; rj diro twv

^ " Lygdiau stone " : an unusually fine white marble used both for sculpture and for gems. Pliny, iV^.^. 36. 13 ; Diod. Sic. II. p. 135. 2



Whosoever scorns painting is unjust to truth ; and he is also unjust to all the wisdom that has been bestowed upon poets — for poets and painters make equal contribution to our knowledge of the deeds and the looks of heroes — and he withholds his praise from symmetry of proportion^ whereby art partakes of reason. For one who wishes a clever theory^ the invention of painting belongs to the gods — witness on earth all the designs with which the Seasons paint the meadows^ and the mani- festations we see in the heavens — but for one who is merely seeking the origin of the art, imitation is an invention most ancient and most akin to nature ; and wise men invented it, calling it now painting, now plastic art.

There are many forms of plastic art — plastic art proper, or modelling, and imitation in bronze, and the work of those who carve Lygdian^ or Parian marble, and ivory carving, and, by Zeus, the art of gem-cutting is also plastic art — while painting is imitation by the use of colours ; and not only does it employ colour, but this second form of art cleverly accomplishes more with this one means than the


20 ttoWmv 7] ^ erepa rix^r). aKidv re 'yap airo- (f)aLi>€L fcal l3Xe/jLfia ywcoaKei, ciWo fxev rov jie- /jLtjvoto^^ aXXo Be rod aXyovvTO<; i) ^(^aipopTO^, KoX av'ya<; o/jL/jlutcov oirolai elaiv 6 TrXaartKcx; ixev Ti? ijfCLara ipyd^eraL, x^^porrov Se ofjuixa koI

25 yXavKov Kol fieXav ypa<^LKr) olSe, koI ^avdr]v

295 K. KOfiTjv olhe Kol TTvparjV Kol i)XtS)aav koI iaOf]TO<;

XpMfJia Kol ottXcov OaXdfiovi re Koi olKLa<; koI

dXat] Kol 6p7] Kol irriyh'; koI top alOepa, iv

u) ravra.

5 (8) ocroi fiev ovv Kpdro^ 'tjpavTO tt}? eTTiarrj- /i7]<^ KOL oaai TToXet? Kal oaot ^acnXel^ epcori e? avTTjv e;\;/^7;c^a^'T0, dXXoi<; re eipTjrat Kal 'Apiaro- B7]/jL(p TUi €K Kapta?, ov iyot) eVt ^coypa(f)ia ^evov eTTOirjadfJLrjv eTCov reacrdpcov — eypac^e he Kara

10 Tr]V ^vfirjXov GO^iav iroXv to iTTixapc e? avrrjv (j)epo)V — X6yo<; Be ov irepl ^coypd^wv ovB' iGjopia^ avroiv vvv, dXX etSy] ^{oypa(f)ia<; dirayyeXXofjueu ofiiXia^; avra roh veoi<; ^vvtl- Oevre^;, dcf)^ mv epiirjvevaova-L re Kal rov BoKLfMOv eTnfieXrjcTOVTai.

15 (4) d(j)opj:ial Be /jloi tovtwvI tcov Xoycov aiBe eyevovTO' rjv fxev 6 irapd roU NeaTToXtraf? dycov — ?; Be TToXf? iv 'IraXio, (pKiarai yevo<; "EXXi]ve<i Kal dcTTiKOL, oOev Kal ra? GTT0vBd<; roov Xoycov 'EXXrji'iKOL elai — /SovXo/jievw Be jiot ra? fxeXera^ 20 piT] iv Tw (j)avep(p TroLelaOai Trapelx^v 6)(Xov rd aeipaKia (f)0LT(0VTa inl tjjv olkIuv tov ^evov. KareXvov Be efo) rov TeLXOV<; iv irpoaareiw reTpa/JL/xevw e? OdXaaaav, iv w arod t^? e^wKO-

^ 7) added by Jacobs.


other form with its many means. For it both repro- duces light and shade and also permits the observer to recognize the look, now of the man who is mad, now of the man who is sorrowing or rejoicing. The varying nature of bright eyes the plastic artist does not bring out at all in his work ; but the " grey eye," the '^blue eye," the ^'^ black eye" are known to painting ; and it knows chestnut and red and yellow hair, and the colour of garments and of armour, chambers too and houses and groves and mountains and springs and the air that envelops them all.

Now the story of the men who have won mastery in the science of painting, and of the states and kings that have been passionately devoted to it, has been told by other writers, notably by Aristo- demus of Caria, whom I visited for four years in order to study painting ; and he painted in the technique of Eumelus, but with much more charm. The present discussion, however, is not to deal with painters nor yet with their lives ; rather we propose to describe examples of paintings in the form of addresses which we have composed for the young, that by this means they may learn to interpret paint- ings and to appreciate what is esteemed in them.

The occasion of these discourses of mine was as follows : It was the time of the public games at Naples, a city in Italy settled by men of the Greek race and people of culture, and therefore Greek in their enthusiasm for discussion. And as I did not wish to deliver my addresses in public, the young men kept coming to the house of my host and importuning me. I was lodging outside the walls in a suburb facing the sea, where there was a portico


hofi^-jTO Kara ^ecpvpov avefjuov eVt Terrdpcov ol/xai

25 rj Kal irevre 6pocf)cbv a^opwaa e? to TvppijviKov

7T€Xayo<;. ya-rpaTrre fxei' ovv Kal XiOoi^, oiroaov^

eiraivel Tpv(j)/], pdXtcrra Se yvOei ypa(j)ai<i ivijp-

fio(7 jjLevcov avrfj ttlvolkcov, ou? ipLol BoKeiv ovk

d/jLad(o<; ^ Ti9 crvveXe^aro' ao(f)La yap iv avroU

30 iBi]\ovTo TrXeiovcov ^coypdcfxov. (5) iyo) p.ev an

ifiavTOv cp/jirjv Selv eiraLvelv rd'^ ypa(f)d<;, rjv he

dpa vi6<; TO) ^€V(p ko/jLlStj v60<;, ei? eT09 SeKarov,

7]Ei] cf)iX7]Koo<; Kal y^aipcov tm fxavQdveiv, o?

€7T6(f)vXaTre yue iiriovTa avTa^; Kal iSelro fiov

35 €p/JL7jv€V6Lv Ttt? ypa(f)d^. Xv ovv /xt) GKaiov fie

i^yolro, " earai ravTa,^' ecfiijv "Kal eirihei^Lv

296 K. avjd TroLTjao/jueOa, iireihav yjKy rd fieipdKta.

d(piKOfjL€V(ov ovv " 6 fiev Trat?," €(f)7}v, " Trpo/Se-

/3X7](Tdu) Kal dvaKeiadw tovtm i) (TirovSr] rod

Xoyov, L'/xet9 3e eireaOe /jbrj ^vvriOe/j^evoL /jlovov,

dXXd Kal epcoTMvre^, €l ti p.?] aac^o}'^ (ppd^oL/xi,.


5 (1) "Eyi^co?, (a) iral, ravra 'Op.7]pov ovra rj ov TraoTTore 6yv(OKa<; SrjXahj] 6avp.a i)youixevo'^, ottw^ hijiroTe 6^7] 2 TO irvp iv rw vBari, ; crvfifidXcopLev ovv 6 TL voet, av Be dirojSXeylrov avrcov, oaov €K€Lva loeiv, d(j)^ wv y ypacp/]. olaOd irov t?}? 10 'iXtttSo? Trfv yv(op,7]v, iv ol? "Op.i'}po<^ dviaryjcri, pev Tov ^ A)(^LXXea iirl tw WarpoKXw, KivovvraL Be ol 6eol TToXepetv dXXi]Xoi<^. rovrcov ovv rcxiv irepl Tov<; 6eov<; ?; ypa<f)r] rd p,€v dXXa ovk olBe,

^ aixad'Jcs Reiske and Thiersch : anadi^s. 2 ^C^i F and M 1 P ; Cv Reiske.


built on four, I think^ or possibly five terraces, open to the west wind and looking out on the Tyrrhenian sea. It was resplendent with all the marbles favoured by luxury, but it was particularly splendid by reason of the panel-paintings set in the walls, paintings which I thought had been collected with real judgment, for they exhibited the skill of very many painters. The idea had already occurred to me that 1 ought to speak in praise of the paintings, Avhen the son of my host, quite a young boy, only ten years old but already an ardent listener and eager to learn, kept watching me as I went from one to another and asking me to interpret them. So in order that he might not think me ill-bred, ^'^ Very well," I said, "we will make them the subject of a discourse as soon as the young men come." And when they came, I said, " Let me put the boy in front and address to him my effort at interpretation; but do you follow, not only listening but also asking questions if anything I say is not clear."


Have you noticed, my boy, that the painting here is based on Homer, or have you failed to do so because you are lost in wonder as to how in the world the fire could live in the midst of the water ? Well then, let us try to get at the meaning of it. Turn your eyes away from the painting itself so as to look only at the events on which it is based. Surely you are familiar with the passage in the Iliad where Homer makes Achilles rise up to avenge Patroclus, and the gods are moved to make battle with each other. Now of this battle of the gods the painting


TOP Be 'Hcpaiaroi' eiiireaelv (f)y]ac tm Xfca/xdvSpo) 15 TToXvv Kal aKpaiov. (2) opa hi] TrdXiv irdvTa eKeWev. vyjn]\i] pev avT7] i) ttoX^? koX ravrl ra KpijhepLva rod 'Wiou, irehiov he rovrl p,iya koI diTOXpoiv Ti-jv Wcriav irpo'^ Trjv ^vpcoTrrjv clvtl- rd^ai, TTvp he rovro iroXv p.ev irXifp.p.vpel Kara 20 Tov irehlov, ttoXv he irepl tcl^; 6')(da<i epirei rov irorapov, co? p^^jKert avrro hei^hpa elvai. to he dp,(f)l TOV ' Hcpaiarov irvp eirippel rw vhari, Kal 6 7Torapio<; dXyel Kal iKerevei rov "H(paL(TTOV avTo^;. aXX,' ovTe 6 7roTap.o<; yeyparrraL Kop,MV 25 vTTo TOV irepLKeKavaOai ovTe x^^Xeucov 6 " T09 VTTO TOV rpi^^eiv Kal to dv6o<; tov rrvpo^ ov ^avOov ovhe ttj eWiap^evr] o'^jrei, dXXa XpV(T0€ih€<; Kal ijXtoohef;. ravTa ovKen 'Opbrjpov.

297 K. P KHMOX

(1) 'O haipLWv 6 Kw/i09, Trap ov rot? dvdpd)- 7roi<s TO Kcopid^eiv, ecfieaTijKev ev OaXdpiov Ovpai<; ')(^pvaal^ olpLai, /Spahela he /; KaTdX7]yjn<; avTOJV VTTO TOV o)? eV vvktI elvai. yeyparrTai he 7) vv^ 6 ovK dirb tov o-(t}p,aTO<;, ciXX^ diro Kacpov, hrjXol he TCL rrpoirvXaia vvpc^iov^ p.dXa 6X/3iOv<i ev evvfj KelaOai. (2) kuI 6 K.cop,o(; 7]Kei veo<^ irapa i>eov<s. diraXo^; Kal ovirw e(p7]/3o<i, epvOpo<i viro o'ivov Kal KuOevhcov 6p9o^ vtto tov pbeOveiv.

^ Not only is the story from the Iliad, but words and

bits of description are taken from Homer ; cf. Tpot'r/s

Upa K^r}, Iliad 16. 100 ; <p\6ya iro\\'i)v, 21. 333 ; iv



ignores all the rest, but it tells how Hephaestus fell upon Scamander with might and main. Now look again at the painting; it is all from Horner.^ Here is the lofty citadel^ and here the battlements of Ilium ; here is a great plain, large enough for marshalling the forces of Asia against the forces of Europe ; here fire rolls mightily like a flood over the plain, and mightily it creeps along the banks of the river so that no trees are left there. The fire which envelops Hephaestus flows out on the surface of the water and the river is suffering and in person begs Hephaestus for mercy. But the river is not })ainted with long hair, for the hair has been burnt off; nor is Hephaestus painted as lame, for he is running ; and the flames of the fire are not ruddy nor yet of the usual appearance, but they shine like gold and sunbeams. In this Homer is no longer followed.


The spirit Comus ^ (Revelry), to whom men owe their revelling,is stationed at the doors of a chamber — golden doors, 1 think they are ; but to make them out is a slow matter, for the time is supposed to be at night. Yet night is not represented as a person, but rather it is suggested by what is going on; and the splendid entrance indicates that it is a very wealthy pair just married who are lying on a couch. And Comus has come, a youth to join the youths, delicate and not yet full grown, flushed with wine and, though erect, he is asleep under the influence of drink. As he

TreSi'y TTvp Soi'eTo, 21. 343 ; ah 5e "Eavdoio nap' ox^as SeVSpea koI', 21. 337 f.

2 Cf. Milton's Comus, 46 f, where Comus is described as the son of Bacchus and Circe.



10 KaOevSei Se to fiev irpoacoirov eirl ra arepva pL\jra<; Kal rfj^; Seipt}'^ iK<^aii'WV ovSev, rrjv Se apLarepav TrpoXo/Slo) ^ iirey^wv €l\i](j)OaL Sk i) %el/9 BoKovaa Xverai Kal afxeXel, to elw6o<; ev (ipXV '^^^ /caOevSeiv, OTav (TaivovTO<; r)/jid<; vttvov

15 iJLeTep)(rjTaL 6 Xoyiafio<^ et? Xijdrjv ojv avve)(^ei, 66ev Kal TO ev tt} Se^id \a/i7rd8iov eoiKe Sia- <f)€vjeLP TYfV %et/30t KaTappadvjjLovvTo^ avTrjv tov VTTvov. SeSicot; Be 6 Kco/uo? irpoaffdWov to TTVp Tw aKeXeL Trapacpepec ttjv fxev kpjJ/xtju ti]v

20 dpiaTepdv iirl tcl Se^id, to Be Xa/nrdSiov ev dpKJTepd, Iv eKKXivot tov ut/iov tov 7rvpo<; eKKeifievq) tw jovutl d(f)io'Td<; Tr]V ')(elpa.

(3) TTpoacoira he o^elXeTai /xev irapd twv ^coypdcftcov T0i<; ev cSpa Kal TV(f)X(i)TT0vai ye

25 dveu TOVTCov al ypa(f)ai, tw Be K.a)/j.(p cr/jLLKpd Sec Tou TrpoacoTrov vevevKOTi Kal eXKovTt Tr]v utto Trj<; Ke(paXi]<; aKidv KeXevet Be ol/jiai, fir) dirapa- KaXvTTTOv^ Kcofid^eiv tol? ev i)XLKia tovtov. Ta Be XoLTTOL TOV ad)jjLaT0<; BirjKpl^wTaL iravTa irept-

30 Xd/jLTTOVTO^ avTCL tov XafJLiraBiov Kal eU </)(W9 dyovTO^. (4) 6 (TTe^avo^ Be tojv poBcov eVat- veiaOco fxev, dXXd /jLT] diro tov elBov^ — ^avdol^ yap Kal Kvavol<;, el TvyoL^ y^pcjopiaaLV diTop.i- jielaBai Td<; twv dvOecov eiKova^; ov /ieya<; 6 298 K. dOXo^ — dXX' eiraivelv XPV '^^ %ai}i^oi^ tov aTe- cf)dvov Kal aTraXov eiraivdi' Kal to evBpoaov TMv poBcov Kal cf)t]p.l yeypd(f)OaL avTa fxeTu r?}? 0(j/i,r}9.

(5) Tt XoLirov TOV kco/jLOV ; tl 3' dXXo ye rj

5 01 Ka)p.d^ovTe<; ; t) ov irpoajSdXXei ae KpoTaXa ^ irpoXofiicf Benndorf, Furtwjingler : irpo0o\i(f. lO

BOOK 1. 2

sleeps the face falls forward on the breast so that the throat is not visible^ and he holds his left hand up to his ear.^ The hand itself, which has apparently grasped the ear^ is relaxed and limp, as is usual at the beginning of slumber, when sleep gently invites us and the mind passes over into forgetfulness of its thoughts ; and for the same reason the torch seems to be falling from his right hand as sleep relaxes it. And for fear lest the flames of the torch come too near his leg, Comus bends his lower left leg over towards the right and holds the torch out on his left side, keeping his right hand at a distance by means of the projecting knee in order that he may avoid the breath of the torch.

While painters ought usually to represent the faces of those who are in the bloom of youth, and with- out these the paintings are dull and meaningless, this Comus has little need of a face at all, since his head is bent forward and the face is in shadow. The moral, I think, is that persons of his age should not go revelling, except with heads veiled. The rest of the body is sharply defined, for the torch shines on every part of it and brings it into the light. The crown of roses should be praised, not so much for its truth of representation — since it is no difficult achievement, for instance with yellow and dark blue pigments, to imitate the semblance of flowers — but one must praise the tender and delicate quality of the crown. I praise, too, the dewy look of the roses, and assert that they are painted fragrance and all.

And what else is there of the revel } Well, what but the revellers ? Do you not hear the

^ i.e. resting his head upon his hand.


Kal Opov<; evav\o<; koI mS)] araKTO'^ ; Xainrdhtd T€ V7r€ K(f)aiV6Tac, Trap' a)v earc Tot<; Kcofid^ovai Kol rd iv iToalv opdv Kal T]/j,tv fxi] opdaOat. avve^- aiperat Be Kal ttoXi)? 76X0)9 Kal yvvata per

10 dvBpcov 'lerai Kal viroBrjp^a * * 1 Kal ^covvvrai irapd TO OLKetov avjx^P^^ ^^ KO)po<; Kal yvvaLKl dvSpL^ecrOat, Kal dvSpl dqXvu ivSuvac aTo\7]v Kal OrjXv /Saiveiv. Kal 01 aiec^avoi ovk dvOrjpol en, aXV cKpyprjrat avTol<; to IXapov

15 V7T0 Tov Tat9 K6(pa\aL<; €(papp,6TTea6at 8i,d to aTaKTelv ev tco Spop^w' 1) yap tcov dvdecov iXev- Oepia irapaLTeLTai tyjv X^^P^ ^^ piapaivovaav avTa TTpo TOV ;^/9o^'Of. pipelTai Tiva y ypa(^ii Kal KpoTOv, ov pdXiaTa SelTat 6 K(opo<;, Kal rj

20 Se^id Tot9 SaKTvXoi<; vrrecrTaXpevoL^ v7roK€Lp,evr)v TTjv dpicTTepdv 7rXi]TT€C €9 TO KolXov, Xv axTiv al %et/3e9 ^vp^cpcovoi irXrjTTop.evai TpoTrrp Kvp- /SdXcop.


(1) ^oiTcoaip 01 Mvdoi irapd tov AtacoTrov 25 dya7rcovT€<; avTov, oTt avTMP eTTLp^eXeLTac. ipieXi^ae puev ydp Kal 'Opyjpw pvOov Kal 'Ho^to^w, eTi he Kal WpxiXo^fp TTpo^i AvKdp^^fjV, ttXX' AtVooTrct) TrdpTa Ta tcov dvOpdoircdv eKpepvOcoTai, Kal Xoyov Tot9 Orjplot^ pieTahehwKe Xoyov eveKev. irXeove- 30 ^iav re ydp eTriKoiTTei Kal v^piv eXavvec Kal djrdTTjv Kal TavTa Xewv 7^9 avTco viroKpiveTai

^ avSpe^ov viroSeWai suppl. Schenkl., vTr65r}/j.a Kotvhv ^xovai Bruxell. 11182, viroSovuTai V^, vtroBelrai Kayser.

^ Eur. Bacch. 836, 852, drjXuu iiSvvai aroxiiv.


castanets and the flute's shrill note and the dis- orderly singing ? The torches give a faint light, enough for the revellers to see what is close in front of them, but not enough for us to see them. Peals of laughter rise, and women rush along with men, [wearing men's] sandals and garments girt in strange fashion ; for the revel permits women to masquerade as men, and men to " put on women's garb " ^ and to ape the walk of women. Their crowns are no longer fresh but, crushed down on the head on account of the wild running of the dancers, they have lost their joyous look ; for the free spirit of the flowers deprecates the touch of the hand as causing them to wither before their time. The painting also represents in a way the din which the revel most requires ; the right hand Avith bent fingers strikes the hollowed palm of the left hand, in order that the hands beaten like cymbals may resound in unison.


The Fables are gathering about Aesop, being fond of him because he devotes himself to them. For while Homer also cared for fable, and Hesiod, and Archilochus too in his verses to Lycambes, Aesop has treated all sides of human life in his fables, and has made his animals speak in order to point a moral. '^ For he checks greed and rebukes insolence and deceit, and in all this some animal is his mouthpiece —

2 \6yoj, literally "for the sake of thought or reason/' plays on the \6yov used just before in the primary sense of "speech"; it might be translated "so as to express thought."



Kal dXcoTT'i]^ Kal 'itttto'; ^ in] Ata, Kal ovSe i) 299 K. ^€Xd)V7] a(f>(i)vo<;, vcf)' ojv ra iraihia fiaO')]Tal yivovTai TMV rod ^iov Trpay/jLarcov. (2) evSoKi- fiovvTe<; ovv ol ^IvOoL Sea top AiacoTrov (poircocrLV inl Ta<; 6vpa^ rov <JO(pov raiviac^ avrov avaSi]-

5 aovT€<; Kal aT€(f)ava)(TOVT€<; avrov OaWov aTe(f)dp(p. 6 Se olfxai riva vcj^aivei fivOov ro 'yap fieihiafia rov AlaMTrou Kal ol o^Oakfiol Kara iy7](; 6aTC0Te<; tovto hifkovaiv. olSev 6 ^coypd(po<;, on ai tmv /j.v9cov (j^povri^e^ dv€i/jLevr]<;

10 T?}? "^^X^l^ heovrai. <pi\o(TO(f)€L Se rj 'ypa(f)r) Kal ra TO)v Wvdwv aMfiara. Otjpla yap avfJb^dX- \ovaa dv6pa)7roL<; TrepiiaTijai ')(^opov tw Kladiirco diTO T^i9 eKeivov <TKr]vr}<^ crv/xTrXdaaaa, Kopv^aia he Tov X^P^^ V aXooTrr]^ yeypainai' XPV'^^^ l^P

15 avrfi AiVajTro? BiaKovo) TOiv irXeicyTwv vnoOe- aecov, coarrep 7) KcofiwSia tm Ada).

B' MENOIKETX (1) &r)/3a)V fiev 1) iroXiopKia, to yap reixo^ kiTTdTTvXov, y) arpand he UoXvveLK7]<; " o rov OtStVoSo?' ol yap Xoxoi eTrrd. ireXd^ei avroh 20 'AfjL(j)LdpecD<; ddvjJiw eXhec Kal ^vvievTL a ireiaovTai, Kal ol pev dXXoi Xo^^^jol hehiacn — ravra Kal rd^; ^e?/3a? e? top Ala al'povai — KfiTrai^eu^ he ra Teixv I^Xeirei irepi^popcdp rd^; eVaXfef? co?

^ 'c'ttttos, Koi fTj Ata ouSe conj. Benndorf. 2 UoXvuiUovs rov conj. Reiske.



a lion or a fox or a horse, and, by Zeus, even the tortoise is not dumb— that through them children may learn the business of life. So the Fables, honoured because of Aesop, gather at the doors of the wise man to bind fillets about his head and to crown him with a victor's crown of wild olive. And Aesop, methinks, is weaving some fable ; at any rate his smile and his eyes fixed on the ground indicate this. The painter knows that for the composition of fables relaxation of the spirit is needed. And the painting is clever in representing the persons of the Fables. For it combines animals with men to make a chorus about Aesop, composed of the actors in his fables ; and the fox is painted as leader of the chorus, since Aesop uses him as a slave in developing most of his themes, as comedy uses Davus.


This is the siege of Thebes, for the wall has seven gates ; and the army is the army of Polyneices, the son of Oedipus, for the companies are seven in number. Amphiaraiis approaches them with face despondent and fully aware of the fate in store for them ; and while the other captains are afraid — that is why they are lifting their hands to Zeus in prayer — Capaneus ^ gazes on the walls, revolving in his mind how the battlements may be taken

1 Cf. Eur. Phoen. 180-182.

"And where is Capaneus — he who hurls at Thebes Insult of threats ? a

There : he counts up and down The wall-stones, gauging our towers' scaling height.

Trans. Way, L.C.L.



KXifxaKi dXoyrd^. ov fii-jv ^dWerai tto) utto 25 TMV iiraX^ewv 6kvovvt€<; ttov o'l ^rj^aloL dp^ai


(2) rjSv TO a6(f)L(Tfj,a tou l^a)ypd(f)OU. irepL- ^dWwv TOi<; Tei)(^€ariv dvhpa<i ot)7r\La/j,€i^ov^ tou? /jL€V dpriov^ irapey^et opdv, tov^ Be dcra(f)eL<; rd

30 a/ceXT], tov<; Se i>)/jLLaea<; fcal arepim eviwv koI

K€(pa\a<; fjL6va<^ kol KopvOa^ fiova^, elra alxP'd<;.

dvaXoyia ravra, co Tral' Bel yap KXeirreaOaL

300 K. TOv<; 6(f)0aXp,ov<; toI<; eViTT/Setof? kvkXoi<; avv-


(3) ovSe al (&rj,8ai dfidpreuror Xoyiov yap ri 6 T€Lpe(Tia<; XeyeL relvov eV MevoiKea top tov KpeovTO<;, co? diroOavcov, ev9a i) %eia. rov

5 BpdKovTO^, eXevOepa rj 7roXi9 €k tovtov eh). 6 Be dirodi'rjaKei XaOoov rov irarepa eX€eLvo<; puev T/}? '))XiKia<i, evBaifiwv Be rov Odpaov^. opa yap rd rov ^coypdcfyov. ypd(peL iieLpaKiov ov XevKov

10 ovB^ €K rpvcj)rj<;, dXX' euyjrvxov fcal 7raXaLarpa<=; iTveov, olov ro rcov p€Xt')^p6cov dv6o<=;, 01)9 eiratvel o rov 'A/)t(7TCi)7'0?, BLa(^pdrrei Be avro arepvoi^; ev^acpiai Kal 7rXevpaL<; Kal yXovrw avpL/ierpM Kal fn]p^' eppcorai Kal Mfxwv eirayyeXia Kal

15 ovK drpeirrw revovri, fierex^t Be koI K6fir]<;, oaov

^ Literally " the principle of proportion.' 16


with scaling ladders. As vet^ however, there is no shooting from the battlements, since the Thebans apparently hesitate to begin the combat.

TJie clever artifice of the painter is delightful. Encompassing the walls with armed men, he depicts them so that some are seen in full figure, others with the legs hidden, others from the waist up, then only the busts of some, heads only, helmets only, and finally just spear-points. This, my boy, is perspective;^ since the problem is to deceive the eyes as they travel back along with the proper receding planes of the picture.

Nor are the Thebans without their prophet, for Teiresias is uttering an oracle pertaining to Menoeceus the son of Creon, how that by his death at the dragon's hole- the city should thenceforth be free. And he is dying, his father being all unaware of his fate, an object of pity indeed because of his youth, but really fortunate because of his bravery. For look at the painter's work I He paints a youth not pale, nor the child of luxury, but courageous and breathing of the palaestra, as it were the choicest of the "honey-coloured " youth whom the son of Ariston^ praises; and he equips him with a chest deeply tanned, strong sides and a well-proportioned hip and thigh ; there is strength both in the promise of his shoulders and in his supple neck ; he has long hair also, but not the

^ Cf. 11. 22. 93, Cos 8e hpaKwv iirl x^^fjy ^-^d Eur. Phoen. 931 f. : " In that den where the earth-born dragon lay Watching the streams of Dirce, must he yield, Slaughtered, a blood-oblation to the earth."

Trans., Way, L.C.L.

  • Plato, cf. Rep. 474, fj.e\ix^<^'pov5, but in Plutarch's

quotation of the passage, Mor. 56 d, we find /xeXixpow.

17 c


fiij KOfiav. (4) €(f)ear7]K€ Se rfj %em tou Spd- Kovro<; ekKOv to ^t(/)o? e'/^SeSu/co? ?)S>/ rrj irXevpa. Kal he^cojjLeOa, to iral, ro al/xa koXttov ^ avrw viTO(JxovT6<^' eKyjelTai 'yap, Kal rj '^v)(^t] ijBr]

20 ciTreiai, fiiKpov he varepov Kal rerpLyvLa'^ avrrj<; aKovaij. epcora yap rcov KaXcov acofidrcov Kal al -^vxal l'a)(^ouaiv, oOev aKovaai avrcop diraX- "Xdrroprai. vit€^l6vto<^ 8e avTW rod aJ/xaro? OKXd^ec Kal daTrd^erat, top OdvaTov KaXcp Kal

25 i]hel Tw ofjL/jLari Kal olov virvov eXKOVJi.

€ nHXEI^

(1) Uepl TOP 'NelXov oi Il7])(6i<i dOvpovai irai-

hia ^v/jL/jL€Tpa rw ovofiarL, Kal 6 NciXo? avTOi<;

vvrepydwrai rd re dXXa Kal otl KTjpvTTOvcriv

avTop, 6ao<; At^uTrrtot? 7rpoe)(v07]. irpoadyerai

30 yovp Kal olop ep^^erai ^ avrcp eK rod vBaTO<;

/Specj^r] diraXa Kal ixeihiMPra, ixerex^i'V ^e

olfiai TC avra Kal rov XdXov. Kal ol /lev

rol<; Mfioi^ avTOv icj^i^dpovaip, ol Be tcop irXoKd-

301 K. fiwp eKKpefiaPTai, ol he rfj dyKdXrj eyKaOev-

Sovaip,^ ol Be K03[id^ov<jLP eVl rov areppov. o

Be dpaBlBcoaip avrol<; dpO'q rd fiep diro rov

koXttov, rd Be diro rPj<; dyKdXy]<;, co? crrecfedpovf;

5 re drr avroiv BiarrXeKOiep Ka\ KaOevBoiep iirl

roip dpdewp lepol Kal eucwSef?.* Kal eTrapa^ai-

vovaip dXXo dXX(p rd iraiBia (TeiarpoL<^ dfia'

^ KaATTii/ (" pitclier ") conj. Valckenaer, Hercher ; but cf. koKtvov vn^x^h 311 K 26.

2 €\K€rai conj. Jacobs, but cf. 380. 17.

" iyicaOevSovaiv Reiske, Jacobs : nadevSovaiy.

^ dfiwdeis ("divine ") conj. Brunn, cf. 332. 18. i8

[To face p. 19.


long hair of luxury. There he stands at the dragon's hole, drawing out the sword which has already been thrust into his side. Let us catch the blood, my boy, holding under it a fold of our gar- ments ; for it is flowing out, and the soul is already about to take its leave, and in a moment you will hear its gibbering cry. For souls also have their love for beautiful bodies and therefore are loath to part from them. As his blood runs slowly out, he sinks to his knees and welcomes death with eye beautiful and sweet and as it were inviting sleep.


About the Nile the Dwarfs are sporting, children no taller than their name ^ implies ; and the Nile delights in them for many reasons, but par- ticularly because they herald his coming in great floods for the Egyptians. At any rate they draw near and come to him seemingly out of the water, infants dainty and smiling, and I think they are not without the gift of speech also. Some sit on his shoulders, some cling to his curling locks, some are asleep on his arms, and some romp on his breast. And he yields them flowxrs, some from his lap and some from his arms, that they may weave them into crowns and, sacred and fragrant themselves, may have a bed of flowers to sleep upon. And the children climb up one on another with sistra in their hands, instruments the sound of

^ Cf. the allusion to them in Lucian, Rhetorum Preceptor, § 6 ; a statue of the Nile with dwarfs sporting over it is found in the Vatican (Fig. 1).

  • "Cubit-dwarfs."

19 c2


ravrl yap evavXa eKeivw tw vSart. (2) KpoKO-


10 Tft) NetXw TLv't<i irpoaypd^ovaLv, diroKeivrai, vvv eV [BaOela rrj hivij, fir) 8eo9 to?? 7raihioL<i ifxireaoL. yecopyta^; Se kol vavTL\ia<^ av/ji^oXa Sy]\oL rov KelXov eK TOiovSe, w Trat, XoyoV NetXo? AtyvTrrov •nXwTijv €pyaa-d/ji€vo<; evKdpircp rfj yfj ')(^prj(j6aL

15 SiScoaiv VTTo Tcop TreSicov e/CTTO^et?, iv AlOiOTTLa Be, oOev dp^^eruL, Ta/iiLa<; avrw Sal/iwv i(p€aT)]/c6v, v<f ov irefMireTaL raU oipac^ av/jL/xerpo^;. ye- ypaiTTai he ovpavofxi'jK'ii^ e7nvoi)aai koX rov TToSa eirex^i ^ TaL<; 7rr)yaL^ olov Yioaeihoyv irpoa-

20 v6V(jov. 6l<; tovtov 6 TTorayLto? ^Xeirei kuI alrel TCL /3p6<pi] avTM TToXXd elvuL.


(1) MrjXa "Eyocore? ISov rpvycoaip' el Be 7rXi]0o<; avTO)v, firj davfidar)<;. Nv/i(f)a)v yap Sr] TTulSe's ovTOL yivovraL, ro Ovqrov dirav SiaKV-

25 ^€pvcovT€<;, TToXXol Sid TToXXd, ojv ipMCTLv dvOpco- 7T0L, Tov Be ovpdvLov (j^aaiv iv rw ovpavw irpdr- T€LV rd Oela. fxayv eirrjaOov tl tPj<; dvd rov KYjiTOv €ucoBia<; i) ^paBvvec aot tovto ; dXXd irpoOviJLO)^ UKOve' Trpoa/BaXel ydp ae /lerd rov

30 Xoyov Kol rd fj.7]Xa.

(2) dp)(^OL fxev OVTOL (f)VTa)v opOol iropeuovrai,

^ cTre'xfi Jacobs, cf. Phil. iuti. 405. G: ex^' P^*> *X*^' '"'P'^* ■^•

^ Cf. Philostratus, Vita Apollon. 6. 26, where the allusion is based on Pintlar (Bergk, Frag. 282).


which is familiar to that river. Crocodiles^ how- ever, and hippopotami, which some artists associate with the Nile in their paintings, are now lying aloof in its deep eddies so as not to frighten the children. But that the river is the Nile is indicated, my boy, by symbols of agriculture and navigation, and for the following reason : At its flood the Nile makes Egypt open to boats ; then, when it has been drunk up by the fields, it gives the people a fertile land to till ; and in Ethiopia, where it takes its rise, a divinity is set over it as its steward,^ and he it is who sends forth its waters at the riffht seasons. This divinity has been painted so as to seem heaven-high, and he plants his foot on the sources, his head bent forward like Poseidon. 2 Toward him the river is looking, and it prays that its infants may be many.


See, Cupids are gathering apples ; and if there are many of them, do not be surprised. For they are children of the Nymphs and govern all mortal kind, and they are many because of the many things men love ; and they say that it is heavenly love which manages the affairs of the gods in heaven. Do you catch aught of the fragrance hovering over the garden, or are your senses dull } But listen carefully ; for along with my description of the garden the fragrance of the apples also will come to you.

Here run straight rows of trees with space

- Cf. the gem published by Overbeck, Kunstmythologie, Poseidon, Gemmentafel III. 3 : Poseidon bending forward and Nymph.



Tov fieaov Be avjcov iXevOepla /Sadl^eiv, rroa he 302 K. airaXi-j Kaikyei tov<; Bp6/jL0v<; oXa Kal KaraKXi- devTi arpcofivy] elrai. air' uKpcov Be tmv o^cov fifjXa 'Xpvaa Kal irvpaa /cal tjXlcoBtj Trpoadyovrai TOV €(T/jLov oXov to)v 'EpcoTcov yecopyelv avrci. 5 (f)ap6TpaL fiev ovv y^pvaoiraaroL Kal ')(pva'd ^ Kal ra ev avTal<^ /SeXt], yvfivrf rovrcov i) dyeXTj irciaa Kal Kov(f>ot BLairerovraL TTepiapTi^aavre^ avTa<;^ ral^ /uL7)\eai<;, at Be e^eo-r/otSe? al iroLKiXaL Kelvrai fiev ev rfj iroa, pLvpia Be avTOiv ra dv6r). ovBe

10 €aTe(f)(ivcovTaL rd^; K€(j)a\d<; co<; aTroxpdxrrjf; avTOL<; T?}? Kofiy^i. iTTcpd Be Kvdvea Kal (poiVLKa Kal Xpvcd evLOL<; jjlovov ov Kavrov TrXtjTTei top depa ^vv dpjjiovia /MovaiKfj. (peu tcov raXdpcov, ei? OL"? aTroTiOevTaL rd pbfjXa, co? ttoXXt) fiev irepl

15 avTOv<; i) crapBco, ttoXXtj Be rj (T/jLdpayBo<;, dX-yjOj]'^ B' 1] fidpyi]Xi<;, r) avvO)]K7] Be avrow 'HcpalcrTOU voelaOo). ov Be KXifidKcov Beovrai 'jTpo<; rd BevBpa Trap avTOV' vyjrov ydp Kal e? avrd TTerovrat rd fiPjXa.

20 (3) Kal Xva firj rov'^ ')(opevovTa<; Xiyco/jiev rj T0v<; BiaOeovra<i i) tov^ KaSevBovra^ r) co? ydvvv- raL T(ov /uLi]X(ov ipcfyayovre'^, iBcofiev 6 ri irore ovroi voovaiv. ol ydp KuXXtaroL tcov ^KpcoTcov IBov TeTTape^ vire^eXOovTe^ tcov dXXcov Bvo fiev

2~y'ai)T(bv avTiTrepLTTOvaL firjXov dXX7]\oi<;, ?; Be eTcpa Bvd<; 6 /ii€v To^evei tov eTepov, 6 Be avTiTo^evet Kal ovBe uTTeiX't] tol'^ 7rpoa(i}7roi<; eireaTiv, dXXd Kal arepva irapey^ovaiv dXXyjXoi'i, 7v €K€l ttov Td

^ Xpvaa Olearius : xp^'^°-^- ^ auras Rolide : avrd.



left free between them to walk in, and tender grass borders the paths, fit to be a couch for one to lie upon. On the ends of the branches apples golden and red and yellow invite the whole swarm of Cupids to harvest them. The Cupids' quivers are studded with gold, and golden also are the darts in them; but bare of these and untrammelled the w^hole band flits about, for they have hung their quivers on the apple trees ; and in the grass lie their broidered mantles, and countless are the colours thereof. Neither do the Cupids wear crowns on their heads, for their hair suffices. Their wings, dark blue and purple and in some cases golden, all but beat the very air and make harmonious music. Ah, the baskets^ into which they gather the apples ! What abundance of sardonyx, of emeralds, adorns them, and the pearls are true pearls ; but the work- manship must be attributed to Hephaestus ! But the Cupids need no ladders wrought by him to reach the trees, for aloft they fly even to w^here the apples hang.

Not to speak of the Cupids that are dancing or running about or sleeping, or how they enjoy eating the apples, let us see what is the meaning of these others. For here are four of them, the most beautiful of all, withdrawn from the rest ; two of them are throwing an apple back and forth, and the second pair are engaged in archery, one shooting at his companion and the latter shooting back. Nor is there any trace of hostility in their faces ; rather they offer their breasts to each other, in order that the missiles may pierce them there, no

^ Cf. the wool basket of Helen which was the work of Hephaestus, Od. 4, 125 dpyvpiov TaKaoov



f^eXy Trepdaj].^ koKov to atviy/jLa' aKoirei, y^'tp, el

30 7T0V 2 ^vvL7]/j.L Tou t^wy pdc^ov . (piXla ravja, m

rral, koI aWi]X(DV 'ifjicpo^. ol jxev yap Slci tov

fi/jXov 7raL^ovT€<; iroOov dp^ovrai, odev 6 fxev

d(j)L7]aL (^iXi]aa^ ro /ir]Xov, 6 Be virriaL^ avjo

VTToSex^'T^CLL rah X^P^ ^^l^ov co? dvTLCpiXyjacov, €t

35 Xdfioi, Kal avTiirefji^^rcdv avro' to Be tmv to^otwv

303 K. ^evyc; i/jL7reBovaiv epwTa r]B'>] (pddvoi'Ta. Kai

<f)7j/J.c TOV<; fjiev Trai^eiv eirl tm dp^aaOai tov ipdv,

Toi)? Be To^eveiv eirl tm fir] XPj^ai tou ttoOov.

(4) eKelvoL fxev ovv, irepl ou? ol irdXXol Oeaiai,

5 dvfjLW o-v/jLTreTTTcoKaac Kal e)(ei tl<^ avT0v<; irdXr] .

Xe^o) Kal Ti]v irdXrjV' Kal yap tovto eKXiirapel^;.

6 fiev yprjKe tov dvTLiraXov 7repLTrTd<; avTfo KaTa

T(x)V vcoTcov Kal et? irvlypba diroXa/jL^dveL Kal

KaTaBel toI<; (TKeXeaiv, 6 Be ovTe uTTayopevec Kal

10 6pOo<; viravidTaTai Kal BiaXvet tj-jv yelpa, vcj)' r)(;

dyyeTaiy oTpe^Xdiaa'^ eva TOiV BaKTvXcov, jieO^

ov ovKeTi ol XoLTTol e^ovaiv ovBe elaiv ev tw

dirpi^, dXyet Be 6^ aTpe/3Xov/jievo<; Kal KaTeaOiei

TOV avfMTraXaiaTov ^ to ol-?. odev Bvaxepalvov-

^ Tre pdffT} Hercher : Trerao-?; F, TTehdarj cet. - (1 TTov Schenkl : otrov F, eJ; ri P. ^ b added by Reiske and Jacobs, ■* (TVfxTra\ai(TTOv Sclienkl : TraKaiarov.

^ For Cupids engaged in athletic sports, see the sarco- phagus relief in Florence, Baunieister, Denkmaler I, p. oOli, fig. 544 (Fig. 2).



doubt. It is a beautiful riddle ; come, let us see if perchance I can guess the painter's meaning. This is friendship, my boy, and yearniiig of one for the other. For the Cupids who play ball with the apple are beginning to fall in love, and so the one kisses the apple before he throws it, and the other holds out his hands to catch it, evidently intending to kiss it in his turn if he catches it and then to throw it back ; but the jiair of archers are con- firming a love that is already present. In a word, the first pair in their play are intent on falling in love, while the second pair are shooting arrows that they may not cease from desire.

Fig. 2, — E roles boxing and wrestling.

As for the Cupids further away, surrounded by many spectators, they have come at each other with spirit and are engaged in a sort of wrestling- match.^ I will describe the wrestling also, since you earnestly desire it. One has caught his opponent by lighting on his back, and seizes his throat to choke him, and grips him with his legs; the other does not yield, but struggles upright and tries to loosen the hand that chokes him by bending back one of the fingers till the others no longer hold or keep their grip. In pain the Cupid whose finger is being bent back bites the ear of his opponent. The Cupids who are spectators are angry with him for



15 div 01 Oea)/jL€VOt, tcop ""Epcorwv ci)? ahiKovvri kuI iKrraXaiovTL kol /jli]\ol<; avrbv KaraXidovai.

(5) /jLT]Se 6 Xayco^; y/jLd<; eK6ii'0<; Sia(f)uyeTco, trvvdijpdaM/iev C€ avrhv to6? "ILpcoat. tovto to Oiipiov v7TOKad/)fi€VOV raL<; fitfK.eai'^ koI (JLTOVfie-

20 vov TCL TTLTTTOvra ft? ji]!' /xf/Xa, TToXXa Se /cal 7]/jLi0pa)Ta KaraXeliTOv hiaO)]p(x)aiv ovtol kul kut- apdaaovaiv 6 fiev KpoKO \eLp(jiV, 6 he KeKpay(jt)<;, 6 he dvaaelcov rijv )(Xaiivha, koI ol fiev virepireTOV- rac Tou Orjpiou KaTa^owvre<^, ol he [xedeirovcnv

25 avTO ire^ol Kar t%^'09, 6 5' to? eirippi-\\rwv eavrov Mpfjijcre. Kal to Orjpiov dXXi]v eTpdireTO, o he eTTi/SovXevet rw aKeXet tov Xayo), top he Kal hicoXiaOTjaev rjprjKOTa. yeXcbaiv ovv Kal KaTa- TreTTTco/caaiv 6 fiev e? irXevpdv, 6 he 7rpr]vj]<;, ol he

30 vTTTLOi, TraVre? he ev toI<; tT;? hiafJiapTia^; cr^V- paai. To^evei he ou^et?, dXXd TreipcovTai avTOV eXeiv ^wvTa lepeiov ttj K^pohiTr] i]htaTOV. (6) olaOa yap irov to irepl tov Xayco Xeyofievov, C09 TToXv tt)? W(f)pohiT7]<; fieTeaTiv avTfo. XeyeTai

35 ovv iTEpl filv TOV Ot']Xeo<; Oi^Xd^eiv Te avTO a

304 K. eVe/ce /cal diroTLKTeLv irdXiv eirl TavTw ydXaKTr

Kal eTriKvtaKei ^ he Kal ovhe el? ')(p6ro<; avTcp tov

TOKSTov k€p6<;. TO he cippev (JTreipei Te, co? (fyvai^;

dppevwv, Kal diroKviaKei irap' 7re(f)VKev. ol he

^ Herod. III. 108 iiriKvia-KeTai jxavvov iravrwv Orjpiuv ; quoted by Athenacus 400 E with the reading iiriKviaKd.



this as unfair and contrary to the rules of wrestling, and pelt him with apples.

And let not the hare yonder escape uS; but let us join the Cupids in hunting it down. The creature was sitting under the trees and feeding on the apples that fell to the ground but leaving many half-eaten ; but the Cupids hunt it from place to place and make it dash headlong^ one by clapping his hands, another by screaming, another by waving his cloak; some fly above it with shouts, others on foot press hard after it, and one of these makes a rush in order to hurl himself upon it. The creature changes its course and another Cupid schemes to catch it by the leg, but it slips away from him just as it is caught. So the Cupids, laughing, have thrown themselves on the ground, one on his side, one on his face, others on their backs, all in atti- tudes of disappointment. But there is no shooting of arrows at the hare, since they are trying to catch it alive as an offering most pleasing to Aphrodite. For you know, I imagine, what is said of the hare, that it possesses the gift of Aphrodite to an unusual degree. 1 At any rate it is said of the female that while she suckles the young she has borne, she bears another litter to share the same milk : forth- with she conceives again, nor is there any time at all when she is not carrying young. As for the male, he not only begets offspring in the way natural to males, but also himself bears young, contrary to nature. And perverted lovers have found in the

^ This tradition of the fertility of the hare is frequently mentioned by ancient writers ; of. Herod. Ill, 108 : Arist. dt gen. anim. 777 a 32, TJi-t. anim. 542 b 31, 574 b 30. 585 a 5 ; Plut. Mor. S29e; Aelian. Hist. aniw. 13. 12.


5 aroTTOL tcoi> epaarcov koI TreiOco rtva €pcoTiK7]v ev avTO) Kareyvayaav /ScaLO) Te^vrj to, TTaihiKa 6ripa)fievoi.

(7) ravra fiev ovv KaraXiTTcofiev dvOp(t)7roi<; dSiKoi^ Kal dva^ioL<^ rov dvrepaaOaL, av Si fioi

10 Trjv 'A(f)poSiTr)v /SXeire. ttov 8;) Kal Kara tl twz^ /jLrjXwv eKeivj) ; ^ 6pa<; rr/v viravrpov irerpav, 779 vd/xa Kvavcorarov vTreKrpex^i yXwpov re Kal TTOTifiov, Byj Kal 8L0-)(6T€veTaL iTOTOv elvat ral<i fit]\eaL<; ; ivravOd /j,oi T?)^' ^ X(^ pohirriv voei, Nf/.t-

15 (^o}v olfiat avTi-jv iBpvfievcov, 6tl avrd^; eiToii]aev 'EpcoTcov /jLi]r6pa<; Kal Bid rovro eviraiBa';. Kal KajoTTTpov Be TO dpyvpovv Kal to vrro^pvcrov eKelvo aavBdXiov Kal at irepovat al ')(^pvaal, ravra iravra ovk dpyo)^ dv))7rrac. Xeyet Be

20 'A^/?o5tT7;? elvai, Kal ykypairrai rovro, Kal ^v/jL(f)a)v Baypa elvat Xeyerac. Kal 01 "Epcore<; Be uTrdp^^ovrai rcbv /llijXmv Kal 'repLecrrcore^; ev^ov- rai KaXov avrol^ elvaL rov k?]itov.


(1) 'H fiev arparid ^lep^vovo^, rd oirXa Be 25 avrol^ diroKeirai Kal irporiOevraL rov p^eyiarov avrwv eVl Op7]V(p, (3epXi)raL Be Kara ro crepvov €/jloI BoKelv VTTO tT/? yLteXia?. eupcov ^ ydp ireBiov evpv Kal aK')]vd<; Kal reL')(o<; ev arparoireBw Kal TToXiv avfiTTecj^pay/jLevrjv reixeaiv ovk olB' ottox; 30 OVK AWL07re<i ovroL Kal 'Vpoia ravra, Opt-jvelrai

^ iKiivri Olearius : ixelyr]. ^ Rohde conj. Spwi-


Fig. 3. — Tht Luath of Memnon.

[Tofuo' p. 29.

BOOK 1. 7

hare a certain power to produce love, attempting to secure the objects of their affection by a compelling magic art.^

But let us leave these matters to men who are wicked and do not deserve to have their love returned, and do you look, please, at Aphrodite. But where is she and in what part of the orchard yonder? Do you see the overarching rock from beneath which springs water of the deepest blue, fresh and good to drink, which is distributed in channels to irrigate the apple trees ? Be sure that Aphrodite is there, where the Nymphs, I doubt not, have established a shrine to her, because she has made them mothers of Cupids and therefore blest in their children. The silver mirror, that gilded sandal, the golden brooches, all these objects have been hung there not without a purpose. They proclaim that they belong to Aphrodite, and her name is inscribed on them, and they are said to be gifts of the Xymphs. And the Cupids bring first- fruits of the apples, and gathering around they pray to her that their orchard may prosper.


This is the army of Memnon ; their arms have been laid aside, and they are laying out the body of their chief for mourning ; he has been struck in the breast, I think, by the ashen spear. For when I find a broad plain and tents and an entrenched camp and a city fenced in with walls, I feel sure that these are Ethiopians and that this city is Troy

^ i.e. by making a present of a hare they exercise a sort of constraint upon the beloved.



he yie/jLVwv 6 r/)? 'HoO?. tovtov cK^iKoixevov 305 K. cifivvaL rfj Tpoia KreiveL, (fiaaiv, 6 rod n7;Xe&)9 /iieyav I'jKovra /cal ovSev av avrov fxeiw. (2) (jko- irei yap, 6ao<; /aev Kelrai Kara tt]<; yr}<;, 6ao<; 8e 6 TMV /3oaTpv)(wv aaTa')(y<^, ov<^ ol/iai NetXw o €Tp€(f)€' KelXou yap AlyvimoL fiev e^ovat Ta9 eK^oXd^;, AldioiTe<; he Ta<; 7rr)yd<;. opa to etSo?, CO? eppwraL Kal tmv 6(f)0a\/jLMv ciiroXwXoTCOv, opa TOP LOvXov &)? /caO^ rjXiKiav tw KrelvavTi. ovS' av fxeXava ^at?;? rov MepLvova' to yap

10 ciKpciTw^i ev avTw fiiXav v7ro(f)aiP€i, tl dv6ov<;.

(3) al he psTew poL haipove<i 'Ho)? eirl T(p iraihl irevOovaa KUTrjipi] nroiel tov WXlov Kal heiTai T?}? Nf/CTO? d(f)LKea6at irpo Kaipov Kal to (TTpaTOTTehov iiT Lay^elv , 'Iva eyyevr^Tai ol KXe^\rai

15 TOV viov, Afo? TTOV TttVTa v€V(TavTO<;. Kal Ihov eKKeKXeTTTai Kal eaTLV eirl Teppbaai tt}? ypa(f)rj<;} iTov hrj ^ Kal KaTO. tl t% y^]^ ; Td<^o<^ ovha/xov ^\epLvovo<^, 6 he ^lepLVcov ev AWLOTTia peTa/Se- l3Xr}Kco<; €L<; Xldov pieXava. Kal to a')(^fj/j.a KaOij-

20 p,evov, TO he elSo? eKeivov,^ olpaiy Kal irpocr- /^dXXei T(p dydXpaTL ?; a/cri? tov 'HXlov. hoKel yap 6 HXto? oiovel irXrjKTpov KaTo, aTopa

^ Ta.(f>os add. Brunn, Symh. 443 ; " his tomb is at the edge of the painting."

^ TTov 57} Jacol)S : airovZi]. ^ iK€Lvov Fairbanks : e/felfo.

^ According to Pliny [N.H. 6. 182) Memnon was king of the Ethiopians in Africa (not of the Ethiopians in the Far East) at the time of tlie Trojan war. The western section of Thebes in Egypt was known as Memnoneia, and here on the left bank of the Nile still remain the two colossal seated figures of Memnon erected by Amenhotep III. They are made of a



and that it is Memnon, the son of Eos, who is being- mourned. When he came to the defence of Troy, the son of Peleus, they say, slew him, mighty though he was and likely to be no whit inferior to his opponent. Notice to what huge length he lies on the ground, and how long is the crop of curls, which he grew, no doubt, that he might dedicate them to the Nile ; for while the mouth of the Nile belongs to Egypt, the sources of it belong to Ethiopia. See his form, how strong it is, even though the light has gone from his eyes ; see his downy beard, how it matches his age with that of his youthful slayer. You would not say that Memnon's skin is really black, for the pure black of it shows a trace of ruddiness.

As for the deities in the sky, Eos mourning over her son causes the Sun to be downcast and begs Night to come prematurely and check the hostile army, tliat she may be able to steal away her son, no doubt with the consent of Zeus. And look I Memnon has been stolen away and is at the edge of the painting. Where is he ? In what part of the earth ? No tomb of Memnon is anywhere to be seen but in Ethiopia he himself has been transformed into a statue of black marble.^ The attitude is that of a seated person, but the figure is that of Memnon yonder, if I mistake not, and the ray of the sun falls on the statue. For the sun, striking the lips of

conglomerate limestone and are 20 metres in height above the pedestal. The northern one of the two, which has been broken in several pieces and set up again, is the figure here referred to. The marvellous tone or "voice" presumably was produced (before the figure was broken) by the sudden expansion of the stone from heat, when the rays of the rising sun fell on it.



i/iiTTLTTTCop T(p Ms/ivovi eKKokelaOaL (f)covy]v eKeWev Kal XaXovvrt aocpia/iari Trapa/uvOelcrOai 25 Tr]V 'Hfiepav.


(1) Ue^evovTL rrjv OdXaaaav tco YloaeihiovL €VT6Tvxv^^^ ol/J-ai Trap' 'O^i-jpcp, ore Kara rov<; A')(^aiov^ uTTo Ar/ojv areWerat, kol rj ddXaaaa yaXijvrjv dyei irapaTTeinrovaa avrov avroh

30 iTTTTOi? Kal avTol^ Ki]Teai' Kcifcel^ yap i/celva eireTai Kal aaivei tov Yloaethodva w? evrav- 6a. eKel fiev ovv i^Treipcoroov ol/iai rcov 'lttttcov alaOdvTj — ')(^aXK6iTohd^ re yap avTOv<; d^iol elvai Kal WKVirera^; Kal pbdariyL TrXfJTrea- 306 K. uaL — ivravOa Se iTTTroKafiTroL to dp/xa, €(f)vSpoi Trt? OTrXa? Kal vevarLKol Kal yXauKol Kal vrj A /a oaa heX<^lve<^. KuKel [lev hva-x^epaivetv 6 Yloaeihoiv eoiKe Kal vefieaav tw Atl kXlvovtl to 5 EXXrjviKov Kal ^pa^evovTL avTOi<; diro tov ')(eipovo<;, ivTavOa Be ^aiSpo<; ykypaiTTai Kal iXapov ^Xeirec Kal aeao^yjTaL fidXa ipcoTLKM^;. (2) A^vjj.d)vi] yap i) /^avaov Oa/j-i^ovaa iirl to TOV ^Ivdy^ov vEcop KCKpdTi^Ke tov Oeov Kal

10 (TTeXXeTat Orjpevawv avTt]v ovirco ^vvLelaav, OTL epcLTai. TO yovv 7repL(j)o^ov t/}? K6pii<s KUi TO TTaXXeaOat, Kal rj KdXm<; i) ■^(pva)] Bia(f>evyovaa Ta^; ■)(€?pa<^ SrjXot ttjv Wfiv/jLcovyjv €K7r67rXT})(6aL Kal drropelv, tl /3ouXo/xei'o? 6

15 Tiocrei^wv eKXetTrei rravavBl ti]v OdXaaaav,

^ KOLKU Jacobs : Kal. 32


Memnon as a plectrum strikes the lyre^ seems to summon a voice from them, and by this speech- producing artifice consoles the Goddess of the Day.


Poseidon's journey over the sea I think you have come upon in Homer, when he sets forth from Aegae^ to join the Achaeans, and the sea is calm, escorting him with its sea-horses and its sea-monsters; for in Homer they follow Poseidon and fawn upon him as they do here in the painting. There, I imagine, your thought is of dry-land horses — for Homer 2 maintains that they are '^'bronze-hoofed," "swiftly flying," and "smitten by the lash" — but here it is hippocamps that draw the chariot, creatures with web-footed hoofs, good swimmers, blue- eyed, and, by Zeus, in all respects like dolphins. There in Homer ^ Poseidon seems to be angry, and vexed with Zeus for turning back the Greek forces and for directing the contest to their disadvantage ; while here he is painted as radiant, of joyous look, and deeply stirred by love. For the sight of Amymone, the daughter of Danaus,as she visits the waters of Inachus, has overmastered the god and he sets out to pursue the girl, who does not yet know that she is loved.* At any rate the fright of the maiden, her trembling, and the golden pitcher falling from her hands make it evident that Amymone is astounded and at a loss to know with what purpose Poseidon so precipitately

^ //. LS. 27 ff. 2 II 13. 23 f.

3 Cf. 11. 5. 37 and 15. 510.

  • The pursuit of Amj-nione by Poseidon was frequently

depicted on vase paintings, cf. Overbeck, Kunstmithologie, Poseidon, p. 370 f. (Fig. 4).

33 D


XevKiiv T€ VTTO (j>v<T€(t)<i ovaav ;\;/3L'cro? irepL- (rrlXlBei Kepaaa<^ t?]V auyr]p tm vhaji. inreK- arcofiev, o) irat, rfj vvfic^r)' Koi yap KVfxa ■i)hii KVpTovrai €9 TOP yd/jLOV, yXavKov en koi tov 20 x^poirov Tpoirov, 7rop(f)vpovp Se avro 6 Yloaeihcop ypdy^ei.


(l)"T7ro/jL^pO'^ fiev rj 7/}, cpepet Se KuXa/xov KOi (pXoiov, a 8r} dcrirapTa kcli dvrjpoTa hihwaiv T) Tcov eXcop 6V(f)VLa, Kol fivpiKT] yeypaTTTat kol 25 Kuireipop' koX yap ravrd iart rodv eXcop. oprj Se oupapo/i7]Kr) 7r€pLl3e/3X7]TaL (pvaew^; ov fj,id<;' TCL fiep yap rrjP ttltvp 7Tape)(6/jL€Pa XeiTToyecop ridel, TCL he KVirapiTTM KouMPra rrj<^ dpycXcohov^

^ Cf. Od. 11. 24.3: TTopipvpfov 5' apa Ki-fia . . , KvpTudfv, - Thus enriching tlie marriage chamber, and concealing

the pair.

^ <hl. 9. 109 : ra y' aoira >Ta Kai ai^r}JOTa iravra (p 'lovrai, of the

island of the C3'clopos.



leaves the sea; and her natural pallor is illumined by the gold of the pitcher, as its brightness is re- flected in the water. Let us withdraw, my boy, and

Fig. 4. — Poseidon pursuing Amymone.

leave the maiden; for already a wave is arching ^ over for the nuptials, and, though the water is still bright and pellucid in appearance, Poseidon will presently paint it a purple hue.^


Tlie earth is wet and bears reeds and rushes, which the fertile marsh causes to grow " un- sown and untilled,"^ and tamarisk and sedge ^ are depicted ; for these are marsh-plants. The place is encompassed by mountains heaven high, not all of one type ; for some that are covered with pine trees suggest a light soil, others luxuriant with cypress trees proclaim that their soil is of clay, and yonder

  • Suggested by II. 21. 350 f. : jjivplKai . . . ■t]5e Kvireipov.

D 2



Xeyei, iXuTai Se eKelvat ri ciWo ye r) hvo-^ei-

ZO /J-epov Koi Tpax^ to 6po<; ; ou yap dairdi^ovjai /36j\ov ovSe dyaTTCjai OakireaOaL' raurd tol kol diroLKOvcn t(ov ireSlcov o)? iv rot<{ opeat paov av^ofxevai ro) dvefiw} injyal Be diro^Xv^ovcn

}07 K. TO)v opcov, at S?) peovaat kutq) kol KOLvovfievai

TO vSwp e\o9 l/tt' avTCov to TreSlov, ov fxrjv uTaKTov ye ovSe olov 7re(pvpOaL' SnjKTat, Se avTov TO vafia viro t>}9 ypa(f)r)<;, 0)9 av kol rj 5 <^uo"£9 avTO Stijyayev 77 ao(f)}} ttuptcov, /JLatdvhpov<; Be 7ro\XoL'9 eXiTTet aeXlvov PpvovTa<^ dyaOov^ ravTiXXeaOai toU opviat toU vypol^;. (2) 6pa<i ydp TTOV Ta9 vi]TTa<;, co? ecpvBpoL BcoXiaOdvouaiv di'a(f)vacocTaL TLva<; olov avXov<; tov vBaTo<;. tl

10 Br] TO Tcov ')(7jv(ov e6vo<i ; Kal ydp Brj KUKelvoi yeypd(paTaL KUTa Tr)v eavTMV (pvaiv enniT oXaLoi re Kal TrXcoTrjpe^;. tov<; Be iirl fxaKpolv toIv cTKeXolv, T0U9 TrepiTTov^ TO pd/jL(j)o<i ^€P0v<; olfiai alaOdvrj Kal dfipov<; dXXov dXXov TTTepov. Kal Ta

15 a')(^r]/uiaTa Be avTcov TTOLKiXa' 6 fiev ydp eVt 7reTyoa9 dvairavei too iroBe KaTa eva, 6 Be i/ru^et TO TTTepov, 6 Be eKKaOaipei, 6 Be f/pr]Ke tl e/c tov vBaT0<;, 6 Be el<; ttjp yrjv dirovevevKev eTTiaLTLcraa- 6ai TL €Kel6ev.

20 (3) 7-}VLO\ela6aL Be 701)9 kvkvov^ vtto tmv ^KpcoTcov 6avfia ovBeV dyepw^oi ydp 01 deol Kal Beivol TraL^eLv €9 701)9 6pvi6a<;, o6ev fii]Be ttjv r)VL6')(r)(TLV dpya)<; 7rapeX6a)/iev fii]Be avTO to

^ Jacolis : TOV &vji>.

^ Cf. //. 11. 256: ave/uLjTpecpes fyx^s, "a wind-nurtured spear,"



fir trees — what else do they mean than that the mountain is storm-swept and rugged ? For firs do not Hke rich soil nor do they care for warmth ; accordingly their place is at a distance from the plains, since they grow more readily in the moun- tains because of the wind.^ And springs are breaking forth from the mountain sides ; as they flow down and mingle their waters below, the plain becomes a marsh ; not, however, a disordered marsh or the kind that is befouled with mud; but the course of its waters is directed in the painting just as if nature, wise in all things, directed it, and the stream winds in many a tortuous meander, abounding in parsley and suited for the voyaging of the water- fowl. For you see the ducks, I am sure, how they glide along the water-course blowing jets of w^ater from their bills. ^ And what of the tribe of geese ? Indeed, they too are painted in accordance with their nature, as resting on tiie water and sailing on it. And those long-legged birds with huge beaks, you doubtless recognize as foreign, the birds delicately coloured each with different plumage. Their at- titudes also are various ; one stands on a rock resting first one foot and then the other, one dries its feathers, one preens them, another has snatched some prey from the w^ater, and yet another has bent its head to the land so as to feed on something there.

No wonder that the swans are ridden by Cupids ; for these gods are mischievous and prone to sport with birds, so let us not pass by without noticing either their riding or the waters in which this

^ For avXovs cf. Od. 22. 18 ; avhhs ava p'lvas iraxvs fiKdev a'ifj.aTos.



vBcop, ev o) ravra. ro fiev yap Sr] vScop tovto

25 KoXkiaTOv Tov €Xov<; TTTjyrj^; avro SLSova7]<; avro- OeVy avviararaL Se et? /coXv/jb/SijOpav TrayfcdXyjv. oia jieaov yap tov vBaro^i afxdpaina vevei rd fiev evdev, rd he eKeWev, rjhelf; daTd')(ye<^ Kal PdWovTE'^ dv6eL ro vBcop. irepl tovtov<; ijvlo-

30 y^ovcTLv "Epwre? i€pov<; xal 'X^pvao^aXivov^ 6pvi<; 6 fxev irdaav rjviav ivhihov<;, 6 Be dvaKoirrwv, 6 Be eiriarpe^cov, 6 Be irepl ryp vvaaav iXavvcov — Kal TTapaKeXevofjievwv roi? kvkvol<^ d/coveiv BoKei Kal dTTeiXovvTcov dXXrjXoL<i Kal rccOa^ovrcov'

35 ravra yap roU 7rpoao)7roi<; eTreartv — 6 ^e Kara- ^dXXcL rov ireXa^;, 6 Be Kara^e^XrjKev, 6 Be 308 K. rjydrrrjaev eKrreaelv rov 6pvi6o<;, &)? Xovaatro ev r(p iTTTToBpo/jLa). (4) kvkXw Be ral^ o'^Oat'; i(j)eardaiv ol fiovaiKwrepOL rcov kvkvwv eird- Bovre^ oljiai rov opOiov co? iTpo<^ rpoirov rol<; 6 dfiiXXay/jiivotfi. arj/jLelov tt}? <^Brj<; 6pa<; rb Trrrjvbv fieipaKioV dve/jLO<; rovro Zecjyvpof; rrjv wBrjv rot? KVKVoi^ evBLBov<;, yeypairrai Be diraXov Kal XapUv €i? acvty/jLa rov 7rv€v/uLaro<;, Kal at 7rrepvye<; ijirXcovrac rol<; kvkvol<^ 7rpo<; ro irXijr-

10 reaOat viro rov dve/xov.

(5) IBov Kal 7rora/jLo<; v-ne^ep)(^eraL rov eXov^ evpv<; Kal viroKV/xaLvayv, Bia^alvovai 8' avrov aliToXoL Kal vo/jieU eirl ^evyfiaro^. el Be rcov alyojv eiraLVOir}'; rov ^coypdcpov, on. avrd<; viro-

15 aKiprdiaa^ Kal dyepco^ov^ yeypa(^ev, i) ro)V rrpo- jSdrcov, ore a)(^oXalov avrol^ ro (Sdhidfia Kal



scene lies. Here indeed is the most beautiful water of the marshy issuing direct from a springs and it forms a swimming-pool of exceeding beauty. In the midst of the pool amaranth flowers are nod- ding this way and that, sweet clusters that pelt the water with their blossoms. It is among these clusters that Cupids are riding sacred birds with golden bridles^ one giving free rein, another drawing in, another turning, another driving around the goal- post. Just imagine that you hear them urging on their swans, and threatening and jeering at one another — for this is all to be seen in their faces. One is trying to give his neighbour a fall, another has done it, still another is glad enough to have fallen from his bird that he may take a bath in the race-course. On the banks round about stand the more musical swans, singing the orthian strain, ^ I think, as befits the contestants. The winged youth you see is an indication that a song is being sung, for he is the wind Zephyrus and he gives the swans the keynote of their song. He is painted as a tender and graceful boy in token of the nature of the south- west wind, and the wings of the swans are unfolded that the breezes may strike them.

Behold, a river also issues from the marsh, a broad rippling stream, and goatherds and shepherds are crossing it on a bridge. If you were to praise the painter for his goats, because he has painted them skipping about and prone to mischief, or for his sheep because their gait is leisurely as if their fleeces were a burden,^ or if we were to dwell

^ "Orthian strain," a familiar high-pitched melody. 2 Cf. Hesiod, Op. 234, " Their woolly sheep are burdened with fleeces."



olov a-^6o^ ol jxaWoi} rci^; re avpiy'ya<; el hie^ioLjJLev fj tou? ^yoco/xei'ou? aurat?, &>? virearaX- fxevM T(p arofiari avXovcn, afjbitcpov eiraweao-

20 fxeOa rri<^ ypacpij^; kol oaov et? p,iixi]aLv 7]/<eL, <TO(j)Lav 5e ovK eTraiveaoiieOa ovhe Kacpov, a Brj Kpdriara Bok€L Tr]<; re')(vr]<;. (G) rt? ovv rj aocpla; ^euy/ia (poivLKcov iTTL/SiffXrjKe rw Trorafiw KOL pLuXa ijBvv eTT avTw Xoyov' €lBa}<; yap to

25 Trepl tmv (^oivlkcov Xeyojievov, on avrayp 6 fiev dpayjv Tis, f) Be OifKeia, kol irepl rod ydfxov acpcov BiaK7]Koco<;, OTL dyovrat, Td<; Orfkeia^ Trept/SaXXov- T69 avTd<; TOL<; KXdBoL^ koI eiriTeivovre^ avrov^; eV auTa9, «^' eKarepov tov yevou<; eva Kara fiiav

30 oxO^lv yeypacpev. elra 6 fiev epa Kal eTTLKXiverai Kal virepdXXeTai tov Trora/JLOV, Trj<; Be 6T]Xeia<^ en d(f)€aTd)aT]<; ovk e')(^cov eTrtXa/Seadat Kelrai kol BovXevet ^ev^a^ to vBcop, Kal ecTTi tol<; Bia/3al- vovaiv da(paXr]<; viro tt)? tov ^Xolov T/oa^u-

35 t7]to<;.

309 K. c AMmN

(1) TrJ? Xvpa<; to o-6(f)ia/xa Trpwro? 'Ep/jii]<; rryj- ^aaOai XeyeTai KepdToiv Bvolv fcal ^vyov Kal ')(eXvo<; Kal Bovvai fxeTa tov ' AttoXXw Kal ra? Moucra? 'A/i(jiLOVi tco ^ij^auo to Boipov, 6 Be 5 OLKMV ra? 07;/3a? oviro) TeTei)(Laixeva^ d^rjKS Kaid Tcov XlOcov fieXif Kal aKovovTe'; ol XiOot avvOeovai' TavTa yap tcl ev tj} ypa(f)fj.

^ ol jxaWoi Jacobs : ^ /uiaWoi'. 40

BOOK I. 10

on the pipes or on those who play them — the way they blow with puckered lips — we should praise an insignificant feature of the painting and one that has to do solely with imitation ; but we should not be praising its cleverness or the sense of fitness it shows, though these, 1 believe, are the most important elements of art. Wherein, then, lies its cleverness ? The painter has thrown a bridge of date palms across the river, and there is a very })retty reason for this ; for knowing that palms are said to be male and female, and having heard about their marriage, that the male trees take their brides by bending over toward the female trees and em- bracing them with their branches, he has painted a palm of one sex on one bank and one of the other sex on the other bank. Thereupon the male tree falls in love and bends over and stretches out over the river ; and since it is unable to reach the female tree, which is still at a distance, it lies prone and renders menial service by bridging the water, and it is a safe bridge for men to cross on because of the roughness of its bark.


The clever device of the lyre, it is said, was invented by Hermes, who constructed it of two horns and a crossbar and a tortoise-shell ; and he presented it first to Apollo and the Muses, then to Amphion of Thebes.^ And Amphion, inasmuch as the Thebes of his day was not yet a walled city, has directed his music to the stones, and the stones run together when they hear him. This is the subject of the painting.

1 Cf. Paus. 9. 5. 8.



(2) 7rp(6Ti]v ovv SiaOeoj rijv Xvpav, el KaO' avT7]v yeypairrai. to fievyap Kepa<;^' alyos l^dXov^'

10 7roLT)Tai (j)aai, ')(prjTaL he avrco o fiev ixovaiKO^ 6? TrjV Xvpav, 6 Se to^ottj^ e? ra oUeca. fxeXava Kol TTpiovcora 6pa<; ra Kepara kol Beiva ivapd^ai, ^vXa Be, oaa Sel rf) Xvpa, irv^ov rrchra aTpv(f)vov Kal Xeiov top o^ov — eXe(pa<; ovSa/xov t)]<; Xvpa^,

15 ovTTO) 01 dvO pwiTOi 6t8oTe9 ovTe avTo TO Orjpiov ovTe 6 Ti T0i9 Kepacnv avTOv ^pi]aovTai — Kal 77 %eXu9 IxeXaiva fjuev, Bu]/cpL0(i)TaL Be Kara ttjv cf)vcnv Kal Xayapov<; Trepi^e/SXrjTat kvkXov<; dXXov ^vvdirTOVTa<^ akXw ^av9ol<i rot? 6cf)daXfjL0i<;,

20 vevpal he tcl fiev viro tt] fiaydBt, TrpoaKecvTat Kal TOt? 6ijL(f)aXol<; aTravTOjat, Ta he vrro tco ^vyw KolXat ^ SoKovar ayn)iid irov tovto avTCov dvaXoyd)TaTOP dvaKeKXiaOac a(pd<; opOw^ ^ ev Trj Xvpa.

25 (3) 6 Be 'AiJL(f)io)V Tt cf)7]aL ; tl dXXo ye rj^ Telvei Tov vovv e? t^^jv TryjKTiBa Kal TTapacpaivec T(oi> oBovTwv oaov drro^pri tw liBovTi ; aBei Be ol/jLai T7]P yrjv, oTLirdvTcov yevereipa Kal fnjTtjp ovcra Kal avTo/JLUTa ijBi] rd Tei^n BiBwcnv. rj ko/xt] Be

30 rjBela fxev Kal KaO^ eavTrjv evaXvovaa jiev tm /leTcoTTO), (TvyKaTLOvaa Be tm lovXo) irapd to ov<; Kal ')(^pvaov TL em^aivovaay tjBlwp Be fieTa t7]<; /xtT/3a9, 'y]P (paaip 01 tcov dirodeToyv TrocrjTal

^ koFAoi Jacobs : Ko7\a.

2 opOws Benndorf : opdohs or opOds.

^ After 17 tlie M8S. give \pd\\(i Koi ti krepa x^^p ', Jacobs deletes r] ereoa x^^p 5 Benndorf deletes the whole phrase, comparing 310 K 7.

^ Cf. //. 4. 105: Td^ov . . . f^dhou aly6s. 42

BOOK I. lo

Look carefully at the lyre first, to see if it is painted faithfully. The horn is the horn "of a leaping goat/' ^ as the poets say, and it is used by the musician for his lyre and by the bowman for his bow. The horns, you observe, are black and jagged and formidable for attack ^ All the wood required for the lyre is of boxwood, firm and free from knots — there is no ivory anywhere about the lyre, for men did not yet know either the elephant or the use they were to make of its tusks. The tortoise-shell is black, but its portrayal is accurate and true to nature in that the surface is covered with irregular circles which touch each other and have yellow eves ; and the lower ends of the strings below the bridge lie close to the shell and are attached to knobs, Avhile between the bridge and the crossbar the strings seem to be with- out support, this arrangement of the strings being apparently best adapted for keeping them stretched taut on the lyre.

And what is Amphion saying ? ^ Certainly he keeps his mind intent on the harp, and shows his teeth a little, just enough for a singer. No doubt he is singing a hymn to Earth because she, creator and mother of all things, is giving him his walls, which already are rising of their own accord. His hair is lovely and truthfully depicted, falling as it does in disorder on his forehead and mingling with the doAvny beard beside the ear, and showing a glint of gold ; but it is lovelier still where it is held by the headband — the headband wrought by the Graces, a

^ Cf. the frontispiece for a reconstruction of this lyre.

2 The text is faulty. Probably the sense is "What do you say Amphion is doing? What else than keeping his mind intent . . ,'J "



\dpiTa<^ KafJLUV, ayaX/ia r^hiarov Kal irpoa- 310 K. e-)(^eaTaTOv rfj Xvpa. Bokm /jloi tov 'Ep/jLt']v epwn KaT€i\y/jL/ii€vov Sovvai tm AficpLovt a/jL(f)a) ra 8ct)pa. Kal Tj ')(\a/jiv<;, 7)v ^opel, KaKeivfj irapa TOV 'Ep/jiov Ta%a* ov yap icj)' €v6<; fievet XP^~

5 fxaTo<;, dWa Tpeirerai Kal Kara rijv 'Ipiv /xerav- del. (4) KaOijrat 8e eirl koKwvov rep fxev irohl Kpovcov avpLiJ.e\e<s, rfj he^ia Se irapa'irXi'jTTwv rdf; v€vpd<;' yjrdWei Kal rj erepa %et/? opdaU Tai<; t6)v haKTvXwv 7rpo^o\at<;, oirep (p/irjv irXaa-

10 TLKTjv aTravOaSieiadaL fiov^jv. elev. (5) rd Se TOiv \id(Dv TTw? e')(^ei ; irdvre^; eirl rrjv (pSrjv avvOeovai Kal aKouovac Kal yiverai relxo'i. Kal TO pev i^(pKoh6p,r)Tai, to Be dva^aivei, to he dpTL KaTe/3d\ovTo} (piXoTip-oi Kal T^^et? ol \i6oi

Xo'Kal Oi-jTevovre^^ p,ouaiKf}, to Be Tel)(o<; eirTdiTvXov, oaoL tt}? \vpa<; ol tovol.

La cI)AE©nN

(1) Xpvcrd TU)v 'HXidScov to, hdKpva. ^aiOovTi

X6yo<s avTCL pelv tovtov yap iralSa HXl'ov yevo-

pi€vov €7TiTo\p,r]aaL T(p irarpcpw hi^pw Kara

20 epcoTa rjVioxf')creco<; Kal /xr; KaTaa-^ovra ttjv i]viav

a<^aXrjvaL Kal ev tw ^Wpihavw ireaelv — Tavra

^ KaT(fid\ovTo Schenkl ct al. : KanXi^ovro or /fortAaSej/.

^ Plato, PhaedriLS 252a quotes a passage on Love from the Secret Verses (Jowett, "apocryphal writings") of Homer. The subject is discussed by Lobeck, Aglaophamusy 861 f.



most lovely ornament/' as the poets of the Secret Verses^ say — and quite in keeping with the lyre. My own opinion is that Hermes gave Amphion both these gifts, both the lyre and headband, because he was overcome by love for him. And the chlamys he wears, perhaps that also came from Hermes ; for its colour does not remain the same but changes and takes on all the hues of the rain- bow.2 Amphion is seated on a low mound, beating time with his foot and smiting the strings with his right hand. His left hand is playing, too, with fingers extended straight,^ a conception which I should have thought only plastic art would venture. Well, how about the stones ? They all run to- gether toward the singing, they listen, and they become a wall. At one point the wall is finished, at another it is rising, at still another the foundation is just laid. The stones are eager in rivalry, and happy, and devoted slaves of music ; and the wall has seven gates, as the strings of the lyre are seven.


Golden are the tears of the daughters of Helius. The story is that they are shed for Phaethon; for in his passion for driving this son of Helius ventured to mount his father's chariot, but because he did not keep a firm rein he came to grief and fell into the Eridanus — wise men interpret the story as

2 Does this mean that Hermes descends by the rainbow ? Certainly the rainbow {i.e., Iris) is like Hermes, a messenger from the gods to men,

^ i.e. the left hand is raised, after the stroke, and the fingers, pointing toward the spectators, are foreshortened.



TOt? fiev ao(f)ot<i irXeove^ia Tt? elfac Sokcl tov TTf/JcoSof?, 7roLt]Tat<; Be Kal ^(oypd(f)ot(; Xttttol koI cipfia — Kal avyy^elrai ra ovpdvia. (2) aKoiret

25 yap' vv^ fi€i> €k /i€a7]fi^pia^ eXavvei ti]v yp^epav, 6 Be 7]\iov kvk\o<^ et? yrjv pewv e\K€L tov<^ dare- pa<^. at Be "^flpai rd^; irvXa^ eKXiirovaat (pevyov- aiv eU Ti]v diravTcoaav avral^; d')(\vv, Kal ol 'lttttol tT;? ^evy\r)<; eKireaovre^ otarpw (pepovrac.

30 dirayopevei Be t) Tf] Kal rd<; ')(^elpa^ alpeu dvco payBaiov tov 7rvpb<; 69 avTr]v 16vto<;. eKiriirTeL Be TO fieipdKLov Kal KUTacpepeTaL — Tijv tc yap 311 K. KOfirjv €/jL7re7rpi]aTaL Kal ra CFTepva v7roTV(peTaL — TTOTa/iu) Te ^HpiBavd) epbireaelTat Kal Trape^et fivOov TLva Tw vBaTL. (3) KVKVoi yap Br} dva- (pvao)VT€<; r)Bv tl evOev Kal evOev^ Kal irou]- 5 aovTai wBtjv to fxeipdKtov, dyeXac Te avTcov dpOelaai KavaTpco TavTa Kal "iaTpcp aaovTai, Kal ovBev dv7]Koov eaTai tov tolovtov \6yov, Zecpvpo) t€ 'Xp^o'OVTai 7rpo<; ttjv wBtjv eXacppw Kal evoBiw' XeyeTat yap avvavXiav tov 6pi}vov

10 TOi? KVKVOI'^ 6p,o\oyr}aai. raOra tol Kal Trdp- eaTL Toh opviaiv, ware opa - Kal yfrdWeiv avTov<i olov opyava.

(4) TO, Be eirl tt} o^drj yvvaia, at ovttco BevBpa, (paal Ta9 'llXidBa<; errl tw dBeX^w /jLeTa(f)VPai

^ TL ivOev Kol ivQiv Jacobs : r)) (uQ^v or rh iunvQiv. ^ opa Welcker: wpa.

1 Cf. Lucretius 5. 392 ff.

^ Cf. //. 8. 485 f. : iv 5' eTrea' ' CiK^avw Kap-irphv (pdos rjeXloio, (\KOVTa vvKTa /nfKaivav ^irl ^eidwpov &poupav. 3 Cf. mfra Phil. II, 34.


[ To face p. 47.


indicating a superabundance of the fiery element in nature,^ but for poets and painters it is simply a chariot and horses — and at his fall the heavens are confounded. Look ! Night is driving Day from the noonday sky^ and the sun's orb as it plunges toward the earth draws in its train the stars. ^ The Horae^ abandon their posts at the gates and flee toward the gloom that rises to meet them, while the horses have thrown off their yoke and rush madly on. Despairing, the Earth raises her hands in supplication, as the furious fire draws near her. Now the youth is thrown from the chariot and is falling headlong ^ — for his hair is on fire and his breast smouldering with the heat ; his fall will end in the river Eridanus and will furnish this stream with a mythical tale. For swans scattered about, breathing sweet notes, will hymn the youth ; and flocks of swans rising aloft will sing the story to Cayster and Ister ; ^ nor will any place fail to hear the strange story. And they will have Zephyrus, nimble god of wayside shrines, to accompany their song, for it is said that Zephyrus has made a compact with the swans to join them in the music of the dirge. This agreement is even now being carried out, for look I the wind is playing on the swans as on musical instruments.

As for the women on the bank, not yet com- ])letely transformed into trees, men say that the daughters of Helius on account of their brother's

  • The fall of Phaethon is depicted, e.g. on an Arretine

bowl (Fig. 5) and a Roman sarcophagus, both figured in Roscher, Lexikon d. griech. u. ram. Myth. III. 2, p. 2195 f.

^ The swans were said to spend the summer on the Cayster river in Lydia and the winter on the Danube (Ister) among the Hyperboreans. Cf. Himerius 79, \ld.



15 Ka\ 6t9 SevBpa Xij^ai SciKpvd re cK^iivai. /cal ?; ypacf)r) ravra olSe' pi^a<; yap ^aWo/nevr) Tal<; Kopv(j)aL<; ra fxev et9 o/KpaXov SevSpa avrat, ra? 8e %6t/3a9 o^oL (pddvovat. cf)€v r;)? KOfjLy]^;, &>? alyeipov irdvra. (fiev rcjv Sa/cpvcov, 009 xpvad.

20 Kal TO fiev TrXrj/i/jLvpov iv rfj rcov ocpOaX/jicov ehpa "^^apOTralfi eTravyd^et rah KopaL^; Kal olov uKTlva €\k€L, to Be Tai9 irapeial^ evTvyyavov IxapfxaipeL irepl to eKeivt] €pev6o<;, tcl he aTd^ovTa KUTCL Tov (jTepvov '^pvao<; 7;8>/. (5) dprfvel Kal

25 6 TTOTa/jLO'; dveywv t^9 3tV?;9 Kal tw fxev ^aeOovTi KoXrrov VTre^ei — to yap (T)(^P]fia Be^o/Jbevov — Ta9 Be 'HXcdBa^i yewpyrjaei avTiKa' aupai^ yap Kal Kpv/JL0L<;, 01)9 dvaBlBcoaL, XiOovpyijaei Kal ire- aovTa vTToBe^eTai Kal Bid ^aiBpov tov vBaTOf;

30 dird^ei tol<; iv TlKeavu) ^apfidpoi<; Ta tcov alyeipwv '^r)yfiaTa.

(1 ) — Ta Be eirl ttj o-^Oy yvvaia^ irapafiocoai, TvapaKaXelv Be Kal 701)9 'iTrTrov^; eoLKacTL fir] plyp-ai Ta iraiBia fii]Be aTroirTvaai, tov )(aXiv6v, 312 K. eXelv Be Kal avfiiraTijcraL Ta Orjpia, ol Be aKOvov- aiv ol/xai Kal ttoiovcjl TavTa. 6ripd(javTa<^ Be avT0v<i Kal BacTa yprjKOTa^i BiairopO/jLevei vav^

^ TO . . . yuvaia deleted by Kaj'ser, as repeated from 311.10 K. The beginning of this sketch is lost.

^ Amber was explained l)}- the ancients as the "tears of the daughters of Helius." The river Eridanus is a mythical


BOOK I. 12

mishap changed their nature and became trees^ and that they shed tears. The painting recognizes the story, for it puts roots at the extremities of their toes, while some, over here, are trees to the waist, and branches have supplanted the arms of others. Behold the hair, it is nothing but poplar leaves ! Behold the tears, they are golden ! While the welling tide of tears in their eyes gleams in the bright pupils and seems to attract rays of light, and the tears on the cheeks glisten amid the cheek's ruddy glow, yet the drops trickling down their breasts have already turned into gold. The river also laments, emerging from its eddying stream, and offers its bosom to receive Phaethon — for the attitude is of one ready to receive — and soon it will harvest the tears of the daughters of Helius;^ for the breezes and the chills which it exhales will turn into stone the droppings of the poplar trees, and it will catch them as they fall and conduct them through its bright waters to the barbarians by Ocean us.


[The w^omen on the bank] are shouting, and they seem to urge the horses not to throw their young riders nor yet to spurn the bit, but to catch the game and trample it underfoot ; and these, I think, hear and do as they are bidden. And when the youths have finished the hunt and have eaten

stream in the far west near the end of the world, where lived the daughters of Helius. Geographers later connected it with the Po or the Rhone, which \a.\ on the routes by which amber came to the Greeks from the North Sea and the Baltic, where lived " the barbarians b}' Oceanus.



air 6 T?}? ^vpa)7ry]<; e? TrjP 'Aalav crTaSiof? 6 /jLaXiard ttov Terra/ja? — tovtI yap to iv fieaw TOLV eOvolv — Kal avreperai irXeovaiv.

(2) Ihov Kol irelajxa ^dWovTai, Bex^rat Be avTov<i OLKta fxaXa rjSela Oa\d/jLOv<; viroc^aivovaa Kol dvSp(i)va<; Kal OvpuScov tX^V* ^^ Telxo^ Be

10 Trepi^e/SXrjrac Kal iirdX^ei^ ^X^f. to Be koK- Xiarov avTf]<;, i^jilkvkXo'^ TrepLearrjKe ajod rfj OaXdaar) Kippo€tBr]<; viro rod iv avrfj XlOov, yeveai^ €k Tnjycov rw XiOw' Oepfiov yap vd/xa vireKpeov rd t^}? Karco ^pvy[a<^ opi] Kal to pevfxa

15 eU Ta? Xidoro/xLa<; eadyov V7r6/jLl3pov<; ipyd^erai. rwv irerpcov evia^ Kal vBarcoBrj iroLel rijv eKcpvaiv rcov Xl6o)V, o6ev avrcov Kal vroXXd rd ;^/3&)yLtaTa. OoXepov fxev yap ev6a Xifivd^ec Kippo€iBe<; BlBcoai, KaOapov Be oirov KpvaraXXoeiBe^ eKeWev, Kal

20 TToiKiXXei Ta? TreV/Qa? ev TroWaZ? BtaiTLvoiievov raU Tpo7ra2<;.

(3) Tj aKTT] Be vyj/rjXr) Kal roLovBe ixvOov c^epei avfi/SoXa. Kopij Kal iraU d/jL(p(o KaXd> Kal (jiOLTMVTe ravrtp BiBaaKdXw TTpoo-eKavOrjaav dX-

25 X7]XoL<; Kal Trepi^dXXetv ovk ova7]<; dBeca*; ojp/JLTjaav diTodavelv diro ravr^ial tt)? 7reTpa<; Kavrevdev rjpOrjaav et? tt^v OdXaaaav ev vard- rai'; Kal irpoDrat^i irepi/SoXaU. Kal 6 "Rpco<; eVt rf) irerpa reivei rrjv %e?y9a e<; rrjv OdXarrav,

30 u7roai]/jLaLvcov rov fxvOov 6 fwy/oa^o?.

(4) r) Be e(pe^P]<i olKia, XVP^^^^ '^^ yvvaiov

^ The marble of Hierapolis is liere described ; cf. Strabo, p. 629, Vitruvius 8. 3. 10.

" Cf. Xenophon, Coiiviv. 4. 23 avfKponwv els ravTo. hiSaaKa-

BOOK I. 12

their meal^ a boat carries them across from Europe to Asia, about four stades — for this space intervenes between the countries — and they row themselves across.

See, they throw out a rope, and a house is receiving them, a charming house just showing chambers and halls for men and indications of windows, and it is surrounded by a wall with parapets for defence. The most beautiful feature of it is a semi-circular stoa following the curve of the sea, of yellowish colour by reason of the stone of which it is built. The stone is formed in springs ; for a warm stream flowing out below the mountains of Lower Phrygia and entering the quarries submerges some of the rocks and makes the outcroppings of the stone full of water so that it assumes various colours.^ For the stream is foul where it is sluggish and produces a yellowish colour ; but where the water is pure a stone of crystal clearness is formed, and it gives to the rock various colours as it is absorbed in the many seams.

The lofty promontory gives a suggestion of the following tale : A boy and girl, both beautiful and under the tutelage of the same teacher, burned with love ^ for each other ; and since they were not free to embrace each other, they determined to die at this very rock, and leaped from it into the sea in their first and last embrace. Eros on the rock stretches out his hand toward the sea, the painter's symbolic suggestion of the tale.

In the house close by a woman lives alone ;

Aelo eVeiVqi) . . . irpoaeKavdr). "This hot flame of his was kindled when they used to go to Gchool together." Trans. Todd, L.C.L.

5^ e2


€^€\7]\v06^ Tov daT€o<; 8t' 6-)(Xov vecdv apird- aeaOai 'yap avro €(f)aaav Kal d^ezSco? eKco/xa^ov fcal S(t)poi<; irreipcov. i) 8' oljjiai KOfiyfrov n e?

35 auTOu? e^ovaa Kvi^et ra /ji€tpd/cia Kal Bevpo vTT6^e\6ovaa ol/cet t7]v i^vpdv ravrrjv ol/ciav.

il3 K. GKey\raL 'yap 6l>^ oyy^vpwrar Kpi]/jLi>o<; rfj OaXdrrj]

€(f>6aT^]Ke rd fiev Kkvl^ofieva virooXLaOiiKoo^, ra Be dv(o v7r€pK6L/i6vo<^ ecf)a\6v riva ravryp dvk\wv oiKiav, v(f)^ ?/? Kal 7] ddXarra Kvavcoripa (palve- 5 rai Ka6i€/Jiev(ov e? avrrjv twv 6(f)6a\/jicop, Kal rj 7?) TTapex^raL rd i^eox? Trdvra irXrjv rod KivelaOai. €9 Tovro i]KOvaav to (ppovpiov ovSe 009 aTroXeXoi- TTaaiv auT7]v ol ipMvre^i, dXX 6 fiev kv avoir pwpov, 6 he j^pvaoiTpwpov, 6 he dXXo<; d\Xo tl rcov

10 ttoiklXcov aKaTLcov e/A/3e/3?7/ca)9 TrXet, kco/jLO<; avrr}, KaXoi T6 Kal iaTecpavco/xevoi. Kal 6 jiev avXel, 6 Se KpoTelv ^ cf)7jaLv, 6 8e aSeu ot/jLac, (7Te(l)dvov<; 8e dvappLTTTOvai Kal cf)LX7]/iaTa. Kal ovSe iper- rovaiv, dXX' iirexovat rrjv elpeaiav Kal icjiop/jil-

15 t^ovjai Tw Kpy]/ii>a). to Se <yvvaLOV diro rrj^;

olKia^ olov €K irepLcoTTi]'; opa ravra Kal yeXa

Kara rod kco/jlou, ^(XiSoyaa eh tou? epowra^ co?

ov irXelv ijlovov, dXXd Kal velv dvayKat^ovaa.

(5) Kal 7roi/jLvaL<; ivrev^r) irpox^P^v Kal

20 /jLvk(d/jL€V(ov aKovcrrj /3oo)V Kal avplyyayv /So/) TTepLrj-^^i^aeL ere kol KVV7jyeTaL<; evrev^rj Kal yecop'yoU Kal TTOTa/jLoU Kal XL/ivai<; Kal injyaU —eK/JLe/JLaKTac 'ydp rj 'ypacfyrj Kal rd ovra Kal rd yivofxeva Kal (jo<^ dv yevoiTO evia, ov hid 7tX)]6o<;

^ KpoTflv Olearius : Kponl. 52

BOOK I. 12

she has been driven out of the city by tlie im- portunity of her suitors ; for they meant to carry lier off, and pursued her unsparingly with their attentions and tempted her with gifts. But she, I think, by her haughty bearing spurred them on, and coming hither in secret she inhabits this secure house. For see how secure it is : a cliff juts out into the sea, its base bathed by the waves, and, projecting overhead, it bears this house out in the sea, a house beneath which the sea seems darker blue as the eyes are turned down toward it, and the land has all the characteristics of a ship except that it is motionless. Even though she has reached this fortified spot her lovers do not give her up, but they come sailing, one in a dark-prowed boat, one in a golden-prowed, others in all sorts of variegated craft, a revel band pursuing her, all beautiful and crowned with gar- lands. And one plays the flute, another evidently applauds, another seems to be singing ; and they throw her crowns and kisses. And they are not rowing any longer, but they check their motion and come to rest at the promontory. The woman gazes at the scene from her house as from a look-out tower and laughs down at the revelling crowd, vaunting herself that she is compelling her lovers not merely to sail but also to swim to her.

As you go on to other parts of the painting, you will meet with flocks, and hear herds of cattle lowing, and the music of the shepherds' pipes will echo in your ears ; and you will meet with hunters and farmers and rivers and pools and springs — for the painting gives the very image of things that are, of things that are taking place, and in some cases of the manner of their taking place, not slighting



25 avTcov paSiovpyovaa t7]v dXtjOeiav, aXX' eVt- reXovaa to e/cdarov olfcelov, o)? kuv el ^ ev TL €'ypa(f)€P — ear^ dv icp' lepov cKpiKco/jieda. Koi TOP €K€L veoov olfiaL 6pa<; kol ar^Xa^;, at Trept- iBpuvrac avTcpj Kal top iirl tw arofxaTi irvpaov,

30 0? 7]pT7]Tai e? (ppvKTcoplav TOdv vewv, at irXeovaiv Ik tov TiovTov.

I7 ^ (G) " TL ovv ovK eir dXXo dyei^; ; iKavco<;

yap fjLoi rd tov BoaTropov Siavev6r]TaL.^' tl

^^a6L<; ; XeXoLTre fie to tcov dXtewv, o KaT dp-)(a<^

35 €.Tn]yyeCXdpui-]v . IV ovv fxi-j irepl afiiKpcov Bie^ioi-

314 K. fjL€v, dXXd irepl wv Xeyeuv d^tov, tou? /lep /ca-

Xdfio) OrjpodPTa^ 7; tcvpTW Tey^pdl^ovTa^ rj 6t r/?

dvLfxa hiKTVOv rj epapdTTei Tpiaipap, d(f)iX(i)/xep

TOV Xoyov — afXLKpop yap dKOvaei irepl avTCJp

5 Kal cf)aP6LTai aoL fiaXXop t)Si)afiaTa t?}? ypa(^i)<;

— Tou? 8e e7Ti')(^eipovpTa^ toU 6vvpol<^ iScofiev

d^LOi yap ovToi Xoyov Sid fxeyeOo^ t?)? Oqpa'^.

(7) (^oiTwaip ol Ovvvoi Tjj e^o) OaXaTTrj irapd

TOV YloPTOV yepeaiv ip avTw a)(^6pTe<i Kal pojjid^^

10 Td<i fiep l')(6vo3P, Td<^ he IXvcop Kal ^(vfMMP eTepoyp,

ov<; "laTpo<; e? avTOP cj^epec Kal Matcort?, vcf)' oov

yXvKVT€po<; Kal 7roTi/ji(OTepo<i dXX7]<; $aXdTT7]<;

6 IIoz^TO?. veovai he olop aTpaTicoTcop (pdXay^

eTTi OKTW Kal e(^' eKKaiheKa Kal SU togol Kal

15 vTroKV/jiaTi^ovaip dXXyXoi<i, dXXo<; dXXw eirt-

peopTe^, ToaovTOP ^d6o<; oaov avTcop to evpo'^.

^ ws Kh.u el Jacobs : ojcrave] /c&j/ et.

- In the earl}' editions the following part of tlie Twelftli Picture was treated as an independent sketch, numbered 13, and entitled 'AAjeTr, "Fishermen."


BOOK 1. 13

the truth by reason of the number of objects shown, but defining the real nature of each thing just as if the painter were representing some one thing alone — till we come to a shrine. You see the temple yonder, I am sure, the columns that surround it, and the beacon light at the entrance which is hung up to warn from danger the ships that sail out from the Euxine Sea.


'^ Why do you not go on to another painting ? This one of the Bosphorus has been studied enough for me." What do you mean? I have yet to speak of the fishermen, as 1 promised when I began. Not to dilate on small matters, but only on points worth discussing, let us omit any account of those who fish with a rod or use a basket cunningly or perchance draw up a net or thrust a trident — for you will hear little about such^ and they will seem to you mere embellishments of the painting — but let us look at the men who are trying to capture tunn}^- fish, for these are worth discussing because the hunt is on so large a scale. For tunny-fish come to the outer seal from the Euxine, where they are born and where they feed on fish and sediment and vegetable matter which the Ister and Maeotis bring to it, rivers which make the water of the Euxine sweeter and more drinkable than that of any other sea. And they swim like a phalanx of soldiers, eight rows deep and sixteen and twice sixteen, and they drop down in the water, one swimming over another so that the depth of the school equals

1 i.e. the Mediterranean.



(<S) ISeaL fxev ovv, KaO' ti? aXiaKOVTai, /xvpi'ai' Koi 'yap aihiipov eariv eV avTOv<; 0)]^aaOai kul (^dpidaKa eTTiirdaaL koI /iiKpov rjpKeae Slktvov,

20 oTcp dirox^pt^ Koi cr/jLLKpov n rr}? dy€\7]<;. dpiari] Be ySe y) dtjpa' aKOTricopetTat yap rt? ac/)' vyjnjXov ^v\ov ra^v<s /aev dpLdfirjaat, rrjv Be oyjfiv LKavo^i. Bel yap avrw ireirrjyevai fxev tov<; 6(f)6a\p,ov<^ e? T7]v OdXarrav e^LKvelaOai re

25 TroppcoTaTd), Kav i/uL^dWovra^; tov<^ ^'X^i^? '^Brj, ^or]<; T€ o)? fxeyiCTTT]^ Bel avro) Trpo? tov<; iv rot? dKartoi^;, kol tov dpiOfiov \eyei, kol ra? /iivpidBa<; avTMV, 01 Be d7ro(ppd^avT€<; avrov'^ /SaOet Kal KXeiaTw BiKTvo) Be)(^ovTaL Xajjurpdv aypav, vcf)'

30 7^9 Kal TrXovrelv eroL/mov rep tt}? 0)]pa<; i)yep,6vL.

(9) ^Xeire Trpo? T7]P yp(i(l)r)v rjBrj' /caroyfret yap avra Kal Bpoifxeva. 6 fiev aK07ncopo<; e? Tr)v OdXarrav /SXeirei BiaTre/jiTrwv rov<; 6(j)6aX/jLOV(; e? rrjv rod dpi6/jLov avXXyjyp-iv, ev yXavKW Be

35 ro) rPfs OaXdrrrj^i civOec rd rcov l')(0v(ov ')(p(t) jxar a' /jLeXav€<; fxev oi dvco BoKOvatv, rjrrov B' ol e<^efr}9, 315 K. ol Be puer eKelvov^ yBi] TrapayjrevBoprai rr]v oyjriv, elra aKLa>BeL<;, elra vBapol v7rovoi]aar Kara- /Saivovcra yap 69 to vBwp ?; o\^f9 djjb^Xvvejai BiaKpilBovv rd ev avrw. (10) o Be rcov dXtecov 5 Bf]p.o<; 'ijBeU Kal ^avOol rrjv XP^^^ ^'^^ '^^^ SepeaOai. Kal 6 pev rrjV kcott^jv ^evyvvaiv, 6 Be eperret p.dXa Bie^qyByjKon rCo /Spax^'OVL, 6 Be eiTiKeXeverat ray 7reXa<;, 6 Be iraiei rov fu] eperrovra. jBor] Be rjprau rcov dXiecov efXTreirra)-

10 Korcov 7]B7] rwv IxOvcjv 6t9 TO BiKrvov. Kal rov<i /lev ypi'^Kaai, rov<; Be aipovaiv. dpLi-jxavovvre'^ Be ri ;^/3?J(J0i^Tat rw irXyjOei Kal rrapavoiyovaL


BOOK I. 13

the width. Now the ways of catching them are countless ; sharp iron spears may be used on them or drugs may be sprinkled over them, or a small net is enough for a fisherman who is satisfied with some small portion of the school. But the best means of taking them is this : a look-out is stationed on a high tree, a man quick at counting and keen of vision. For it is his task to fix his eyes on the sea and to look as far as he can ; and if perchance he sees the fish approaching, then he must shout as loud as he can to those in the boats and must tell the number of the fish, how many thousands there are ; and the boatmen compassing them about with a deep-laid net that can be drawn together make a splendid catch, enough to enrich the captain of the hunt.

Now look at tlie painting and you will see just this going on. The look-out gazes at the sea and turns his eyes in one direction and another to get the number ; and in the bright gleam of the sea the colours of the fish vary, those near the surface seem to be black, those just below are not so black, those lower still begin to elude the sense of sight, then they seem shadowy, and finally they look just like the water ; for as the vision penetrates deeper and deeper its power of discerning objects in the water is blunted. The group of fishermen is charming, and they are brown of complexion from exposure to the sun. One binds his oar in its place, another rows with swelling muscle, another cheers his neigh- bour on, another strikes a man who is not rowing. A shout rises from the fishermen now that the fish are already in the net. Some they have caught, some they are catching. And at a loss what to do



Tou SiKTvov KOI avyx^povcTiv iviov<i Siacpvyecv Kol BccKTreaelv' roaovrov e? t?;i> d/jpav rpv- 15 ^(bcriv.


(1) BpovT7] iv et'Set crKkripw Kal ^Aarpairr] (T6\a<; €K Tcov ocfyOaX/jicvv lelo-a irvp re payhalov i^ ovpavov rvpavviKrj<; olKia^ eTTei\7]fXfievov \oyov TOiouSe, el fiTj ayvoeU, aTrrerai. (2) iTvpo<i

20 ve(j)e\r] irepia'X^ovaa ra<; ©7//3a? eh rrjv rou K.dS/jLov crreyyv pijyvurai, KcofxdaavTO'^ ein Trjv ^e/jie\T]v Tov Ato9, Kal diroWvTaL fiev, &)? hoKov- fiev, 7] XefJieXr], rlfCTerat Be Aiovvao^ olfiat vrj Ala 77/909 TO irvp. fcal to fxev r/j? Se/jLe\f]<; elSo<;

25 d/jLvSpop BiacfyalveTat lova-r](; e? ovpavov, kol al Movaat avTrjv eKel aaovTai, 6 Se Aiovvao^; Trj<^ fiev firfTpo^i eKOprpaKei payelaij^; ttjv yaarepa, TO Be TTvp d)(\va)8e<i epyd^erai (^aihpo<; avTo<; olov daTTjp Ti? dwaaTpdiTTcov. (3) Biaa)(0vaa

30 Be 7] (f)\o^ dvTpov tl tm Aiovvaw aKLaypac^el iravTO'^ 7]Biov ^ Aaavplov re Ka\ AvBlov eX.t/t€9 re yap Trepl avTo TeO/jXaac Kal klttov Kopvfi^oL Kal r}Brj dfjbireXoL Kal Ovpaov BevBpa ovtco tl eK0vaT]<; 316 K. dva(T)(^6vTa T)}<; y*}?, w? Kdv ^ tm irvpl etvat eina. Kal ov ^prf Oavfid^eiVi el aTe(pavoL to irvp eirl TW Aiovvaw 7) yrj, i) ye Kal avpi^aK^evGei avrip Kal olvov d(j)va(Teiv €k jnjywv BcoaeL ydXa re olov

  • Kav Jacobs : Kal.

1 Thunder (Bronte) and Lightning ^Astrape^. Cf. Plin}', N.E., 25. 96 : pinxit (Apelles) et quae pingi non possunt,


BOOK I. 14

with so many they even open the net and let some of the fish swim away and escape : so proud are they of their catch.


Bronte stern of face, and Astrape ^ flashing light from her eyes, and raging fire from heaven that has laid hold of a king's house, suggest the following tale, if it is one you know. A cloud of fire encompassing Thebes breaks into the dwelling of Cadmus as Zeus comes wooing Semele ; and Semele apparently is destroyed, but Dionysus is born, by Zeus, so 1 believe, in the presence of the fire. And the form of Semele is dimly seen as she goes to the heavens, where the Muses will hymn her praises : but Dionysus leaps forth as his mother's womb is rent apart and he makes the flame look dim, so brilliantly does he shine like a radiant star.- The flame, divid- ing, dimly outlines a cave for Dionysus more charm- ing than any in Assyria and Lydia ; for sprays of ivy grow luxuriantly about it and clusters of ivy berries and now grape-vines and stalks of thyrsus ^ which spring up from the willing earth, so that some grow in the very fire. We must not be surprised if in honour of Dionysus the Fire is crowned by the Earth, for the Earth will take part with the Fire in the Bacchic revel and will make it possible for the revel-

tonitrua, fulgura, quae Bronten, Astrapen, Cerauuobolian appellant,

2 On the birth of Dionysus, see Overbeck, Kanstmythologie, Zen^, p. 4101

^ The wand carried by followers of Dionysus, properly a wand wreathed with ivy and with a pine-cone at the top.



5 uTTo /la^Mv eXKeiv to fiev eV jScoXov, to he iic TreVpa?. (4) ciKove tou Uav6<;, o)? tov ^Lovvaov aSeiv €0iK€v iv Kopv(f>aL<; tov KiOaLpcovo<; vttogklp- T(ov Ti evLov. 6 KL^aipoiv Be oXocpupeTui iv eiSei avOpcoTTOv TO, fiiKpov vaTcpov ev avTW a^^ koi 10 KiTTOv (pepei (TT e^avov cnroKkivovTa t?}? K€(j)aXfi<; — aTe(j)avovT(U yap Srj avTco a(f)6Spa ciKoyv — eXcLTrjv re avTcp 7rapa(f)VT€V6L Meyaipa Kal 7ry]yr]v ava^aivei vSaTO<; eirl rw 'A/cratcoro? oljiai Kal IlevOew'; a'tfiaTi.


15 (1) ' Otl Tr)vW.ptdSvr)p 6 (^//crei'? aSiKa Spo)i> — • 01 3' ovK aSiKci (j)aaLV, ciW' 6k Aiovvaou — /caTe- Xiirev ev Ala Tjj injafo KaOevhovaar, Tu^^a irov fcal TiTOr)<; StaKijKoa';' ao(f)al yap eKelvai to, TOiavTa Kal BaKpvovaiv eV avTol<;, orav eOeXwaiv.

20 ov fJLrjV BiofjLai. Xeyeip ^rjaea fiev elvai tov ev Trj vrjL, Aiovvaov Se tov ev Trj yfj, ovS^ w? dyvoovv- Ta ^ e7ri(7Tpe(f)0ifi av e? rr/t* eirl tCov ireTpoyv, (jt)<; ev fiaXaKw KeiTai tw vttvo).

^ Benndorf would read 07

voovna a

1 Cf. P:ur. Bacch. 726:

"The liills, the wild things all, were thrilled With ecstasy: naught but shook as on they rushed " : and 707 f. :

" One grasped her thyrsus staff, and smote the rock. And forth up leapt a fountain's showery spray, One in eartii's bosom ])lanted her reed-wand, And up therethrough the (Jod a wine-fount sent, And whoso fain would drink white foaming draughts 60

BOOK I. 15

lers to take wine from springs and to draw milk from clods of earth or from a rock as from living breasts. ^ Listen to Pan, how he seems to be hymning Dionysus on the crests of Cithaeron, as he dances an Evian ^ Hing. And Cithaeron in the form of a man laments the woes ^ soon to occur on his slopes, and he wears an ivy crown aslant on his head — for he accepts the crown most unwillingly — and Megaera causes a fir to shoot up beside him and brings to light a spring of water, in token, I fancy, of the blood of Actaeon and of Pentheus.*


That Theseus treated Ariadne unjustly — though some say not with unjust intent, but under the compulsion of Dionysus — when he abandoned her while asleep on the island of Dia,^ you must have heard from your nurse ; for those women are skilled in telling such tales and they weep over them whenever they will. I do not need to say that it is Theseus you see there on the ship and Dionysus yonder on the land, nor will I assume you to be ignorant and call your attention to the woman on the rocks, lying there in gentle slumber.

Scarred with their tinger-tips the breast of earth, And milk gushed forth unstinted."

Trans. Way, L.C.L. 2 Evios is an epithet of Dionysus, derived from the cry Euo7 (Evoe) uttered by his worshippers.

^ The rending of Pentheus asunder by his mother Agave and the Bacchantes.

  • According to Eur. Bacch, 1291 f. Pentheus was killed on

the same spot as Actaeon,

^ The ancient name of Xaxos, where Theseus stopped with Ariadne on his way back from Crete, where with her aid he had killed the Minotaur.



(2) ovS' aiTo^prj Tov i^(O'ypd(f)0v eTraLvelv, d(j)

25 u)V Kav dX\o<; iiraivolTO' paSiov yap diravri Kokrjv fiev TTjV WpLuSvrjv <ypd(f)€iv, koKov he tov ®7]a€a, Acovvaou re jjLvpia ^dafxara toU ypdcpeiv rj TrXdrrecv l3ov\o/i€voi<;, o)V Kav fxiKpov rvxi) Ti?, yprjKe tov Oeov. koI yap ol Kopv/jL^oi aTe(^avo<:;

30 oVt69 Alovvctov yvdipiafxa, Kav to Si]/jLiovpyj]p,a <j)avXci)<; €X{]i Kal K€pa^ vTreKcpvopLevov tmv Kpo- Td(po)v Aiovvaov S7]\oi, Kal 7rdpSa\i<; vTreKcpaivo- jievT) av TOV Oeov av/j.l3o\ov' dXX' ovt6<; ye 6 317 K. Aiovvao^; ck /lovov tov epdv yeypaiTTai. GK.evr) pev yap -qvOiapLevij Kal Ovpaot Kal ve/3piB€<;, eppLiTTai TavTa co? efo) tov Kaipov, Kal ovSe KvpL^d\oL<i al T^dK)(ai, ')(p(JovTac vvv ovSe ol 5 XdTvpot avXovaiv, dWd Kal 6 Udv KaTeyei to (TKipTijp^a, CO? p,T] SiaXvaeie tov vttvov t/}? Kopi^^, dXovpyiht. re (rretXa? kavTOV Kal Tt]v K€(paXr]v poBoL^; dvOiaa^i epx^Tai irapa ttjv 'ApidSvijv 6 Aiovvao^;, p,edv(ov epcoTC cpyjal jrepl tmv dKpaTco<;

10 ipd)VT(ov 6 T7]io<;. (3) 6 &r]aev<; Be epa p,ev, dXXd TOV Tcov ^AOfjVMV KaiTvov, 'ApidBvTjv Be 0VT6 olBev eTL ovTe e^i^w iroTe, (f)7]pl B' avTov eKXeXrjadaL Kal tov Xa/SvpivOov Kal pirjBe elirelv e)(^eLv, e^' oTcp ttotc 6? Tr]v Kp^Ttjv errXevaev

15 ovTQ) povov TO. €K TT/jcopa? ^XcTrei. opa Kal ttjv

  • ApidBvr}v, p,dXXov Be tov vttvov yvpvd p,€v el<i

6p,(f)aX6v aTepva Tama, Beprf Be vTTTia Kal aTraXr]

^ Anacreon, Frag. 21, Edmonds, Lyra Graeca II, L.C.L.

2 Cf. Od. 1. 58: " IJut Odysseus, in his longing to see were it but the smoke leaping up from his own land, 3'earns to die." Trans. Murray, L.O.L.

^ Cf. Theocritus, 2. 45 f. : " be that mate forgotten even 62

Fig. 6. — The slttpiny Ai ttulnc (lent/ltd by I

[To face jt. (33.

BOOK I. 15

Nor yet is it enough to praise the painter for things for which someone else too might be praised ; for it is easy for anyone to paint Ariadne as beautiful and Theseus as beautiful ; and there are countless characteristics of Dionysus for those who wish to represent him in painting or sculpture, by depicting which even approximately the artist has captured the god. For instance, the ivy clusters forming a crown are the clear mark of Dionysus, even if the workmanship is poor ; and a horn just springing from the temples reveals Dionysus, and a leopard, though but just visible, is a symbol of the god ; but this Dionysus the painter has characterized by love alone. Flowered garments and thyrsi and fawn-skins have been cast aside as out of place for the moment, and the Bacchantes are not clashing their cymbals now, nor are the Satyrs playing the flute, nay, even Pan checks his wild dance that he may not disturb the maiden's sleep. Having arrayed himself in fine purple and wreathed his head with roses, Dionysus comes to the side of Ariadne, '^ drunk with love " as the Teian poet ^ says of those who are overmastered by love. As for Theseus, he is indeed in love, but with the smoke risin^c from Athens,^ and he no longer knows Ariadne, and never knew her,^ and I am sure that he has even forgotten the labyrinth and could not tell on what possible errand he sailed to Crete, so singly is his gaze fixed on what lies ahead of his prow. And look at Ariadne, or rather at her sleep *; for her bosom is bare to the waist, and her neck is bent back and her delicate throat, and all her right side

as old Theseus once forgot the fair-tressed damsel in Dia." Trans. Edmonds, L.C.L.

  • Cf. The Sleeping Ariadne, Fig. 6.



(f)dpvy^, /j,aax<^i\r} Se i) he^ta (j>av€pa iracra, i) he irepa x^lp eTrUeirai rfj -^Xalvj], fiyj alcrxvprj tl 6 20 avefJLO^. olov, o) Aiovvae, kuI co? 7581; to aaOfia. el Be /jLi]Xa)v rj /Sorpvcov airo^ei, (piXyjaw^ ep€L<i.


(1) 'H UaaKpdi] rod ravpov epa /cal iKerevet Tov AalSaXov cro(j)iaaadaL riva ireLOco rov Oi^piov, 6 he epyd^erat 0ovv KoiXrjv TrapaifKrjaiav dyeXaia

25 /9o6 TOV ravpov eOdhi. koI /Jrt? p,ev y) evvt) acjiwv eyevero, BijXol to tov MtvcoTavpov et^o? aTOTTO)? avvTeOev ttj (fyvaer yeyparrTai he 01)^ rj evvt] vvv, dXX' ipyaaTJjpiov fiev tovto ireirolriTai tov Aat- hdXov, TrepiecTTrjKe he avrco dydX/jLUTa to, fiev ev

30 /jL0p(f)ai<i, TCL he ev to) hiopOovaOai, /Se^rjKOTa ijh^ /cal ev eirayyeXla tov ^ahl^eiv. tovto he apa rj 318 K. irpo AathdXov dyaXfiaToiroila ovira) €<; vovv e/Se^XrjTO. avTo<; he 6 AaiSaXo? dTTiKL^ei /xev fcal TO elho<; v7repao(f)6v tl Kal evvovv (BXeirwv, aTTiKL^ei he Kal avTo to aX'rjp-ct' cpaiov yap 5 Tpl/Scora tovtov dixTre^eTai 7rpoayeypaiJifxevii<^ avTW Kal dvv7roh>]aia<;, 7; /idXiaTa ht) 01 WttikoI Koa/xovvTai. (2) KdOrjTat he ecj)' dpfiovla Trj<i 0oo<; Kal Tou? "E/D&)Ta? ^uvepyov^ TroielTai tov /xiT^avyj/jLaTOi;, co? \\(f)pohiTr]<; tl avTM eTVLhelv.

1 Cf . Robert, Der Pasiphae- Sarkophag, XIV Hall. Winokel- mannsprogr., where Cupids are present but not assisting in the work. Man, Rom. Mitth. XI (1896), p. 50, published a


BOOK I. i6

is visible^ but the left hand rests on her mantle that a gust of wind may not expose her. How fair a sight, Dionysus, and how sweet her breath ! Whether its fragrance is of apples or of grapes, you can tell after you have kissed her !


Pasiphae is in love with the bull and begs Daedalus to devise some lure for the creature ; and he is fashioning a hollow cow like a cow of the herd to which the bull is accustomed.^ What their union brought forth is shown by the form of the Minotaur, strangely composite in its nature. Their union is not depicted here, but this is the workshop of Daedalus ; and about it are statues, some with forms blocked out, others in a quite complete state in that they are already stepping forward and give promise of walking about. ^ Before the time of Daedalus, you know, the art of making statues had not yet conceived such a thing. Daedalus himself is of the Attic type in that his face suggests great wisdom and that the look of the eye is so intelligent; and his very dress also follows the Attic style ; for he wears this dull coarse mantle and also he is painted without sandals, in a manner peculiarly affected by the Athenians. He sits before the framework of the cow and he uses the Cupids as his assistants in the device so as to connect with it something of Aphrodite. Of the

Pompeian wall-painting which depicts Pasiphae, Daedalus with a young assistant, and the wooden cow, Fig. 7, p. 67.

^ Greek legend emphasized the skill of Daedalus as a sculptor b}^ saying that he made statues which could walk about and even could speak. Cf. Eur. Hecuba, 838.



10 evapy6l<i fi€V tmv Kpcorcov /cal ol to rpunavop, co Tral, aTp6(j)0VT€<^ /calpt] At* ol rw aKeirapvu) \eai- vovTt<i ra fi7]7ra) 7]Kpi/3co/J.ei'a tP]<; ^oo<; kuI ol o-TaO/jLco/ievoL tijv ^vfXfieTpiav, e(j> rj^; i) ^i-jpLiovpyia jSaiveL. ol 8e irrl rov iTpLovo<^ evvoidv re VTrep/Se-

15 fiXyJKaaL iraaav Kal aocplav, oiroa)] \eLp6<; re koX ')(^pco/jLdTcov. (3) Xkottci ydp' irplwv i/jL^e^Xrjrai, Tft) ^v\(p Kal Bu]K6L avrov 'IjBr), Bidyovai Be avTOv ovroL ol "E/Jwre? o /lev €k t^? yr]<;, 6 8' aTTO /i7j')(^ain]<; 6p6ov/j,6V(o re koX irpovevovre. rovrl

20 8' evaWd^ iiyoDpueOa' 6 fiev ydp vevevKev co? dvacrrrja6/JL€vo<;, 6 Be dvearTjKev co? vevacov, Kal 6 /JLev d-TTO rl]<; 7^9 eVl to arepvov dva- 7r€/jL7rei to daOfia, 6 B' diro rov fierecopov Kara ^ rr)v yaarepa TTLfiTrXarat Kdrco (jvvepeiBwv roo

25 (4) 'llIlaoi(f)d7] Be e^d) Treplrd /BovKoXLairepia- Opel rov ravpov, olopbevq rrpoad^eaOai avrov ro) elBet, Kal rfj aroXfj Oelov re aTroXa/xirova-rj Kal virep Trdaav Ipiv ^Xerrei re dfjLiJxavov — Kal ydp ytvcoaKei, ottolcov ipd — Kal 7re pi/SaXXeiv ro 6t]piov

30 cop/jL')]Kev, 6 Be tT;? fiev ovBev ^vviy](Ti, /SXeirei Be rrjv eavrov /3ovv. yeypairrai Be 6 fxev ravpo<; dyepcoxo'i re Kal 7]ye/xd)v tt)? dy€Xr]<;. evKepco^; re Kal XevKo<; Kal l3e^7]Kd)<^ i]Bri Kal ^a6v<; rrjv (pdpvyya Kal TTicov rov av')(€va Kal IXapov fiXeTrwv €<? rrjv

35 ^ovv, 7] Be dyeXaia re Kal dvero<; Kal \evKr] irdaa

^ Kara. Beiinclorf : Kal.

1 Lit. "all skill of hand and colours."


BOOK I. i6

Cupids, my boy, those are visible who turn the drill, and those by Zeus that smooth with the adze portions of the cow which are not yet accurately finished, and those that measure off the symmetrical proportions on which craftsmanship de- pends. But the Cupids that work with the saw surpass all conception and all skill in drawing^ and colour. For look ! The saw has attacked the wood and is already pass- ing through it, and these Cupids keep it going, one on the ground, another on the staging, both straightening

bending: forward

Fig. 7. movement to be

up and

in turn. Let us consider this alternate ; one has bent low as if about to rise up, his companion has risen erect as if about to bend over ; the one on the ground draws his breath into his chest, and the one who is aloft fills his lungs down to his belly as he presses both hands down on the saw. Pasiphae outside the workshop in the cattle- fold gazes on the bull, thinking to draw him to her by her beauty and by her robe, w^hich is divinely resplendent and more beautiful than any rainbow. She has a helpless look — for she knows what the creature is that she loves — and she is eager to embrace it, but it takes no notice of her and gazes at its own cow. The bull is depicted with proud mien, the leader of the herd, with splendid horns, white, already experienced in love, its dewlap low and its neck massive, and it gazes fondly at the cow ; but the cow in the herd, ranging free and

67 f2


319 Iv. €7TL fieXaLVT] rjj Ke^aXf), aira^Lol Be rov ravpov a/cLpTij/jia yap viroc^aiveL Kopi]^ S/; TLVO<i vwocpev- yovarjf; ipaarov v^piv.

I'i mnoAAMEiA

(1) 'II pukv eicirX'T^^i^ eir Olvo/ndo) tco 'ApKuSi, ol Se eV avTw /3ocovt6<; — dKov6L<; yap irov — ?/ Te ^ApKaSia iarl Kal ottoctov i/c r/}? UeXoTrov- vrjCTov. ireTTTWfce Be avvrpi/Sev to dpfjua rex^rj ^IvpTiXov, TO Be 'lttttcov avyfceiTat TeTTupwv TovTL yap 69 p-ev Ta TToXep^iKa outto) eOapaelTO, ol

10 Be dy(ove<; eylvcoaKov t€ avTO Kal eTi/jLcop' Kal ol AvBol Be (piXLTTTTOTaTOL 6Vt69 €7rl fiev HeXo7ro<i TeOpLTTiroi Te r)aav Kal i^Bfj cippaTtTat, fieTa TavTa Be TeTpappvfiov Te 7]\lravT0 Kal XeyovTai irpwTOL Toi/? OKTco a^elv.

15 (2) "Opa, iral, tov<; p,€v tov Olvop^dov, o)? Beivol Te elat, Kal (T(f)oBpol opp^ijaai Xvtttj^; t€ Kal d<l)pov p,€aTOL — tovtI Be irepl tov^ 'ApKdBa<; evpoL<; fidXiaTa — Kal o)? p,eXave<;, eTreiBr] evr' aVoTTOi? Kal ovK ev(f))]p.0L<^ e^evyvvvTO, TOv<; Be tov

20 ITeA-OTTo?, ft)? XevKoi Te elai Kal ttj rjrla Trpocrcfio- poL YleiOnv^; Te eTatpot Kal ')(p€p,eTL^opre<i ijp.epov Ti Kal ev^vveTOV t/}? z-tV?/?, tov Te Olvofiaop, co? I'aa Kal Atop.yjBr](; 6 %pq,^ l3dp^ap6<; Te KetTai

^ The stor}' is that Oenomaiis promised his daughter Hippodanieia to the suitor who should beat him in a chariot race, but with tlie understanding that he siiould slay the unsuccessful suitors. Thirteen suitors had thus met their death, when Myrtilus, the charioteer of Oenomaiis, gave the race to Pelopsby removing the pin that held a wheel in his master's chariot. The chariot race of Pelops and Oenomaiis


[To face p. G9.

BOOK I. 17

all white but for a black head, disdains the bull. For its pose suggests a leap, as of a girl who avoids the importunity of a lover.


Here is consternation over Oenomaiis the Ar- cadian ; ^ these are men w^ho shout a warning for him — for perhaps you can hear them — and the scene is Arcadia and a portion of the Peloponnesus. The chariot lies shattered through a trick of Myrtilus. It is a four-horse chariot ; for though men were not yet bold enougli to use the quadriga in war, yet in the games it was known and prized, and the Lydians also, a people most devoted to horses, drove four abreast in the time of Pelops and already used chariots, and at a later time devised the chariot with four poles and, it is said, were the first to drive eight horses abreast. ^

Look, my boy, at the horses of Oenomaiis, how fierce they are and keen to run, full of rage and covered with foam — you will find such horses especially among the Arcadians — and how black they are, harnessed as they were for a monstrous and accursed deed. But look at the horses of Pelops, how white they are, obedient to the rein, comrades as they are of Persuasion, neighing gently and as if aware of the coming victory. And look at Oenomaiis, how like he is to the Thracian Diomedes as he lies

is not infrequently depicted on vase-paintings, of. Arch. Zeit. 1853, PI. 5.) ; Mon. Inst. II. 32.

^ Cf. Xen. Cyrop. 6. 4. 2 : T(Tpdppv/j.ov apina Koi 'iTrirccu oktv, "And Abradatas's chariot with its four poles and eight horses."



Kal a)/xo9 TO et3o?. olfiai Be ovBe tw YleXoTTL

25 n7ricrTtj(T€i<;, &)? HoaeiScov irore avrou yyaaOrj rry?

wpa? olvo'X^oovvra iv SittiiXw T0t9 Oeol^; koI

dyaaOeU dveOi-jKev e? tovtI to ap/xa fieipaKiov ye

7)8?; oina. TO Be ap/ia icra ttj yrj ti]v OdXaTTav

hLa(TTei')(6L, Kal ovBe pavl<; dir avT7]<; Tn-jBa ei? tov

30 d^ova, fie/Sala Be, ttj yfj eoiKvla, viroKeiTai Toh

iVttoz?. (3) Tov fjuev ovv Bp6/.L0v 6 YleXoyfr re Kal

7] 'iTTTroBdfieia vLKoyaiv e^eaTrjKoTe dji^w tm

320 K. dpfiaTi kuksZ av^vyeuTe, dXXijXwv Be oi/ro)?

jjTTTjaOov, &)? iv opfxfj TOV 7repi/3dXXeiv elvai.

ecTTaXTat Be 6 fiev tov AvBiov re Kal d^pov

TpOTTOV IjXiKiaV T€ KOI 0)pav dyWV, TjV KOI /jLlKpO)

5 TTpoadev elBe<;, OTe tov^ Ittttou? tov HoaeiBwva e^rjTei} /; 8' eaTaXTai tov ya/JLLKov Tpoirov dpTi TTjv irapeidv dvaKaXvTrTovcra, 6t€ e? dvBpo^; TjKeiv vevLKTjKe. TTi-jBa Kal 'AX^eto? ^k t/)? Blvii<s KOTLVOV TLvd e^alpcov (TTe(f)avov roG UeXoiri irpoa-

10 eXavvovTL ttj 6-)(^dr].

(4) Ta Be ev tm LiT7roBpo/j,rp aijfiaTa ol /ivrj- (TTrjpe^ eKel eOdivTOVTO, ov<; diroKTeivcov 6 Olvofiao'^ dvefidXXeTO tov tt]^ OvyaTpo^ yd/jLov eirl Tpia- KaiBeKa 7]By] veoL<;. dXXd ?; yrj vvv dvOrj (f)uet

15 irepl TOt? cn]p,aaLV, co? ixeTe^aev tl KUKelioi tov aTe(f>avovadaL BoKelv e-nl ttj tov Olvo/xdov Blktj. ^ ilyJTfi Reiske and Jacobs : e'C'/jrei.


BOOK I. 17

there, a barbarian and savage of aspect. But as to Pelops, on the other land, you will not, 1 think, be inclined to doubt that Poseidon once on a time fell in love with him for his beauty when he was wine- pourer for the gods on Mount Sipylus,^ and because of his love set him, though still a youth, upon this chariot.^ The chariot runs over the sea as easily as on land, and not even a drop of water ever splashes on its axle, but the sea, firm as the earth itself, supports the horses. As for the race, Pelops and Hippodameia are the victors, both standing on the chariot and there joining hands ; but they are so conquered by each other that they are on the point of embracing one another. He is dressed in the delicate Lydian manner, and is of such youth and beauty as you noticed a moment ago when he was begging Poseidon for his horses ; and she is dressed in a wedding garment and has just unveiled her cheek, now that she has won the right to a husband's embrace. Even the Alpheius leaps from his eddy to pluck a crown of wild olive for Pelops as he drives along the bank of the river.

The mounds along the race-course mark the graves of the suitors by whose death Oenomaiis postponed his daughter's marriage, thirteen youths in all.'^ But the earth now causes flowers to spring up on their graves, that they too may share the semblance of being crowned on the occasion of Oenomaiis' punishment.

1 Cf. Find. 01. 1. 61 f.

2 Cf. Pinrl. 01 1. 139 f.

' Cf. Find. 01. 1. 127 f : eVel rpeTs ye Kai 54k' ai'Spa oAfaais ip'ivras avaffdWerai, ydjxQv dvyarpSs.




(1) VeypaiTTai /xiv, o) iral, kuI to, ev tm KiOatpwri, BaK)(^o)v X^P^'^ ^^^ viroivoi irerpat Kai veKTap etc iSorpvwv fcal o)? <yd\aKTL Trjv

20 jSCdknv t) yf] XnraLvei. kul lSov kltto<^ eprrei Kai 6(f)€i<; opdol fcnl Ovpaov^ SevBpa olpai fJueXi ard^ovra. Kai I'jSe ctol i) iXdrrj ^^/xal yvvaiKMV epyov CK Aiovvaov jxeya, TreirrwKe he rov ilevOea dTroaeiaafievr] rah B«/c;!^af9 iv el'Set XeopTO^;. al

25 he Kara^aivovai ^ to Oi'jpafia fit^rijp eKeivj] Kai dhe\(f)al firjTpof; al fiev dTropprjyvvaat ra? ')(,^lpa<^, ?} he eTTLGTTOdaa rov vtoi> t>}? x^^'^'V^' €l'7roi<; 8' dp Kai ft)? dXaXd^ovaiu, outu><^ eviov avTac'i to daO/na. Ai6rvao<^ he avTo<> fJLev iv Trepiwirfi rov-

30 Twv earrjKev eyu,7rX 7/cra? rrjv irapeidv ^^Xov, rbv he oJarpov 7rpo(T^aK)(€iiaa<; Tal<; yvvai^iv. oure opcbai yovv rd hpdtfxeva Kai oiroaa iKerevei 6 Uei'Oev<; XeovTo<i dKoveiv (paal (Spvxo^pevov. 321 K. (2) Tavrl p-ev rd iv rfo opei, rd he iyyv<; ravra Sfj/Sac 7/8?; Kai l\dhp,ov oreyt] Kai dpf]i'o<^ inl rfj dypa Kai avvapporrovaiv oi Trpoa/jKovre'; rov veKpov, 66 TTT} awOeii] T(p Td(f)(p. TTpoaKeiTai Kai 5 i) KecpaXf) rod UevOeco'; ovKeri d/ji(f)i/3oXo<i, dXX' oXa Kai r(p Aiovvaw iXeelv, vewrdn] Kai diraX}) rrjv yevvv Kai Trupat] ta? K6/iia<;, a? ovre Ktrro^;

^ dvpaov Pierson : dvpcroi.

^ Kara^aivovcri Reiske : Ka\ ^aifovffi,

1 Cf. Hartwig, " Der Tod des Pentheus," Jahr. Jnst. VII (1892). p. 153f., PI. V.

2 Cf. Eur. Eacch. 142 f., 101L,ci. supra, p. 60.

3 Cf. ihid. 1109, 1141 for the felling of the fir, and Pentheus imagined to be a lion.


Fig. 9.— The Death of Fentheus.

ITofacep. 73.

BOOK I. i8


Here are also painted, my boy, scenes from Mount Cithaeron — choruses of Bacchantes, and rocks flow- ing with wine, and nectar dripping from clusters of grapes, and the earth enriching the broken soil with milk. 2 Lo ! ivy creeps over the ground, serpents stand erect, and thyrsus trees are dripping, I think, with honey. This fir you see lying on the ground is a great deed of women inspired by Dionysus ; it fell as it shook off Pentheus in the form of a lion ^ into the hands of the Bacchantes. They rend in pieces their prey — that mother of his and his mother's sisters, they tearing off his arms while she is dragging her son by the hair.* You would even say they w^ere raising the shout of victory, so like the Bacchic cry^ is their panting. Dionysus himself stands where he can watch them, puffing out his cheek with passion and applying the Bacchic goad to the women. At any rate they do not see w^hat they are doing, and in the supplication of Pentheus they say they hear a lion's roaring.

That is what is taking place on the mountain ; but here in the foreground we now see Thebes and the palace of Cadmus and lamentation over the J)rey, while the relatives try to fit the corpse together that it may perhaps be rescued for burial. There lies the head of Pentheus, no longer a dubious thing, but such as to excite the pity even of Dionysus — very youthful, with delicate chin and locks of reddish hue, not wreathed with ivy or bryony or sprays of vine,

  • Cf. ibid. 1127 f., which describes the tearing oflF of

Pentheus's arms.

'" i.e. their lips seem to form the cry "Evoe."'



i]pey\rev ovre a/iLXaKO<; i) d/jLireXov KXfjfia ovre av\6<; eaeiae t/9 out oJarpo^, eppcovvvro /lev

10 VTT avTMV KUi ippcovvvev avTci^;, ifiaiveTO he avro TO fir] fiera Aiovvaou /xalveaOai.

(3j 'EXeeiva Kal ra tojp jwuikcop I'lycofieOa. oca fiev yap iv tm KiOaipayvL i)yv6rj(7av, ola he evravOa ytvwcTKOvatv. airoXeXoiTre he avTO,^ ov^

15 // fjiavia fiovov, aWa Kal 7) poojjLr], KaO^ tjv e^dK\evaav. Kara fiev yap tov KiOaipcova opa<;, ft)9 fxearal rod dOXov (pepovraL avve^al- povaai ryv '^x^ '^^^ opov<;, evTavOa he irapl- aravTai Kal et? vovv tmv f^e^aKX^vpievwv yKovaiv,

20 i^dvovaal re Kara r?}? 7/}? t^? fiev e/? yovara rj Ke(j)aXrj ^pidet, t/}? he eh oifiov, r} Wyavr) TrepLpdXXeiv pev tov vlov cop/jLy]'ce, Otyelv he 6<cvei. 7rpo(Tp.efjiLKTat 3' avTJ} to tov TratSo? alfia TO /i€P e? ')(,^lpa<^, to he 6? irapeidv, to he

26 e? Ta yvp,vd tov p^a^ov.

(4) 'H he 'Appovla Kal 6 Kdhp.o<; elal p,eu, dXX* ovx OLonrep ijaav hpuKOVTe'^ yap ijhrj €K prjprbv ywovTai, Kal <j)oXl<^ i)hy] avTov^ ^X^^' 4>povhoi TToSe?, (f)povhoc yXovTOi, Kal rj pi€Ta/3oXr) tov

30 eihov^ epirei dvw. 01 he eKTrXijTTovTat Kal irept- /SdXXovaiv dXX}]Xov<;, olov ^vve)(0VTe<; to, Xoiird TOV crcofiaTO'^, co? eKelva yovv avT0v<; p.rj <j)vyr).


(1) NaO? Oe(opl<; Kal vav<s XrjaTpiKy]. ttjv fxev

Atovvao^ evOvvei, ttjv 3' ep-fie/SyjKaat Tvppyvol

322 K. XrjaTal tt)? irepl avTOV^ daXdTTr)<^. 1) fiev hr)

^ The ship used for convej'ing a sacred mission. 74

BOOK I. 19

nor are they tossed in wild disorder by flute or Bacchic frenzy. From those locks he derived his vigour^ and he imparted vigour to them ; but this itself was his madness^, that he would not join Dionysus in madness.

Pitiful also we must consider the state of the women. For of what things were they unaware on Cithaeron, and of what things do they here have knowledge I Not only has their madness left them, but also the strength they possessed in the Bacchic revel. On Cithaeron you see how, inspired by the conflict, they rush headlong, rousing the echoes on the mountain side, but here they are still and have come to a realization of what they did in their revels ; sinking to the ground one rests her head on her knees, another on her shoulder, while Agave is eager to embrace her son but shrinks from touch- ing him. Her son's blood is smeared on her hands and on her cheek and on her naked breast.

Harmonia and Cadmus are there, but not as they were before ; for already they have become serpents from the thighs down and already scales are forming on them. Their feet are gone, their hips are gone, and the change of form is creeping upward. In astonishment they embrace each other as though holding on to what is left of the body, that this at least may not escape them.


A mission ship ^ and a pirates' ship. Dionysus steers the former, on board the latter are Tyr- rhenians, pirates who ravage their own sea.^ The one

2 i.e. the Tyrrhenian sea.



lepa vav<;, ^a/c)(6U6L iv avrj} ^Lovvao'i Kal iirip- podovaiv ai Ba/c;^at, apfjbovia he, o-nocyr) opyid^ei, KaTi]X€i T/}? OaXuTT}]^, i) Se uTrex^i tm Aiovvaco 5 ra eavTfj<; vcora, KaOdirep i) AvScov yrj, rj Be irepa vav<; pLaivovrai Kal rf]^ elpe(7ia<; eKXavOdv- ovrai, TToWoi? Se avrwv aTroXcoXaaiv 7;S;; at X€ipe<;. (2) Tt? 7) ypa<f>i] ; rov Aiovvaov, w ttcu, Xo^^coaL Tvppijvol Xoyov e? avTov<; r}KOvro^, &)<?

10 6?]Xv<; T€ eh] Kal d'yupT7]<; Kal 'X^pvaov^ rrji' vavv iiTTo rod iv avrrj itXoutov yvvaid re avro) ofiaproiii Avhia Kal ^drupoi Kal^ avXifral Kal vapOT]KO(f)6po<; yepwv Kal olvo<^ ^lap(ov€io<; Kal avTo<; o }^\dpa)v. Kal Ildua<; avrw ^vp^-rrXelv

15 aKOvovTe<; ev elhei rpdywv avrol fxev d^eaOai e/xeXXov^ Td<; ^dK)(a<;, alya<; 8e din^aeiv €KeiPOi<;, a<; 7) Tvpp^]V(ov yr) jBoaKec. (3) 'H p,ev ovv XrjarpiKr] vav<^ rov p.d)(ip,ov irXel rpoTTov eVo)- Tiai re yap KareaKevaaTai Kal epi/SoXa) Kal

20 athrjpal avry %et/9e9 Kal al')(^pLal Kal hpeirava iirl hopdrcov. &)? 8'^ €K7rX7]TTOL tol/? ei'Tvyxd- vovTa<; Kal Orjpiov n avrol^ eKc^aivoLJO, yXavKol^; fiev yeypairrai ypaopLaai, /3XoavpoL<i he Kara iTpcppav 6(f)0aXpLot<; olov /BXeirei, XeTrrrj Se rj

25 iTpvpn-a Kal p^rjvoeiSt)^ KaOdirep rd reXevrcovTa Tojv l\6v(iiv. (4) 'li he rov Aiovvaov vav<; ra

1 ical Benndorf deletes, cf. 322, 26 ff. k. - a^eadai ijueWov Hercher : ^(aOai. ^ 5' adiled b}' Pveiske and Kayser.

^ Narthex : a plant with hollow stalk which furnished the Bacchic -wands.

2 Cf. Od. 9. 147 f. Maron was a priest of Apollo, who gave Odysseus wine in gratitude for protection. Later,


BOOK I. 19

is a sacred ship ; in it Dionysus revels and the Bacchantes cry out in response to him, and orgiastic music resounds over the sea, which yields its broad surface to Dionysus as readily as does the land of the Lydians ; on the other ship they go mad and forget to row and already the hands of many of them are gone. What does the painting mean ? Tyr- rhenian sailors, my boy, are lying in wait for Dionysus, as word has come to them that he is effeminate and a vagabond and a mine of gold so far as his ship is concerned, because of the wealth it carries, and that he is accompanied only by Lydian women and Satyrs and fluteplayers, and an aged narthex-bearer,! and Maronian wine, and by Maron ^ himself. Hearing that Pans sail with him in the form of goats, they planned to carry off the Bac- chantes for themselves and to turn over to the Pans she-goats,^ such as are raised in the land of the Tyrrhenians. Now the pirate ship sails with warlike mien ; for it is equipped with prow-beams and beak, and on board are grappling-irons and spears and poles armed with scythes. And, in order that it may strike terror into those they meet and may look to them like some sort of monster, it is painted with bright colours, and it seems to see with grim eyes set into its prow,* and the stern curves up in a thin crescent like the end of a fish's tail. As for the ship of Dionysus, it has a weird appearance ^

because of the fame of his wine, he was thought of as an attendant of Dion3'sus.

^ i.e. in place of Bacchantes.

  • It was customary to paint eyes on the prow of Greek

ships, apparently with the idea that thus the ship might see its wa}'.

^ See critical note.



fxev aWa Trerpa jioi SielfcaaraL,^ cfyoXiScoTf] 8e opdrac to 6? irpv/ivap'^ kv/jl/SciXcov avrfi irapaWa^ iprjp/xoapivcov, IV, el Koi Xdrvpol

30 TTore vtto ol'vou Kadevhoiev, 6 Ai6vvao<; /ly ay\ro4>i^rl irXeoL, tj-jv he Trpwpav e? ')(^pvarjv TTcipBaXiv eiKaaTai, re koI e^fj/crai. (f)i\ia Be rfp Aiovvacp tt/jo? to ^mov, eTreiSr) OepfioTarov t6)v ^(p(ov earl /cal TrrjBd Kov(f)a koI Xaa evciBi.

35 o/oa? yovv Koi avro to Orjplov — cFV[X'JT\eovaa<^ rw Aiovvao) Kol 7T7]Ba)(Ta<; eirl rov<; Tvppr}vov<; purjirw 323 K. Ke\evovTO<;. 6vpao<; Be cvrocrl eV p,ecr7]<; i^eo)? €K7re(f)VKe ra rod larov irpdaacov, Kal laria fieOijTTTaL dXovpyfj peravyd^ovra ev rw koXtto), ')(^pvaai Be evvc^avrai ^aKyat, ev T/jlcoXo) /cat 5 Aiovvaov rd ev AvBla. fcarrjpecfir] Be rrjv vavv dfiTreXo) kol /clttw (^aiveaOai kol fiorpv^; virep avTrj<; alwpelaOai Oavfia fxev, dav/iaaicorepa Be r) Trrjyrj rod olvov, d><; kolXt] avjov rj vav<^ €kBI- Borac KOL avrXelraL.

10 (5) 'AXX' eVt Tou? Tvppi]vov(; cwpev, ew? elaiv 6 yap Atovvao^ avrov^ €Kfiijva<; evrpexovat Tot? Tvppr)voi<; IBeai BeXcplvayv ovtto) eOdBwv ovBe eyx^wpiwv rfj OaXdaarj. Kal ru) jxev rd irXevpa Kvdvea, rw S' 6XiaOy]pd rd arepva, tm B

15 eKcpverai Xo(pid irapd rw /jLeTa(ppev(p, 6 Be eKBiBcocn rd ovpaia, Kal tm fiev rj KecjiuXr]

^ The text is corrupt in the M8S., irerpa/xoi^i eUaa-rai. Various conjectures have been proposed, rtpari (Capps) VV AP (Jacobs) elfKatrrai.

^ Trpv/uLvav Jacobs : irpdipav.

^ Cymbals where, in a ship of war, shields would be hung.


BOOK I. 19

in other respects, and it looks as if it were covered with scales at the stern, for cymbals ^ are attached to it in rows, so that, even if the Satyrs are overcome by wine and fall asleep, Dionysus may not be with- out noise on his voyage ; and its prow is drawn out in the semblance of a golden leopardess. Dionysus is devoted to this animal because it is the most excit- able of animals and leaps lightly like a Bacchante. At any rate you see the very creature before you ; ^ it sails with Dionysus and leaps against the Tyrrhenians without waiting for his bidding. And the thyrsus here has grown in the midst of the ship^ and serves as a mast, and sails dyed purple are attached to it, gleaming as they belly out in the wind, and woven in them are golden Bacchantes on Mount Tmolus and Dionysiac scenes from Lydia. That the ship seems to be embowered with vine and ivy and that clusters of grapes swing above it* is indeed a marvel, but more marvellous is the fountain of wine,^ for the hollow ship pours forth the wine and lets it drain away. But let us turn to the Tyrrhenians while they still remain ; for under the maddening power of Dionysus the forms of dolphins ^ are creeping over the Tyrrhenians — not at all the dolphins we know, how- ever, nor yet those native to the sea. One of the men has dark sides, one a slippery breast, on the back of one a fin is growing, one is growing a tail, the head of one is gone but that of another is left,

2 i.e. the figure-head which forms the prow.

^ Cf. the ship of Dionysus on a black-figured kylix, JFien. Vorlegehldf.ter, 1888, PI. VII. \a.

  • Cf. Horn. Homns 7. 38 ff. for a description of the vine.

^ Cf. ibid. 7. 35 f. for the fountain of wine.

^ Cf. ibid. 7. 51 f. for the transformation of the sailors into dolphins.




(6) '^O he Xiovvao^i iic irpcppa^i <ye\a ravra koI 20 Ke\ev€L tvl^ TvpprjuoU tci fiev elhif l-y^OvaLV e^ avOpcoTTcov, TCI he yOrj ')(pr)aTot<; Ik (f)av\(ov. oy^i^aeTaL >yoi)v jiiKpov varepov UaXaL/icov eVl 3eX(^tz^o? ovhe e<ypi)'yopai'^ ovro^;, aXV vtttlo^; eir avTOu Kadevhoiv, koI 'Apicov he 6 eirl Tatvdpw 25 hrjXol T0U9 heXcfylva'^ eraipovi re elvat dv6pco7roi<; Kal ooSt)? cf)L\ov(i Kal o7ov<i napaTa^aaOai tt/oo? X-pard^i VTTep dvOpoo-ncov Kal /iovaiK7]<i.


(1) KeXaa'al fiev to -ycopiov, oaov ai 7n]yal

Kal TO dvTpov, eKTTohcov he 6 Mapava<; rj ttol-

30 fiaivcov rj fiera t7]v epiv. /juyj eiraiveL to vhwp'

Kol jdp el TTOTifiov Kal yaXijvov yeypaiTTai,

TTOTi/jLcoTeprp evTeu^i] tco ^OXv/j.7r(o. KaOevhet,^

he /leTa T7]v avXijaip d^p6<; ev d/3pOL<; dvOeat

avyKepavvv's tov IhpcoTa tjj tov Xeificovo<;^ hpoaot,

324 K. Kal 6 Ze(f)vpG<; eKKaXel avTov irpoaiTvecov Trj

KOfiT), 6 he dvTLirvel tw dvefi(p^ cXkcov to diro

TOV GTepvov aaOfia, KdXafioi Te avXovvTS^ 7]ht]

irapdKeiVTai tw 'OXv/itto) Kal aih/jpia en, oh

5 eTTLTpvirdiVTaL ^ 01 avXoi. (2) 'E/^wi^re? he avrov

^ KadfvSei Kayser : Kai a^ai.

' \€i/j.a)pos Olearius : x^ 'M^'^'o^-

^ di'TiTTi 6? TCf avf/xcv Jacobs : avaTri'tt rov ap^fxov.

  • iniTtivtrctiVTai .Salmasius : iitiSpvirrovTai.

^ It is implied that henceforth the transformed pirates will have the traits which later Greek legends attribute to dolphins.


BOOK I. 20

the hand of one is melting away, while another laments over his vanishing feet.

Dionysus on the prow of his ship laughs at the scene and shouts orders to the Tyrrhenians as fishes in shape instead of men, and as good in character instead of bad.^ Soon, at any rate, Palaemon will ride on a dolphin's back, not awake, but lying prone upon it sound asleep ; and the Arion at Taenarum^ makes it clear that dolphins are the companions of men, and fond of song, and worthy to take the field against pirates in defence of men and the art of music.


The place is Celaenae, if one may judge by the springs and the cave ; but Marsyas has gone away either to watch his sheep or because the contest is over. Do not praise the water ; for, though it looks sweet and placid, you will find Olympus ^ sweeter. He sleeps after liaving played his flute, a tender youth lying on tender flowers, whilst the moisture on his forehead mingles with the dew of the meadow ; and Zephyrus summons him by breathing on his hair, and he breathes in response to the wind, drawing the air from his lungs. Reeds already yielding music lie beside Olympus, and also the iron tools with which the holes are bored in the pipes. A band of Satyrs gaze lovingly

^ i e. the bronze statue of Arion seated on a dolphin, which Herodotus (1. 24) describes.

^ i.e. the figure of Olympus which he is about to describe. Olympus was a pupil of Marsyas and beloved by him ; cf. the red-figured vase painting, Roscher, LexUcon. d. gr. ii. rom. Myth. III. 861.



^arvpoH' Ti? dyeX^] KaraOecourac to fieipaKLOv ipvOpol Ka\ a€a7]p6T€<^, 6 fiev rov arepvov 6iy€LP S6u/jievo<;, 6 Se ificpvi'aL rfj Seprj, 6 he airdaaL tl €7riOv/j,(hv (^i\r)fia, dvOi] re eViTraTTOucrt Kal 10 irpoaKwovcFLv OD<i dyaX/jta, 6 cro(/)60TaT09 he avTCOv €Ti Oep/jLov Oarepov avXov^ tj-jv jXctyrrav dva- a7rdcra<i eadiei /cal rov "OXufiirov ouro) (^iXelv OieTai,(j)i]al Se Kal diToyevaao-OaL rod TTvevjiaTO^.


(1) TtVi avX€L<;, "0Xv/jL7r€ ; tl Se epyov /lov-

15 aLKpj(; iv ipiipaa ; ov ttoi/jl/jp aoi Trdpeariv, ovk al7r6Xo<^ ovSe Nv/x(f)aL<; avXet^;, at KaX(i)<; av v7rQ)p-)(^7]aavTO ro) auXw, /xaOcop Se ovk olha 6 TL y^aipeif; tw eVl t^ ireTpa vSan Kal /SXeVei? eV avTo. TL ii6Te\ci)v avrov ; Kal yap ovt6

20 KeXapv^eL aoL Kal Trpo? tov avXov VTraaeTaL ^ ouT€ hiafierpovixev aoL ttjv ij/aepav, o'i ye /3ou- XoL/j,e6' dv Kal e? vvKTa<; dirorelvaL to avXi^pa. el Be TO KdXXo<; dvaKpiveL's, tov vBaro<; dfieXeL' r}li€L<; yap iKavcoTepoL Xe^aL tcl ev aol diravTa.

25 (2) To iJiev o/uLfia aoL ')(^a poir 6v , iroXXd 8e avTOV 7r/509 TOV avXov to, Kevrpa, d(f)pv<; Se avTw irepi- ^ej3\.'>]TaL SLaat]/j.aLvovaa tov vovv tmv avXtf- fidrcov, rj Trapetd he TrdXXeaOai Sokcl Kal olov V7rop-)(^eLaOaL tm p.eXeL, to irvevpia Se ovSev

30 eiraipeL tov irpoadnrov viro tov ev tm avXrp

^ Schenkl omits rov before avKov.

^ u-nacmai Kolule and (Joniperz : virocaTai.


BOOK I. 21

upon the youth, ruddy grinning creatures, one desiring to touch his breast, another to embrace his neck, anotlier eager to pluck a kiss ; they scatter flowers over him and worship him as if he were a divine image ; and the cleverest of them draws out the tongue of the second pipe which is still warm and eats it, thinking he is thus kissing Olympus, and he says he tasted the boy's breath.


For whom are you playing the flute, Olympus? And what need is there of music in a desert place ? No shepherd is here with you, nor goatherd, nor yet are you playing for Nymphs, who would dance beautifully to your flute; and 1 do not understand just why you take delight in the pool of water by the rock and gaze into it.^ What interest have you in it ? It does not murmur for you like a brook and sing an accompaniment to your flute, nor do we need its water to measure off the day ^ for you, we who w^ould fain prolong your music even into the night. If it is beauty you are investigating, pay no heed to the water ; for we are more com- petent than it to tell all your charms. Your eye is bright, and many a })rovoking glance comes from it to the flute ; your brow overarching the eye in- dicates the meaning of the tune you play ; your cheek seems to quiver and as it were to dance to the melody ; your breath does not pufl" out your

^ Cf. Narcissus gazing at his reflection in a pool, Descrip- tion 23 infra, p. 89.

2 An allusion to the water-clock used in the courts to time the speeches.

83 g2


elvai, y Kofxi] re ovk apyi] ovre Kelrat KaOdirep iv aariKM /jLeipaKifo XiTTMaa, dW' iyyjyeprac fxev 325 K. viTo Tov avx/^ou, 7ra/oe;^eTafc he avxiJLripov ovSev ev o^eia fcal ^(Xwpci rfj ttltvi. Ka\o<; yap o aT€(pai'0<^ Kal Setvo'^ eiTL7rpey\rai toI<; ev 6)pa, ra le dvO)] irap6evoL<i dvac^veaOco koI yvvatOL^ epev- 5 6o<; eavTol<i epya^eaOco. (f)T]fXi aoi Kal rd arepva 01) iTvevparo^ epbirXea elvat fiovov, dX\d Kal evvoia<=; /jiOvcnKrj<^ Kal hiaGKe'\\rew<^ rojv avKrj- fidrcov. (3) AIe^/3£ rovrcou ae to vScop ypdcfiet KaraKvirrovra e? avro diro t?}? Trerpa^;. el oe

10 koTrjKOTa eypa(j)ev, ovk dv eva')(r}[iova rd vtto TO) crrepvcp ehei^ev eTriTroXaioi ydp ai /xt/z/ycrei? T(ov vBdrcov diTO tov crvvt^dveiv ev avTol^ Ta /i-qKt]. TO Be Kal KXv^ea-Sat ctol tyjv aKidv eaTco pev Kal irapd tov avXou t^^v 7T7]yy]v KaraiTveovTo^,

15 eaTco Se Kal irapd tov Zecf^vpov TavTa TrdvTa, hi ov Kal av ev tw avXelv Kal 6 avXo<; ev tm irvelv Kal i) TT-qyrj ev tm KaTavXelaOai.


(1) Y^aQevhei 6 ^drvpo^, Kal vcpeip^errj rfj

(payvrj irepl avrov \eycop.ev, p,r] e^eyeipriTai Kal

20 SiaXvcFt] ra opcopeva. XllSa<; avTOV oI'vm TeBi]-

paKev ev ^Ppvyua irepl avrd, co? opdf;, Ta Spy],

^ Olympus is standing far enough back from the pool, so that he sees onl}' the reflection of his head and l)reast ; these are bent forward so as to be nearly ])arallel to the surface of tlie water, and therefore the reflection is not unduly fore-


BOOK I. 22

cheeks because it is all in the flute ; your hair is not unkempt, nor does it lie smooth, made sleek with unguents as in a city youth, but it is so dry that it is fluffy, yet without giving the impression of squalid dryness by reason of the bright fresh sprays of pine upon it. Beautiful is such a crown and well adapted to adorn beautiful youths ; but let flowers grow for maidens and let them produce their rosy colour for women. Your breast, I should say, is filled not merely with breath for the flute, but also with thoughts of music and meditation on the tunes you will play. As far as the breast the water pictures you, as you bend down over it from the rock ; but if it pictured you full length, it would not have shown you as comely from the breast down ; for reflections in the water are but on the surface, imperfect because stature is foreshortened in them.^ The fact that your reflection is broken by ripples may be due to your flute breathing upon the water of the fountain, or all that we see may be due to Zephyrus, who inspires you in playing the flute, the flute in breathing its strain, and the spring in being moved by the flute-playing.


The Satyr is asleep ; let us speak of him with bated breath, lest he wake and spoil the scene before us. Midas has captured him with wine in Phrygia ^ on the very mountain-side, as you see, by

shortened ; whereas, if he had been standing near enough to the water to see the rest of his body, the reflection of it would have been very much foreshortened.

2 The story is told by Xen. Anab. 1. 2. 1.3, and Philo- stratuSj Vita A poll. 6. 27.



Tijv Kp)]injv OLVOXoyj(Ta<^, ev r) Kelrai 7rapaj3\v^wv


Zarvpcov Se t)Bu fiev to acpoSpov, ore 6p-

25 \ovvTai, rjSu Se to ficofjUoXoxov, ot€ fxethLMat.

Koi €p(t)cnv 01 yevvaloL ical vTroiroLOvvTai Ta<;

AvSa<; aLKdXXovT€<s avTa<; Te^^in]. KUKelvo

avTCov eTL' aK\7]pol ypdcfyovTUL Kal UKpaTOL to

al/jia KoX rrepiTTol tcl oiTa koI kolXol to la'^iov,

30 dykpwxoi irdvTa Kal to iirl to, ovpala lttttol.

(2) To Se Oj]pa/ia tov WlSov tovto yeypaiTTaL

fjLev oaa eKelvoi, KaOevSei Be viro tov ol'vou to

aaOpLa eXKwv co? Ik ixe6ri<;. koX t) /lev KpyjvJ]

326 K. iriiroTaL avTw paov i) 6Tepw kv\l^, ai Se Kvfxcpai,

Xopevovai ToyOd^ovaat tov ^uTvpov inl rco

Kadevheiv. &)? d/Bpo^; 6 MtSa?, o)? 8e padvpo<;.

/jLiTpa<; eTTtpbeXeLTat Kal ^oaTpvx^ov Kal Ovpaov

5 (fiepet Kal aToXi^v ey^pvaov. Ihov Kal wra

/xeydXa, v(f)' cjv ?;56t9 ol oc^OaXpuol SoKovvT€<i

virvrfKol (^alvovTai Kal peOekKovai ti^v rjBovijv

et? TO V(o6p6i\ alvLTT0/ji€V)]<; (TTrovSfj t;'}? ypa(j))']<;

eK/ie/jLrjvvaOai TavT ijS'] Kal SiaSeSoadat toU

10 dvdpd)7roi<; iv KaXd/jifo, p.t] KaTaa')(ova'ri^ Ty]<;

7779 a i^Kovaev.

^ The older type of representing Satyrs is here described : Benndorf.

2 On a black-figured kylix by Ergotiinus ( IViencr Vorlcge- b/dft^r, 1881, PI. IV. 2) the captured Seilenus is being led to Midas by attendants carrying a rope and a wine skin ; cf. also the red-figured amphora, Fig. 10, p. 87.

^ Tlie ears of an ass, which Apollo gave JNIidas because he presumed to think his own music superior to that of Apollo.

  • The story runs that Midas concealed the ass's ears from

everyone but liis hairdresser, who was sworn to secrec}' ; but the latter whispered the secret to a hole in the earth,


BOOK I. 22

filling ^vith wine the spring beside which lie lies disgorging the wine in his sleep.

Charming is the vehemence of satyrs when they dance^ and charming their ribaldry when they laugh ; they are given to love, noble creatures that they are, and they sub- due the Lj'dian women to their will by their ^^^- In-

artful flatteries. And this too is true of them : they are represented in paintings as hardy, hot-blooded beings, with prominent ears, lean about the loins, altogether mischievous, and having the tails of horses.^

The Satyr caught by Midas'^ is here depicted as satyrs in general are, but he is asleep as a result of the wine, breathing heavily like a drunken man. He has drunk up the whole spring more easily than another would have taken a cupful, and the Nymphs dance, mocking the Satyr for having fallen asleep. How dainty is Midas and how he takes his ease ! He is careful of his head-dress and his curling locks, and he carries a thyrsus and wears a robe woven with gold. See the long ears,^ which give his seemingly attractive eyes a sleepy look and turn their charm into dullness ; for the painting purposely hints that this story has already been divulged and published abroad among men by the pen, since the earth could not keep secret what it heard.*

and bushes that grew there when shaken by the wind told the storv to the world.



(1) 'H yi\v iri'i'yri ypd(f)€i rov NdpKiaaov, r) Se ypa(f)r} ttjv irijyrjv Kol rd rov ^ap/claaov irdvra. /jbetpd/ciop dpri 6)]pa'^ d-TTtjWayfieuou

15 m]yfj 6(f)eaT7]K€i' eXKOv rivd e'^ avrov Ifxepov KOL ep6)V T% eavTov (opa<;, dcnpdirreL he, &)? opa<^, e? TO vhwp. (2) To fxev ovv avrpov ' A\e\(pov fcal Nu//.0coj^, yeypairrai Be rd eUora' (f)avXov re ydp Te-^v)]<^ rd dydX/uLara kol \i6ov

20 Tov ^ eurevOev, fcal rd fiev TrepiTerpnTrai vwo Tov ')(p6i'ov, rd Se ^ovkoXwv rj iroLpevcov TratSc? 7r6pL€K0\lrav en vi^moL Koi dvaiaOi^TOt tov deov. Koi ovSe d/3dK)(^euT0<; 7) irriyij tov i^iovvaov olov dva^r]vavT0^ avTrjv rat? Krival<^' d/jiireXw yovv

25 Koi KiTTW TjpeTTTat Koi eki^L /caXaU /cal ^oTpixov /jbeTeaxv^^ f<^^i' ^ o6ev ol Ovpaor Kcop-d^ovai, re eTT* avTi]v^ ao(f)ol 6pvL6e<^, co? e/cdaTou dpfjLOvia, Ka\ dvdi-j Xevicd ttj Trrjyfj TrepiirecpvKev ovirw ovTa, aXX" eVl toj /jLecpa/clfo ^vofxeva. Ti/uLwaa

30 Be T) ypa(f)rj T^/^' dXijOeiap kol hpocrov tl Xei/Sei diTo TMV dvOewv, ol^ Kal fxeXtTTa e(f)i^dvet Ti?, ovK olBa etV e^airaTrjOelaa vtto t>]<; ypa(f)t]<^,

^ TOV added by Ka3'ser. ^ /cat added by Lindau.

^ avrii V Keiske : outtj.

^ Narcissus gazing at his reflection in a pool is the subject of a Ponipeian wall-painting, Fig. 11, p. 89 (Ternite, Waiulgcinaclde, III. 4. 25).


BOOK I. 23


The pool paints Narcissus, and the painting represents both the pool and the whole story of Narcissus.^ A youth just returned from the hunt stands over a pool_, drawing from within himself a kind of yearning and falHng in love with his own beauty ; and, as you see, he sheds a radiance in- to the water. The cave is sacred to Acheloiis and the Nymphs, and the scene is painted realistically. For the statues are of a crude art and made from a local stone ; some of them are worn away by time, others have been mutilated by children of cowherds or shepherds while still young and unaware of the presence of the god. Nor is the pool without some connection with the Bacchic rites of Dionysus, since he has made it known to the Nymphs of the wine-press ; at any rate it is roofed over with vine and ivy and beautiful creeping plants, and it abounds in clusters of grapes and the trees that furnish the thyrsi, and tuneful birds disport themselves above it, each with its own note, and white flowers grow about the pool, not yet in blossom but just springing up in honour of the youth. The painting has such regard for realism that it even shows drops of dew dripping from the flowers and a bee settling on the flowers — whether a real bee has been deceived by the painted flowers or whether we are to be deceived into


Fig. 11.


el're j]/u.a<^ e^i]iraT?]G6ai ^(py) eliai avTi']v. aXX.' 527 K. earco. (3) IXe fxevTOi.^ /jieipd/cioi', ov ypacj)/] rt? €^7]7rdT7]a€U, ovSe )(p(t)/j.a(TLV rj Kiipw 7TpoaT6T}]Ka<;, dW eKTVTTMaav ae to vScop, olov elhe^i avTO, ovk oLaOa ovre to tt)? Tnjyri^ €X€j)(ei<; a6(f)ia/jLa, 5 vevaac Seiv'^ kol TrapaTpeyjrai, lov etSov; kol Ti-jV X^lpci viroKLvrjaaL Kal pbrj iirl tuvtov eaTarai, av 5' coaiTep eTaipw evTV)(cov TuKeWev 7repi/J.€V€i<^. etTa GOi 7) TTiryr) /jlvOw ')(^pi](J€Tai; ol'TO? fiev ovv ouS' iiraiei tl i)imo)v, aXV €/X7T67rT0)K€P iirl to

\0 vBcop avTOL'^ wal kol avTOL<; 6/j,/iaaiv, avTol^ Be 7]/jL6t<;, oiarrep 'ye'ypaiTTai, Xiyw/iei'.

(4) 'Op6ov dvairaveTai to fieipd/ciov ivaWd^av tol> TToSe Kal Ttjv %ei/3a eTTe')(ov TreinfyoTL tCo aKOVTLW iv dpiaTepa, ?'; 8e|'ia Be TrepirJKTat 6iV to

15 ia')(^iov dvaay^elv t€ avTov kol (T^rnia irpaTTew eKKeipLevoiv twp jXovtcov Bid T}]v twv dpiaTepwi eyKXiaiv.^ BeiKvveL Be /; %eip depa fiev, KaO' o fcvpTovTai 6 dyK(jL>v, pvTiBa Be KaO^ o aTpe/3Xov- Tai 6 KapTTO's Kal (jKidv rcapeyeTai avvi^dvovaa

20 6i9 TO Oevap, Xo^al Be al^ dKTLve<; tT/? aKLd<; Bia Tr]v etao) eTTiaTpocprjv tmv BaKTvXwv, to Be ev Tw (TTepvM daO/ia ovk olBa elVe KwrfyeTiKov eTL eLT€ yBr] epwTiKov. to ye fiyv opLfxa iKavMS €pMVT0<;, TO yap ^apOTrov avTOv Kal yopyov eV

25 (pv(Teco<i irpavvet Tf? ecpitdvcov l'/jLepo<;, Bokcl 8'

^ ixivroi Kayser : jxtv 16.

2 SeTi/ Schenkl, Z4ov Kayser : 5e or re.

  • • avToi Kayser: avro.
  • (yKKiaiv Keiske : iKKXiaiv.


BOOK I. 21,

thinking that a painted l)ee is real^ I do not know. But let that pass. As for you, however, Narcissus, it is no painting that has deceived you, nor are you engrossed in a thing of pigments or wax ; but you do not reahze that the water represents you exactly as you are when you gaze upon it, nor do you see through the artifice of the pool, though to do so you have only to nod your head or change your expres- sion or slightly move your hand, instead of standing in the same attitude ; but acting as though you had met a companion, you wait for some move on his part. Do you then expect the pool to enter into conversation witli you ? Nay, this youth does not hear anything we say, but he is immersed, eyes and ears alike, in the water and we must interpret the painting for ourselves.

The youth, standing erect, is at rest ; ^ he has his legs crossed and supports one hand on the spear which is planted on his left, while his right hand is pressed against his hip so as to support his body and to produce the type of figure in which the buttocks are pushed out because of the inward bend of the left side. The arm shows an open space at the point where the elbow bends, a wrinkle where the wrist is twisted, and it casts a shadow as it ends in the palm of the hand, and the lines of the shadow are slanting because the fingers are bent in. Whether the panting of his breast remains from his hunting or is already the panting of love I do not know. The eye, surely, is that of a man deeply in love, for its natural brightness and intensity are softened by a longing that settles upon it, and he

^ Cf. the attitude of Oenomaiis in the east pediment of the temple of Zeus at Olympia.



to-axf Kal avTepacrOai, ^Xeirovcn^^; avrov r/}?

aKLa<;, w? vtt avrov opdrai. (5) HoXya Kal

irepl tT;? ko/jLT]^; eke)(^9r] civ, el dtjpcovrc avru)

iv6Tvxofji€V. fivpiat yap avTy<; al KLVi]aei<; iv

30 Tw hpofxw Kal p^dWov, iireiSdv viro dvi/Jiov tivo<;

ejJUTVOV^ jevfjTai, rv)(OL 8' dv Kal \6yov vvv.

d/jL(j)i\acf)ov<; yap ovcr^]^ avT}]<^ nal olov )(pvari<;

TO /xev 01 Tei>ovTe<^ icpeXKorrai, to S' vtto to)v

WTCDV KpLverai, to Be tw jxeTOtiTrw imaaXeveL, to

35 Se Tfi V7n]vr} eTTippel. laot ^ re dfji(j)a) ol Ndp-

32S K KiaaoL to elSo^; I'aa e/ucpaiPOVTe'; dXXt']X(ov, irX-qv

6aoi> 6 /lev €KK6iTaL tov depo<^, 6 he ttjv 7T)]yi]v

vTTohehvKev. icpeaTrjKe yap to /xeipaKiov tm ev ^

vBaTi kcTTWTL, fxaXXov he dTCVL^ovTL e? avro Kal

5 olov hi-yjron'Tt tov KdX\ov<;.


(1) 'AvdyvcoOi Ti]v huKivOov, yey pairrai yap

Kal (pyjacv dvacpvvai, r?}? yi}^ enl p^etpaKlo) KaXu)

Kal 6py]veL avTO d/xa rw ypc yeveaiv ol/iaL irap^

avTOv Xa/Sovaa, ore drreOave. Kal firj ere XeipLoov

10 dva^dXy rovro, Kal yap evravOa eKire^vKev^

^ Xaoi Jacobs : etV/.

2 Ty eV added by Capps.

1 Hyacinthus, a j^outhful favourite of Apollo, was accident- ally slain b}' the discus thrown b}' the god, and the event was coniniemorated b}' the hyacinth which is said to have sprung from his blood. The accident is here explained as due to Zephyrus, tlie wind which diverted the discus from its true course.


BOOK I. 24

perhaps thinks that he is loved in return, since the reflection gazes at him in just the way that he looks at it. There would be much to say about the hair if we found him while hunting. For there are innumerable tossings of the hair in running, especially when it is blown by a wind ; but even as it is the subject should not be passed over in silence. For it is very abundant and of a golden hue ; and some of it clings to the neck, some is parted by the ears, some tumbles over the forehead, and some falls in ripples to the beard. Both the Narcissi are exactly alike in form and each repeats the traits of the other, except that one stands out in the open air while the other is immersed in the pool. For the youth stands over the youth who stands in the water, or rather who gazes intently at him and seems to be athirst for his beauty.


Read the hyacinth, for there is writing on it ^ which says it sprang from the earth in honour of a beautiful youth ; and it laments him at the be- ginning of spring, doubtless because it was born from him when he died. Let not the meadow delay you with the flower, for it grows here^ also, no different from the flower which springs from the

Furtwangler, Ant. Gemmen, PI. XX. 31, publishes an Etruscan scarab representing Hyacinthus ; the youth is bending forward, drops of blood fall from his head, and at his feet is the discus that caused his death (Fig. 12, p. 9-5).

2 Referring to the letters AI AI ("woe, woe") on the petals of the flowers.

^ i.e. in the curling hair of the j'outh Hyacinthus in the painting.



OTToia T/y? 7/}? a/eV^e. Xeyet Be 1) <ypa(j)j] koI vaKLvOiVTjV eli'ai rro fieipaKiw ryjv k6/xi]v kol to alfia e/jb/Siov ry yfj yiio/ievov^ ei? oUelov ri ')(p(io(jai TO arOo<;. pel Se utt' at'T/)? tT;? K€(pa\y]<;

15 €/JL7Te7rT(t)fcoTO<; avTrj tou Sla/cov. Setvr] fiev r) oia/iapTLa Kal ovBe Trtcrr?; XeyeTat kutcl Tov A7r6Wo)vo<;' iirel Se ov aocpLGTal tcov /ivOcov yKOfiev ovSe airLaTelv eTOi/jLOt, OeaToi he fiovov TMV <yey pa/ijiievfov, e^eTacTM/iev tijv ypacfyrjv

20 Kal irpwTov ye tj-jv ffaX/SlSa tov hiaKOv.

(2) BaX/3i? hiaKe')(^UL>pL(JTaL fiLKpa Kal citto- ')(pcoaa evl ecTTcoTi, el firj to KaToiriv Kal to he^Lov aKeXo<; avexovaa, irpavf] ra e/xirpoaOev, Kal Kov(f)L^ovaa OciTepov toIv cjKeXolv, o y^prj

25 avvava/SdXXeaOai Kai av/jLrropevecrdai ttj Be^id. TO Be ax^l/^ci TOV Blcjkov avexovTO<^' i^aXXd^avTa Ty]v Ke(f)aX7]v iirl Be^ici ^Ph fcvpTOvaOat tocjov, baov VTro/SXeylrat to, rrXevpd, Kal piirTeli' olov dvLpLoovTa Kal irpocrepijBdXXovTa tol<; 8effot9

30 irdaL. (3) Kat 6 ' XiroXXwv ovtco 7ra)9 eBlcr- KevaeVy ov yap av dXXa}<; d(py]Kev, epLTreacov Be 6 BlaKo^; e? to /ueipdKLOv to fiev KecTat Kal eV 329 K. avTOv ye tov Blokov — AaKcoi'iKov fieipdKLOv Kal TTjv Kvrj/jL7]v opOov Kal BpojJLWv ovK dyvfxvaaTOv Kal /3pa)(iOva vireyelpov ^^Br) Kal ti-jv copav tcov ^ Some ^ISS. give 'Kt.v6^iivov for "yivSixevov.

' Cf. Od. 6. 231 : Ko^as, vaKivdivcp &t'dei bjxo'ias. 2 It was a stone slab marked with incised lines which gave a firm footing to the athlete ; cf. Ausyrahunc/en in Olympia,


BOOK I. 24

earth. The painting tells us that the hair of the

youth is '^ hyacinthine," ^ and that his blood, taking

on life in the earth, has given the

flower its own crimson colour. It flows

from the head itself where the discus

struck it. Terrible was the failure to

hit the mark and incredible is the story

told of Apollo ; but since we are not

here to criticize the myths and are not

ready to refuse them credence, but are ^^^- ^^•

merely spectators of the paintings, let us examine

the painting and in the first place the stand set for

throwing the discus.

A raised tli rower's stand ^ has been set apart, so small as to suffice for only one person to stand on, and then only when it supports the posterior portions and the right leg of the thrower, causing the anterior portions to bend forward and the left leg to be relieved of weight ; for this leg must be straightened and advanced along with the right arm. As for the attitude of the man holding the discus, he must turn his head to the right and bend himself over so far that he can look down at his side, and he must hurl the discus by drawing himself up and putting his whole right side into the throw. Such, no doubt, was the way Apollo threw the discus, for he could not have cast it in any other w^ay ; and now that the discus has struck the youth, he lies there on the discus itself — a Laconian youth, straiglit of leg, not unpractised in running, the muscles of his arm already developed, the fine lines of the bones indicated under the flesh ; but

V. 35. The present description closely folloMs tlie well- known Discobolus of Myron.



ocTTMV viTeK(j)alvov — (ITT ear pair TaL he ^ XiroXKwv 6 en €(peaTa)(; rfj ^aXj^lhi /cal Kara 7?}? ^Xeirei. 7T€7rr]<yei'aL (f)7]a€i<; aurov, roaouTov avT(o t>)? €K7r\7)^€(o<; e/j-TreTTTCOKev. (4) W/jLaO//^ ye 6 Ze(f)vpo<; ve/jiea)]aa<s avTw /cat rov SlaKOP e? to lietpuKLOv irapei^, Kal yeXcof; SoKel ru) dve/JLM 10 ravra Kal rwdd^et Trepicoiryv ex(ov. 6pd<^ he oljjLai avTov ev Trrrfpco rw Kpordcfxp Kal afSpo) tq) eiSei, Kal areijiavov ^epeu ttuvtcov dvOewv, fiLKpov he varepoi' Kal ttjv vaKLvOov avrol^ e/jLirXe^ei.


15 (1) To Tov otvov pevfia ro ev "Avhpca ttj vr](j(£i Kal 01 /jLedvovTe<; rov rrorajjiov "Avhpioi X0709 elal tT;? 'ypa(f)ij<;. \\vhpLOL<i jdp 5?; eV Aiovvaov 77 77) VTTOivo^ pijyvvrat Kal iroTapiOV avrol^ dva- hihaxTLV el pev euOvjJLriOeiri^ vhcop, ovttq) fieya, el

20 he olvov, /jL€ya<i 6 irojapo^ Kal 6elo<^' earc yap TovTov dpvaa/jievo) KelXov re virepihelv Kal "IdTpov Kal TTOv (pdvaL Trepl avTcov, otl KaKelvoi ^eXrlov; dv ehoKovv oXlyot flip, dXXd tolovtol peovre^.

25 (2) \\ai ahovaii' olp^at ravra yvvaioL^i dp.a Kal iraihloti; earecpavco/ievoi, KLrrw re Kal (jfxiXaKL, OL ^ fiev ^(opevovre^ e^' €Karepa<; 6)(6ij^, 01 he KaraKeifxevoi. elKO<; he irov KdKelva elvai rrj<; (i)h7]<;, ct)9 hovaKa p.ei> 'A^^eXwo?, Y[t]veio<i he

30 TeyUTT); (f)epei, IlafcrroXo<; 8e . . . - dv6i] Xolttoi', ovroal he o 7rorafio<; 7rXovaiov<; r d7ro(f)aipe

^ Kul before ol deleted Ijy Reiske. '■^ Westermann notes the lacuna.


BOOK I. 25

Apollo with averted face is still on the thrower's stand and he gazes down at the ground. You will say he is fixed there, such consternation has fallen upon him. A lout is Zephyrus, who was angry with Apollo and caused the discus to strike the youth, and the scene seems a laughing matter to the wind and he taunts the god from his look-out. You can see him, I think, with his winged temples and his delicate form ; and he wears a crown of all kinds of flowers, and will soon weave the hyacinth in

among them.


The stream of wine which is on the island of Andros, and the Andrians who have become drunken from the river, are the subject of this painting. For by act of Dionysus the earth of the Andrians is so charged with wine that it bursts forth and sends up for them a river ; if you have water in mind, the quantity is not great, but if wine, it is a great river — yes, divine I For he who draws from it may well disdain both Nile and Ister and may say of them that they also would be more highly esteemed if they were small, provided their streams were like this one.

These things, methinks, the men, crowned with ivy and bryony, are singing to their wives and children, some dancing on either bank, some re- clining. And very likely this also is the theme of their song — that while the Acheloiis bears reeds, and the Peneius waters Tempe, and the Pactolus . . . flowers, this river makes men rich, and power- ful in the assembly, and helpful to their friends, and



Kal 8vvaTov<; ra iv ajopd koX iirifxekel'^ tcjv cf)iX(ov Kal Ka\ov<; Kal rerpaTryJx^c^; eK [itKpojv €(TTL yap KopeaOevTL avrov avWeyeadai ravra

35 Kal eadyecrOaL e? t?;i^ yviofii^v. aSovat Be ttov, 330 K. on /jl6vo<; irorafiMV ovtol /JLijre ffovKo\Loi<; earl /3aT0(; fxy]0* Ittttol'^, dXX! olvoxoelrai fxev i/c Aiovvaov, TTLperai Be ciKi^paro^i, /jL6voL<i dv9pa)7roi<; pecov. ravrl pbev ciKoveiv i)yov Kal aBovrcov avrd ii'icov, Kare'^jreWia/iievcov rt]v cpcovrjp vtto tov

5 oXvov.

(3) Ta fxevTOi^ opcofieva t?}? ypa^i^]^' 6 fiev 7roTa/j,o<; iv ^orpixov evvfj Kelrai rrjv irrjyrjv ckBc- Bov^ dKpar6<; re Kal opycov to elBo<;, OvpcroL B' avrw 7r€pi7re(f)VKaaL KaOdirep ol KdXapboi tol^ vBaai,

10 TTapa/jLeiyjravTL Be rh^v yrjv Kal ra ev avrfj ravra avfiTToaia Tplr(ove<; ijBt] irepl rd<i eV/9oXa9 cnrav- ro)vr€<^ dpvovrai k6x^ol<; rod o\'vov. Kal ro fxev irivovaiv avrov, ro Bi* dva(f)vaa)aiv, elal B^ ol Kal fieOvovcri rcov Tpircovwv Kal 6p)(ovvrat. irXet

15 Kal Atovvao^ eirl KcofMou r?}? "AvBpov Kal KaOcop- /jLLarat fiev y vav<; 7]Bi], Xarvpov<i Be dva/il^ Kal Arjvd^i dyec Kal ^€L\r)vov<; oaot-. rov YeXayrd re ciyei Kal rov Kco/xov, IXapcordrco Kal ^vfiiro- riKcordrco Baifiove, d)<; yBiara 6 7Torap.o<; avrw

20 rpvywro.


(1) O KOfitBrj Trat? o en iv crirapydvoi^, 6 rd'i ^oO? eh TO pP]y/j,a r/}? 7/)? iXavvcov, en KdKelvo^ 6 avXoov ra /SeXrj rov ^AjroXXcovof;, 'E/)/x>i?

  • jueVroj Schenkl : fxty.


BOOK I. 26

beautiful and^ instead of short, four cubits tall ; for when a man has drunk his fill of it he can assemble all these qualities and in his thought make them his own. They sing, I feel sure, that this river alone is not disturbed by the feet of cattle or of horses, but is a draught drawn from Dionysus, and is drunk unpolluted, flowing for men alone. This is what you should imagine you hear and what some of them really are singing, though their voices are thick with wine.

Consider, however, what is to be seen in the painting : The river lies on a couch of grape- clusters, pouring out its stream, a river undiluted and of agitated appearance ;i thyrsi grow about it like reeds about bodies of water, and if one goes along past the land and these drinking groups on it, he comes at length on Tritons at the river's mouth, who are dip- ping up the wine in sea-shells. Some of it they drink, some they blow out in streams, and of the Tritons some are drunken and dancing. Dionysus also sails to the revels of Andros and, his ship now moored in the harbour, he leads a mixed throng of Satyrs and Bacchantes and all the Seileni. He leads Laughter and Revel, tAvo spirits most gay and most fond of the drinking-bout, that with the greatest delight he may reap the river's harvest.


The mere babe still in swaddling clothes, the one who is driving the cattle into the cleft of the earth, who furthermore is stealing Apollo's

^ A river of pure wine undiluted with water, and turgid, as if under the influence of wine.

99 h2


ouTO?. fiaXa i)helai al /cXoiral rov 6eov' (paal

25 yap rov 'E>pfxrjV, ore rrj ISlaia eyevero, ipciv rov KXeirreiv koI elhevai touto, ovtl ttco ravra irevia Bpcov 6 9e6<s, dW' ev^poavvr) SlBov<; koX Trai^cov. el Be ^ovXet koI ^^(^vo^; avrov KUTLSelu, opa ra iv rfj ypa^fj. TLfCTerai p.ev iv Kopvcpal'^

30 Tov 'OXvfXTrou, kut avrov avco, to e8o<? rciiv Oecov. . €Kel Se "0/x?7/:o9 ovre o/i/Spayv alaOd- veaOal (pijatv ovre dve/iwv ciKovetv, dXX^ ovSe X^ovL ^Xi]6r}vaL irore avro hC virepffoXijv, elvai 331 K. he Oelov aTe;\^i^a>? Aral eXevOepov aTrcivrcop iradcov, a)v fxerex^i' to, roiv dvdpooiToyv opTj. (2) ^Eprav6a TOV 'Epp.rjv diTOTexdevTa '^flpai KOfJii^ovTai. yey pa(f)e /cciKeU'a^^, co? wpa efcdaT7]<;, Kal cnrap- 5 ydvot^ avTov dfi7rLa")(^ovaLV eTTLirdTTOvaat, Ta KdXXtara tmv dvOewv, co? fii^ daijjKov tvxu TOiv airapydvcov. Kal al fiev eirl ti]V fiijTepa tov 'Rp/jiov TpeiTovTai Xe^^ Kei/ievr]v, 6 3' v7reKSv<; Tcov arrapydvcdv 7]St] ^aSl^ei Kal tov OXv/xttov

10 Kdreiai. yeyrjOe he avTw to 6po<; — to yap /jLeiSla/jia avTov olov dvdpcoTrov — voet Be top "OXv/jLttov x^lpovTa, otl 6 'Ep/jiij<; eKel eyeveTO.

(3) Tt? ovv 7] KXoTn] ; /Soi)? vepiOfieva<; ev tw TOV 'OXv/jLirov nrpoTToBi, TavTa<; B-qrrov to,^

15 xp^(^0K€pa)^ Kal virep x^ova XevKd^ — dvelvTaL

^ Cf. the red-figured vase in the Museum Gregorianum, Baunieister, Dcnhndler, fig. 741.

2 Cf. Alcaeus, Frag. 2, Edmond's Lyra Qraeca I ; the story is told at length in the Homeric Hymn to Hermes.

3 Homer, Od. 6. 4'2flf. "Neither is it shaken by winds, nor ever wet with rain, nor does the snow fall upon it, but the

BOOK I. 26

weapons — this is Hermes.^ Very delightful are the thefts of the god ; for the story is that Hermes, when Maia bore him, loved thievery and was skilled in it, though it was by no means through poverty that the god did such things, but out of pure delight and in a spirit of fun. If you wish to follow his course step by step, see how the painting depicts it. He is born on the crest of Olympus,^ at the very top, the abode of the gods. There, as Homer says,^ one feels no rain and hears no wind, nor is it ever beaten by snow, it is so high ; but it is ab- solutely divine and free from all the ills that pertain to the mountains which belong to men. There the Horae care for Hermes at his birth.* The painter has depicted these also, each according to her time, and they wrap him in swaddling clothes, sprinkling over him the most beautiful flowers, that he may have swaddling clothes not without distinction. While they turn to the mother of Hermes lying on her couch of travail, he slips out of his swaddling clothes and begins to walk at once and descends from Olympus. The mountain rejoices in him — for its smile is like that of a man — and you are to assume that Olympus rejoices because Hermes was ])orn there.

Now what was the theft ? ^ Cattle grazing on the foothills of Olympus, yonder cattle with golden horns and whiter than snow — for they are sacred

air is outspread clear and cloudless." Translation of Murray in L.C.L.

  • Cf. Alcaeus, Frag, 3, Edmonds, Lyra Graeca I. ; Philo-

stratus, Vita Apollon. 5. 15. For the Horae, cf. infra, II. 34, p. 269.

5 Hermes' theft of the cattle is depicted on the vase mentioned in note 1.



>yap T(p ^AttoWwvl — ciyet arpo^cjv eh y^cicrixa T?}? 7^9, ovy^ CO? aiToXoLvro, aX)C o)? a(f)avi(Tdelev 6t? fiiav rj/iiepav, ear av tov ^AttoWo) Buktj Tovro, Kol o)? ovhev fierov avrw tov yeyovoro^

20 vTroSverai to, airdpyava. i]k6L Kal 6 ^ AiroWcov irapa rijv ^latav airaiTOiV Ta<; /3ov<;, rj Se aTTLarel Kal Xrjpelv ol'erai. tov Oeov. (4) BouXet p.aOelv 6 TL Kal Xiyet ; BoKel yap fxoi p,r) (fxovij^; fjLOVOv, aWa koX \6yov tl eir LhrjXovv tm

25 7rpo(T(07ra)' eoiKSV co? peWcov 7rpo<; ti-jv ^lalav Xeyeiv TavTa. " dScKel fie 6 ao<^ vl6<i, ov %^€9 ere/ce?" Td<; yap /Sou?, ah ex^ipov, €/jLl3el3\t]Kev e? T7]v yrjv, ovK olh^ ottol ti)^ yP]<;. diroXelTai hii Kal ififfefiXrjaeTaL KaTcoTepo) irpo tcov ySocoi^."

30 ?; 8e Oav/jLci^ec Kal ov 7rpoaSe)(€Tai top \6yov. (5) "Et' avTOiV dvTiXeyovTWV aXX^yXot? 6 Kp/xf]^

'iCFTaTai KaTOTTLV TOV 'AtToWwI^O? Kal K0V(f)(O(;

eiTLiTrjhr^aa^ rot? ixeTac^pevoi^ dylro(f>7]Tl Xvei to, To^a Kal (JvXoiV fiev BteXadev, ov prjv rjyvoijdi] 35 aeavX7]K(t)<;. ivTavOa t) aocpla tov ^coypdcpov Sia'X^ec yap tov ^AttoXXco Kal iroiel ^aipovTa. 332 K. /jLe/jLeTpyjTat he 6 yeXco^i olo<i icpt^dvcov tw Trp OCT (OTTO) 6vp.ov iKVLK(oa7]<; 7]8ov)}<;.


BOOK I. 26

to Apollo — he leads over a winding course into a cleft of the earth, not that they may perish, but that they may disappear for one day, until their loss vexes Apollo ; and then he, as though he had had no part in the affair, slips back into his swaddling clothes. Apollo comes to Maia to demand back the cattle, but she does not believe him and thinks the god is talking nonsense. Would you learn what he is saying ? For, from his expression he seems to me to be giving utterance, not merely to sounds, but to words ; he looks as though he m ere about to say to Maia, Your son whom you bore yester- day wrongs me ; for the cattle in which I delight he has thrust into the earth, nor do I know where in the earth. Verily he shall perish and shall be thrust down deeper than the cattle." But she merely marvels, and does not believe what he says. While they are still disputing with one another Hermes takes his stand behind Apollo, and leaping lightly on his back, he quietly unfastens Apollo's bow and pilfers it unnoticed,^ but after he has pilfered it, he does not escape detection. Therein lies the cleverness of the painter ; for he melts the wrath of Apollo and represents him as delighted. But his laughter is restrained, hovering as it were over his face, as amusement conquers wrath.

^ The same scene is described at length in Horace's Ode to Mercury, I. 10. 11. 9-12:

Te boves olini, nisi reddisses, Per dolum aniotas, Puerum minaci Voce dum terret, viduos pharetra Risit Apollo.




(1) To Toiv hvolu apfia I'ttitolv — to yap eVt rerrdpcov oviro) to2<; rjpwai hia ^6ipo<; y]V, el firj 5 dpa "KKTopi Tw Opaael — ^epei tov ^A/jL(f>idp€ct)v €K Stj/Smi' eiravLovTa, oirore avrw tj yij Xeyerai Siaa)(^elp, &)? fiavrtivoLTO iv rfj 'Attikt} kuI d\7]devoL croc^o? iv iravcrocpOLf;. eirrd ovroi o'l^ HoXvveiKet tw Si-j^aicp T7]v clp)(r)v KaraKTcofievoi

10 ovS€l<i evocTTrjae TrXrjv ^ Ahpaarov koI A/i(f)tcipeco, Tou? Be XoiTTou? 7] KaS/xeia KaTea')(€V. diroiXovro he 01 fiev ciXXoL Sopacri fcal Xi9ol<; koX jreXeKeai, KaTrareu? he Xeyerat Kepavvw ^e/SXfjaOai, irpoTcpo'^ olfxai KOfinfo /SaXcov tov Ata.

15 (2) Ovroi fiev ovv erepov Xoyov, KeXevei he i) ypacpy) ^Xeiret-v e? jjlovov tov 'Aficpuipecov (pevy- ovTa KaTCL T?}? yr}<^ avTOt<; aTep^fjuaaL koI avTrj

hd(f)Vr]. KOl ol LITTTOL XeVKol Kal 7] hiV71 TOiiV

Tpo)((ov aiTovhrj<^ ep^irXew^i Kal to aaOp^a tcov

20 'iTTTTwv diro 7ravT0<; tov p,v/CT7]po<;, d(f)pa) he rj yrj

hieppavTai /cal 7) ')(aLT7] p,€TaKXLveTaL, hLafip6')(^0L<i

T€ virb ihpa)T0<; ovat irepiKeLTai Xctttt] k6vi<;

rjTTOv /juev fcaXov^ uTTocpaLvovaa tov<; ittttov;,

dXr)6eaT€pov<; he. 6 he 'A/jL(f)idpeco<; tcl p.ev aXXa

25 MirXiaTai, fiovov he dp,eXel Kpdvov<^ dviel<; ttjv

^ 01 added by Schenkl.

^ Cf. p. 69, supra.

2 For Amphiaraiis on his chariot, cf. Benndorf-Xeuniann, Das Grahmal von Gjolbaschi, p. 194f., PI. XXIV A, 5,

^ i.e. at the Amphiaraum at Oropus in northern Attica, a dream-oracle and health-resort.

^ Cf. II. 3. 243.


[To/ace 2>. 105.

BOOK I. 27


The two-horse chariot — for the four-horse chariot^ was not yet in use by the heroes except by Hector the Bold — is bearing Amphiaraiis ^ on his way back from Thebes at the time when the earth is said to have opened to receive him^ in order that he may prophesy in Attica ^ and utter true answers, a sage among men most sage. Of those seven who sought to gain the kingdom for the Theban Poly- neices none returned save Adrastus and Amphiaraiis ; the rest the Cadmeian soil received.* These were slain by spears and stones and battle-axes, all but Capaneus, who, it is said, was struck down by a thunderbolt after he had first, as I recall, struck at Zeus with a boastful taunt. ^

Now those others belong to another tale, but the painting bids you look at Amphiaraiis alone as in his flight he sinks beneath the earth, fillets and laurel and all. His horses are white, the whirling of his chariot wheels shows urgent haste, the panting breath of the horses issues from every nostril, the earth is bespattered with foam, the horses' manes are all awry, and fine dust settling on their bodies wet with sweat makes them less beautiful but more true to life. Amphiaraiis otherwise is in full armour, but he has left off his helmet, thus dedicating^ his

^ Aeschylus gives the boast of Capaneiis, Septem : 427 f. Trans. Smyth, L.C.L. :

" For whether Heaven wills it or wills it not, he vows he will make havoc of the city, and that even the rival fire of Zeus, though it crash upon the earth in his path, shall not stay his course. . . ."

^ di/ieis with double meaning, (a) "leaving it free to the light" and (b) "dedicating it."


K6(f)a\7]v ^ AiroWayvL, ^Xeircov lepov Kal XPV^' /jLco8€<;. (3) Tpd(f)€t Be Kal top 'D^pcoirov veaviav ev y\avKOi<; <yvvaiOL<; — ra Be ian SaXarrai — ypc'Kpet Kol TO (f)povriaTi]piov WfKJiidpeco, pr/yfia 30 lepov fcal OeiaoBe^;. avrov kol ^ Wi'^Oeia Xevy^ei- fjLOvovaa, avrov Ka\ oveipwv ttvXt] — Bet yap toi<; eKsl ixavrevop,evoL<; virvov — kol ^'Ovetpo^; avT6<; 333 K. ev dveL/jteva) rw etBei yeypairiai koli eaOr^ra e^^c X6VK7]i> eirl fieXaivr], to oljuai vvfCTwp avTov /cal fieO^ i)liepav. e')(eL Kal Kepa<; ev Talv x^polv w? TO, evvirvia Blcl Trj<; dX.TfOov'^ dvdycov.


5 (1) M?) TrapaOeiTe 7]fxd<;, m OrjpevTal, /x?;Se eiTiKeXeveade roi? Xttttol^, Trplv vfiMV e^iyyevaw- fiev, 6 Ti ^ovXeade Kal 6 tl OrjpdTe. vfjieh fxev yap eirl ')(Xovvr]v avv (^are 'iea6ai, Kal opco ra epya tov Otjplov — Td<; eXaia<; e^opoopvxe Kal rd^;

10 dfiireXov^ cKTeTfMTjKe Kal ovBe (tvktjv KaraXe- XoLirev ovBe iirfXov rj jxifXdvOrjv, Trdvra Be e^rjprjKev Ik Tr)<^ 77)9 ra fxev dvopvTTwv, Tot? Be €p,7ri7rT(ov, T0t9 Be jrapaKPco/xevof;. opw Be avrov Kal rr)v %atT>;i^ (f>pirrovra Kal irvp efM^Xerrovra,

15 Kal OL 6B6vre<; avrw irarayovaiv e'c/)' vp>d<;, w yevvalor Beivd yap rd roiavrl drfpia ore €K

^ The personification of tlie town of Oropus on the sea- shore, where the oracle of Amphiaraii.s was situated.

^ i.e. the Gate of Horn, through which come dreams that are true ; of. Od. 19. 566. Those who consulted the oracle slept in the shrine, and Avere cured by the god or learned


BOOK I. 28

head to Apollo, for his look is holy and oracular. The painting depicts also Oropus as a youth ^ among bright-eyed women, nymphs of the sea, and it depicts also the place used by Amphiaraiis for meditation, a cleft holy and divine. Truth clad all in white is there and the gate of dreams ^ — for those who consult the oracle must sleep — and the god of dreams himself is depicted in relaxed atti- tude, wearing a white garment over a black one, doubtless because his work is at night after day is done. And in his hands he carries a horn, showing that he brings up his dreams through the gate of truth.


Do not rush past us, ye hunters, nor urge on your steeds till we can track down what your purpose is and what the game is you are hunting. For you claim to be pursuing a "^^ fierce wild boar," ^ and I see the devastation wrought by the creature — it has burrowed under the olive trees, cut down the vines, and has left neither fig tree nor apple tree or apple branch, but has torn them all out of the earth, partly by digging them up, partly by hurling itself upon them, and partly by rubbing against them. I see the creature, its mane bristling, its eyes flashing fire, and it is gnashing its tusks at you, brave youths ; ^ for such wild animals are quick to

the means of cure through dreams, a practice called "incubation."

3 Cf. II. 9. 539 : x^ovv-nv avv.

  • Cf. II. 13. 473 f : "He bristleth up his back and his two

eyes blaze with fire, and he whetteth his tusks, eager to ward ofif dogs and men." Trans. Murray, L.C.L.



TrXecaTov KaraKoveiv rod o/jluSov — iyco /juh'Toi ^ olfiai T7JV copav eKeivov rov /xeipaKcov Sia67]pcovTa<; v/j.d<; reOrjpaaOaL vir avrov Kal irpOKivSuveveiv 20 edekeiv. rl yap ovrco TrXyaiov ; ri he irapa- ylraiiovT€<; ; rl Se Trap avro iiriarpa^de ; rl Be waTL^eaOe tol<; l'7r7roi<; ;

(2) Olov eiraOov. ^^^j^Oyjv viro rr)^ ypa(pP)<; /jLt] y€ypd(f)daL Sokcov avrov^y elvat he Kal

25 KLvelaOai koI epav — BiaT(o6d^co yovv oo? llkovov Ta<; Kal Sokco tl civTaKoveadai — av 5' ovS* oaa eTriaTpeyjrai irapaTraiovTa €(f>0€y^(o tl Trapa- TrXrjaiw^. ijjLol i'6i'iK7jfievo<;, ovk e^wv dveipyeaOai T?}? dircLTri^; Kal rov ev avrfj virvov. (TKOTTM/xev

30 ovv ra yeypaixpueva' ypa(f)f] yap irapeari'jKap.ev.

(3) HepLKeiPTai ixev hi] tm fjueLpaKuo veaviai KaXol Kal KaXd eiTiTiihevovTe<^ Kal ola " evira- rpihai. Kal 6 fiev iraXaidTpas n iTnhrjXol

334 K. Tw TrpoacoTTO), 6 he ^a/36T09, o he dareior/xov, tov he dvaKeKV(pevac cf)ija6c<; €k ^l^Xlov. (pepovai he avToij^ 'ittttol irapairXi'jaiOL ovheU dXXo<; dXX(p, XevKo^ Ti9 Kal ^av6o<; Kal /zeA,a9 Kal 5 cf)OLvi^, dpyvpo-)^dXivoi Kal ariKJol Kal -^pvaol rd (f)dXapa — ravrd (paac rd y^pdijiara tov<; ev ^flKeai'U) ^apl3dpov<; ey^^elv rw %aX«ft) hiarrvprp, rd he avviaTaaOaL Kal XiOovaOac Kal aoj^eiv d iypd(l>t] — ovhe ti]v eaOrjTa av/i/Salvovaiv i) ti-jv

^ /xevToi Kayser : fj.fu. - ofa l\olule : oToy.

^ i.e. as they try to get near the youth. 2 Addressed to the boy to whom he is interpreting the pictures.


[To face p. 109.

BOOK I. 28

hccar the liunter's din from a very great distance. But my own opinion is that^ as you were hunting the beauty of yonder youth, you have been captured by him and are eager to run into danger for him. For why so near ? Why do you touch him ? Why have you turned toward him? W^hy do you jostle each other with your horses P^

How I have been deceived ! 1 was deluded by the painting into thinking that the figures were not painted but were real beings, moving and loving — at any rate 1 shout at them as though they could hear and I imagine that 1 hear some response — and you ^ did not utter a single word to turn me back from my mistake, being as much overcome as I was and unable to free yourself from the deception and the stupe- faction induced by it. So let us look at the details of the painting ; for it really is a painting before which we stand.

About the lad are gathered beautiful youths, who engage in beautiful pursuits, such as are be- coming to men of noble parentage. One shows in his face a touch of the palaestra, another shows grace, another urbanity, and the fourth, you will say, has just raised his head from a book. The horses they ride are no two alike, white and chestnut and black and bay, horses with silver bits, dappled horses with golden trappings — these pigments,^ it is said, the barbarians living by Oceanus compound of red-hot bronze, and they combine, and grow hard, and preserve what is painted with them — nor have the youths the same clothing or equipment. One

2 The pigments used by the ancients were ordinarily earth colours (not vegetable colours, or chemical preparations), and were often brought from a great distance.



10 (JTo\i]v. fiev yap €v^covo<; iTrTrd^eraL koI kov- 009, dKOVTiari]'; olfiai dyaOo'^ mv, 6 Se irec^paKTaL TO (JTepvov direiXodv iraki^v riva tw Oyjpiw, 6 Se Kol Ta<; Kin]/j.a<;, 6 3e ^ Kal rd aKeXr] Tricj^paKrai. (4) To Be fieipuKLOv ox^lrat jxev e<f 'lttttov

15 XevKOV, iiekaiva Be, &)? 6pa<;, i) Ke(pa\y] too 'lttttw Koi XevKov dTTOTeropvevTai kvkXov eVl rov /jLercoTTOV Kar avro t?}? a€\7]vij<i ro ttXtJ/og?, kul (bciXapa ex^i XP^^^ ^^^ ^aXii^w kokkov Mt;- BiKov' tovtI yap to xP^/^^ TrpoaaaTpdiTTei rw

20 XP^^V K^cL^direp ol 7rvpoi}Bei<; XlOol. aroXrj rw jxeipaKiw x^^f^^^ exovad ri dvepLOV Kal koXttov — TO fiev XP^P-^ ^'^ (t>0Lvi,K7]<i dXovpyia<;, r}V eiraivovcn ^^olvik€<;, dyairdaOco Be tmv dXovpycov fxdXiaTa' Bokovv yap aKvOpwird^eiv eXKei rivd

25 irapd rov ifKiov topav Kal tw Tr](; 61X779- dvOet paiveraL — alBol Be rov yvfivovaOai irpo^ tou? nrapovra^; earaXrai x^^P'-^^'^V 4^oivikw, avp,- fxeTpelrai Be 6 ^^iTcoz^ e? y/jLiav rod fxrjpov Kal taa Tov dyKMVO^. Kal ixeiBia kol x^po^rov ^Xeiret,

30 Kal KOfid oaov fxi] einaKOTelaOaL tov<; 6(f)0aX- /jlov<;, ore draKryjaet 7) ko/jLtj vtto tov dve/j,ov. Tuxa Ti? Kal TTjV irapeidv eiraiveaerai Kal rd pier pa t?]<; piv6<; Kal KaO' ev ovrcoal rd ev ra> 7rpoad)7r(p, iyo) Be dyapiai rov (f)pov7]fjLaTO<;' Kai

35 yap co? drjpajy]^ eppwrat Kal vtto tov LTTTrou

335 K. iirripTac Kal avvL7-jan>, on epdrai. (5) ^Kevo-

(popovcTL Be avTOL<; 6pe2<^ Kal opewKOfxo^; iroBo-

cTTpa/Sa? Kal dpKv<^ Kal irpo^oXia Kal uKovjia

^ b h\ Koi Tos Kvn/xas, 6 Sf supplied by Schenkl and Benndorf. 2 fVATjj Reiske, cf. 3S7. 21k : Uvs.


BOOK I. 28

lightly armed horseman wears his tunic girt up, a good javelin thrower 1 suppose, another has his breast protected with armour, threatening fight with the wild beast, another has his shins protected, another his legs. That youth ^ rides on a white horse which, as you see, has a black head, and a white medallion is fashioned on his forehead in imitation of the full moon ; and it has golden trappings, and a bridle of Median scarlet ; for this colour flashes on the gold with the effect of fiery-red jewels. The youth's garment is a chlamys bellying out in the wind ; in colour it is the sea-purple ^ which the Phoenicians love, and it should be prized above other purple dyes ; for though it seems to be dark it gains a peculiar beauty from the sun and is infused with the brilliancy of the sun's warmth. And from shame of exposing himself unclad to those about him he wears a sleeved chiton of purple which reaches half-way down his thighs and like- wise lialf-way to his elbows. He smiles, and his eye flashes, and he wears his hair long, but not long enough to shade his eyes when the wind shall throw it into disorder. Doubtless many a one will praise his cheeks and the proportions of his nose and each several feature of his face, but 1 admire his spiritedness ; for as a hunter he is vigorous and is proud of his horse, and he is conscious of the fact that he is beloved. Mules and a muleteer bring their luggage, snares and nets and boar- spears and javelins and lances with toothed blades;^

^ i.e. the central figure, the leader.

2 This " sea-purple" was obtained from a shell-fish, murex. 2 On the equipment of the hunter of. Xen. De Venat. ix, 11 f. ; X. 2f., 16.



Ka\ Xo7;^a9, e<^' mv ol KV(ji)SovTe<;, kol Kvvaycoyol 5 avarparevovai kol aKoncwpol koI tci eOvi] rcbv fcvvcov, ovy^ al ti]v plva dyadal fjLovai rj al rax^lcLt avTcov, aWa Kal al yevracar eSei yap Kal d\Ki]<; iirl to Otipiov. ypdcpei Si] Ao/c/otSa? AaKaLva<; ^IvSi/cd'^ KpjjriKd^;, rdf; fiep dyepco^^^ov^;

10 Kal vXaKTOvaa<;, . . . . ^ Ta9 Se €Pi>oovaa<;, al Se jieOeiTOvaL kol aeajjpaac Kara rod lxvov<;. (6) Kal Ti]v Wyporepav 7rpoiuvT€<i aaovrac i^ecu? yap T£9 avTrj<^ eKsl Kal dyaX/na Xeiov viro rod ')(p6vov Kal (Tvcov KecpaXal Kal dpKTCop, ve/uLerai, Be avrfj

15 Kal 6r)pLa dvera, vefipol Kal \vkol Kal Xaycool, irdvTa yjfjiepa Kal fxi] heSioja rov^ dvOpcoirov^. e)(ovrat fierd rrjv €v)(vv tt)? 6i]pa^.

(7) Kat TO Oiipiov ovK dvkyeTai XavOdveiv,

dXX' eKTTTjSa Tt}? XoXP^V^' ^^'^^ ipTTLTTTet TOL<i

20 LTTTTevaL Kal TapdTTei fiev avTov<s Ik 7rpoa^oXi]<;, vLKCLTaL Be VTTo TMV /SaXXovTcov Kaipia jxev ovk ivTVXjOdV Bid re to (ppaTTCiv tt/oo? ra? 7rXr]yd<; Bid T€ TO jJbrj VTTO OappovvTCdv ffdXXeadcn, fiaXa- ')(6el<^ Be TrXrjyfj eTmroXaicp KaTci tov firipoi)

25 (pevyei Bid rr}? uX?;?, eKBe^eToi Be avTov eXo? j^a6v Kal XLpLV7] 7rpo<; tCo eXei. (8) AiooKovaiv ovv (3ofj 'xpco/jLevoi ol fxev dXXoi fi€')(pi tov eXov^;, TO Be fjieipdKiop avve/ii/SdXXet tw Orjpicp e? ti]v XifjLvrjv Kal TeTTape'i ovtol Kvve^, Kal to jiev

30 Orjpiov 'leTai Tpcoaai tov I'ttttov, diroveuaap Be tov 'lttttov to /iieipdKLOv Kal e? to, Be^ia jxeTa- KXlvav d(f)ir)ai ttj ^e^/^l Trday Kal ^dXXet tov

^ Lacuna marked b}' Schenkl. 112

BOOK I. 28

masters of hounds accompany the expedition and trackers and all breeds of dogs, not alone the keen-scented and swift of foot^ but also the high- spirited dogs, for courage also was required to confront the wild beast. And so the painting shows Locrian, Laconian, Indian, and Cretan dogs,i some sportive and baying, . . . and some attentive ; and they all follow the trail with grinning muzzles. ^ And the hunters as they advance hymn Artemis Agrotera ; ^ for yonder is a temple to her, and a statue worn smooth with age, and heads of boars and bears ; and wild animals sacred to her graze there, fawns and wolves and hares, all tame and without fear of man. After a prayer the hunters continue the hunt.

The boar cannot bring himself to keep out of sight, but leaps from the thicket and rushes at the horsemen ; at first it confuses them by its sudden onset, then it is overcome by their missiles, though it is not mortally wounded, partly because it is on its guard against their thrusts and partly because it is not hit by some of the over-confident youths ; but, weakened by a superficial wound in the thigh, it runs through the woods till it finds refuge in a deep marsh and a pool adjoining the marsh. So with shouting the rest follow it to the edge of the marsh, but the youth keeps on after the creature into the pool and these four dogs with him ; the creature tries to wound his horse, but bending well over on his horse and leaning to the right he delivers with

^ On hunting dogs cf. ihid. ix. 2 ; x. 1. ^ Cf. Xen, De Venat. iv. 3 : iix/j-fi^LSxraL /xev irphs ra Xxvr]. 2 Artemis the Huntress. Cf. Xen. De Venat. vi. 13 ; Eur. Hipp. 58 f. gives the huntsmen's hymn to Artemis.



avv /car avro fidXiaTa to avvdiTTOV ttjp ttXoltjjv

Tfi Seprj. rovvrevOev ol fxev Kvve<; KaTayovat

36 Tov avv e? rijv yyjv, ol Be ipaaral ^ocoaiv citto

T^}? o^0r)(; olov <^i\,otl[xovijl€vol irpo'; d\\t]\ov<;,

336 K. OCTTl^ V7T€pK6Kpd^€TaL TOV TTeXtt?, Kul TTeiTTCOKe

Tt9 diro TOV I'ttttov fxy KaTaa')(^d>v, aXV i/cOopv- l3i^(Ta<i TOV LTTiTov 0? St] KOi aTe<^avov avTw irXeKei irapa tov Xeipioivo^ tov iv tw eXei. ctl 6 iv Trj Xlfivr) to fietpdKtov, 6Ti eirl tov o-^Tj/jLaTCi, CO TO irakTov d(f))]K€v, ol Se eKTreTrXijyaai koI Oewpovaiv avTO olov ypacpev.


(1) 'AXX' ovK 'EpvOpd ye avTij OdXaaaa ovB* ^IvBol TavTa, KWioTTe^ he koX dvtjp "¥^XX7]v iv

10 AWioirtq. Kal dOXo^ tov dvhpo^, ov eKcbv €T\rj KUTCi epcoTa, ol/jLal ore, c5 Tral, /li] dv)]K00v elvai TOV Tlepae(jo<^, 6v cj)aaiv 'ATXavTiKov diroKTelvai KYjTO^ iv AWiOTTLa Tre^evov iirl Ta9 dyeXa<; Kal Tov<{ iv yf) dvOpco7rov<;. (2) TaOr' ovv iiraivCiV 6

15 ^(oypd(f)o^ Kal oiKTelpcov ttjv ^AvSpofieBav, otl KTjTeL i^eSoOrj, TeTeXeaTat ySr) 6 adXo<;, Kal to fiev KrjTO^ eppiTTTat irpo ti)^ r)6vo<; ifiirXiifJipLvpovv irriyal^ a'lfxaTo^y vcf)^ mv ipvOpd 7) OdXaaaa, ttjv Be ^AvSpo/jLeSav diraXXdTTei tov Beafxov 6 "E/oo)?.

20 yeypaiTTaL Be 7rT7]vo<; /lev to elcoOo^;, v€avia<; Be

^ The story is that Andromeda was bound on the seashore as prey for the sea monster, that thus the city of her father might be saved. There Perseus finds her as he goes on his


[To race p. 115.

BOOK I. 29

the full force of his arm a blow that hits the boar just where the shoulder-blade joins the neck. There- upon the dogs drag the boar to the ground^ and the lovers on the bank shout as if in rivalry to see who will outshout his neighbour ; and one is thrown from his horse which he excited beyond control instead of holding it in check ; and he weaves for the youth a crown of flowers from the meadow in the marsh. The lad is still in the pool, still in the attitude in which he hurled his javelin, while the youths stand in astonishment and gaze at him as though he were a picture.


No, this is not the Red Sea nor are these inhabitants of India, but Ethiopians and a Greek man in Ethiopia. And of the exploit which I think the man undertook voluntarily for love, my boy, you must have heard — the exploit of Perseus^ who, they say, slew in Ethiopia a monster from the sea of Atlas,^ which was making its way against the herds and the people of this land. Now the painter glorifies this tale and shows his pity for Andromeda in that she was given over to the monster. The contest is already finished and the monster lies stretched out on the strand, weltering in streams of blood — the reason the sea is red — while Eros frees Andromeda from her bonds. Eros is painted with wings as usual, but

quest for the head of Medusa ; he slays the monster, frees the girl, and carries her oflf to be his wife.

2 Cf. Eur. Andromeda, Frag. 145 Nauck : ktjtos . . . e| 'ArXavTiKrii a\6s. Cf. the vase-painting reproduced in Fig 15.



Trap b e'lcdde, koI aadfiaivwv 'ye'ypairraL koI ovk efo) Toi) /j,€/j,o)(^OTjKevaL' kol yap ev^h^ ^i'Ve^akero T(p "E/jci)T Iiepa6v<^ irpo rod epyov jrapelvai avTov KoX Kara rod dijpcov av/jLTrireadaL, 6 Se

25 a(f)LK6T0 Kal yKOvae rod "EWr/vo^;, (3) 'H Kopi] 06 i)hela fiev, on Xcvkj] iv AWioTrta, 7]Sv Se avTO TO €lBo<;' jrapiXOot av Kal AvSrjv a/3pav Kal 'ArOlSa uTToae/JLVov Kal ^irapTidriv ippcofievrjv. K€Ka\X(t)7ncrTai Be airo rod Katpov' Kal yap

30 aTTLareLP eoiKe Kal y^aipeL /jl6t €K7r\7]^6Ci)(; Kal TOP Uepaea /SXeVei /jLeiSia/id ti ySr] e? avrbv TrefiTTOvaa. 6 Se ov iroppw rf;? Koprj^; iv i)8eLa Kal XcffavooSei, iroa Ketrai ard^MV e? t/;z^ yrjv .337 K. iSpcora Kal to Bely/xa T?J9 Topyov<; e%&)i^ utto- OeTov, /jL7) €VTV^6vTe<; avrw Xaol XlOol yevcovTat. TToXXol 01 PovKoXoL yoXa 6peyovTe<^ Kal oivov eTTKTTTdaaL, 7)Se2<i KlOi07re<; iv tm tov ^p(o/J^aTO<; 5 aroTTft) Kal /SXoavpov /jLetSiMVTe^ Kal ovk dBrjXoL Xciipeiv Kal 01 irXelcTTOL o/jlolol. (4) 'O Uepa-ev^; Se daird^eTat fiev Kal TavTa, aTijpl^cov Be eavTov iirl TOV dpicTTepov dyK(t)vo<; dvkyei tov OdtpaKa efJbTTVovv VTTo daO/jLaTO<;, i/jL^XeTrcov Trj Koprj, Kal

10 Tr)v ^(Xa/jLvBa tw dveixw iKBiBcoai. (poLVtKPjv ovaav Kal ffe^XrjfievTjv a'ljxaTO^ pavicn Kal a ^ irpoa- eirvevaev avTw to Oifplov iv tw dyoovi. ippcoaOcov

^ & Benndoif : &s. ii6

BOOK I. 29

here, as is not usual, he is a young man/ panting and still showing the effects of his toil ; for before the deed Perseus put up a prayer to Eros that he should come and with him swoop down upon the creature, and Eros came, for he heard the Greek's prayer. The maiden is charming in that she is fair of skin though in Ethiopia, and charming is the very beauty of her form ; she would surpass a Lydian girl in daintiness, an Attic girl in stateliness, a Spartan in sturdiness. Her beauty is enhanced by the circum- stances of the moment ; for she seems to be incredu- lous, her joy is mingled with fear, and as she gazes at Perseus she begins to send a smile towards him. He, not far from the maiden, lies in the sweet fragrant grass, dripping sweat on the ground and keeping the terrible Gorgon's head hidden lest people see it and be turned to stone. Many cow- herds come offering him milk and wine to drink,2 charming Ethiopians with their strange colouring and their grim smiles ; and they show that they are pleased, and most of them look alike. Perseus welcomes their gifts and, supporting himself on his left elbow, he lifts his chest, filled with breath through panting, and keeps his gaze upon the maiden, and lets the wind blow out his chlamys, which is purple and spattered with drops of blood and with the flecks which the creature breathed upon it in the struggle. Let the children of Pelops

^ Eros was often depicted as a youth in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., while in the Hellenistic and Roman periods the Erotes (or Cupids) were winged children.

2 Cf. Eur. Andromeda, Frag. 146 X : tths Se iroip.eva}v t^p^i \e(iis, 6 jji\v yaKaKTos /cicrtraov cpepwv (TKixpos, 'k6vwv ava^vKTrip', 6 5' afjLTTiKwv ydvos.



YleXoTTiSai irapa top tov Ylepaeax; ojfiov KaXfo yap ovTi avTQj koI ix^aifJiw irpoa^'jvOrjKe tl tov 1") KafxcLTOv Kal v7ra)h)]KaaLv al (^X,e/9e9, eTrcXd/j,- (Bavov TOVTO avTd<;, orav 7r\eov€KTj]ar] to acrO/ia. TToWd Kal TTapd t% Kopy]^ apwrai.

(1) XroXi] Be diraXrj, a)(^rj/jLa i/c AuSta?, Kal /jbeipciKiop iv VTnjvT) TTpayrrj HocTeiScov re /jL€iSlcov

20 e<» TO /JLCLpaKtov Kal aydWcov avrb i7r7roi<i ByjXol YleXoira tov AvSov inrl OdXaTTav i-jKovTa, w? eu^acTO Tft) HoaeiScovL KaTa tov Olvo/xdov, otl fX7] -ypyjTai yap.jBpS) 6 Olvofiao^, aXXa KTeivwv TOV'; T?}? 'l7rTroBafi€La<; ipcbpTa<i (ppovel TOt? tov- Twv dKpo6iviOL<; dpKTcov i)^ XeovTcov K€(f>aXah

25 olov 01 '^ Oijpav yprjKOTe^;. Kal ev')(^opLevw tm UeXoTTL i]K6t xpvdovv cip/ia €K 6aXdTT7]<;, yireipM- Tai he 01 'iTTiTOi Kal clot SiaSpafieiv tov Alyalov avx[X7)pw T(p d^ovL Kal eXa(f)pa Ty oirXij. u /xev

30 ovv ddXo'^ €v8po/jL7]aeL tm UeXoin, tov Se tov ^(i)ypd(l)ov aOXov rj/ieif; i^eTd^cofiev.

(2) Ov yap a/jLiKpov oJ/juaL dywvo^ LTTTrov^; fiev 338 K. ^vvOelvat TeTTapa^ Kal pur) ^vyx^ai tcov aKeXcov to

KaTa eva auTcbv, ip.(3aXelv he avToh pLeTci tov

^ &pKT(Di' i) Schenkl : aTaKTCDu. 2 01 added by Kayser.

^ Lit. " Good-bye to"' ; Pelops (see next Description) was famous for his ivory white shoiiUler, but the shoulders of Perseus were more beautiful and withal more muscular.


BOOK I. 30

perish ^ when it comes to a comparison with the shoulder of Perseus ! for beautiful as he is and ruddy of face, his bloom has been enhanced by his toil and his veins are swollen, as is wont to happen when the breath comes quickly. Much gratitude also does he win from the maiden.


A delicate garment of Lydian fashion, a lad with beard just beginning to grow, Poseidon smiling at him and honouring ^ the lad with a gift of horses — all this shows that it is Pelops the Lydian who has come to the sea in order to invoke Poseidon's aid against Oenomaiis ; since Oenomaiis accepts no son- in-law, but slaying the suitors of Hippodameia he takes pride in their severed members as hunters who have captured game take pride in the heads of bears or lions. ^ And in answer to Pelops' prayer a golden chariot has come out of the sea, but the horses are of mainland breed, and able to speed over the Aegean with dry axle and light hoof. The task will go off well for Pelops, but let us examine the task of the painter.

It requires no small effort, in my opinion, to compose four horses together and not to confuse their several legs one with another, to impart to

2 There are reminiscences of Pindar's First Olympian Ode in the language of this description, ejJi. ayaXXwv, 19, and 01. 1. 139, ipwvras, 23, and 01. 1. 127. Other echoes are noted below.

^ Sophocles is said to have referred to this practice in his play entitled Oenomaiis, cf. Frag. 432 N. For the chariot race of Pelops and Oenomaiis see supra, p. 69 f., and Philostratus the Younger, p. 331 f.



')(^a\ivov (f)p6vr]/ia (rrijaai re top fxev iv avroy ray /jLtj 6e\eii> eardvai, rov 8' €i> t(o Kpoaiveiv ^ovXeaOai,

5 TOP B' iv Tft) . . . .^ TtOeaOai, 6 Be ydrvrai rfj copa rod IleXoTro? Kal evpelat avTO) al plve<i, oaa XP^~ fi6TL^ov7i. (3)"ETt KCLKelvo aocf)La<i' 6 HoaetBwv Tov fjL€ipaKLov ipd Kal dva(f)€p€i, avro e? rov Xe/Srjra Kal Ti-jv K\(oO(o, ore UiXoyjr darpdylrai iBoKcc tm

10 M/io), Kal rod fxev fyajJielv ovk dirdyeL avrov, eTreiBr) a>p/j,rjK€v, dyaTTcov Be dW' i^dy^aadat t% ')(^eLp6<; €fi7re(f)VKe rfj Be^ia rov TleXoTro? vttoti- Oefievo<; avrw rd e? rov Bpopuov, 6 Be virepippov ifBrj Kal WX^eiov irvel, Kal i) 6(f)pv<; /xerd rcov

15 'iTTTTcov. fiXeirei Be rjBv Kal pLerewpov viro tov ridpa eiTLo-o^elv, 779 ola XP^^<^^ Xt/QaSe? /; KopLr] TOV pbeipaKLov dirodTd^ovaa //.eTOOTTft) opoXoyel Kal lovXrp avvavOel Kal pLeTairiiTTovaa rrjBe KdKelae ev tco Kaipicp pevei. (4) TXovtov Kal

20 arepva Kal oaa irepl rov yvpLVOu tov IleXoTro? eXex^V ^^> /caXvTTTei rj ypa(f)y]' eV^r/? %ei/c>t, iaOrj^;^

1 Schenkl would supply in the lacuna, €.(j. tV' KecpaKrjv

2 xf*P*> eo-0T9s added by Schenkl.

^ Benndorf observes that Philostratus is describing the four-horse team as it is so often depicted on the vases of the fifth century B.C., one of tlie four turning back his head toward the cliarioteer, and one I'aising his head. The same sclienie appear.s on a coin of .Syracuse, here reproduced; Fig. IG.

2 Cf. Pindar, 01. 1. 39f. The story that Tantalus served his son Pelops to the gods at a banquet is denied by Pindar, who explains it as malicious gossip ; but Pindar accepts the


BOOK I. 30

them high spirits controlled by the bridle, and to hold them still, one at the very moment when he does not want to stand still, another when he wants to paw the ground, a third when he [wants to lift up his head], while the fourth takes delight in the beauty of Pelops and his nostrils are dis- tended as though he were neigh- ing.^ This too is a clever touch : Poseidon loves the lad and brings him to the cauldron and to Clotho, after which Pelops' shoulder seemed to shine ; ^ FicTTo^

and he did not try to divert him from the marriage, since the lad is eager for it, but being content even to touch his hand, he clasps the right hand of Pelops while he counsels him about the race; and already Pelops proudly ^^ breathes Alpheius," ^ and his look follows the steeds. Charm- ing is his glance and elated because he is proud of the diadem, from which the hair of the lad trickling down like golden sprays of water follows the lines of his forehead, and joins the bright down on his cheeks, and though it falls this way and that, yet it lies gracefully. The hip and breast, and the other parts of the naked body of Pelops which might be mentioned, the painting conceals ; a garment covers

"pure cauldron" from which Clotho, goddess of birth, took Pelops with the ivory shoulder. Pindar also tells of Poseidon's love for Pelops, and of the gift of the golden chariot with winged steeds b}- which Pelops won Hippo- danieia.

• "breathes Alpheius," as in Aristophanes, Birds, 1121, of a runner at full stretch like an Olympic runner. The Ol^tnpic race-course was on the banks of the Alpheius.



avrfj Kal kv/j/xt}. AvSol yap Kal ^ oi avco ^dp(3apoi Ka0€ip^avT6<; e? roLuaSe ea6rjTa<^ ro kciWo'^ Xa/z- TTpvvovTaL TOLOtaSe v(j)d(T/jLa(Ttvivov\a/jL7rpvv6a6at 25 TJ] (f)vaet,. Kal ra fiev ciWa dcpavf] Kal elaw, to he T}]<; cTToA,?}?, €vda 6 w/io? 6 dpiaT€p6<i, Te)(yr} i)lJLek'qTai, a)? iirj KpvinoLTO avTOV y avyr)' vv^ re yap iire^et, Kal XafiTrpuverac to5 u>/jlw to jxeipaKLov, ocFov rj vv^ toS ecnrepo).


30 (1) KaXov Kal avKaaai Kal firjhe TavTa irapeX- delv (Kpccvov^. avKa pbiXava ottS) \eL^6[ieva aeaaypevTat /xev iirl cfivWcov dfnreXov, yeypairTai Se /xeTa to)v tov (jiXoiov pi^y/jLUTCOv. Kal to, fxev 331) K. viTOKext^ve irapaiTTVOVTa tov iiekiTO'^, tcl 8' vtto T?J9 wpa^ olov e(T;^£(7Tat. irXi^aiov he avTwv 6^o<; eppcTTTai fid AC ovk dpyo<; rj k€vo^ tov KapTTOV, (TKid^ei Be Kal avKa ra pLev co/xa Kal 5 6Xvv6ov^ eTi, Ta Be pvad Kal e^copa, ra Be viroaearjire ^ jrapacpaivovTa tov Xfyuou to dv6o<^,

TO B^ €7T^ UKpCp TOV O^OV (7TpOv6o<^ BlOpd)pVy^6V,

a By) Kal rjBiaTa avKwv BoKel. (2) Ka/^yot? Be dirav eaTpcoTac T0vBa(f)0<^, o)v Ta fxev TrapaTeTpiiT- 10 Tat, TOV eXvTpov, Ta Be eyKeiTai fxepiVKOTa, Ta Be Trape/jL^alveL ttjv Biacpvtjv, dXXd Kal 6y)(va<; eV* 6y)(^i>aL<; opa Kal fxrjXa eirl /jL7]Xol<; acopoixi re avTMi Kal BeKdBa<;, evcoB^] irdvTa Kal viro^pvaa. to Be ev avToh epevdo<s ovBe €7n/3el3Xf]a0at, (f)i]aei^,

^ Only the inferior MSS. give wal, which seems necessary. - L/TTco-eo-TjTre Lindau : viroa-fo-rjpf.


BOOK I. 31

his arms and even his lower legs. For the Lydians and the upper barbarians, encasing their beauty in such garments, pride themselves on these weavings, when they might pride themselves on their natural form.^ While the rest of his figure is out of sight and covered, the garment by his left shoulder is artfully neglected in order that its gleam may not be hidden ; for the night draws on, and the lad glows with the radiance of his shoulder as does the night with that of the evening star.


It is a good thing to gather figs and also not to pass over in silence the figs in this picture. Purple figs dripping with juice are heaped on vine-leaves ; and they are depicted with breaks in the skin, some just cracking open to disgorge their honey, some split apart, they are so ripe. Near them lies a branch, not bare, by Zeus, or empty of fruit, but under the shade of its leaves are figs, some still green and ^^ untimely," ^ some with wrinkled skin and over-ripe, and some about to turn, disclosing the shining juice, while on the tip of the branch a sparrow buries its bill in what seems the very sweetest of the fijjs. All the ground is strewn with chestnuts, some of which are rubbed free of the burr, others lie quite shut up, and others show the burr breaking at the lines of division. See, too, the pears on pears, apples on apples, both heaps of them and piles of ten, all fragrant and golden. You will say that their redness has not

^ Cf. Hdt. i. 10 : the Lydians consider it a disgraceful thing for even a man to be seen naked.

2 The kind that are picked green and seldom ripen.



15 dW' evhov viT))v6rjKevaL. ('3) Kepdaov he ravra Scopa OTTcopa Tt? avT7] /SorpvSov eV ToXdprp, 6 rdXapo<; Be ov/c dWorpicov ireirXeKTac Xvycov, aXX' avTov rod (pvrov. tt/do? Be rov ovvBeajiov Twv K\r]/jLdT(DV el fiXeiTOL^ Koi rd<; €KKpejjia/jL€va<i

20 avTCOV aTa(f)v\d<i Kal d)<; Kara piav at pdye<;, dcrj] Tov Aioi'vaov olBa fcal d) irorpia ^orpvoScope irepl T7]<i d/iireXov e'/oet?. ^alrj^ 5' dv Kal tol/? ^oTpv^i TTJ ypa(f)f] iBcohipiov^; elvai Kal v7roivov<^. (4) }^dKelvo i^Bkttov iirl (f)vX\(ov KpdSrjf; yu,eXt

25 'xXwpov evBeBvKO<i i^Brj rw K-qpS Kal dvairXt-JiJi- fivpelv copalov, el Ti<i diroOXi^oi, Kal rpocjyaXU e(/)' erepov (pvXXov veoTrayrj^; Kal craXevovaa Kal ^lrvKT7]pe<; jdXaKTO^; ov XevKOv piovov, dXXd Kal ariXiTVov' Kal yap ariX/Seiv eoLKev vtto r'fj<i

30 €7n-TToXa^ovai](; avrfo vr^yLteXi}?.


BOOK I. 31

been put on from outside^ but has bloomed from within. Here are gifts of the cherry tree, here is fruit in clusters heaped in a basket, and the basket is woven, not from alien twigs, but from branches of the plant itself. And if you look at the vine- sprays woven together and at the clusters hanging from them and how the grapes stand out one by one, you will certainly hymn Dionysus and speak of the vine as " Queenly giver of grapes." ^ You would say that even the grapes in the painting are good to eat and full of winey juice. And the most charming point of all this is : on a leafy branch is yellow honey already within the comb and ripe to stream forth if the comb is pressed ; and on another leaf is cheese new curdled and quivering ; and there are bowls of milk not merely white but gleaming, for the cream floating upon it makes it seem to gleam.

^ Aristophanes, Pax 520, where Elprjvn is addressed.





340 K. (1) ^A(f)poSLT7]v iXecfiavTLvrjv iv ^ cnrakol'^ /jLVppivojaLv aSovaip diraXal Kopai. 5t8a(7A:a\o9 avra^ ayei (TO(^r] kol ovSe e^copo^i' €(f)i^dv6i yap Tf? Mpa Kol pvtlSl irpaiTT], yrjpw^ pev to vtto- 5 aepLvov eXKOvaa, tovto) 3' av Kepavvvaa to aw^opevov t>)9 dKp,y<i. koI to pL€V a')(^r)pa Tr}<i A(^pohiTii^ AlSov^i, <yvp,vrj kol evcr^rjp^ayv, i) he vXt] avvd/jKT] pbepiVKOTO^i iXe(f)avTO<;. dXX' ov (3ovXeTaL yeypdcpOac hoKslv rj de6<i, eKKetTUi he

10 o'la Xa^ecrSat.

(2) BouXef Xoyov tl eTTiXei^cDpiev tw ^cop,w ; XipavoiTOv yap 'iKap(o<^ e%6t kuI Kaaia<i fcal ap,vpv7]<;, hofcel Se p,oi Koi ^air^ov^ tl dvarrvelv . eiraiveTea tolvvv rj ao(j)ia Trj<i ypaif)r]<;, TrpwTOV

15 p,ev OTL ^ Td<; dya7ra)p,eva^ Xi6ov<{ TrepL/SaXovaa ovK Ik tmv ')(pa)pdT(ov avTa^ epipijaaTO, dXX'

€K TOV </)&)T0?, oloV 6(f)0aXp(p KeVTpOV TrjV

Biavyeiav avTaL<; evOelaa, eiTa otl kol tov

vpvov irapexei dKoveiv. (3j "Khovcn yap al

20 TratSe?, dSovcn, Kal rj StBdcrKaXof; vTro^XeireL

TTjv dirdoovaav KpoTova-a Ta^; ')(elpa^ Kal €9 to

^ eV added by Jacobs. - '6ri added by Kayser.




An Aphrodite, made of ivory, delicate maidens are hymning in dehcate myrtle groves. The chorister who leads them is skilled in her art, and not yet past her youth ; for a certain beauty rests even on her first wrinkle, which, though it brings with it the gravity of age, yet tempers this with what remains of her prime. The type of the goddess is that of Aphrodite goddess of Modesty, unclothed and decorous, and the material is ivory, closely joined. However, the goddess is unwilling to seem painted, but she stands out as though one could take hold of her.

Do you wish us to pour a libation of discourse on the altar ? For of frankincense and cinnamon and myrrh it has enough already, and it seems to me to give out also a fragrance as of Sappho, Accordingly the artistry of the painting must be praised, first, because the artist, in making the border ^ of precious stones, has used not colours but light to depict them, putting a radiance in them like the pupil in an eye, and, secondly, because he even makes us hear the hymn. For the maidens are singing, are singing, and the chorister frowns at one who is oif the key, clapping

^ The edge of the painting seems to be adorned by painted precious stones : Benndorf.

129 K


fieXo^ ifcav(h<; efJL^i^d^ovaa. . . } to jiev ^/ap TTy? <jToX>^? airepLTTOv fcal /jlt] Be o^^Xov avral^;, el aOvpoLev, y) to ev XPV '^^'^ ^cov)]<; i) to et?

25 /Spa^t'Ova tov ^frcoi^o? rj &)? avvTToh-jaia %at/3oy- (JLv €(f)€aT(oaat ciTraXfj iroa koX uvayjrv^yp eXKovaai irapa t;}? Spoaov Xei/jLcov re 6 Trepl ra? eaOt]Ta'^ Kal TO, iv avTaL<; "^^pcofiaTa, &)? dXXo ciXXw eTTtirpeiTeL, 8aifji0VLa)<; i/c/ie/xLfit]Tar to, yap av/ji/SaLvovTa ol

30 /jLTj ypd(f)0VT€<; ovfc dXtjOevovaip iv rat? ypa<f)al<^. TO, Be etSyj tcov irapOivcov el tw HdpLSi t) dXXw T(p KpcTTJ iTrcTpeTroL/iiep, dTroprjaai dv SoKel 341 K. yjrijcpia-aaOaL, ToaovTOV d/LiiXXcovTai, /3oSo7r;;;^ef? Kal eXcfCMTTiSe'^ Kal KaXXtrrdprjoi Kal /xeXicpcovor ^a'7T(f)ov<; TOVTO hij to 7]Sv '7rp6a(f)0ey/ia.

(4) IlapayfrdXXeL 3e avTaU "E/oco? dvaKXiva^

5 tov to^ov top TTTj^vv, Kal 7) vevpd iravapjiovLOV aSei Kai (jyrjai irdvTa ex^tJ^ oaa 1) Xvpa, Ta^el^; T€ 01 6(j)daXp,ol TOV Oeov pvOpLov Tiva olpiai hiavoovvTe^. tl SrJTa aSovai ; yeypaiTTai yap TL Kal (ijSr]<;' Trjv ^A<f)poBLT7]v €Kcf)vvaL tt}? 10 OaXdTTTj^ Xeyovaiv diroppofj tov Ovpavov. Kal OTTOv fi€v TOiv vi^cFcov IT podiax^v, ovTro) XeyovcriVf epovcTi he oJfiai Ila^oz^, ttjv yeveaiv he iKavco^ ciBovaiv' dva/SXeTTovaaL fieu yap e/i<f)aLVov(Tcv, OTi aTT* ovpavov, ra? Be x^lpa<; viTTia<; vttokl-

^ Editors note a lacuna here.

^ Praise of the maidens themselves seems to be missing at this point.

^ Uf. Sappho, i'Va^'. 30 : /xeWixocpwuais, "gentle-voiced." Trans. Edmonds, Lip-a Gracca I. The other epithets in this passage are also familiar in the poets.



her hands and trying earnestly to bring her into tune 1 . . . For as to their garments, they are simple and such as not to impede their movements if they should play — for instance, the close-fitting girdle, the chiton that leaves the arm free, and the way they enjoy treading with naked feet on the tender grass and drawing refreshment from tlie dew ; and the flowered decoration of their garments, and the colours used on them — the way they harmonize the one with the other — are represented with wonderful truth ; for painters who fail to make the details consistent with one another do not depict the truth in their paintings. As to the figures of the maidens, if we were to leave the decision regarding them to Paris or any other judge, I believe he would be at a loss how to vote, so close is the rivalry among them in rosy arms and flashing eyes and fair cheeks and in " honeyed voices,"^ to use the charming expression of Sappho. Eros, tilting up the centre of his bow, lightlv strikes the string for them and the bow-strin^^ resounds with a full harmony and asserts that it possesses all the notes of a lyre ; and swift are the eyes of the god as they recall, I fancy, some particular measure. What, then, is the song they are singing.' For indeed something of the subject has been expressed in the painting ; they are telling how Aphrodite was born from the sea through an emanation of Uranus. Upon which one of the islands she came ashore they do not yet tell, though doubtless they will name Paphos ; but they are singing clearly enough of her birth, for by looking upward they indicate that she is from Heaven (Uranus), and by slightly moving

131 k2


15 vovaaL BijXovaiv, on eK OaXaTTi]^, to fxeihia^a he avTO)v 'ya\i]V7]<; iarlv atvt'yiia.


(1) Ne/9/009^ Kal \a7c09, ravra Oijpd/jLara tov vvv *A')(^iXXeco<i, 6 Si ye ev^Vkiw iroXei'^ alpyjcret Kal 'iTTirov^ Kal avhpoiv (Tr'f)(^a<;, Kal 01 TTOTafiol

20 avTW iia\ovi>Tai /jL7] ecovri avTOv<i pelv, KUKeu'cov fiev rojp epycov fxiaOov airoLaerai l^pla7]L8a Kal ra(; €k Aeafiov kirra Kal y^pvaov Kal rpLirohaf; Kal TO Toi'9 'A^afOL/? eV avroj elvat, ra Se irapa T(p ^eipcovL ravra pn^Xwy SoKec Kal Krjpicov a^La,

25 Kal d'ya7rd<;, o) 'A^^^iXXeD, p.iKpa hcopa TToXei? dira^Lcoacov rore Kal ro KrjSo<; rod 'Aya/jL€/j,voi'o<^. 6 p,ev ovv errl rrj<i rd(f)pov Kal KXiva<; roix; T/3wa9 eV /lovov rod ^orjaat Kal 6 Krelvcov e7riarpo(f)dS7]v Kal epvOpaivwv ro rod ^Kafidv-

30 Bpov vBcop Xttttol re dOdvarot Kal €X^eL<;^Kropo<; Kal /5pi;;\;co/x6i^09 iirl rot<; rod HarpoKXov arepvoL<i 'Ofxi]p(p yeypairrai, ypd(f)eL Be avrov Kal ahovra Kal ev)(^6/ji€vov Kal opiwpoc^LOV ro)


342 K. (2) Tovrovl Be ovttw ^vvievra dperP]^;, dXXa iralBa en ydXaKrc v7ro6pey^a<^ Kal /lueXcp Kal fieXcn Seh(OKep 6 ^ielpoyv ypd(f)€ip diraXov Kal

^ v(&p6s Hercher : vf^poi.

^ II. 11. -204, 270 mentions tiie seven Lesbian women, the gold and the tripods among Agamemnon's gifts to Achilles.



their upturned hands they show that she has come from the sea^ and their smile is an intimation of the sea's calm.


A fawn and a hare — these are the spoils of hunting of Achilles as he is now^ the Achilles who at Ilium will capture cities and horses and the ranks of men, and rivers will do battle with him when he refuses to let them flow, and as reward of those ex- ploits he will bear away Briseis and the seven maid- ens from Lesbos and gold and tripods ^ and authority over the Achaeans ; but the exploits here depicted, done at Cheiron's home, seem to deserve apples and honey as rewards, and you are content with small gifts, Achilles, you who one day will disdain whole cities and marriage with Agamemnon's daughter. Nay, the Achilles who fights at the trench, who puts the Trojans to rout merely by his shouting, and who slays men right and left,^ and reddens the water of the Scamander,^ and also his immortal horses, and his dragging of Hector's body around the walls, and his lamentation on the breast of Patroclus — all this has been de})icted by Homer, and he depicts him also as singing and praying and receiving Priam under his roof.

This Achilles, however, a child not yet conscious of valour, whom Cheiron still nourishes upon milk and marrow and honey, he has offered to the painter

- The word of Homer, II. 10. 483.

=^ Cf. llmd, 21. 21 ; 16. 154; 24. 50 ff. ; 18. 318 for the phraseology as well as the story.


a^kpwyov i^aX V^f] fcovcj^ov evOela fiev 'yap ?; 5 Kuyj/xi] Tw TTaiSi, eV yovu Se al %et/oe9 — dyaOal yap Si) avrac TTO/nirol tou Spo/iov — KOfxr] re 7)o€ta Kal ovSe (iKLvrjro^; — eoiK€ yap TrpoaaOvpcdv 6 ^€(f)vpo<; /leraTaTTeLv avTJjv, o)? /jLeTaTTLTrrovai]^ TTjSe KciKelae aWore, dX\o<; 6 7ral<; eh] — eVf-

10 aKvvLov T6 Kal Ovfioeihe^; (ppvayfid iari fxev rjBrj Tip TTaiSl, TTpavvet he avrb aKUKfo ^Xep^pan Kal napeid fxcika l\eo) Kal tt poa ^aWovarj n dirdXov yeXwTo^. 7] ')(\afiv<; Si, i)v d/jL7re)(^eTai-, irapa r)]<; /jL7jTpo<; olfxar KaXrj yap Kal aXiiropcjyvpo'; Kal

15 TTVpavyrjf; i^aWdrrovaa rod Kvavrj elvat. (3) Yi^okaKevei Se avrov 6 ^eipcov olov Xeovra 7rTMKa<; dpird^eiv Kal veffpoU avp^irereadar ve^pov yovv dpTC yp7]K(o<; rjKei, irapd rov Xelpayva Kal diraiTel to dOXov, 6 Se ^(^aipeL aTTanovfievo^;

20 Kal TOU? irpoaOiov^ OKXdcra^ et9 taov KadiaTaraL T(p iraiSiy firjXa dvo rod koXttov opeywv avjw KaXd Kal evcoSrj — Kal yap tovto avTcov eoLKev eyyeypdcpOat — Kal Krjplov opiyec rfj %et/)t (rrayova Xelpov St evvojiiav rcov pLeXiTTcov. orav yap

25 7ruaL<; dyaOal'^ evTV)(^ovaaL KvtdKwai, TTepiTrXrjOrj rd K7]pia yiverai Kal diro^Xv^ovai to jJLeXi ol oIkol avToyv. (4) o Se ^eipwv yeyparrTai /xev oaa KevTavpo<i' dXXd lttitov dvOpwTTM avjjLJ3aXelv 134


as a delicate, sport-loving child and already light of foot.^ For the boy's leg is straight and his arms come down to his knees (for such arms are excellent assistants in the race) ; his hair is charming and loose ; for Zephyrus in sport seems to shift it about, so that as it falls, now here, now there, the boy's appearance may be changed. Already the boy has a frowning brow and an air of spirited haughtiness, but these are made gentle by a guileless look and by gracious cheeks that send forth a tender smile. The cloak he wears is probably his mother's gift ; for it is beautiful and its colour is sea-purple with red glints shading into a dark blue. Cheiron flatters him by say- ing tliat he catches hares like a lion and vies with fawns in running ; at any rate, he has just caught a fawn and comes to Cheiron to claim his reward, and Cheiron, delighting to be asked, stands with fore-legs bent so as to be on a level with tlie boy and offers him apples fair and fragrant from the fold of his garment — for their very fragrance seems to be depicted — and with his hand he offers him a honeycomb dripping with honey, thanks to the diligent foraging of the bees. For when bees find good meadows and become big with honey, the combs get filled to overflowing and their cells pour it forth. Now Cheiron is painted in every respect like a centaur ; vet to combine a horse and human

Fig. i:

Cf. Fig. 17, Cheiron teaching Achilles.



Oav/jLa ovhev, (jvva\el-\\rai /jL7]v kuI €V(oaai kol

30 vt] ^ Ata Sovvai a/i(f)0) XijycLV Kal ap)(€aOai Kal cia<p€uy€ii' rov(; 6(f)da\/j,ov<;, el to rep/Jia rov dvOpcoTTOV €\6y')(^oiev, dyaOov olfiaL l^coypiK^ov. Kal TO Tjiiepov he (palveaOuL to tov XcLpcovo^; Ofifia ipyd^CTaL fiev Kal 7) SiKatoavvT] Kal to vtt' 343 K. avTt](; ireirvvaOaL, TrpuTTei Be Kal 1) 777/«:Tt?, u^' 77? eK/iiefiovacoTaL' rvvl Se Kal VTroKopLafiov tl avTO) eirecrTLV e/3ct)? ttou 6 llieLpcov, otl toi)? iralSa^ tovto fxeiXiaaeTaL Kal Tp€(f)ei /jLciWov t) 5 TO ycika.

(5) TavTl fxev irepl Ovpa<; tov dvTpov, 6 h' ev tw irehUp irah 6 iTTirrjSbv eVl toO KevTavpov dOvpcov 6 auT09 eTt' Si8daK€L 6 Xelpcov tov 'A^iWea iTTTrd^eaOac Kal Ke')(prja6ai avTO) oaa ^tttto), Kal

10 av/jL/j,€Tp€LTai, fjLev TOV hpofxav eU to uvektov tw iraihi, Kay)(d^ovTi Se avTw viro tov TjBeaOac TTpoafiethia fieTaaTpe(p6/jLevo<; Kal fxovov ov)(l Xeyei '* ISov aoi Kpoalvco dirXi-jKTO^, IBov Kal eTTLKeXevofxai cror 6 itttto^; 6^v<; dpa Kal d(paipeL

15 yeXcoTa. Xayapco<; ydp jjlol linTaaOei^;, 6ele iral, Kal tolmS' iinra) irpeirwv oyi](jr] iroTe Kal enl 'E.dvOov Kal VtaXiou Kal 7roXXd<; fxev iroXeif; alp7]a€L<;, ttoXXol'? Be dvBpa^ diroKTevel^, Oecov^ oaa, Kal avP€K<p€vyovTa0o^.

^ vr) Aia Soi'i'ai Jacobs : Sia5ovuai.

2 6(0)1' X, dehv T.P. The text is corrupt.

^ Cf. 11. 10. 408, where the horse Xanthos prophesies the impending death of Achilles.



body is no wondrous deed, but to gloss over the juncture and make the two into one whole and, by Zeus, cause one to end and the other to begin in such wise as to elude the eye of the observer who should try to detect where the human body ends, this seems to me to demand an excellent painter. That the expression seen in the eye of Cheiron is gentle is the result of his justice and the wisdom that he has acquired through justice, but the lyre also does its part, through whose music he has be- come cultured ; but now there is also something of cozening in his look, no doubt because Cheiron knows that this soothes children and nurtures them better than milk.

This is the scene at the entrance of the cave ; and the boy out on the plain, the one who is sporting on the back of the centaur as if it were a horse, is still the same boy ; for Cheiron is teaching Achilles to ride horseback and to use him exactly as a horse, and he measures his gait to what the boy can endure, and turning around he smiles at the boy when he laughs aloud with enjoyment, and all but says to him, " Lo, my hoofs paw the ground for you without use of spur ; lo, I even urge you on ; the horse is indeed a spirited animal and gives no ground for laughter. For although you have been taught by me thus gently the art of horse- manship, divine boy, and are suited to such a horse as I, some day you shall ride on Xanthos and Balios ; and you shall take many cities and slay many men, you merely running and they trying to escape you." Such is Cheiron's prophecy for the boy, a prophecy fair and auspicious and quite unlike that of Xanthos.^




(1) Si) fxev MOV Ti]v Tcor Kevravpoiv dyeXrjv Bpvcov eK7Te(f)VK€vat koI Trerpcov ?) vt} At'a lttttcov fxovov, aU TOP Tou 'Iftoi^o? emOopwaOai (paaip, 25 v(f)' ov 01 /cevravpoi ev(i)6evTe<;^ y]\6ov et? fcpdatv. TOi? Se dpa Kol p,i]T6pe<; o/xocfivXoL rjaav Kal yvpaifCE'^ ySr] /cat ttcjXol ev elhei ^pe(j)a)i' Kal oIko<=; /;5i(TT09* ov yap oJ/xal ae a^Oeadai tco n7;\tfo Kal rfj ev avTco Siairrj Kal to) t>}? /xeXta?

30 (j)VT(i) dv€/ilOTp€(f)€L OPTt Kal '7Tap€)(^0/J,6P(p TO Wv

OfjLOv Kal TO firj KXaaOai ip rfj alxP'JJ- ^al ra apTpa KuWiara Kal al rrrjyal Kal al Trap avTOi^ K€PTavpiS€<;, el fxep eTriXaOoL/jieOa tmp 344 K. Ittttcop, oIop NatSe?, el Se p-erd tcop 'lttttcop avTo,'^ Xoyi^oifieOa, olop ^Apa^6p6<^' y yap tov yvpaiKetov €iBov<; ci/Spori]^ pcoppvrat avpopw/jtepov avT(p rov Xttitov. (2) Kepravpot Be ravrl ra 5 ^pe<^ri ra fiep aTrapydpoi^ eyKeirai, rd Be tcop airapydvcdP vTreKBveTOA, Ta Be KXdeip eoiKe, Ta Be ev TTpdTTei Kal €vpoovPTO<; tov p,(i^ov p.eiBta, ra Be dTuXXec viro TaL<; p,r]Tpdai, Ta Be irepi- ^dXXcL avTa<=; oKXa^ovaa^;, 6 Be €9 T7]p firjTepa

10 Xidop d<pL7]aip v/3pL^(i)P i]Br]. Kal to fiep tcop prjTTicDP elBo<i ovTTco aa(f>e<; e/jirrXrjfji/jLvpovPTO^; avTch TOV ydXaKTO<;, Ta Be i]Br) aKipTcopTa eK(f)aLP€t Tt Kal Tpa^vT7]T0<;, V7rdp)(ec Be avTol<^ ')(^aiTT] /LieXXovaa Kal oirXal diraXal eTi.

15 'n? KaXal al KePTavpiBe<; Kal ep toI^ ^TnroL^;'

^ fi'udfUTfs Moielli after a correction in L: oVw^eVrtr. Various other emendations have been proposed.


Fig. 18. — I lead of a Ftnidle Centaur. [To face 2^. IS'.'.



You used to think that the race of centaurs sprang from trees and rocks or^ by Zeus, just from mares — the mares which, men say, the son of Ixion ^ covered, the man by whom the centaurs though single creatures came to have their double nature. But after all they had, as we see, mothers of the same stock and wives next and colts as their offspring and a most delightful home ; for I think you would not grow weary of Pelion and the life there and its wind- nurtured growth of ash which furnishes spear-shafts that are straight and at the same time do not break at the spearhead. And its caves are most beautiful and the springs and the female centaurs beside them, like Naiads if we overlook the horse part of them, or like Amazons if we consider them along with their horse bodies ; for the delicacy of their female form gains in strength when the horse is seen in union with it. Of the baby centaurs here some lie wrapped in swaddling clothes, some have discarded their swaddling clothes, some seem to be crying, some are happy and smile as they suck flowing breasts, some gambol beneath their mothers while others embrace them when they kneel down, and one is throwing a stone at his mother, for already he grows wanton. The bodies of the infants have not yet taken on their definite shape, seeing that abundant milk is still their nourishment, but some that already are leaping about show a little shagginess, and have sprouting mane and hoofs, though these are still tender.

How beautiful the female centaurs are, even where

^ Centaurus, who united with the Magnesian mares and begat the centaurs according to the version of the story here referred to.



al /lev yap Xevfcat^; 'ittttok; €/jL7r6(f)VKacnv, al he ^av6al<^ avvdiTTOViai, ra':; he iroLKiWei fxevy airocniX^eL he auTMv olov rt rcjv ev KO/jLihjj

'iTTTTCOV. €fC7r€(f)VKe Kol /jL€\aLPy]<; ITTTTOV XevKi]

20 KevravpU Kal ra ivavTiaoTara tmv 'X^pwfxdrojv 61? Ti-jV Tou KaWov^i avv6}]K7]v o/JLoXoyet,

h' innoATTOS

(1) To fxev OrjpLOP dpd^ ^rjcrew';, e/jLTreTrrcoKe

he ToU 'iTTTroXvTov 'litttol^ ev el'hei ravpov

XevKov Kara tou? heXcf)iva<;, rjKei he Ik daXdrrrjf;

25 Kara tov fxeipaKlov ovhe/iia htxp. fnjrpvLa yap

Oaihpa ^vvdelaa Xoyov eV avrw ov/c oina, &>?

hrj epwTO inro tov 'IttttoXutou — avrrj hf dpa tov

fieipaKiov i]pa — aTTaTaTai 6 ^h](76v<; tw Xoy(p

Kal KaTapcLTai tov iraiho^ to, opcofieva.

30 (2) 0/ fiev hrj 'lttttol 6pa<; tw? aTZ/xacrai^Te? tov

fyyov eXevOepav alpovai ttjv ')(^aiTr]v, ov he^ Kpo-

aLvovT€<; coairep ol XafMirpol Kal e/x(f)pove(;, dXX^

e^ifpfxevoL (f)6l3(p Kal tttoIci, palvovTe^ he d<^pw to

34 o K. irehiov 6 fiev e? to Oypiov erreaTpaTTTaL cj)evyQ)v,

6 8' dveaKipT7]Kev e? avTo, 6 he viro^XeireL, tw

he eh TT]v OdXaTTav i) (popd KaOdirep eavTOV Kal

T/}? 7>}? eKXaOofievw, pvKTVfpcn he opOoh o^v

5 ^(^pefieTL^ovaiVy el /jli] TrapaKOvei^; t/}? ypa(f}i]<s.

Tpoy^ol h' dp/xaTO^ 6 /nev e^tjpfioaTai Ta? Kvi]fjLa<;

1 apd Reiske and Jacobs ^ oil 5e iSchenkl: ov^4.


[To face p. 141.


they are horses; for some grow out of white mares, others are attached to chestnut mares, and the coats of others are dappled, but they ghsten like those of horses that are well cared for. There is also a white female centaur that grows out of a hlack mare, and the very opposition of the colours helps to produce the united beauty of the whole.


The wild beast is the curse of Theseus ; i swift as dolphins it has rushed at the horses of Hippolytus in the form of a white - bull, and it has come from the sea against the youth quite unjustly. For his step- mother Phaedra concocted a story against him that was not true, to the effect that Hippolytus loved her, — but it was really herself that was in love with the youth — and Theseus, deceived by the tale, calls down upon his son the curse which we see here depicted.

The horses, as you see, scorning the yoke toss their manes unchecked, not stamping their feet like well bred and intelligent creatures, but overcome with panic and terror, and spattering the plain with foam, one while fleeing has turned its head toward the beast, another has leaped up at it, another looks at it askance, while the onrush of the fourth carries him into the sea as though he had forgotten both himself and dry land ; and with erect nostrils they neigh shrilly, unless you fail to hear the painting. Of the wheels of the chariot one has been torn from

^ Cf. Eur. Hi'pp. 1166f. ; The description includes many reminiscences from the plaj' of Euripides.

^ The bull painted white occurs on a vase-painting, Fig. 19, Arch. Zeit. 188.S, Taf. vi.



VTTO Tov avyK\LOrjvai ro cip/ia 6? avrov, 6 S' eVXeXoiTTO)? rov a^ova (peperac KaO^ eavrov arpo^ovay]<; avrov en t?}? hivij'^. SieTrroyjvraL

10 Kal ol T(t3V oiraScov ittttol koI rov^ fiev airo- crelovTaiy tou? S' ay)(ovTa^ irol^ i^hy^ (pepovac ;

(3) Su Be, jueipuKLOv, a(0(f)poavvy]<; epcov ahiKa fiev VTTO t/}? fi7]TpvLd(; e7raOe<;, dSiKcoTepa Be vtto TOV 7TaTp6<;, wcrre o)BvpaTO Kal i) ypacprj Opyjvov 15 nva TTOUjTiKov eVt aol ^vvOetaa. a/coTTial fiev yap avrai, Bi ojv eO)]pa<; avv ^ApTe/jLiBi, BpvTTTovrai Ta? irapeici^ ev elBeu yvvacKoyv, \ei-/jL(i)ve<; B' ev Mpa /leipaKicov, ov<; aKijpdrov; oivoixat^e^, /jLapalvovaiv eVl aol ra avdrj, Nvfjucpai

20 T€ al aal rpocpol rovreovl royv Tnjycjv avaa-^ovaai airapcLTTOvaL ra? Kofjua^; diroffXv^ovaai, tmv /xa^MV vBwp. (4) "Hfivve Be aoL ovB' i) avBpeia ovBev ovBe 6 ^pa)(^L(ov, dWd cfol ra fiev eaTrd- paKTat TMV iJLe\o3V, ra Be (TwreTpiiTTai, irecpvpraL 25 8' /; k6 p,y], Kal to fxev arepvov efXTTvovv en KaOd- irep fir] fiediefievov tT;? ^i^X>}?, to Be ofifia Tvepia- dpel rd TSTpcofieva. (pev tT]<; Mpa<;, &)? drpcoTOf; Ti? €\e\}]6€t ovaa. ovBe yap vvv dirdXeiireL to peipuKiov, dW' QTTLirpeTreL tl Kal TOL<i Tpav-

30 fiacTLV.



its spokes as the chariot has tipped over upon it, the other has left its axle and goes rolHng off by itself, its momentum still turning it. The horses of the attendants also are frightened and in some cases throw off their riders, while as for those who grasp them firmly about the neck, to what goal are they now carrying them ?

And thou, O youth that lovest chastity, thou hast suffered injustice at the hands of thy step-mother, and worse injustice at the hands of thy father, so that the painting itself mourns thee, having composed a sort of poetic lament in thine honour. Indeed yon mountain-})eaks over which thou didst hunt with Artemis take the form of mourning women that tear their cheeks, and the meadows in the form of beautiful youths, meadows which thou didst call " undefiled," ^ cause their flowers to wither for thee, and nymphs thy nurses emerging fiom yonder springs tear their hair and pour streams of water from their bosoms. 2 Neither did thy courage protect thee nor yet thy strong arm, but of thy members some have been torn ofr' and others crushed, and thy hair has been defiled with dirt ; thy breast is still breathing as though it would not let go of the soul, and thine eye gazes at all thy wounds. Ah, thy beauty I how proof it is against wounds no one would have dreamed. For not even now does it quit the body; nay, a charm lingers even on thy wounds.

1 Cf. Eur. EipiJ. 73.

2 i.e. in lieu of tears.

^ TTo? Benndorf : ttoj




(1) Kal TO alfia 7rpo<; tm ')(^a\K(p kuI Tat<; (poiVLKiat IT pocF ^dWei tl av6o^ rep aTpajoTrehw, Kal '^(apiev tT;? ypa(j)T}<; ol aWo<; aA-Xw? Treirjo)- KOTe^; 'iTTiroL re ciTa/CTOvvre^ /ler eKirXij^eo)^ Kal 346 K. 7rap6(j)dopo<i vBcop TrorapLov, icf)' (p ravra, ol Be al^pdXcoTOL Kal to eV avTOt'i Tpoiraiov — 'PoSo- 'yovvi'i Kal Wepaat VLKOdaiv ^Appeviov^ ev airovhal'^ dTaKTJ]aavTa<;, otg St] XeyeTac i) 'PoBoyovvr] 5 KpaT7]aaL tt}? pLd^r]<^ ovhe oaov tcl Se^id r/)? XciiTrj^i dvd\aj3elv ^v'y)(^u)pi](Ta(Ta eavTrj /BpaSvvai. rj ouK iirfjpTai Kal (^povel eVl tyj vlkj] Kal ^uvLTjcTiv, o)? eaoLTO doihipo^:; iirl tw epyw Kal ev KiOdpa Kal ev avXcp Kal evBa "E,XXyve<; ; 10 (2) irpoayeypaTTTat Se avTrj Kal ^r^aaia 'itttto^; peXaiva eirl XevKol^; Toh aKeXeai, Kal to, aTepva XevKCL Kal TO irvevpa utto XevKov tou pLVKTijpo'^ Kal TO pieTcoTTOv ^ ev dpTiw tw kvkXco. XlOcov puev ovv Kal oppiwv Kal 7ravT0<^ drraXov Koapuov 15 7rapaKe-)(^(i)pi]Kev y 'PoSoyovvt] T(p 'itttto), &>? dydXXoLTO Kal d/3p(x)<^ tov ')^aXivov BiaTTTVor KOKKol3a(pel Se eaOfJTt KaTaXdpireL irdvTa 7rXr]v TOV eavTP]<; eLSov<;'" ev ySeta pev Trj ^divr] Kal ti]v eadr)Ta peTpovarj e? yovv, yheia he Tjj dva^vpihi 20 Kal Tvape^opevr) ypa(f)d<; diro KepKLSo<;, to Be diro o'ypLOv e? dyKOdva tov ')(^iTcora SiaXeiTTovaai TropTrai ^vvdiTTOvaLV viTavi(T)(ova')]<^ eraXXd^ t?}? u>]<;,

^ \evKhu is to be supplied or understood after fxlrunrov. Cf. suprd 834, 15 K.

2 The text immediately following elfSour is apparently corrupt.




The blood and also the bronze weapons and the purple garments lend a certain glamour to the battle- scene, and a pleasing feature of the painting is the men who have fallen in different postures, and horses running wildly in terror, and the pollution of the water of the river by which these events occur, and the captives, and the trojihy commemorating the victory over them. Rhodogoune and the Persians are conquering the Armenians who broke the treaty, on the occasion when Rhodogoune is said to have won the battle, not even having allowed herself to tarry long enough to fasten up the right side of her hair. Is she not elated and proud of the victory and conscious that she will be celebrated for her exploit with lyre and flute and wherever there are Greeks? Her horse also is in the painting, a black Nisaean mare with white legs ; its breast also is white, its breath comes from white nostrils and its forehead is marked with white in a perfect circle. Nay, Rhodogoune has bestowed upon tlie mare precious stones and necklaces and every dainty ornament, that it may delight in them and champ its bit delicately ; and Rhodogoune is resplendent with scarlet raiment, all except her face ; she wears a charming girdle which permits her robe to fall only to her knee, and charming trousers in which designs are woven ; her chiton is fastened with brooches set at intervals from shoulder to elbow, the arm showing between

^ Probably the Persian queen of whom Polysenus 27 relates that while washing her hair word was brought that a subject tribe had revolted. Hastily binding up her hair and swear- ing that she would not wash it until she had put down the rebellion, she leapt upon her horse and went to battle.




ep6a o Secr/xo?, 6 Be o)fio^ eyfceLTUL' to a^P)/xa ovTTCi) 'Ayuafoj^o?. (H) Kttl tt)? acTTTt^o? djaadai

25 ;^p^ TO fMerpiov Kal airoxpcov tw arepvw. fcal TrjV l(T-)(yv T% ypa<l)i]<; ivravBa i^erdcrar virep- /SaWovaa yap ?; dpLarepa top iropiraKa e^eTaL tP]<; alxP'V^ d(f)iaTaaa tov aTepvov tijv ciaTriSa, 6pOfj<; Be 6KK€t/Jiep7]<; tT;? IVfo? opaTai fxev koI tcl

30 e^o) T/}? a(J7ri'5o9* ^ oi) ■)(^pvad TavTa Kal olov ^wa ; TCL Be eaco Kal evOa i) %ei/} dXovpyd, irpocravOel Be avTol<; 6 7r7]'^v<;.

(4) XlaOdveaOai fxoi BoKet<;, o) Tral, tov ev avTrj KdXkov<i Kal /SovXeaOai tl Kal irepl tovtov

35 UKoveiv aKOve Bi]. airevBei pev eirl ttj tmv 347 K. ' ApfievLwv Tpoirfj, Kal 7) evvoia evxo/Jievy]<;' €V)(^6Tat Be a'lpelv tou? dvBpa^, co? ^ vvu yprfKev ov ydp fioL BoK€L epdv tov epaaOai. Kal to /jl€V dveiXij/xfievov tcop Tpi')(^Mv alBol KeKoapi^Tat to 5 dyepwyov KoXa^ovar], to Be civeTOV ^aKy^evet avTrjV Kal pcovvvai. Kal ^avOov /xev Kal "^pvaov irepa to dTaKTovv tT/? k6/jL1]<;, to Be eirl OdTepa Kelfievov ex^t- t* f^dl €<; ayy7]v ^ irapaWdTTOV VTTO TOV TeTayOai. tcov Be 6(^pvcov xapiev pLev

10 TO aTTO ToO avTOv apx^dOat Kal opioOev eKirecftv- KBvai T/)? pivo<^, yapieaTepov Be to irepiPj^Oar Bel ydp avTd<; yu,/; 7rpo/3e/3\rja0at tmv 6(^0a\p,MV p,6vov, dXkd Kal 7r€pt^€/3\fja6ac avT0i<;. (5) 'H

1 COS Olearius : ovs.

^ The dress of the Amazons was a sleeveless chiton girded, that did not reach quite to the knees. 2 Cf. Aiuicreontea, 16. 13 f.

tJ) fieaocppvov St ^utj /j.01


BOOK 11. 5

the fastenings^ though the shoulder is covered ; the dress is not that of an Amazon. ^ One should also admire the shield, of moderate size but large enough to cover the breast. And at this point one should examine carefully the effectiveness of the painting ; for the left hand extends beyond the handle of the shield and grasps the spear, holding the shield away from the breast : and though the rim is held out straight, the outside of the shield is also visible — is it not resplendent and as it were animate with life ? — while the inside, where the arm is, is of a purple hue and the forearm shines against this background. It seems, my boy, that you have a feeling for the beauty in this figure and desire to hear something on this point also, so listen. Rhodogoune is pouring a libation for her victory over the Armenians, and the artist's conception is of a woman praying. She prays to conquer men, even as she has now conquered them ; for I do not think she loves to be loved. The part of her hair that is fastened up is arranged with a modesty that tempers her high spirit, while that which hangs loose gives her vigour and the look of a bacchant. Yellow, even yellower than gold, is her disarranged hair; while the hair on the other side differs also somewhat in hue because of its orderly arrangement. The way her eyebrows^ begin at the same point and rise together from the nose is charming ; but more charming still is the curve they make ; for the brows ought not only to be set above the eyes but should also be set in an arch around

ix^Tca S\ oTTws iKeii/T],

Th AeA-TySoTws (rvvo<ppv

^\e(pdpcvv trvs KeAaivr], Her eyebrows neither join nor sever, But make (as 'tis) that selvage never Clearly one nor surely two.




irapeid Se viToh6)(^6TaL jxev top utto tojv o/xfidrcov

15 l)jL€pov, ev(ppaLi'6i he tw IXapu) — to yap (f)i\.o/jL€iSe<i

ev irapeid p^dXiara — Kai o'l 6(pda\/j.ol Ke/cpavrai

fiev diro tov \apoiTov e? to fiekav, 7rap€')(ovTaL

Be TO fiep iXapov diro tov Kaipov, to 3e aypalov

diTo tt)? (f)vaeco<;, rb Se yavpov diro rod dp\€iv.

20 (TTO/jLa Be diraXov /cal dvafiearov oiroipa^ epwri-

Kr)<;, (j)iXi]aaL fxev ySiarov, dirayyelXat he ov

pdSiov. d Se d7r6)(p7] aoL fiaOecv opa, iraihiov

X^^^V dvOijpd Kal taa, (TTopia av/xfjieTpov Kal

Tra pa<p0 eyy 6 fievov rrjv ev^h^ "^^ rpoiraitp' Kav

25 irapaKOvaai ^ovXi^Owp^ev, Td)(a eXXi]viel.


(1) 'E? avrd 7;/cei? 'OXvpLiria Kal tcju ev 'OXvfiiTLa TO KaXXiarov rovrl yap B)] dvBpoiv TO irayKpdTLOv. aTe^avovTai Be avTo^ Wppi^^cov €7ra7ro6av(bv Trj vlkt] Kal aTecpavoc avTov ovroal 30 'EXXavoBiKi]<i — drpeKT]^ Be TrpoaeiprjaOtii Bid re TO eTTLixeXelaOai dXr]6eia<; Bid ts to co? eKelvoi 348 K. yeypd<j)6ai — aTdBiov Te t) yrj BiBwaiv ev dirXfj avXcovi Kal elo-exovarj togovtov, Kal to tov

^ avrh Kayser : avrcf

^ Cf. Pind. Isthm. 2. 6 : 'Acppobiras . . . adia-rav oirupav.

2 The pancratium, so-called because it brought into play all the powers of those wlio engaged in it, was a combination of boxing and wrestling. It was permissible to maim or choke one's opponent, but only at Sparta was biting allowed. The contest began with the opponents standing, while it continued if one was thrown down and only ended when one



them. As for the cheek, it receives tlie yearning that emanates from the eyes, yet it delights in merriment — for it is mostly in the cheek that mirth is shown — and the colour of the eyes varies from light blue to black ; the joy they show is due to the occasion, their beauty is a gift of nature, while their haughtiness arises from her authority as ruler. The mouth is delicately formed and filled with "love's harvest," 1 most sweet to kiss, most difficult to describe. But you may observe, my boy, all you need to be told : the lips are full of colour and even the mouth is well proportioned and it utters its prayer before the trophy of victory ; if we care to listen attentively, perhaps it will speak in Greek.


You have come to the Olympic games themselves and to the noblest of the contests held at Olympia ; for this is the pancratium- of men, Arrichion is being- crowned^ for winning this event, having died just after his victory, and the Judge of the Games yonder is crowning him — let him be called "'the strict judge,"* both because he sedulously strives for the truth and because he is indeed depicted like the Olympic judges. The land furnishes a stadium in a simple glen of sufficient extent,^ from which issues the

was killed or acknowledged himself defeated by raising his hand.

3 Cf. Pans. 8. 40. 2 records this fact ; see note 1, p. lo2.

^ Cf. Pind. 01. 3. 21 : drpe«:r?s 'EAAai/oSi/cas, referring to the judge at Olympia.

5 The stadium at Olympia was not equipped with rising tiers of seats like the one at Athens.



W(f)€LOv i>a/ia i^ipx^rai. Kov(f)Ov —Tavrd rot Kal li6vo<; TTorafXMV inl r?}? OdXdrTt]'^ 6)(elrai — T) Konvoi re avrw TreptreOjjXacrip ev yXavKco el'Set KaXoi Kal Kara rrjv tmv o-eXlvcov ouXoTijra.

(2) TafTt fiev ovv fiera ro ardSiov eTTiaKe^jro- fieOa Kal TroXXa erepa, to he epyov tov Wppi)(^iO)vo<;, TTplv 7) iravaacrdaL avro, aKoirMfiev.

10 eoLK6 'yap /xr] rod civTiirdXov /lovov, dXXa Kal rod 'EjXX7]vlkou KeKpartjKevat' /SoMai yovv dvairiihi]- aavre^ tmv OdKwv Kal 01 /nev rco %6i/36 dvaaeiov- (TLv, 01 Be rrfv eadrjTa, 01 Se atpovrai diro rrj<; yrj<i, 01 8e toI<^ TrXi-jaiov iXapov irpoairaXaiovaL'

15 ra yap 6vt(o<; eKTrXrfKTLKa ov avyX^P^'^ toI<; d€aTaL<; ev rw KadeKTw elvai. rj tl<; oi/ro)? dvaia07]To<;, 009 fir] dvaKpayelv errl tw dOXTjrfj ; /leydXov yap Srj avrCo v7rdp')(0VT0<; rod Sl<; ijBrj VLKyjaaL rd ^OXv/xTria fxel^ov tovto vvvl, ore Kal

20 T?)? '^V)(ri^ avrd Kryjadpei'O^ eh tov tmv oX/Slwv Tre/jiTreTai X^P^^ avTrj Kovei. /jL7] Se avvTv^ia voelaOco tovto' aocpcoTaTa yap TrpovvoyjOrj ttJ? vLKr](;.

(3) Kal TO TrdXatdfia ; at 7rayKpaTid^ovTe<;, 25 CO Trai, KeKCvSwev/jievr) TrpoaxpayvTaL t/} irdXr)'

Set yap avTol<; vTrcoTriaa/jLcov tg, at /jlt] elaiv da(f)aXeL<; tw iraXaiovTi, Kal aufiTrXoKcov, ev al? nrepiyivecrOaL XPV olov TriirTovTa, Bel Be avToh Kal re;^!'/;? e? to dXXoTe dXXw^ dyx^tv, ol Be 30 avTol Kal ac^vpo) irpoaTraXaiovai Kal ttjv %et/oa aTpel3Xov(TL TTpocrovTO^ tov iraieiv Kal evdXXeaOciL' TavTL yap tov rrayKpaTid^eiv epya irXrjv tov

^ Alpheius, an Arcadian hunter, fell in love with Arethusa, ■svho fled across the sea to Syracuse, where she was trans- formed into a fountain on the island Ortygia. Alpheius


stream of tlie Alpheius, a light stream — that, you know, is why it alone of rivers flows on top of the sea^ ; and about it grow wild olive trees of green-grey colour, beautiful and curly like parsley leaves.

Now after we have observed the stadium, we will turn our attention to various other points, and in particular let us take note of the deed of Arrichion before it is ended. For he seems to have conquered, not his antagonist alone, but also all the Greeks ; at any rate the spectators jump up from their seats and shout, some wave their hands, some their garments, some leap from the ground, and some grapple with their neighbours for joy ; for these really amazing deeds make it impossible for the spectators to contain them- selves. Is anyone so without feeling as not to applaud this athlete ? For after he had already achieved a great deed by winning two victories in the Olympic games, a yet greater deed is here depicted, in that, having won this victory at the cost of his life, he is being conducted to the realms of the blessed witii the very dust of victory still upon him. Let not this be regarded as mere chance, since he planned most shrewdly for the victory.

And as to the wrestling? Those who engage in the pancratium, my boy, employ a wrestling that is hazardous ; for they must needs meet blows on the face that are not safe for the wrestler, and must clinch in struggles that one can only win by pre- tending to fall, and they need skill that they may choke an adversary in different ways at different times, and the same contestants are both wrestling with the ankle and twisting the opponent's arm, to say nothing of dealing a blow and leaping upon the adversary; for these things are all permissible in the

was changed into a river and followed her across the sea. Cf. Pausanias 5. 7. 2.


SuKveiv I) 6pvTT€LV. AaKeSacfioviOL fxev ovv koI ravra vo/j.i^ovaii> diroyv/jpa^ovre^; olfiat eafxou?

35 e? ra<; fid^a^, 'HXetOf Se dycjvef; ravrl fxev dcpaipovai, rb 8e dy^^eiv eTraivovaiv. (4) "OOev 349 K. Tov Wppi'y^Lcoi'a fieaov y]Sy] yprjKco^; 6 dvTL7Ta\o<; diTOKTelvai eyvco fcal tov /i€v ttPj^^vp rfi Seipfj i]Sr] iviffaXev air o(f) parr cov avrw to aaOfia, to, aKeXrj Se TOi? Kovfiojaiv ivapfioaa^ koI irepLhieipa^ 6? 5 eKarepav djKvXrjv ciKpw tco irohe tco jiev Tri'lyp^ajL e<^6ii avTOV vrrvifkov rb evrevOev Oavdrov rot? alad7]T7]pioi<i evTp6)(^ovTO^, TTj he eTTLrdaet rcov GKeXoiv dveifievr) ')(pj]ad/jLevo<; ovk e(f)0)] rbv \oyicr/ibv tov ^ AppL^iwvo<i' €K\aKTiaa<i yap tov

10 Tapabv tov ttoSo? ^Appi-^loyv, v(f)^ ov eKLvhvvevev avTO) TCi Se^id Kpe/JLavvv/jiiv7]<; i^hrj r?}? dyKuXr}^, eKelvov fxev avve)(^eL tco ^ovjSmvl co? ovket dvTiira- Xov, TOL'^ Se ye dpL(TTepol<^ evL^i]aa<^ koI to irepiTTbv aKpov tov ttoSo? evairoKXeiaa'^ Ty

lo dyKvXrj ovk ed fxeveiv to) acpvpo) Tbv dcTTpdyaXov virb T?)? €t? TO efo) jStaiov diroaTpo^rj';' i) yap

^ Pans. 8. 40. 2 describes an archaic statue of Arrachion (whom Philostratus calls Arrichion) in the market place of Phigaleia, which was erected for his victory in the pan- cratium in the 55th Olympiad (b.c 564). His adversary, Pausanias says, got the first grip, and "twining his legs around him held him fast, while he squeezed his throat M'ith liis hands. Arrachion put one of his adversary's toes out of joint and expired under the grip that his adversary had on his tliroat, but the latter in the act of throttling him was obliged at the same moment by the pain in his toe to give in. Tlie Eleans crowned and proclaimed victorious the dead body of Arrachion" (Trans. Frazer).

Philostratus refers to the story again, de arte gym. 21 ;


pancratium — anything except biting and gouging. The Lacedaemonians, indeed, allow even these, be- cause, 1 suppose, they are training themselves for battle, but the contests of Elis exclude them, though they do permit ciioking. Accordingly the antagonist of Arrichion, having already clinched him around the middle, thought to kill him ; ^ already he had wound his forearm about the other's throat to shut off the breathing, while, pressing his legs on the groins and winding his feet one inside each knee of his adversary, he forestalled Arrichion's resistance by choking him till the sleep of death thus induced began to creep over his senses. But in relaxing the tension of his legs he failed to forestall the scheme of Arrichion; for the latter kicked back with the sole of his right foot (as the result of which his right side was imperilled since now his knee was hanging un- supported), then with his groin he holds his ad- versary tight till he can no longer resist, and, throwing his weight down toward the left while he locks the latter's foot tightly inside his own knee, by this violent outward thrust he wrenches the ankle from its socket. ^ Arrichion's soul, though

and a brief account of it is given by Eusebius, Chron. 1. p. 202, Schune.

^ The pair wrestle standing, the opponent on the back of Arrichion with one arm clinched about his throat and the other apparently under his armpit, and with the legs on his groins and the feet twisted under the inside of his knees. But when his opponent relaxes his hold in the belief that Arrichion is conquered, the latter jerks back his right foot (giving up his firm stance) and throws himself over to the left. The very weight of his body, as his strength fails, helps the manoeuvre. His opponent's foot is caught the more securely under his knee and the force of his leftward thrust twists the ankle from its socket.



ylrv^Tj aiTiovaa rod aco/iaro^; dSpav€<; fiev avro epyd- ^erai, SiScoaL Se avrfo La)(^v€tv et? o ciirepeiheTaL.

20 (5) VeypaiTTaL he 6 fieu uTroTrvi^a^ veKpcp eiKacrdi. koI to dirayopevov eTnaij/xaLVwv rfj X^^P^* he ^ A ppi'^Lcov oaa oi viK6)VTe<i yeypair-rai' Kol yap TO aljxa ev toj avdet koI 6 ihpw^; aKpaL^in-j^ en, Kal /jLeiStd KaOdirep oi fwi^re?,

25 eTreihdv VLKtjf; alaOdvwvjai.


(1) Tov 'A;\;tXXea ipdv rov ' AvriXoxov 7r6(/)<w- paKa<; ol/jiac Trap* 'O/xtjpfp, vecorarov tou 'EWtjul-


Tov xp^(^ov evvowv to iirl tw dyoivL. Kal diray- 30 yeWei tco W^xi-XXel KelaOat tov UdTpoKXop, ao(f)Laap.evov tov Me/eXeco irapafivdlav 6/jLOu ttj dyyeXia, ixeTaPXey\ravTO<^ 'A;^tXXea)9 et? naiBiKd, Kal OpTjvel epco/jLevou errl to) irevOei Kal avvex^c TO) x^Lpe, /jil] diroKTeivrj eavTov, 6 5' olpai Kal 350 K. aTTTOfxevu) xaipei Kal haKpvovTi.

(2) AvTai^ jiev ovv 'Opijpov ypacpal, to Be tov ^a)ypd(f)0v hpdp,a' o 'Mep.vcdv e'f AWiOTTia^ d(f)iK6p,ei'0<; KTeivei tov WvTiXo\ov irpo^e^Xr)-

5 pLevov TOU TraTpo<s Kal tov<^ 'A^^^a^oi/? olov Seipa iK7rXi]TTei — 7rp6 yap tov ^[eproi>o<; pivOo^ o'l

^ avTai Jacobs : ai/ra.

^ Cf. II. 15. 569 : " Antilochus, none other of the Achaeanp is younger than thou, nor swifter of foot." Trans. jNIurray, L.C.L.

2 Cf. //. 23. 796 : Achilles says, "Nay, I will add to thy prize a half talent of gold." Trans. Murra}', L.C.L.


it makes him feeble as it leaves his body, yet gives him strength to achieve that for wliich he strives.

The one who is choking Arrichion is painted to look like a corpse, and as indicating with his hand that he gives up the struggle ; but Arrichion is painted as all victors are ; for his blood is of rich colour, the perspiration is still fresh on his body and he smiles as do the living when they are conscious of victory.


That Achilles loved Antilochus you must have discovered in Homer, seeing Antilochus to be the youngest man in the Greek host^ and considering the half talent of gold - that was given him after the contest. And it is he who brings word to Achilles^ that Patroclus has fallen, for Menelaiis cleverly devised this as a consolation to accompany the an- nouncement, since Achilles' eyes were thus diverted to his loved one ; and Antilochus laments in grief for his friend and restrains his hands lest he take his own life, while Achilles no doubt rejoices at the touch of the youth's hand and at the tears he sheds.*

Now such is the scene in Homer, but the events depicted by the painter are as follows : Memnon coming from Ethiopia slays Antilochus who had thrown himself in front of his father,^ and he seems to strike terror among the Achaeans — for before Memnon's time black men were but a subject for

^ Cf. II. 18. 1 f. for the description of this scene.

  • Cf. //. 18. 33 f. : "Antilochus wailed and shed tears,

holding the hands of Achilles . . . for he feared lest he should cut his throat asunder witli the knife." Trans. Murray, L.C.L.

^ Antilochus was the son of Xestor.



/jL€\ai'e<; — fcpaT0vvT6<i Se oi \\')(^aLo\ rov <7(M)/jLaT0<; ohvpovTat Tov ' AvTi\o')(ov 01 Wrepelhai /cal 6 etc tT/? '\0(iK7]<; KOI 6^ TOV Ti/Sew? kgX oi o/jlmvv/jloi,.

10 eTTiSrjXof; Be 6 fi€v ^WaKjjaiOs niro rov aTpvcf)V0v Koi €yp7]yop6TO<;, 6 Be MereXew? utto tov rjfiepov, 6 Be 'Aya/xepvwp utto tov evdeov, tov Be tov TuSeco? r] eXevdepia ypdcpei, yv(Dpi^0L<^ B' av koi tov TeXa/icoviov utto tov fiXoavpov Koi tov

15 AoKpov airo tov eTol/jLOV. (3) Kal r) aTpaTta TrevOtl TO jieipaKLov it ep tea ToyTe<; avrw Op/jvay cifxa, 7n]^avT6^ Be Ta<; alxfxci^i ei? TOvBa(f)o<; evaXXcLTTOvai tco iroBe koX aTijpl^ovTai iirl Tcbv al-^ixchv airepeiaavTe's oi irXelaTOL Bva(f)op-

20 ovaa^ ra? /ce(f>aXa<; tw cix^t. (4) Tov 'Ax^XXea fir] diro tt}? KOfxr]^ — otx^'^cii yap tovto avTw /xera TOV XlciTpoKXov — uXXa TO elBo'^ avTov evBetKvvTO) Kal TO /xeye^o? Kal avTo to fiy] KOfidv. Oprjvel Be 7rpoaKei/ievo<; rot? (TTepvoL<^ tov WvtlXo^ov, koi

26 TTvpav ol/iai eTrayyeXXeTai Kal to, €9 avT7]v Kal TO. oirXa Ta-o)? Kal ttjv Kec^aXrjv tov ^le/ivovo<;' aTTOTelaat yap Kal tov \le/jLV0va oaa tov "KKTopa, ft)? fitiBe TavTa 6 ^ AvtlXo)(o<; eXaTTOv tov TlaTpoicXov exoi' o B' ev to) tmv AWioircov

30 (JTpaTcp BeLVO^ eaTi]Kev e%ft»i/ alxM^' ^^^ XeovTrjv ivr]fiuevo<i Kal aeai]pa)<; e<? TOv'AxiXXea. (o) S/ce-v/r- (jopeOa ovv Kal tov ' AvtIXo^ov 7)^daK€L fiev L/TT/J/'?;? TTpoaco, Ko/xa Be ev yXicoarj Kopir). Kovcpo^; T) KVij/jLTj Kal TO aoipa avfi/jL€Tpov e? paaTMvrjv

35 TOV Bpopov Kal to al/jca olov eir eXecpavTL XP^f^ci ^ fK before tov deleted by Kayser.

1 i.e. the two Ajaxes, the son of Telamon and the son of Oileus.



story — and the Achaeans, gaining possession of the body, lament Antilochus, both the sons of Atreus and the Ithacan and the son of Tydeus and the two heroes of the same name.^ The Ithacan is made known by his austere and vigilant look, xMenelaus by his gentleness, Agamemnon by his god-like mien, while the son of Tydeus is marked by his nobility, and you would recognize the Telamonian Ajax by his grimness and the Locrian by his alertness. And the army mourns the youth, standing about him in lamentation ; and, their spears fixed in the ground and their legs crossed, they stand, most of them in their grief bowing their sorrowing heads on their spears. You are not to recognize Achilles by his long hair, for that is gone since the death of Patro- clus, but let his beauty make him known to you, and his stature, aye, and the very fact that he does not wear long hair.^ He laments, throwing himself on the breast of Antilochus, and he seems to be promising him a funeral pyre and the offerings to be placed upon it and perchance the arms and head of Memnon ; for he proposes that Memnon shall pay all the penalties Hector paid, that in this respect also Antilochus may have no less honour than Patroclus had. Memnon stands, terrible to look upon, in the army of the Ethiopians, holding a spear and wearing a lion's skin and sneering at Achilles. Let us next look at Antilochus. He is in the prime of youth, just beyond the period of downy beard, and his bright hair is his pride. His leg is slender and his body proportioned for running with ease,^ and his blood

2 Cf. 11. 23. 141 f. for Homer's account of Achilles' dedication of his long hair at the funeral pyre of Patroclus.

3 Cf. IL 23.756; Od. 3. 112.



351 K. r)v6i]Kev €fi7r€aov(T7]<; avTco Kara rod arepvov t/}? at%yLt/)?. Kelrai Be ov Ka77](f)€<; to /leipuKiov ovSe veKpo) eLKuaai, (^aihpov 8' eri^ Kai /j-eiSicov T7]v yap OLfiai ')(apav rrjv eirl tw tov Trarepa acoaai 5 (f)€po)v ev T&) elhei 6 'Avt IXo^^o^; dircoXeTO vtto tt}? alxf^V^y fcal TO TTpoacoTTOv y ^vxh KaTekiirev ov)(^ &)? ijXyrjaev, dW' w? eireKpciTyjae to ev(f)palvov.


(1) To /j,€v TOV ^Kvc7reQy<; kul &>? rjpa r) Tvpo) TOV vBaTO^i, 'OfMYjpu) XeXe/CTat — XiyeL Se aTraTr^v

10 iic Yloaethoivo^ koX to avOo'^ tov KvpuaTO^iy vcp^ w 1] evvj] — ovToal Be 6 X0709 6T€po<;, ovfc €k (d€TTaXLa<;, aXV ^Icoviko^;. ipa r) KpiOrjU iv ^Icovla TOV j\IeX7;T09, o 8' i<f)j]l3a) eoiKe fcal opaTUL TO) OeaTfi 6X0^, eKel efc^dXXwv odev

15 dp)(^€Tai. TTiveL Be ov Bi-^wcra Kai Xa/jL/3dv6Tat, TOV vBaTO<; Kai KeXapu^ovTi irpoaBLaXeyeTai KaOdirep XaXovvTL, BdKpva Be Xei^ei epcoTiKa TO) vBari, Kai 6 iroTafJio^ — dvTepa ydp — )(^aLpei avTMv Trj Kpdaei. (2) ')(^apiev /j.€v ovv t?)?

20 ypa(f))]<; avTo<; 6 MeX^;? ev KpoKw Kai Xcdtoj

  • 5' ert Beitndorf : n and tc libri.

^ Cf. 77. 4. 141 f : "As when a woman staineth ivory with scarlet . . . even in such wise, Menelaiis, were thy thighs stained with blood." Trans, Murray, L.C. L.



shines red, like colour on ivory/ where the spear- point penetrated his breast. The youth lies there, not sad of aspect nor yet like a corpse, but still joyous and smiling ; for it was with a look of joy on his face (because, I fancy, he had saved his father's life) that Antilochus died from the spear-thrust, and the soul left his countenance, not when he was in pain, but when gladness prevailed.


The story of Enipeus and of Tyro's love for the river has been told by Homer,^ and he tells of Poseidon's deception of her and of the splendid colour of the wave beneath which was their couch — but the story here told is a different one, not from Thessaly l3ut Ionian. Critheis loves the river Meles^ in Ionia, and it takes the form of a young man and is wholly visible to the spectator, for it empties into the sea in the region where it arises. She drinks the water though she is not thirsty, and takes it in her hands, and keeps up a conversation with it as though the murmur of the water were human speech, and sheds tears of love into the water ; and the river, since it loves her in return, delights to mingle her tears with its stream. Now a delightful feature of the painting is the figure of Meles lying

^ Cf. Od. 11. 235. "She (T^to) became enamoured of the river .... and she was wont to resort to the fair waters of Enipeus. But the Enfolder and Shaker of the earth took his form, and lay with her at the mouth of the eddying river. And the dark wave stood about them like a mountain, vaulted over, and hid the god and the mortal woman." Trans. Murray, L.CL.

^ A small river near Smyrna.


K€Lfji€vo<i /cal vaKLv6(o ')(aLp(i)v Si' rjXiKLav rod av6ov<; Kai 7rap€)(o/jL6vo<; el^o? ci/Sphp /cal jxeipa- KL())he<\ Kal ovhe aao(f)ov — eLiroL^i civ rov^ 6(f)0a\- fiovf; Tou yiiXrjTo*; avaaKOirelv ri royv

25 TTOLrjTiKwv — ')(^apiev 8e avrou Kal on jjuy) \d- yS/oou? ra 9 777/709 iKhihcoai, KaOdirep rov<^ d/jLaOeU rcjv TTora/jLcoi' ypdcfieadaL vofxo^y dWci ti-jv yfjv aKpoL^ Tol<s^ SaKTvXoi^ Bia/j^co/jiepo^; V7r€)(€t rrjv X^^p(^ '^<P y^cLTi dyfrocprjrl ^Xv^ovri, /cal oparai

30 i)ijlIv, ct)9 rfi <ye Kpidt/lSt vScop ovro^ /cal irapa/cd-

Oi]TaL oveipaTL, W9 (f)aaiv. (3) 'AA,X' ovk ovap

352 K. ravra, m Kpi.07]L<;, ovSe €l<; vScjp rov epcora rou-

Tov ypd(f)6i<i' €pa ydp aov 6 irorafxo^, ev olSa, Kal

ao(f)i^€TaL Tiva v/ullv OdXa/iov KVfia alpwv, v(f)'

(p 7] evvrj earai. el Se aTriareU, Xe^co aoL Kal

5 rifv rov 6aXd/iov Te)(yriv' Xeirrrj avpa KVfia

VTToBpa/jLOvaa ipyd^eraL avro Kvprov Kal irepL-

VX^'^ ^^^ ^11^0 7] pov err 1) yap dvravyeia rov

i)Xlov xP^/^^ Trpoa/SdXXeL /lerecopcp ro) vSari.

(4) Tt' ovv, (h iral, Xa/jL/Sdvy fiov ; ri S' ovk ea9

10 Kal ra Xonrd Sie^ievai t/}? ypa<j>rj<^ ; el ^ovXet,

Kal TTjv Kpt.Or]LBa Siaypdyjr(o/iev, eVe^S?; ;^ai/oet2/

<^?79, orap ivaXvT] avTOL<; 6 X6709. XeyeaOco

^ The principal MSS. vary between &Kpois to7s and &Kpav Tois. The former seems to be confirmed by Eur. Bacch. 709 6.Kpoi(Ti SaKTvAoicTi biaij.ui<jat x^'^^, obviously imitated by our author. The Teubner Text reads &Kpav, i.e. "the surface only of the earth."

^ i.^., to those who look at the painting.

2 The Teubner editors suggest this explanation: "The delicate youth Meles, reclining on a high spot among the flowers, by the striking (tisposition of the figure provides a double ciiarm ; with his hand he lets the water flow very gently into the stream, on the bank of which at a 160

BOOK li. g

on a bed of crocus and lotus blossoms and delighting in the hyacinth because of its fresh young bloom, and presenting an appearance delicate and youthful and not at all lacking in cleverness — indeed you would say that the eyes of Meles were contemplating some poetic theme. It is a delightful feature also that he does not pour forth turbulent streams at his source, as boorish rivers are usually painted ; nay, he but cuts a passage through the earth with the tips of his fingers and holds his hand beneath the water as it trickles noiselessly by; and to us ^ it is clear that, for Critheis, Meles is water and that it is a dream,2 as we say, beside which she is sitting. Nay but, Critheis, this is no dream, nor are you writing this love of yours in water 3; for the river loves you, I know it well, and he is devising a chamber for you both by lifting up a wave beneath which shall be your couch. If you do not believe me, I will tell you the very construction of the chamber ; a light breeze running under a wave causes it to curve over and makes it resonant and also of brilliant hue ; for the reflection of the sun lends colour to the uplifted water.

Why do you seize hold of me, my boy ? Why do you not let me go on and describe the rest of the painting ? If you wish, let us next describe Critheis, since you say you are pleased when my tale roams freely over such things. Well, let us speak of her ; lower level Critheis stays, giving herself up to her love ; and, being unseen by her, rocks or bushes for example intervening between them, he makes it clear to the spectators that toCritheis he seems to be water and that she is dallying with a dream."

The proverb seems to suggest that the reclining river was dreaming of her, the beloved, while she sits at his side as a Greek wife was wont to sit beside her sleeping husband.

^ Another proverbial expression ; cf. Sophocles, frag. 742 n., opKovs iyw yuvaiKos els vdcop ypdcpco., " A woman's oaths I write in water."




Toivvv aj3pov /JL6V avrrj to el^o? kol fidXa ^\(jovlic6v, aiSa)<; Se tco etSet i-KLirpeiTeL koX clito-

15 ')(^pii rovTo rfj Trapeia to avdo<^, rj %atT7; Se aveL\rjTTTaL fxev vtto to ou?, iTTLKoafietTaL Be Kol Kp7]Se/ii'(p aXovpyel. Bcopov N?;p?;tSo? ?; Nai8o<; ol/jLai elvai to fcpijSe/jLvov eZ/co? yap (Tvy-^opeveLV Ta<i 6ea<; eVl to) MeXrjTi irape-

20 j^opievw ra? 7r7-jya<; ov Troppw t(x)v €/c/3oXcov- (5) BX-eTTCi Be ovtco tl rjSv koI a^eXi<^, co? fJLTjhe VTTO Tcov BaKpvcov i^aXXcLTTeiv to I'Xecov. kol i) Sepr) cTi i)Biwv viro tov firj KeKoafirjaOai' opfioL yap Kal avyal XlOcov Kal irepiBepaLa Tal<i

25 jiev ev fieTpUo tw KciXXei yvvai^lv ovk ar]hw<; TTpoaavOovai Kal vij At" copa<; tl e? avTa<; (f)€povaiv, ala)(pal<^ Be Kal ayav 6ipaiaL<^ avTi- TrpuTTOVcrr ra? pev yap eXey')(ovcn, tcov Be airdyovai. too x^^P^ dvaaKoirojpev diraXol oi

30 BaKTvXoi Kal evp,7]K6i<; Kal XevKol KaTa ttjv coXeprjv. opd^ Be Kal T)]V wXevrjv o)? Bed XevKrj<; T/}? ea6rjT0<^ XevKOTepa vTrocjiaLveTai Kal oi fjid^ol opOol viravyd^ovai.

(6) Tt ovv at XlovaaL Bevpo ; tl Be enl Tal<; 353 K. 7rr;7at9 tov Me\?;T09 ; W6i]vaL0L ttjv '\coviav

6t€ dlTCpKi^OV, yiovaaL l)y0VVT0 tov VaVTLKOV

ev etBeL /jlcXlttcov e^atpov yap tt} 'loyvla Bid TOV MeX7]Ta co? K?;(j6tcroO Kal 'OXpLetov ttotl- 5 p,d>Tepov. evT€v^r] p^ev ovv avTal<; Kal X^pevov- aaL<; iroTe evTavOa, vvvl Be yeveaiv tu> 'Op^rjpcp al ^lovaai KXcodovai Molpai^; Bokovv, Kal Bcoaei,

^ Hair covering the ears was a mark of modesty in a girl (Benndorf).

^ Rivers of Boeotia. 162

BOOK 11. 8

her figure is delicate and truly Ionian, and modesty is manifest upon it, and the colour we see in her cheeks suffices for them ; and her hair is caught up under the ear ^ and adorned with a veil of sea-purple. I think the veil is the gift of some Nereid or Naiad, for it is reasonable to assume that these goddesses dance together in honour of the river Meles, since it offers them fountains not far from its mouth. Her glance has something so charming and simple about it, that even tears do not cause it to lose its graciousness. Her neck is all the more lovely for not being adorned, since chains and flashing stones and necklaces lend a not unpleasing brilliancy to women of moderate beauty and by Zeus they con- tribute something of beauty to them, but they are not becoming to ugly women or to very beautiful women ; for they show up the ugliness of the former and detract from the beauty of the latter. Let us examine the hands ; the fingers are delicate, of graceful length, and as white as the fore-arm. And you see the forearm, how it appears yet whiter through the white garment; and the firm breasts gleam under the garment.

Why do the Muses come hither? Why are they present at the source of the Meles ? When the Athenians set out to colonize Ionia, the Muses in the form of bees guided the fleet ; for they rejoiced in Ionia, because the waters of Meles are sweeter than the waters of Cephisus and Olmeius.^ Some day, indeed, you will find them dancing there ; but now, by decree of the fates, the Muses are spinning the birth of Homer ; and Meles through his son ^

3 i.e. Homer; those who make Smyrna the birthplace of Homer regard Meles as his father.

163 M 2


Sia rov TraiBb'i o MeX.?;? Hijveia) /lep dpyvpoSlvr} elvai, TiTap7]aLct) Se Kovcpco Kal evcpopw, ^EvcTrel 10 8e Oeio) kol ^A^lw TrajKaXo), Soxrec Kal "SdvOcp TO CK Afo? Kol ^riKeavo) to e'f avTov Trai/ra?.


(1) TldvOeia 7] koXtj 'B,€VO(f)copTC /xev diro tov ■tjdov^ yiypaiTTat, otl re ^ Apdairav dirti^iov kol Kvpov ov^ i]TTdTo Kal 'A^paSdTj) i^ovXeTO kol-

15 vrjv <yrjv eirieaaaOai' oiroia he i) Kopbrj Kal i) 6(f)pv'i oar] Kal olov e/SXeire Kal o)? et;^6 tov aTo/xaTO^, ovTro) 6 "Bevocpcov elprjKe KaiTOC 86cv6<; cop irepi- XaXrjaau TavTa, dXX* dvrjp ^vy'ypd(f>eLv fxev ov^ iKavo^, ypd(f)€Lv he lKavcoTaTO<;, avTJ} fiev Ylav-

20 Oeia ovK evTV^cov, p,evo(f)a)PTi, he ofitXyjaa^ ypd(p6t, Tr]v YldvOecav, oiToiav ttj '^v)(^fj eVe/c-


(2) Ta TCLXV* ^ Tral, Kal Td<i eixTTLirpajJieva^; olKia^ Kal al Avhal al KaXai, YlepaaL^ TavTa

25 dcf)co/jL€v dyeiv re Kal alpelv 6 tl avTwv dXco-

^ The chief river of Thessaly ; for the epithet cf. 11. 2. 753.

2 A river of Thessaly ; cf. 11. 2. 751, where, however, the epithet is l/xepTSs, "lovely."

3 Also in Thessaly; cf. Od. 11. 238.

  • The chief river of Macedonia ; cf. II. 2. 850, where the

epithet is KaWia-ros.

^ The chief river of Lycia ; cf. //. 14. 434.

^ Cf. II. 21. 195 f. 'flK60voro e| ovTTfp irdvTfS iroTOLfxdi . . . vaovffiv.

' Cf. Xen. Cyr. U. 1. 31 f ; 5. 1. 6 ; G. 4. 0. According to Xenophon {Cyr. 5. 1. 1 f.) Pantlieia, wife of Abradates,



will grant to the Peneius ^ to be " silver-eddied/' to the Titaresius^ to be "nimble" and "swift/' and to the Enipeus^ to be "divine/' and to the Axius * to be "all-beautiful," and he will also grant to the Xanthus ^ to be born from Zeus, and to Oceanus ^ that all rivers spring from him.


The character of Pantheia the beautiful has been described by Xenophon/ how she disdained Araspas and would not yield to Cyrus and Avished the same earth to cover her and Abradates in the grave ; but what her hair was like, what the breadth of her brow, what her glance and the expression of her mouth Xenophon did not describe, though he was particularly clever at telling of such things ; but a man not good at writing though very clever at painting, who, though he had never seen Pantheia herself, was nevertheless well acquainted with Xenophon, here paints Pantheia as from her soul he divined her to be.

The walls, my boy, and the burned houses and the fair Lydian women — these let us leave to Persians to ravage and to capture what of them can be

was assigned to Cyrus as his share of the booty, and was entrusted by him to his boyhood friend Araspas, who fell violently in love with her She repulsed his advances (6. 1. 31) and finally appealed to Cyrus ; in gratitude to him for his protection she persuaded her husband Abradates to de- sert the enemy and make common cause with Cyrus. Then Pantheia arrayed her husband for battle in purple raiment and armour of gold, which she had had made for him, and exhorted him to bravery. When he was killed in battle, his wife brought back his body for burial, and plunged a dagger in her own breast to die on the bosom of her dead husband.



Tov. Ka\ 6 KpoLcro(;, i(f) ov t) irvpd, ov)(\ avrw 'E,€vo(f)MVTt — ovKovv olhev avTOP y ^^JX^P^^ '^V Ivvprp — TOV 8e ^ A^pahciTTiv /cat rrjv aTToOavovaav iiT^ auTw ndvdeLav, eVe^^^ ravra 7) ypa(f)7]

30 ^ovXerai, hiaafC€'yjr(o/jLe6a, olov to Spcifxa' ■ijpwv ovTOL dW7]\(0P Kol TOV KoajJiov 1) yvvr) tov eavTrj<i oirXa avTw iiroieLTO ijid'^eTO he dpa vTrep }^vpov irpo^ Kpolaov iirl TeTpappiifiov dpfiaT0<i KoX I'ttttcov oktoo . . . v€0(; 6ti iv

35 dTraXfj ttj viryjvr], oiroTe kol ot TroirjTai ra BevSpa TCL via iXeeivd rjyovvTai, Trj<; 77)9 ix- 354 K. ireaovTU. (3) to, /jlev Srj TpaiffxaTa, c5 irai, ola iK fxa'xci'ipo^opwv — TO yap KaTaKoirTeiv irpo^ TpoiTov TTJ TOiavTT] P'd'^T) — TOV 5e a\fiaTO<; dKpai(f)VOv<; oVto? to fxev to, oirXa p^patVe^ to 5 S' aiiTov, eaTi S' /cal hieppavTai KaTa tov X6(j)0V, 6 Se dpa ')(pV(Tov Kpdvov<; dveaTr)K€V vaiCLV- 6iv6<i avTcp TO) y^pvau) iTraaTpdTTTCov. (4) KaXd jxev ovv evTacpia koI tuvtI Ta oirXa too ye fit] KaTai(T')(yvavTL avTa fiijhe diro^aXovTi iv

10 TTJ fJid')(r], iroXXd Se ^Aaavptd t€ Kal AvSta KOpo? dvhpl dyaOa Bcopa dirdyet Ta t€ dXXa Kal yjrd/jLfxov ')(pvaP]v eVl dpfiafid^ij^; etc Oyjaavpcov K^polaov Ta)v dpycov, Tidvdeia Se ovira) to. TTpoa^opa ex^i'^ ijyeLTaL tov Tdcpov, el fir) iv-

15 Td(f)iov Tu> 'A/SpaSdTTj avTJ] ykvoiTO. tov puev Brj uKLvdKTjv 8i€X7]XaKev rjhr) tov aTcpvov, dXX*

1 Cf. Hdt. 1. 84, M'here the supposed impregnability of the Nvalls of Sardis is described.

2 Herodotus (1. 86) describes the pyre erected for Croesus; but Xenophon (C//r. 7. 2. 9 f. ) says notliing about the pyre, an<l in his story Croesus is not made prisoner.



captured.^ And so with Croesus^ for whom the pyre was destined,^ though Xenophon himself does not mention this — hence our painter does not know of him and does not make him a prisoner of Cyrus. But as for Abradates and Pantheia, who died upon his dead body, since this is what the painting aims to depict, let us consider them, the great tragedy they enacted. These two loved each other and the woman had made her own ornaments into armour for him ; ^ he was fighting for Cyrus against Croesus on a chariot with four poles and eight horses/ . . . [and he was slain while] still a youth of downy beard, of an age when the poets consider even young trees which have been torn out of the ground to be objects of pity.^ The wounds, my boy, are such as swords- men make — for it accords with this style of fighting so to cut down the foe — some of his pure blood stains his armour, some the man himself, and some is sprinkled on the crest which rises hyacinthine red from the golden helmet^ and sheds splendour on the gold itself. A beautiful burial offering are these arms, for one who had not brought shame upon them nor cast them away in battle ; and Cyrus brings many Assyrian and Lydian gifts to a brave man, among other things a chariot load of golden sand from the over-abundant treasures of Croesus ; but Pantheia believes that the tomb still lacks the offerings due it unless she gives herself as a funeral sacrifice to Abradates. She has already driven the dagger through her breast, but with such fortitude

^ Quoted from Xen. Cyr. G. 4. 3.

  • Quoted from ihid. 6. 4. 2.

^ e.g. II. 17. 53 f. « Quoted from Xen. Cyr. 6. 4. 2.



ovTco TL eppa)/jLei'(o<i, u)<; /u-7;Se ol/j.(oy)iv eV avrco p7]^ai. (5) K€LTac yovv, to arofia ^v/jL/ierpLuv rrjv kavTOV (fyvXarrov koI vj] At" (opav, ?;? to

20 civ6o<; OVTCO n eirl ')(^ei\eaLv, o)^ koX aiwiTooati^ €K(f)aLveaOaL. ciTDjpTTjrai, ^ Se ovttco top d/ct- vcLKi-jVy dXX ivepeihei en ^vve^ovaa t/}? Ka)7ry]<; avTov — J] Se KGoirr] poirdXtp ^^pucrft* e'lKaarat a/jLapajBivrp tov<; 6^ov<; — dW' 7jSlov<; ol BdKTvXoi,

25 — ixeTa^e/3X')]Ke re ouhev rod e'cBov^ vnb rov dXyelv, ?/ je /xySe dXyelv eoiKev, aXV diTLevai y^aipovaa, on avT)jv TrefMiret. diretaL Be ov)(^ axTTrep i) rov YlpcoreaLXeco Karaare^Oelaa ol^ i^dK-)(^evaev, ovh' wairep i) rov KaTrai^eo)? olov

30 6vaLa<; araXelaa ^ dXX^ daKevaarov ro koXXo^ KoX olov eirl rod W/3paBdrov rjv (f)vXdrrec avro KoX dirdyei, 'X^airrjv fiev ovro) /xeXaivdv re Koi d/ji(f)LXa(f)P) irepixeaaa roL<; w/xot? Kal rco av)(^evi, Bep-qv Be XevKi-jv vireKCpaLVovaa, r]v eBpvyp-aro

35 fiev, ov fxiiv &)? alcr'xyvai' rd yap ai^fxela rwv

ovv^wv rjBico ypa(f)rj<;. (6) To Be ev rfj irapeia

355 K. €pevdo<; ovBe diroOvrjaKOvaav Biacfyevyei, ')(^opt]yol

Be aurov y re copa xal i) alB(t)<;. IBou Kal

^ air-npr-qTai Keiske and Jacobs: avT]prif)Tai. 2 (TTaXflffa Rohde, cf. infra 385. 11 : a^9i~L(Ta. The restoration is very uncertain.

^ Protesilaiis Mas the first of the Greeks to die before Troy {11. 2. 70(J f.). The story of his wife's deatli for love of him as descril)ed in the tragedy- of Euripides (cf. Ma^'cr, Hermes XX. 114 f.) is illustrated on a sarcophagus in Naples (Baumeister, Denkmiiler, fig. 1574). Laodameia, Avho was celebrating Bacchic rites, sinks down in astonishment when her husband, his prayer for a brief return to his wife being

1 68


that she has not uttered even a groan at the thrust. At any rate she lies theie, her mouth retaining its natural shapeliness and by Zeus a beauty the bloom of which so rests upon her lips that it shines forth clear, silent though she is. She has not yet drawn out the dagger but still presses on it, holding it by the hilt — a hilt that resembles a golden stalk with emeralds for its branches — but the fingers are more charming still ; she has lost none of her beauty through pain, and indeed she does not seem to suffer pain at all but rather to depart in joy because she sends herself away. And she departs, not like the wife of Protesilaiis,i wreathed with the garlands of the Bacchic rites she had been celebrating, nor yet like the wife of Capaneus,^ decked out as for sacrifice ; but she keeps her beauty unadorned and just as it was while Abradates was alive, and takes it thus away with her, letting her thick black hair fall unrestrained over her shoulders and neck, yet just showing her white throat, which she had torn in her grief, though not in a way to disfigure it ; indeed the marks made by her finger-nails are more charming than a painting.^ The flush on her cheeks has not left her even in death ; her beauty and modesty have supplied it. Look at the moderately up- granted, appears to her. When liis day with her is ended, slie plunges a dagger in her breast to join him in Hades.

2 Eur. SuppL 1054 f. Evadne, decked in festal attire, appears on the rocks above the funeral pyre of her husband Capaneus, and throws herself into the flames.

2 "As in a picture" is a Greek phrase for something beautiful ; cf. Aesch. Again. 242, irpeiTovcrd. 0' is eV ypa<pa7s of Iphigeneia. Benndorf compares the scars of wounds on the well-known bronze statue of a boxer in the Museo Xazionale, Rome, Ant. Denkm. I. 4. p. 2.



fMVKrPjpe^i dvearaX/jLevot to /jLerpiov koI jSdaiv rfj pivl 7rpdTT0i'T€<;, t;? coairep irropOoL fi7]vo€LS€t<^ al 5 ocppve^i VTTO \evKcp rro percoTrco peXaivai. roi)? he 6(f)6a\pov^, w iral, yu?) cnro rov p,€ye6ov<; p,r]S' el p,eKave<^, ciWa rov re vovv Oewpwpev, 6<70<; ev avTOt<; earc koI vrj ^ia oiroaa tmv tT;? '^l'X% dyaOojv ecTTraaav e\eeiv(b<; p,ev Sia-

10 Keip^evoL, Tov Se (paiBpcj^; ex^^v ovk diT7fK\a>yp,evot, KoX OapaaXeoL p.ev, Xoytcrpov 8e e'laci) pdWov i) ToX/x?;?, Kal rod pev Oavdrov ^vvievre<;, ovTro) Se tt7rtoz/T69. 67ra86<; Be epcora l'p,epo<; ovtco tl eniKe'X^VTaL rot? 6(f)6akp.ol^, o)? eTrihrjXoTara By

15 dir' avTMV diToardl^eiv. (6) yeypairrai Kal 6 "E/jft)9 ev laropla tov epyov, yeypaiTTai koI rj AvBia TO alp,a viToBe')(^opevi] Kal ^(pvaw ye, co? 6pa<;, Tw koXtto).


(1) 0/ Keip,evoi kut aXXo^ aXXo tov dvBpwvo^

Kal TO dvapl^ tw o\v(p alp.a Kal ol eKirveovTe^ eirl

20 Tpaire^MV KpaTr^p t€ ovToal XeXaKTLapLevo<^ viro

dvBp6<;, o? Trpo? avTw (Jiraipei, Koprj re 'X^p^fa p,(p-

Bo<; TrjV (TToXi]v et? ireXeKw epLTreaovp,evov eavTrj

1 Cf. the nose of the Farnese Hena with nostrils slightly curling up, or the head on a vase by Euphronius (Fig. 20), Tfuhl, Malerei unci Zdchnung der Oriechen, Taf. 415 C.

- Cf. l']ur. ffipjy. 525 f. "E/jws, "Epws, t /car' ofiixdruv ard^eis irddov.

^ The text is rendered as it stands, but it is probably corrupt.


[To/ace p. 171.


curved nostrils ^ that form a base for the nose from which the crescent eyebrows spring like branches^ black beneath the white forehead. As for the eyes^ my boy, let us not consider them for their size, nor ask if they are black, but let us consider the great intelligence there is in them, and by Zeus all the virtues of the soul which they have absorbed ; for though their state excites pity, yet they have not lost their look of gladness, and though they are courageous, yet they show the courage of reason rather than of rashness, and though they are aware of death, they have not yet departed from life. Desire, the companion of love, so suffuses the eyes that it seems clearly to drip from them.^ Love also is represented in the picture, as a part of the narrative of the deed ;^ so also is the Lydian woman,* catching the blood, as you see, in a fold of her golden robe.


The men who lie here and there in the men's great hall, the blood commingled with the wine, the men who sprawling on the tables breathe out their life, and yonder mixing-bowl that has been kicked aside by the man who lies gasping beside it,^ a maiden in the garb of a prophetess who gazes at the axe which is about to descend upon her —

  • A Lydian woman representing the land of Lydia, which

was the scene of the incident depicted.

^ Cf. the words of the shade of Agamemnon to Odysseus, Od. 11. 419 f. "Thou wouldst have felt most pity hadst thou seen that sight, how about the mixing-bowl and the laden tables we lay in the hall, and the floor all swam with blood." Trans. Murray, L.C, L.



/SXenovaa — rov Wy a/jLe/ivova i]KOVTa e/c Tpola^ 7] KXvrai/j,V7]aTpa hex^Tai tovtco rpoirw?- xal

25 Tou? fiep dX\ou<; aWoL Kreivovaiv ovtm fxeOv- ovra^;, 0)9 fcal rbv Aiyia6ov Oaparjaai to epyov, 7; KXvTat/jLV^o-Tpa Se ireirXov re^vrj tivo<; ciTreipov top ^ Ay a fie /xv ova 7repia)(ovo-a ireXeKW e? avTov TjKev afKp/jK?] tovtov, 0? Kal ra hevSpa

30 aipel Tci fxeydXa, r/jv re rod Upcdfiov Koprjv KaXXlarrjv vopLiaOetaap icp ^ XyapbepLVOVL XP^^' 350 K. [xov<; re airLaTovpLerov; oiBovaav dirofCTeivei deppw" Tw ireXefcei. kol ei fiev &)? hpafia e^erd^o/jiev, w Trai, ravra, TerpaywSrjrat /xeydXa ev ajXLKpw, el 3' a)<; ypa(pj]v, TrXeiM ev avroU oyjret. 5 (2) Xfcoiretydp' Xa/x7rT?}/?e9 outol x^oprjyol (f)(0T6<; — eV vv/ctI yap ravrd irov — KpaTrjpe^; S' eKelvoi Xoprjyol 7T0T0V (pavorepoi rod 7rvpo<; 01 ^/jfaoi, 7rX?;/oef? he oyfrcop rpdire^ai, jSacrtXeif; wv eac- rovvTO Tjpcjoe^, ev Koaficp 8e ^ ovBev tovtcov diro-

' The text follows L, except that oD'tw /u^ before koX tovs fxev aWovs, which is marked as wrong in L, is omitted (following Kayser). The Teubner text (Benndorf-Schenkl) reads Tponcf ovtw /x^OuouTa, ws koI, omitting all reference to the companions of Agamemnon.

2 Ofp/xif in conj. Benndorf, cf. 36G. IG, en d^pixif Dilthoy, of. Theocr. xvii. 21, Plut. Fabi us 26.

^ 5e Jacobs : re.

^ There is no tradition that Agamemnon was drunk, as the Teubner text is amended to say ; rather, it is the drunkenness and powerlessness of his followers which



thus Clytemnestra welcomes Agamemnon on his return from Troy. And wliile others are slaying Agamemnon's followers.^ who are so drunken as to embolden even Aegisthus for the deed, Clytemnestra, enveloping Agamemnon in a device of a mantle from which there is no escape,^ brings down upon him this two-edged axe by which even great trees are laid low,^ and the daughter of Priam, esteemed by Agamemnon as of surpassing beauty, who chanted prophecies that were not believed, she slays with the still warm axe.* If we examine this scene as a drama, my boy, a great tragedy has been enacted in a brief space of time, but if as a painting, you will see more in it than a drama. For look, here are torches to provide light — evidently these events take place at night — and yonder are mixing-bowls to provide drink, bowls of gold brighter than the torches' flame, and there are tables laden with food, the food on which hero kino;s were feasting ; but all these things are in disorder, for the banqueters

embolden Aegisthus to carry out his plan. Apparently the plan referred to is the ambush of warriors {<Jd. 11. 529 f.) who can successfully overcome the veterans from Troy only because the latter are drunken.

2 Aeschylus {Again. 1382) speaks of a net, Euripides {Orest. 25) of a mantle, " from which there is no escape."

3 Soph. EL 92 f.

"All night I muse upon my father dead,

Not in a foreign land at Ares' call,

But, here at home, by my own mother slain,

Her and Aegisthus, these adulterers twain ;

Felled by their axe's bloody stroke,

E'en as a woodman fells an oak. "

Trans. Storr, L.C.L Cf. II. 1.3. 390 f.

  • Cf. Aesch, Agam. 1278. "Butchered by the hot stroke of

bloody sacrifice." Trans. Smyth, L.C.L.



10 6vrj(TKovTe^ yap oi Bairu/ji6v€<i ra fiev XeXuKTicr- rai, TO, Be avi^TerptTrrai, ra Se drr' avrcou fcelrai. /cal KvXiK€<; Be Ik ■^(eipMv TriirrovaL TrXijpeL^i at TToXXal XvOpoVy Kal clXky] t(op aTroOpyaKovTCJV ovSe/ila' fxeOvovaL yap. (3) Ta Be rcov Kei/xevcop

15 (T)(^7]/iaTa 6 fJLev iKrer/JLijraL rrjv (pdpvyya aijov tl Tj TTOTOv eXKOvaav, 6 8' diroKeKOTTraL ttjv K€(f)aXr)v €9 TOP Kparrjpa KviTTdiP, 6 Be aTnjpaKraL ttjp p^et/ja (jiepovaap eKircofia, 6 Be icfyeXKerai ttjv rpciTre^ap eKireacop t/}? KXipy)<;, 6 3' a'? (o/jlov<; kuI

20 KecpaXijp KelraL, 7roi7}Tr)<; dp (f)aLrj Kv/jLfia)(^o<;, 6 B' diriarel tw Oavdrw, 6 Be ovfc eppcorat (f)vyeLP olop iTeBri<; €/uL^€^XTj/bi€P)]<; avrw r/}? fieOr]^' oiXpo*^ Be ovBeU twp KeLfxepwp, eireiBri Tou? ep oipo) diToOp-pcTKOPTa^; ovk €vOv<; dTToXeiireL

25 TO dp0o<;

(4) To Be /cvpLcorarop rfj^ (TK7-)pf]<; ^Ayafie/ipcop e')(eL K6Lfxepo(; ovk ep 7reBiOL<; TpcoiKOL<; ovBe eVl ^Ka/jidpBpov TLPo<i ^ r]i6aLP, dXX^ ep /jLetpaKLOi^; Kal yvpaioL^, ^ov^ eTrl (pdrpr) — rovrl yap to /nerd

30 T0U9 7r6pov<; re Kal to ep Beiirpw — Kvpicorepa Be

ep oXktw rd t>}? }\.aadpBpa<;, o)? €(f)earrjKe /lep

avTTj fierd tov TreXe/cew? 7; KXvraLfjipyjaTpa

  • Foerster suggests Sirrjej/Tos, the Homeric epitliet, for

1 Cf. OcL 22. 19 f. "And quickly he [Antinoiis] thrust the table from liim with a kick of his foot, and spilled all the food on the floor, and the bread and roast flesh were defiled." Trans. Murray, L.C.L. Benndorf points out that


in their death throes have kicked some over,^ others have been shattered^ others lie at a distance from the banqueters. And cups^ most of them defiled with gore, fall from their hands ; nor have the dying men any power to defend themselves, for they are drunken. As for the attitudes of those that have fallen, one has had his throat cut as he is partaking of food or of drink, another as he bent over the mixing-bowl has had his head cut off, another has had his hand lopped off as it carried a beaker, another as he tumbled from his couch drags the table after him, another has fallen head foremost," as a poet would say,^ upon his shoulders and head ; one has no suspicion of death, and another lacks the strength to flee since drunkenness like a fetter has enchained him. Nor is any one of the fallen pallid of hue, since when men die in their cups the flush does not immediately leave their faces.

The most prominent place in the scene is occupied by Agamemnon, who lies, not on the plains of Troy ^ nor on the banks of some Scamander, but among boys and women-folk, like ^^an ox at the crib " * — for this means rest after toil and partaking of food — but even more striking in its pathos is the figure of Cassandra — the way Clytemnestra, her eyes

the description follows the scene on reliefs depicting the death of the suitors of Penelope, particularly on the reliefs from Trysa, Benndorf-Neumann, Das Heroon von Gjolhaschi. ^ Cf. II. 5. 585 f. €Kirea€ dlcppov KV/x^axos eV Koiirjaiy, ^ Cf. Aesch. Choeph. 3Q3i. Electrapoints the same contrast between death on the battlefield and by treachery at home.

  • Cf. Od. 11. 411. ws tIs re /coxewTove ^ov;'67rl (pdrvrj. In the

proverb the ox is at rest and eating, i.e. it means rest after toil and enjoying food.



fiavLKov ^XeiTOVcra kuI a€(7o^7]/jLevrj ra? ^atra?

Kol rpa^ela ttjv coXevtjv, avii] he co? d^pco<; re

35 fcal evOeco^; e^ovaa irepLireaelv wp/xijKe to)

'Aya/iefii'ovt pLinovaa d(p' avT}]<i ra aTe/jL/jLara

357 K. Kal olov Trepi/SdWovaa rf} Te)(vr] avjov, Si7]p-

fievov he i]hr) rou TreXe/ceco? dva(TTpe(f)€L tol/?

6(f)0a\/jLOV(; eKel, ^oa he ovtco tl otKTpov, co?

Kol TOP Wyafie/jLvova tw Xoitto) t^9 "^v^V^ iXeelv

5 ravra ciKovovra' jjiefivrjaeTaL yap avrcdv Kal ev

A'lhov 7rpo<; ^Ohvaaea ev rfj ciyopa roov yj/v^cov.

la HAN

(1) Top Tldva al NuyLt<^at 7rov7]pM<; (^aa\v op'^elcrOai Kal eKirrjhdv rod TrpoarJKOvro^ e^aipovja Kal dvaOpcpcFKovTa KaTa tov^ dyepcD^ovs to)v

10 Tpdywv, avral h' av ixerahthd^aiev avrov erepav opxrjaiv rjhico tm ijOei, ir poa e^ovT t, S' avTal<^ ovhev, dWa Treipoovri avrd<^ Kal dTrorera/jLevo} Tov KoXirov eTTLTiOevraL Kara fieaij/ji/SpLap, ore hr] \eyerai KaOevheiv o Yldv eK\€\oi7rco<; ryv

15 6i]pav. (2) 'EA'a^eL'Se 5' dpa Trporepov fxev dveifxevo'^ re Kal Tr/jao? ttjv plva Kal to €7rL)(o\ov auT/}? Xeaivwv tw vttvm, Tijfxepov he inrep'^^oXa' TrpocnreaovaaL yap avrw al Nu/x^at, TrepiTJKrat, fiev ijhy] TO) %etpe 6 Ilaz^, hehce he iwl tol^

^ Cf. Od. 11. 421. The soul of Agamemnon says, "But the most piteous cry that I heard was that of the daugliter of Priam, Cassandra, whom guileful Clytemnestra slew by my side. And I sought to raise my hands and smite down tlie murderess, dying though I was, pierced through with tiie



crazed, her hair flying, her arm savagely raised, stands over her with the axe, and the way Cassandra herself, tenderly and in a state of inspiration, has tried to throw herself upon Agamemnon as she hurls her fillets from her and as it were casts about him the protection of her prophetic art ; and as the axe is now poised above her, she turns her eyes toward it and utters so pathetic a cry that even Agamemnon, with the remnant of life that is in him, pities her, hearing her cry ; for he will recount it to Odysseus in Hades in the concourse of souls. ^

11. PAN

Pan, the nymplis say, dances badly and goes beyond bounds in his leaping, leaping up and jumping aloft after the manner of sportive goats ; and they say that they would teach him a different kind of dancing, of a more delightful character; when he, however, pays no heed to them but, his garment extended, tries to make love to them they set upon him at noon, when Pan is said to abandon the hunt and go to sleep. Formerly he used to sleep relaxed, with peaceful nostriP and soothing his angry spirit with slumber, but to-day he is very angry ; for the Nymphs have fallen upon him, and already Pan's hands have been tied behind his back, and he fears for his legs since sword.'- Trans. Murray, L.C.L. Cf. Aescli. Agam. 1262 f. ; Eur. Troad. 450 f.

^ Cf. Theocr. 1. 17. "No, no, man ; there's no piping for me at high noon. I go in too great dread of Pan for that. I wot high noon's his time for taking rest after the swink o' the chase ; and he's one of the tetchy sort ; his nostril's ever sour wrath's abiding place." Trans. Edmonds, Greek Bucolic Poets, L.C.L.

177 N


'2.0 (TKeXeaw, CTreiSi] ^ovXovrai aipeiv^ avrd. to Be S?] yeveiov, ov TrXetdTo? avrw X070.9, i^vpijrai /jLay^aiplScov €a/3€^X7]KVi(ov e? avro, cfyaal he rrfv 'H;)^co avarreiaeiv virepopav re avrov koI fjLrjSe (f)0eyyea6aL 7rpo<; avrov en. (3) TaOra al

25 NvfKpac iravavhi, av Be Kara hr'jixov^ avra<; opa' TCL jxev yap TO)v NatScov el'S?; — paviBa<; airoppai- vovatv avrac r^? k6/jl7]<; — Be Trepl rah I3ovk6\oi<; av')(/jLb<i ovBev (j)avX6Tepo<; rr)? Bpoaov, al Be ^AvOovcrac Ta9 )(aLTa<; eKire^vfcaaiv vaKLvOivoL^

,30 6 fio id) <; CIV 6 ea LP.

358 K. fyS' niNAAPOS

(1) Ol/iai Oavpd (TOL elvac Ta<; jxeXiTTa^ ovtcj yXi(T)(^pw^ yeypap.jxkva'^y a)V ye Kal irpovo/JLaia BjjXr) Kal TToBe^ Kol irrepa /cal to -^pco/ia rr}? aroXi]^ ovic araKTOvaLV, caa ttj (j)vaeL BiairoLKiX-

5 Xov(n]<; avrd ttJ? ypa(f)y]<;. tl ovv ovk ev aiiJi^XoL^ al ao^ai ; ri Be iv daTei ; KcopLa^ovaiv ivl Ta<; Tov AalcpdvTov Ovpa<; — yeyove Be r]Br} YlivBapo^, &)? 6pa<; — irXdrretv ^ kuk vrjTTLOV avrov, 'iv €p.juLeXr)(; 7]Br] Kal efjL/jLOVcro<; y, Kal TTOiovai ravra.

10 (2) To piev yap iraiBiov eU Bd^vrjv diroKeiTai Kal KXa)va<; p,vppivy]^ ^vpL^aXXo/jLevov rov Trarpo^i lepov rev^eaOai rov iiaiBo^, dcf a)v Kvp,^aXd re Kar)']^ei rf]<; 0LKLa<i, ore eriKrero, Kal rvpLrrrava r]Kovero Ik 'Pea?, eXeyovro Be Kal al Nvp,(f)ai,

^ So all the MSS. except F and P, which give atptiv. ^ irKaTTdv Welcker : -nXaTTn.

1 Cf. Od. 6. 231. K6fJias vaKivQivo) ^ydei d/j-olas. Cf. supra, p. 9"), n. 1.



the Nym[)hs wish to seize them. Moreover^ his beard, which he values most highly, has been shaven off with razors which have been roughly applied to it, and they say that they will persuade Echo to scorn him and no longer even to answer his call. Here are the Nymphs in a group, but do you look at them by classes ; for some are Xaiads — ■ these who are shaking drops of dew from their hair ; and the lean slenderness of the pastoral nymphs is no whit less beautiful than the dew ; and the flower nymphs have hair that resembles hyacinth flowers.^


1 suppose you are surprised that these bees^ are painted with such detail, for the proboscis is clearly to be seen, and feet and wings and the colour of their garb are as they should be, since the painting gives them the many hues with which nature endows them. Why, then, are the clever insects not in their hives ? Why are they in a city ? They are going on a revel to the doors of Daiphantes ^ — for Pindar has already been born, as you see — in order to mould the babe from earliest childhood that he may even now be inspired with harmony and music ; and they are busy with this task. For the child has been laid on laurel branches and sprays of myrtle, since his father conjectured that he was to have a sacred son, inasmuch as cymbals resounded in the house when the child was born, and drums of Rhea were heard, and the Nymphs also, it was said, danced for him,

2 Cf. Aelian, Varia Hidoria 12. 45 : UivSdpCf} ras irarpcfas olKias eKTedfvTi fxeXirrai Tpo^oX iy4vovTO, yirep tov yaAuKTOS Traparieelaai ih^Xl. See Paus. 9. 23. 2 ; Dio Chrys. Or. 64. 22.

3 The father of Pindar.

179 n2


15 ^(^opevaai ol koI avaaKipTrjaai rov II ai'a' (^aal

he avTov, ore \\ivhapo<; e? to iroielv dcpL/cero,

a/j.e\7JcravTa rod crKcprdv aheiv ra rov IlivBdpov,

(3) 'H 'Pea 5e ayaXfia eKveTroviirai kol /caOl-

Spvrai, /jL6v avTOV koI irepl 6vpa<^, ol/iac Be koI

20 \idov TO ayoKfia (palveaOat KareaKXriKviw^ iuravOa t/}? ypacf)T}<; fcal rl yap dWo rj e^ea- p,6U7j<; ; dyei koI Td<; NuyLt^a? evBp6aov<; kol o'La<; €K TTijycov, 6 Be Yldv €^opx€CTaL fiev pvOpuov Bi] Tiva, (paiBphv Be avTu> to elBo<; kol ri}? pLv6<;

25 ovBev x^XojBe^;. (4) Ai ^e elaco /jLeXcTTUt irepi- epyd^ovTai to iraiBiov €7ri/3dXkovaai to fieXt koI Ta KevTpa dveKKOvaai Bkei tov ey)^piaaL. i^ 'Tp,7]TT0v Tdya ijKOvai koX diro rwz' XnrapMv KoX doiBifiwv KOL yap tovto olpai avTd<;

30 eva-Td^ai nivBdpw.


(1) A/ TOV ireXdyovi dve(TTr]icvlai ireT paL kol .359 K. ?; ^eovaa irepl avTd<; OdXaTTa r]p(i)<; re Beivov /SXeTTcov eirl tmv ireTpcov kul tl Kal (j>povi]fiaTO^ e'X^cjdv eirl tijv OdXaTTav — o AoKpo^ /3e^X7]Tai /lev T1JV eavTov vavv, e/iTTvpov Be avTp)^ diroiri]- 5 Bi](Ta<; ofjLoae Kex(*^pr]Ke tol^ KUfxao-c, tcov fiev Bi€K7raicov, Ta Be eTnaTrco/xevo'^, tcl Be viravTXcbv Tw aTepvcp, Tvpal<; B' evTV)(^d>v — al Be Tvpal

^ Cf. p. 177 supra.

' Pindar, Frag. 76 Bgk. "Oh! the gleaming, and the violet-crowned, and the sung in story ; the bulwark of Hellas, famous Athens, city divine." Trans. Sandys, L.C.L.



and Pan leaped aloft ; nay, they say that when Pindar began to write poetry, Pan neglected his leaping and sang the odes of Pindar.

A carefully wrought statue of Rhea has been set up by the very door, and methinks the statue is clearly of marble, for the painting has taken on a certain hardness at this point and wliat else is it, pray, but carved stone? She brings both the Nymphs of early morning dew and the Nymphs of the springs, and Pan is dancing a certain measure, and his expression is radiant and his nostril ^ without a trace of anger. The bees inside the house are busily at work over the boy, dropping honey upon him and drawing back their stings for fear of stinging him. From Hymettus doubtless they have come, and from the " gleaming city sung in story"; for I think that this is what they instilled into Pindar. 2


The rocks rising out of the water and the boiling sea about them, and on the rocks a hero glaring fiercely and with a certain proud defiance toward the sea — the ship of the Locrian^ has been struck by lightning; and leaping from the ship as it bursts into flame, he struggles with the waves, sometimes breaking his way through them, sometimes drawing them to him, and sometimes sustaining their weight with his breast ; but when he reaches the Gyrae —

^ Ajax, son of Oileus ; the storj' follows quite closely the Homeric account, Od. 4. 499 f. According to Hyginus and the mathematician Hero, where the story is described in scenes on the stage, it is Athena who causes the shipwreck and death of Ajax because he had snatched the Palladium from Cassandra (cf. Schone, Jahr. d. Arch. Inst. V. 73 f. )•



nerpaL elalv vTrep^aivovaaL rod Alyalov koXttov ■ — -Xoyov^ v7rep(f)poi>a<; Xeyec Kara rcov Oecov

10 avTcov, e(f) oh o YLoaeihcov avTo<; iirl Ta<; Vvpa<; areWeraL (po^epo'i, ay iral, Kal x^Cfjbcovo^ TrXeco? Kal Ta<; ;>^atTa9 €^y]pfJL€Po<;. Kairoi irore Kal avve/ndx^i' tcS AoKpro Kara to "iXiov, aw^po- vovvTL he Kal (peiBo/xepo) roov Oecov — eppcovvu

15 avTov Toj aKj]7rrp(p — -fVvv S\ iireiSr] v/Spi^ovra opa, Tjjv Tpiatvav iir avrov (pepec Kal TreTrXyj^erai 6 av)(r]v rrj? irerpa^; 6 ave)(^cDV top Aiavja, co? aiTocreiaaLTO avTov avTy v^pei.

(2) 'O /jL€v 8r) X6yo<; tt;? ypa(j)yj<; outo?" ToBe ^

20 8' evapye^' XevKrj jxev vtto KVfidrcov rj OdXaTTa, GiTiXdhe'^ 8' al irerpai Sid to del paiveaOaL, irvp he €K fiearj^; arTei ri}? ve(jo<;, e? b ifjurvewv 6 dvefMO'^ irXel i) vav^ en KaOdirep lariQ) XP^/^^^V '^^ TTvpL 6 he ATa? olov Ik jxeOrf^; dva^epwv irepL-

25 adpel to 7reXayo<; ovTe vavv opcov ovTe yrjv, Kal ovhe"^ Tov Yloaeihoi TrpoaiovTa hehoiKev, dXX eoLKe hiaTeivofjiev{p err outtco tou? ^pa)(^iova^ i) poofjirj d-noXeXoiTrev, 6 avx,^]P re dveaTi-jKev olo<; iirl "EKTOpa Kal Tyowa?. 6 /lev hrj Hoaeihcov

30 e/j,ffaXo)u ttjv Tpiaivav dirapd^et ^ to Tpvcpo^;

avTO) AiavTL T?}9 ireTpas, at he Vvpal al Xonral

^ T('5e Capps : TO 5e. ^ oi/Se Kayser : oIjtc.



the Gyrae^ are rocks that stand out in the Aegean gulf — he utters disdainful words against the very godsj whereupon Poseidon himself sets out for the Gyrae, terrible^ my boy, tempestuous, his hair standing erect. And yet in former days he fought as an ally of the Locrian against Ilium, when the hero was discreet and forbore to defy the gods — indeed, Poseidon strengthened him with his sceptre ; ^ but now, when the god sees him waxing insolent, he raises his trident against the man and the ridge of rock that supports Ajax will be so smitten that it will shake him off, insolence and all.

Such is the story of the painting, but what is shown to the eye is this : the sea is whitened by the waves ; the rocks are worn by the constant drenching ; flames leap up from the midst of the ship, and as the wind fans the flames the ship still sails on as if using the flames as a sail. Ajax gazes out over the sea like a man emerging from a drunken sleep, seeing neither ship nor land ; nor does he even fear the approaching Poseidon, but he looks like a man still tense for the struggle ; the strength has not yet left his arms, and his neck still stands erect even as when he opposed Hector and the Trojans. As for Poseidon, hurling his trident he will dash in pieces the mass of rock along with Ajax himself, but the rest of the Gyrae will remain

^ Located by the ancients near M3'conos, or, more commonly, off the Eastern promontor}' of Euboea.

2 Cf IL 13. 59. "Therewith the Shaker of Earth smote the twain [the two Ajaxesl with his staif and filled them with valorous strength." Cf. p. 156, n. 1.

^ a-rrapd^fi Reiske, Jacobs : ayarapd^ei F L : dpa|et P.



fievovat T€, €9 oaop OdXarra, kuI aavXoL kcni]' ^ovGL T(p Tloaeihcovi.


360 K. (I) AlyvTrrid^ei /J.ev i) Trpoa^oXy t?}? <ypa<^rj^, 6 X6709 Be avT>]<; ovk AlyvTmo^;, aXX' ol/iai SerTaXcJv' Al-yvmioi'^ jxev yap irapa rov NeiXov r) ryrj, ©erraXot? Be Il7jv€i,6<; ov avve')(^oopei 5 TToXaL yrjp e^eiv, Trept^SefiXrjfievcov tol<; TreStoi? opcjv Kol Tov p€vp.aTO<^ i7TiKXv^ovTO<; avrd vno Tov /jLtjTTO) eKpaXelv. pij^et ovv 6 YioaeiBwv rfj TpLaivTj TO, oprj kol TTuXa? rw Trora/jLw epydaerai. (2) TovTO) yap vvvl toj epyw icpeaTTjKev dOXcov

10 avro fcal dvafcaXvTrrcov ra ireBla, Kal Biriprai fjcev 1) %6t/3 eU TO dvappTj^ai, ra Be opr], jrplv 7TeTTXrj')(6ai, BiiaTarac to diTO)(po3v raj Trorafiaj fjLejpov. dycovL^o/j^evi]^; Be tt/jo? to evapye<^ t^9 Te)(yi]<; rd Be^id tov T[oa€iBct)Vo<s ofiov Kal

15 VTrearaXrai, Kal Trpo/Se/SrjKe Kal direLXel rrjv TrXtjyrjv ovk diro t/}? 'X,eip6^, dXX' diro tov <T(i)/jLaTo<;. yeypaiTTai Be ov Kvdveo<; ovBe OaXdT-

^ Cf. Od. 4. 505 f. "Poseidon heard his boastful speech and straightway took his trident in his mighty hands, and smote the rock of (iyrae and clove it in sunder. And one part abode in its place, but the sundered part fell into the sea, even that on which Aiassat . . . and bore him down into the boundless surging tleep.'" Trans. Murra}', L.C.L.

2 "That Kgypt to which the Greeks sail is land acquired


by the Egyptians, given them by the river. Hdt.

^ Cf. Hdt. 7. I'iU : "In ancient days, it is said, tliere was not yet this channel, but those rivers . . . had the same volume of water as now, and thereby turned all Thessaly into a sea. Now the Thessalians sa}' that Poseidon made this



as long as the sea shall last and will stand unharmed henceforth by Poseidon.^


This painting suggests Egypt at first view^ but the story it tells is not Egyptian ; rather, in my opinion, it deals with the Thessalians. For whereas the land which the Egyptians occupy is a gift of the Nile,^ the Thessalians in early times were not permitted by the Peneius to have any land at all, since mountains encompassed the level spaces, which the stream continually flooded because it had as yet no outlet.^ Therefore Poseidon will break through the mountains with his trident and open a gateway for the river. Indeed, this is the work which he has now under- taken, the mighty task of uncovering the plains ; his hand is raised to break the mountains apart, but, before the blow has fallen, they separate a sufficient space to let the river through. In the painter's effort to make the action clear, the right side of Poseidon has been at the same time both drawn back and advanced * and he threatens to strike his blow, not merely with his hand, but with his whole body. He is painted, not dark blue nor yet as a

passage whereby the Peneius flows ; and this is reasonable ; for whosoever believes that Poseidon is the shaker of the earth and that rifts made by earthquakes are that god's handiwork, will judge from the sight of that passage that it is of Poseidon's making ; for it is an earthquake, it seems to me, that haa riven the mountains asunder." Trans. Godley, L.C.L.

  • Apparently the body, including the right side, is bent

backward in order to lend its force to the blow, while it it twisted so that the right side is more advanced than the left.



T/o?, (iX,X' T]7r€Lpa)T7](;. tw tol Kal dcnrd^eTaL ra irehia Kal ofiaXd IBcov Kal evpea, Kaddirep

20 OaXdrra^i. (3) XaipeL Kal 6 irorajjio^ olov av)(cov^ Kal (fyuXdrrcov to e<? dyKCjpa — Trora/JLO) yap 6p6ova9at ov avvrjOe^ — dvaTiOeTai rov Ttrapyj(TL0V &)? Koucpov Kal Trori/jLcorepov Kal ofioXoyel rep TioaeihoyvL eKpvi]aea6ai 68a) xpdi-

25 fjL€vo<;, dviaxei Kal 7) QerraXLa avvi^dvovro^ ijSi] Tov vSaTo<; eXala Ko/JLcoaa Kal daTd)(^VL Kal TTcoXov e^aiTTOfJievrj avvavia^ovTO'^. earat yap Kal iTTTro? avrfj irapd tov nocretScoz^o?, orav rrjv diroppoijv TOV Oeov Ka6evhovTO<^ 7) yrj vTroBe^yjTat

30 et? 'lttttov.


(1) T^oaTTOpov Kal ^VfXTrXTjydScov rj 'Apyco

BieKirXevcraaa fiiaov rjSr] Tefivei to poBiov tov

(U K. YiovTOV, Kal OeXyei ttjv OdXaTTav 'O/O^eu? ahwv,

^ For ahx^t' Heberdey and others suggest Aufle/s ("set free "), Jacobs apOds (" elated "). Most MSS. give alQis.

^ e.g. the river god Cephisus in the west pediment of the Parthenon.

2 i.e. the river Titaresius is a tributary of tlie river Peneius; the river and the river-god Peneius are identified in a way somewhat confusing to the reader.

^ Glaucus, a sea divinity, is associated with Anthedon, a city on the north coast of Boeotia near the Locrian border. He M'as the son of Anthedon, eponymous hero of the city, and Halcyone (the "kingfisher'). A fisherman, he noted that one of the fish he had caught came to life again by contact with a certain lierb and leapt into the sea. When he himself tasted tlie same herb, he also plunged into the sea and became a sea divinity. 186


god of the sea^ but as a god of the mainland. Accordingly he greets the plains as he sees that they are both broad and level like stretches of the sea. The river also rejoices as one exulting ; and, keeping the usual posture of resting on his elbow 1 (since it is not customary for a river to stand erect), he takes up the river Titaresius^ as being light water and better to drink and promises Poseidon that he will flow out in the course he has made. Thessaly emerges, the water already subsiding ; she wears tresses of olive and grain and grasps a colt that emerges along with her. For the horse also is to be her gift from Poseidon, when the earth shall receive the seed of the god while he sleeps and shall bear a horse.


After passing through the Bosporus and between the Symplegadae the Argo is already cutting its way through the midst of the surging Euxine and Orpheus is beguiling the sea by his singing, moreover the Euxine

The story of the Argo and the golden fleece, the fleece of the ram that bore Phrixus and Helle over the Hellespont, belongs to the heroes of the generation before the Trojan war. The keel of the Argo was fashioned of the oracular oak at Dodona, the rustling of whose leaves made known the will of Zeus in answer to those who consulted the god ; sacred doves made their home in its branches, and a sacred spring welled up at its foot (cf. Description 33, infra p. 267). When the ship Argo was completed, Jason set sail with the heroes of his day as companions, including Castor and Pollux (the Dioscuri), Orpheus, Heracles, Peleus and Telamon (son of Aeacus), and Zetes and Calais (sons of Boreas). It was after passing through the Hellespont and between the clashing rocks of the Symplegadae, that they encountered Glaucus Pontius in the Black Sea (Euxine). Cf. also pp. 49, 319.



i) he uKovei KciL V7T0 rfj rphfj Kelrai 6 Yiovro^. TO, ^ev Si] dycoyc/jia r?}? veax; AioaKovpoL /cal HpaArXrJ? AlafcuSai t€ koI BopedSaL koI octov 6 Tyi<i 7)fii6eov (f)opd<; ip'Oei,, Tpo-m^; he v(j)i]pfio(TTai rfj V7]l hevhpov dp'y^alov, co Kara AwScovrjv 6 Zeu? e? ra /navrela e^prjro. (2) Vvcopirj he e? Tov itXovv Tjhe' 'Xpvaovp diroKeLrai n iv KoX;)^o^9 Kcohiov Kpiov dp)(^aLOV, 09 Xeyerai Tr]v " EXXtjv

10 opov T(p ^pi^o) hia TOV ovpavuv TropOpevaac TOVTO idacov ekelv, co Trat, iroLelrai d6\ov — (f)povpo<; yap ti<; avrw hpaKwv epireirXeKTaL heivov ^XeiTcov Kal virepopcov tov KaOevheiv — 66ev CLp^ei ttj^; veo)<^, eTreihy] ^XeireL e? avrbv ?;

15 TOV ttXov aLTia. (3) Kat Tt^i;? pev, c5 iral, Kv^epva, Xeyeiai he ovToal 7rpa)T0<; dv9 pooirwv diTLCTTOvpLeviiv 6appr}aai ttjp re^i^^/i^, AuY/cei)? he 6 'A^apeco? emTeTaKTac ttj irpwpa heLvo^ mv ifc iToXXov Te Ihetv Kal e? ttoXv KaTa/SXeylrat tov

20 /3d0ov<; Kcil TrpojTO^ pev viroKetpevcov eppidTWV alaOeaOaL, TTyocoTO? he virocpaivovcrav yrjv daird- aaaOai,

(4) ^AXXci vvv eKTre7rX7])^0aL poi ho/cel Kal to TOV AvyKeco<; oppa Tr]v Trpoa/SoXiju tov (j)dapaTO^,

25 L'0' ov Kal 01 TrevTiJKOVTa a')(aadp,evoi, ttjv elpeaiav 'HpaKXrj<; pev ar/oeTTTo? p,eveL tov OedpaTO^,^ ciTe hrj TToWoi? 6poLOL<^ evTV^cov, 01 he XoLTTol Oavpd tl olpat tovto Xeyovaip' opaTai yap avTol<; TXavKo^ 6 TI6vtio<;, ovKfjaai

30 he ovToai irOTe XeyeTac T-qv dp')(^aiav \K.i'0rjh6pa Kal TToa? pev tlvos eirl OaXdTTi]<; yevaaaOai, Kvp,aTO(; he v7rohpap6vTO<i avTov e? to, tmv

^ Oid/xaros Jacobs : dav/xaros. 188


listens and is calm under the spell of his song. The freight which the ship carries consists of the Dioscuri and Heracles^ the sons of Aeacus and of BoreaSj and all the offspring of the demigods who flourished at this time ; and the keel which had been fitted beneath the ship was wrought of an ancient tree, the tree which Zeus used for his oracular utterances at Dodona. Now the purpose of the voyage was as follows : In Colchis is preserved a golden fleece, the fleece of the ancient ram that ferried Helle with Phrixus across the sky, as the story goes. Jason, my boy, undertakes the task of securing this fleece (a task indeed, for to guard the fleece a dragon of fear-inspiring look and disdainful of sleep holds it encircled in his coils); for this reason he is commander of the ship, since the responsibility for the voyage devolves upon him. And Tiphys, my boy, is pilot of the ship ; and he is said to be the first of men to have been bold enough for the art which was till then mistrusted ; and Lynceus son of Aphareus is stationed at the prow, a man gifted in seeing far ahead and in peering deep down into the depths, always the first to discern submerged reefs and the first to salute land as it dimly appears on the horizon. But now, methinks, even the eye of Lynceus is stricken with consternation at the approach of the apparition, which also causes the fifty sailors to stop their rowing ; Heracles, it is true, remains unmoved at the sight, as one who has met with many like monsters, but the rest, I believe, are calling it a wonder. For they see Glaucus Pontius. The story is that he once dwelt in ancient Anthedon and that he ate of a certain grass on the seashore, and that when a wave came upon him unawares he was borne


Ix^vcov cLTTiivexOri rfOrj. (5) ^lavjeverai /jl€V ovv fieya tl, co? etVo? — irepLeari yap avrw rr)^

35 rexyriq — to he elho^ vypol puev avrcp yeveiwv ^oarpvxoi, XevKol Be Ihetv KaOdirep KpovvoL, 3r.2 K. /3ap€U Be TrXoKa/xoL ko/xt]^ kul tol<; co/jloi<; iirox^- T€vovT€<; oaov eairdaavTO ^aXarT?;?* oc^pv^i \aaiai, avvdiTTOVcraL 7rpo<; dW7]\a<; olov fiia. (pev Tou ^paxLovo^, a><; yeyvp^vaarac tt/^o? ttjv 5 OdXaaaav ifiTTLirrcov del toU KVfiaai Kal Xeaivwv avra 69 ttjv vPj^lv. (pev rodv arepvcov, 6i<^ Xd^yn fiep avTOL<; eyKaTeairapraL ^pvcov KO/mcoaa Kal (pvKLwv, yaarrjp Se viro/ceirai irapaXXdrrovaa Kal dmovaa ijSr]. (6) 'Ix^vv Se elvai rw Xolttw

10 Tov YXavKov hifXol ra ovpala e^r)pfiei>a Kal TTpb^ TTjv l^vv eTTiarpecfyovTa, to Be /ii]i>oeiBe<^ avTMV dXL7rop(f)vpov tl dvOo<^ ^X^^' '^^ptOeovai 5' avTov Kal dXKVove'^ 6/jlov pev aBouaai to, twv dvOpdnrciiv, ef oiv avTai t€ Kal 6 FXavKO';

15 peOrjppoadijcrav, 6p,ov B' evBeiKvvpievai t&> ^Opcpel TTjv eavTOiv (uBijv, Bi i)v ovBe i) OdXaTTa dpovaci)<;

I,-' nAAAIMHN (1) '0 Ovcov ev 'IaOp,a} Bfj/JLO^; — eh] 5' av 6 eK

T?}? KopLvOoV Kal ^a(TLX€V<i OVTOal TOV B)jp,ov —

^ Palaemon is another name for Melicertes, son of Ino Leucothea. Incurring the anger of Hera, Ino was stricken with madness and taking her younger son Melicertes jumped in tlie sea, whereupon she became the sea-goddess Leucothea,



away to the haunts of the fishes. Now he is probably uttering some great oracle^ for he excels in this art. As to his appearance^ the curls of his beard are wet, but white as gushing fountains to the sight ; and heavy are the locks of his hair, which conduct on to his shoulders all the water they have taken up from the sea ; his eyebrows are shaggy and they are joined together as though they were one. Ah, the arm ' how strong it has become through exercise against the sea, continually battling against the waves and making them smooth for his swimming. Ah, the breast ! what a shaggy covering of seaweed and tangle is spread over it like a coat of hair; while the belly beneath is undergoing a change and already begins to disappear. That Glaucus is a fish as to the rest of his body is made evident by the tail, which is lifted and bent back toward the waist ; and the part of it that is shaped like a crescent is sea-purple in colour. Kingfishers circle about him both singing the deeds of men (for they like Glaucus have been transformed from the men they once were) and at the same time giving to Orpheus a specimen of their own song, by reason of which not even the sea is without music.


The people sacrificing at the Isthmus, they would be the people of Corinth ; and yonder king of the

and Melicertes the sea-god Palaemon. The worship of Palaemon was carried on at the Isthmus of Corinth and at various points on the shores of Greece. At the Isthmus the Isthmian games apparently were established in his honour, and only later were taken up into the worship of Poseidon.



20 ^lavcpov ainov ijyco/ieOa — Te/xe^'o? 8e tovtI IloaeiS(bvo<; t)pefia tl Trpoarj^ovv OaXdrrrj — al yap TMV iTLTVwv KOfiai. TOVTO aSovai — roidhe, co jral, arjfiaivei' r) 'Ii/co r/)? y7]<; eKirecrovaa to fiev €avTr]<; AevKoOea re kol tov twv ^rjpyjiScov

25 kvkKov, to he tov 7raL8o<; y yi) YlaXaLfiovi tw /Specfyei XPW^'^^^- (2) KaTalpei Be rjhi] €9 auT7]v eirl BeX^plvo^ ew-jviov, koX 6 he\<^\<i ra vSiTa V7roaTp(ovvu<; (feepec xadevBopTa StoXio-Odvcov dyjrocprjTl t?)? yaXyvij^;, &)? p,?] eKireaoi tov virvov

30 irpoaLovTL he avTW pi]yvvTai tl /caTO, tov ^ladjxov dhvTOv Siaa')(^ov(T)j<^ t?}? ^r}? eV UoaeLSa)vo<;, 6v fioi hoKel fcal ^iavi^w tovtw rrpoeLirelv tov tov 7raiS6<i etairXovv koI otl Oueiv uvtm Beoi. (3) '.W^ K. Buet Be Tavpov tovtovI peXava d'jT0(J7rdaa<; oJpai avTov e/c tt)? tov UoaeiBcjvof; dyeXyjf;, 6 p,€V ovv Trj<; 6v<Jia<; X6yo<; kol i) tcov OvcrdvTOiV i(T6r]<; Kol TO, evayiapaTa, o) iral, kol to 5 a(f)dTT€Lv e? Ta tov Y\aXaipovo<i dTroKelaOco opyia — aep,vo<^ yap 6 Xoyo'^ Kal KouLiBf] drrroOeTOf; ciT d7roOei(oaavTO<^ avTov %Lcrv(pov tov ao(f)OV' ao(f)Ov yap ijBy] irov BjjXol avTOV t) e7riaTpo(f)r} TOV 6lBov<; — TO Be tov IIo(T€iB(x)j'o<; elBo<;, el pev

10 TCL'^ Tvpa<^ 7reTpa<; rj tu HeTTaXt/cd oprj p)]^eiv €p,eXX6, Beivo^ dv ttov eypdcpeTo Kal olov TrXyT- TCOV, ^evov Be tov ^leXi/cepT^v 7roiovp,evo<i w? ev Ttj yfi e')(^0i, fietBia KaOoppal^opevov Kal KeXevei TOV laOp.ov dvaireTdaai Ta aTepva Kal yeveadai

^ fvaylcfiara and (T<pimiv, like 0^740, refer to a class of sacrifices offered to heroes and chthonic gods, but not to Olympian gods.



people, let us consider him to be Sisyphus ; and this precinct of Poseidon gently resounding to the murmur of the sea — for the foliage of the pines makes this music — all this, my boy, indicates the following : Ino throwing herself from the land for her part becomes Leucothea and one of the band of the Nereids, while as for the child, the earth will claim the infant Palaemon. Already the child is putting in towards shore on a dolphin obedient to his will, and the dolphin making its back level bears the sleeping child, slipping noiselessly through the calm water so as not to disturb his sleep. And as he approaches, a sanctuary opens in the Isthmus as the earth is split apart by Poseidon, who, I fancy, announces to Sisyphus here the advent of the child and bids him offer sacrifice to him. Sisyphus is sacrificing yonder black bull which he has no doubt taken from the herd of Poseidon. The meaning of the sacrifice, the garb worn by those who conducted it, the offerings,! my boy, and the use of the knife must be reserved for the mysterious rites of Palaemon — for the doctrine is holy and altogether secret, inasmuch as Sisyphus the wise first hallowed it ; for that he is a wise man is shown at once, me thinks, by the intent look on his face. And as for the face of Poseidon, if he were about to shatter the Gyrean rocks 2 or the Thessalian mountains,^ he would doubt- less have been painted as terrible and like one dealing a blow ; but since he is receiving Melicertes as his guest in order that he may keep him on land, he smiles as the child makes harbour, and bids the Isthmus spread out its bosom and become the home

^ Cf. supra, Description 13, p. 181, ^ Cf. supra, Descriptiou 14, p. 182.


15 TO* yieXLKeprr] oIkov. (4) '0 he 'la6/j.6<;, w iral, yeypanrai fiev iv etSet BaL/jLOvo<; eVuTrrtafo)/^ kavTov rf) yr}, Tera/craL he viro ri)^ (^ucreo)? Xlyaiov Kal 'ASpiov fieao^ KelaOai KaOcnrep €7T€^6uy/jievo<; roL<; TreXdyeacv. eari he avTw

20 fieipciKLOv /JL€V 6v Se^id, Ki^aiov tol, Kopai Be iv upiarepa'^ OdXarrat Be avrat fcdXal kol iKavoi'^ evBiOL TTj TOP 'laOfjiov diro^aivovar] yfj irapa- KadrjvTai,


(1) VtovXeiy 0) iral, KaOdirep diro i'eco? BiaXe-

25 ycofieda irepX tovtcovI tmv vi]awv, olov irepi-

7rX€0VT€<; avTa<i rod ypo'^, ore Ze(f)vpo<; IXapdv

epyd^erai OdXarrav Trpoairvecov t^? eavrov

aupa<; ; dXX' ottw^ i/coov XeXijarj tt)? 77}?, Kal

OdXarrd aoL ravrl Bo^ec pjjr e^yp/ievrj Kal

30 dvax^aiTi^ovaa 111)6' VTrrla Kal yaXrjvyj, ttXcot/)

Be Tf? Kal olov €fi7rvov<;. IBov efi^e^Xi^Kafxev

^vy)(^fopei<; ydp ttov ; Kal virep rov 7TaiB6<i

diTOKpLvaaOaL' " ^vy^oypod Kal irXeco fxev .^' f)

364 K. fiev ddXarra, co? 6pa<;, ttoXX?/, VTJaot 8' ev avrfj

fia At' ov AecrySo? ovB^ "l/i/Spo'^ 7) Arj/jLV0<;, dXX*

dyeXalai Kal fiiKpai, KaOdirep KOipiai Tiv€<i rj

GTaOfxol r) vrj Ala iiravXia tt)? OaXdrrrj^.

1. 5 (2) 'H fiev Brj 7Tpu)Tr] acpcov ipvpvi] re eari

^ L adds K€7xpfai' nov TaxctC'very likely Cenchreae "), which most recent editors delete as a gloss.



of Melicertes. The Isthmus, my boy, is painted in the form of a divinity reclining at full length upon the ground, and it has been appointed by nature to lie between the Aegean and the Adriatic as though it were a yoke laid upon the two seas. On the right it has a youth, surely the town Lechaeum,^ and on the left are girls ; these are the two seas, fair and quite calm, which lie alongside the land that represents the Isthmus.


1. Would you like, my boy, to have us discourse about those islands just as if from a ship, as though we were sailing in and out among them in the spring-time, when Zephyrus makes the sea glad by breathing his own breeze upon it ? But you must be willing to forget the land and to accept this as the sea, not roused and turbulent nor yet flat and calm, but a sea fit for sailing and as it were alive and breathing. Lo, we have embarked ; for no doubt you agree ? Answer for the boy I agree, let us go sailing." You perceive that the sea is large, and the islands in it are not, by Zeus, Lesbos, nor yet Imbros or Lemnos, but small islands herding together like hamlets or cattle-folds or, by Zeus, like farm-buildings on the sea-shore.

The first ^ of these is steep and sheer and fortified

^ Lecliaeum, the north port of Corinth, on the Corinthian Gulf; Cenchreae (represented by the " girls "), the east port of Corinth on the Saronic Gulf.

^ Welcker recognized the seven (or nine) islands of Aeolus, described by Servius ad Virg. Aen. 1. 52; see Pereira, Im lleiche des Aeolus.



Kal aTTOTO/io? Kal T€^^?;p7;? rijv (f)vaii> dKp(ovv)(iav e^aipovaa TravoTrrrj llocreLSoJvc, Karappov; re Kal vypa Kal Ta<; yLteX/rra? ^oaKovaa opeioi^; avOeaiv, mu hpeireaOai Kal ra<; N7;/37;t'8a? €Ik6<;, II. 10 orav rf] daXdrTTj eiriiTai^waL. (3) 'Yi-jv he vrjGOV rijv e^efr;? vnTLap re Kal jeMSr) ovaav OLKOvai fiep aX-iet? re Kal yecopyol a/xa, ^vfi^dX- Xovrat Se dyopdv dWi]\ot<; oi fxev rodv yecopyov- /iiivcov, ol he d)v ijypevaap, Uoaeihco he rovrovl

15 yecopyov eir dporpov Kal ^euyov^; 'ihpvvraL

Xoyiov/xevot avro) rd €K t?}? 7?)?, co? he fir)

cFc^ohpa iJTTeipcoTr]'^ 6 Uoaeihcov (paivoiro, irpwpa

€/LL^e/3X7]TaL T(p dporpw Kal rrjv yrjv pijyvvaiv

III. olov irXewv. (4) A/ 8' exofxevai tovtcop pr}aot,

20 hvo fiia fJLtP dfjL(f)a) irore rjaap, payetaa he viro rod ireXdyov^ fieaii iroTapiov evpo<; eavTP]<; dTTijpe^drj. Tovrl 8' earl crot Kal irapd tt)? ypacpy]^;, m iral, yiPcoaKeiP' rd ydp e(T)(^iafjLepa tT;? pr](TOV TrapaTrXijaid ttov 6pa<; Kal dXXijXoL^;

25 ^v/ifjuerpa Kal ola epapfioaai KolXa €KKeL/JLepoi<;. TovTO Kal y) KvpcoTTi] TTore irepl rd Tep-irr) rd SerraXiKd eiraOe' aeia/xol ydp KdKeLP7]p dpaiTTv^airef; tj]p apjiopiap tojp 6po)u evairecni- fjiyjpaPTO ToU T/iyjfiaat, Kal Trerpcop je oIkol

30 (papepol en irapaTrXy^aLOi Tai<; €^i]p/jioa/jiepat<;

^ The type of Poseidon with right foot on the prow of a ship is illustrated by the Vatican statue (prow and dolphin restored). As Benndorf points out. the Poseidon of the picture follow^s tliis familiar type ; but the god is dressed like a fanner, tlie ship's prow has been transformed to serve as a plough, and his foot is pressed on the plough like a farmer's in ploughing. The "yoke" seems to mean a yoke of oxen. Cf. supra, p. 187.



by a natural wall ; it lifts its peak aloft for all-seeing Poseidon ; it is watered with running water and furnishes the bees with food of mountain flowers, which the Nereids also doubtless pluck when they sport along the seashore. The adjoining island, which is flat and covered with a deep soil, is inhabited by both fishermen and farmers, who offer each other a market, the latter bringing of the fruits of their husbandry, the former of the fish they have caught ; and they have set up yonder statue of Poseidon the Farmer with a plough and a yoke,^ crediting him with the fruits of the earth ; but that Poseidon may not seem too much a landsman, the beak of a ship is attached to the plough and he breaks the ground as though sailing through it. The two islands next to these were formerly both joined in one ; ^ but having been broken apart in the middle by the sea its two parts have become separated by the width of a river. This you might know from the painting, my boy ; for you doubtless see that the two severed portions of the island are similar, and correspond to each other, and are so shaped that concave parts fit those that project. Europe once suffered the same experience in the region of the Thessalian Tempe ;^ for when earthquakes laid open that land, they indicated on the fractures the correspondence of the mountains one to the other, and even to-day there are visible cavities where rocks once were, which correspond to the rocks torn from them,

  • Apparently the name of the island of Didyme (modern

Salina) suggested to the painter (or the writer) the conception of two islands connected by a bridge : Benndorf.

3 Cf. supra, Description 15, p. 185.


a<pa)P 7T6Tpai<;, vXrj 0\ oiroaTjv a)(^La6€VT(ov toov opMV eTriaTriaOat sIko^, ovttcd d8r]\o<;' XeiTrovrai yap B)) €TL al evvai tmv BivSpcov. to pev Brj t?}? in'jaov 7TciOo<; toiovtov 7)ycop,eda, ^evypa Be virep ^

35 Tov 7TOpOp,ov /3e^\r]Tat, w? p^lav vir avrov

365 K. (pau'eaOai, koX to piev vTroTrXelraL tov ^€vypaTO<;,

TO Be dpa^eveTai' 6pa<; yap irov tou? Bia^oLTOiv-

Ta9 avTo, CO? oBoiiropoi Te elau koI vavTUi.

IV. (5) Ti]v Be VTjaov, w iral. Trjv TrXrjaiop 6avp,a

5 7]yu>p,€0a' TTvp yap Brj v7T0TV(f>eL avTrjV Trdaav

(Ti]payyd<^ t6 /cal pv)(^ov<i viroBeBvKo^ rr}? vt)GOV,

Bl 6)v MGTcep aiikoiv i) (pXo^ BieKiraiec pvaKd<; t€

epyd^eTac Becvoix;, irap' ojv eKiriiTTovai iroTapol

TTvpo^ pieydXoi Te Kal ttj OaXaTTrj einKvpLai-

10 i'0VT€<;. fcal (f)tXoao(f)€LV p,ev jSovXap^evcp tcl TotavTa vyao<; dcr(f)dXT0v Kal Oeiov rrapexopivf] cj)U(Tiv, eireiBdv v(f)' dX6<; dvaKpadfj, '7roXXoL<; eKirvpovTai TrvevpLaai ra ttjv vXijv e^epedi^ovTa irapd tt}? 6aXdTTr](; dvaaTTwaa. i) ypa(f)r) Be tcl

15 TMV TTOirjTCyv eiraivovaa Kal p,vdou ttj vqaw eiTiypdcpei, yiyavTa piev pejBXrjaOai ttotc evTavOa, BvaOavaTOvvTL B' avTw ttjv vrjaov eireve'xOrjvai BeapLov eveKev, eiKeiv Be pbyjirco avTOV, dXX^

^ The island ma}' be the modern Volcano (the ancient Hiera).

2 Find. Pi/th. 1.21. "Etna, from whose inmost caves hurst forth the purest founts of unapproachable fire." Trans. Sandys, L.C.L.

^ The story of Typho (Typhoeus), offspring of Gaia, is told b}^ Hesiod, fheog.H-IOf. In the batlle of the (iods ajid the Oiants he is overthrown but not slain by a thunderbolt of


and, moreover^ traces have not yet disappeared of the heavy forest growth that must have followed the mountain sides when they split apart ; for the beds of the trees are still left. So we may consider that some such thing happened to this island ; but a bridge has been thrown over the channel^ with the result that the two islands look like one ; and while ships sail under the bridge, wagons go over it ; in fact you doubtless see the men making the passage, that they are both wayfarers and sailors.

The neighbouring island, my boy, we may consider a marvel ; ^ for fire smoulders under the whole of it, having worked its way into underground passages and cavities of the island, through which as through ducts the flames break forth and produce terrific torrents from which pour mighty rivers of fire 2 that run in billows to the sea. If one wishes to speculate about such matters, the island provides natural bitumen and sulphur ; and when these are mixed by the sea, the island is fanned into flame by many winds, drawing from the sea that which sets the fuel aflame. But the painting, following the accounts given by the poets,^ goes farther and ascribes a myth to the island. A giant, namely, was once struck down there, and upon him as he struggled in the death agony the island was placed as a bond to hold him down, and he does not yet

Zeus, and a mountain is placed upon him to hold him confined. \Yhile the story was first localized in Asia Minor, it was transferred to Sicily, where the eruptions of Etna were interpreted as the fire of his breath. The story of Enceladus, the opponent of Athena in the battle of the Gods and the Giants, was transferred from Attica to various volcanic regions in Italy and Sicily.



ava/jia)(ea6ai inro ttj yfj ovra Kai to irvp rovro

20 (Tvv aireiXfj eKTTvelv. tovtI Be Koi rov Tui^co

(j)aaiv eV "EiKeXia /SovXeaOai kuI rov 'EyKeXaBov

iv 'IraXta tuvti), oO? -ijireipOL re kuI vvjaoL

TTLe^ovcrip ovrrct) fiev redvewTa^, aei Se uTroOpy-

aKovra'^. eari Si croi, w Tral, /jLtjS' v7To\e\€l(p-

25 OuL ho^ai Tr}<; yita;^?;? e? rrjv K0pucf)7]V rod opov^

dTToffXeyjravrL' ra yap eV^ avrrj^i (fiaivofxeva 6

Zeu? d(f)Ly]a-L Kepavvov<i eir] rov ylyavra, 6 h

dirayopevei jxev ?;8>;, Tnarevet he rfj yfj en, koX

rj yij Be cnreipriKev ovk ioyvro^ avrrjv kardvai

30 rov ITocrefSwi^o?. TrepLJSi/SXTjKe Be avroU dxXvv,

ct)9 ojJLOLa yeyovoat fiaXXov rj yivofievoL^ <f)ai-


IVa. (6) Tov Be irep'nrXovv koXcovov rovrov OLKel BpuLKwv irXovrov rivo<; olfxai (pvXa^, o? vtto rfj 35 yfj Kelrai. rovro yap Xeyerac ro Orjpiov evvovv re elvai rco ^pL'crw, Kal 6 ri lBtj -y^puaovv, dyairdv 3(56 K. Kal OdXireiv ro rot kcoBlov ro iv KoXxoi^ Kal rd r(x)v 'EaTrepiBcov /XTJXa, iTTeiBi] ')(pvad i(f)aLvovro, BLrrct) dvTTVco ^vvel^^ov BpdKovre Kal eavrolv iiroiovvro. Kal 6 BpdKcov Be 6 r?}? 'A^r/ra? o

1 An indication that Pliilostratus is writing in Campania, which confirms the statement in the Froociniurn (295, 14, p. 5, supra) : Benndorf.

a Cf. Find. ]';,Uk 1. 15 f. "That foeman of the gods, Typhon with his hundred heads, who was nurtured of old by the famed Cilician cave, though now the steep shores above Cyme, and Sicily too, lieth heavy on liis shaggy



yield but from beneath the earth renews the fight and breathes forth this fire as he utters threats. Yonder figure, they say, would represent Typho in Sicily or Enceladus here in Italy,^ giants that both continents and islands are pressing down, not yet dead indeed but always dying. 2 And you, yourself, my boy, will imagine that you have not been left out of the contest, when you look at the peak of the mountain ; for what you see there are thunderbolts which Zeus is hurling at the giant, and the giant is already giving up the struggle but still trusts in the earth, but the earth has grown weary because Poseidon does not permit her to remain in place. Poseidon has spread a mist over the contest, so that it resembles what has taken place in the past rather than what is taking place now.

This hill encircled by the sea is the home of a serpent,'^ guardian doubtless of some rich treasure that lies hidden under the earth. This creature is said to be devoted to gold and whatever golden thing it sees it loves and cherishes ; thus the fleece in Colchis and the apples of the Hesperides, since they seemed to be of gold, two serpents that never slept guarded and claimed as their own. And the serpent of Athena, that even to-day still makes its

breast, and the column that soareth to heaven crusheth him, even snow-clad Etna. . . . And that monster flingeth aloft the most fearfulfounts of fire. . . Sandys in L.C.L.

^ Benndorf points out that to-day many Greek islands abound, or are thought to abound, in snakes, so that such names as ApaKovLai, 'Ocpiovaaa/'Tbpa, etc., are often applied to them ; he also quotes Brunn's suggestion that this " home of a serpent'"' may be the well-known island of Phoenicusa (Filicudi) now called the grotto del bove marino."'



5 en Kol vvv iv uKpoiroXei olkcov 8ok6l fiOL rov WOyjvalcov daTrdaaaOai Sfj/xov iirl T(p ')^pvaq), ov €K€LVOi T6TTiya<i Tttt? K6(f>a\al<; eiTOLOvvTo. iv- ravOa Sk ')(^pvaov'^ avTo<; 6 SpciKcov' rtjv yap K€<pa\)]v T)]^ ^£(5? virep/SaWet ScSlco^; o2/

10 vTrep rod Kcirco ttXovtov.

V. (7) KaTr]pe(f)T]^ Se kitto) re Kal afxlXaKi, kol ayLtTTeXoi? i]he i) vr]ao<; ovaa dkiovvaw fxev avelaOai <p7]ai, Tov Aioi'vaov 8' aTrelvat vvv kol iv r^ireipw TTou l3aK)(€V6iv iiriTpiyjravTa toj ^etXrivo) ra

15 ivravOa airoppiiTa' ra he airopptiTa /cvfi^aXd re ravra virria Kal KpaTrjpe<; dvearpafxpievot y^pvaol Kal avXol OepfJLol en Kal ra rv/xTrava a\/ro^ 7;tI K€i/jL€va, Kal ra? ve^piha<^ 6 ^€(f)vpo<; olov al'pet diTo T>}9 7%, o(f)€L<; re oi fxev e/jLTrXeKovrac TOi?

20 dvpcroi<;, oi 8' vrro rod ol'vov irapelvrai ^wvivaOai avrov^ raL<; Ba/c;^a;? Kad€v8ovra<;. (8) Bor/^f? Be OL fiev opycjaiv, ol he TrepKci^ovaiv, oi 8' 6/jL(f)aKe<;, ol 3' olvdvdai hoKOvat aeao(j)i(Tfievov rov Aioi'vaov ra? wpa<; rwv dpbireXwv, a)9 a^i

25 rpvycpii. dfi(f)iXa:f)€L<^ h' ovrco n ol /36rpv^, to? Kal rwv rrerpojv d7Ty]prrja6ac Kal rfj OaXdrrrj iirLKpe/jLaadai, oircopi'^ovai re 7rpoa7Ter6p.evoc OaXdrrioi re Kal rjireipMrat, 6pvi6e<^' rip yap ajjLTreXov 6 Ai6vuao<; irapex^i kolvi-jv irdaL ttXtjv

30 T^9 yXavKOf;, CKelv^v Be fiovrjv apa drrcoOelraL

1 The "serpent of Athena," which was regularly represented with the Athena of the Athenian acropolis, is connected with the story of the snake-king Erechtheus. Probably its home was the crypt beneath the north porch of the Erechtheum. According to Plutarch, the story that the honey-cake, with which this serpent was fed each month, remained untasted at the time of the Persian invasion, 202


home on the Acropolis^ in my opinion has loved the people of the Athenians because of the gold which they make into grasshopper pins for their hair.2 Here the serpent himself is of gold ; and the reason he thrusts liis head out of the hole is, I think, that he fears for the safety of the treasure hidden below.

Canopied with ivy and bryony and grape-vines, this next island claims to be dedicated to Dionysus, but adds that Dionysus is now absent^ doubtless revelling somewhere on the mainland, having entrusted to Seilenus the sacred objects of this place ; these objects are yonder cymbals lying upside down, and golden mixing-bowls overturned^ and flutes still warm, and drums lying silent ; the west wind seems to lift the fawn-skins from the ground ; and there are serpents, some of which are twined about the thyrsi and others, in a drunken sleep, are at the disposal of the Bacchantes for use as girdles. Of the clusters of grapes some are ripe to bursting, some are turning dark, some are still green, and some appear to be budding, since Dionysus has cunningly fixed the seasons of the vines so that he may gather a continuous harvest.^ The clusters are so abundant that they both hang from the rocks and are suspended over the sea, and birds of both the sea and the land fly up to pluck them; for Dionysus provides the vine for all birds alike except the owl, and this bird alone

was used by Themistocles to prove that the serpent and Atliena herself had deserted the city of Athens.

^ The golden cicada, worn by the Athenians before Solon's time, was an emblem of their claim to be autochthonous, for the cicada was thought to be earth-born.

3 The author is influenced b}' Homer's description of the gardens of Alcinoiis, Od. 7. 125 fF.



TMV jSorpvwv, eireihrj toI'^ av6poL>iTOL<; Bia^dWeu TOP olvov, (pa yap t^? y\avKO<; el (f>dyoL iraihiov vjjTnov re Kal^ dotvov, dire^OdveTaL tco o'lvco TTciaav rrjv r}\iKLav Kal ovt av ttlol Kal (po^olro

35 Tou? fieOvovra^. (9) 2u 5' ovrw ri Opaaix;, o)

367 K. iraly co? /Lt>;8e tov ^€lX^]vov tovtov, top (j)v\a/ca

tt)^ vi]aov, (ho^eladai /xeOvovrd re Kai ciino-

fievov tT;? Ba/c;^/;?. rj B' ovk d^tol e? avrov

I^Xeireiv, dWa tov Alovv(tov ipwcra dvaTVirovrai

5 avTOV Kal avaypdcpei Kal opa fjui] irapovra' to

yap Tfjiv 6(f)0a\/jLO}v yOo^ Tjj Ba/c;;^?; fieTecopov

pLev, ov pir^v e^co y epcoTiKcov (^povTiBcov.

VT. (10) TavTi he /; cf)vai<; Ta oprj ^vvOeiaa vijaov

elpyaaTat Baaetdu re Kal v\r)<i TrXico, oiroar/

10 KvirapLTTOV re vyjri]\7)<; Kal irevKT)^ Kal i\dTrj<^ BpVMV T€ av Kal KeBpov Kal yap tcl BevBpa TOV eavTOiv yeypaiVTaL Tpoirov. Ta puev Byj evdrjpa tP)<; in'/aov auoOrjpai tg dvi)(yevovai Kal e\a(f)r]06\oc Xoyxa^ ^^rl '^d Otjpla rjppei'OL Kal

15 To^a evLOL. Kal fA.a)(^aLpa<; Be, cj Trat, Kal Kopv- va<; (ftepovaiv ol dyy^epa\0L a(f)a)v Kal dpaa6L<;, BiKTvd Te TavTa BtijKTai r?)? vXtj^; Ta puev iyKoXiriaaadai Oi^piov, Ta Be Brjaai, Ta Be aX'^'^^' Tou BpopLOV. Kal Ta pLep el'XyjTTTaL Toyv Qy^picov,

20 Ta Be pidx^TaL, Ta Be rjprjh-e tou fidXXovTa' evepycx; Be Tra? fipax^oyv veavia<i, Kal crvve^ai- povai fforjv Kvve<i dvBpdaiv, w? Kal ttjv y]X^

1 T6 Koi L, re iTi Koi Marc. CI. xi. 29, Jcicobs conj. tn Kai. The Teubner editors, while proposing re koI 6.oivov tn, delete from text vr]iriov . . . aoivov. which seem confirmed, however, l)y Philost. Vit. ApoU, III. 40 ; see note under translation.



he drives away from the clusters because it gives man a prejudice against wine. For if an infant child that has never tasted wine should eat the egcrs of an owl, he hates wine all his life and would refuse to drink it and would be afraid of drunken men.^ But you are bold enough, my boy, not to fear even the Seilenus here that guards the island, though he is both drunken and is trying to seize a Bacchante. She, however, does not deign to look at him, but since she loves Dionysus she fashions his image in her mind and pictures him and sees him, absent though he is; for though the look of the Bacchante's eyes is wavering, yet assuredly it is not free from dreams of love.

Nature in fashioning yonder mountains has made an island thickly grown and covered with forest, lofty cypress and fir and pine, oaks also and cedar; for the trees are painted each in its characteristic form. The regions on the island where wild beasts abound are tracked by hunters of boar and deer, some equipped with hunting-spears and with bows. Knives and clubs, my boy, are carried by the bold hunters that attack at close quarters ; and here nets are spread through the forest, some to surround the animals, some to entrap them, and some to check their running. Some of the animals have been taken, some are struggling, some have overpowered the hunter; every youthful arm is in action, and dogs join men in an outcry, so that you might say

^ Cf. Philostratus' Life of ApoIIonius, III. 40 (Conybeare's translation, L.C.L.), where a fatlier is enjoined to make his infant son a teetotaler by this prescription : " for if it is fed upon them [owls' eggs] before it tastes wine, distaste for wine will be bred in it, etc."



(j)avaL ^vfjL^aK-^eveiv rrj 61] pa. ra Be /jieydXa TMV cf)VT(Jov BpvTOfioL aiTaOcoat BiaT€/jiV0PTe<;, koI

25 o fiev Scalpel rov ireXeKw, 6 Be i^/Se/SXrjKev, 6 Be 67'jyec Xa^oov direaro/xia/jLevop vtto tou 7r\i]TT€iv, 6 8' eTTLCTKOTrelTat rrjv eXdrr^v larov eve/cev TeKfiaip6fievo<i ^ rov BevBpov 7r/3o? rrjv vavv, 6 Be TO, via Kal opOd twv BevBpwv Te/xvei

30 e? rd eperiKd.

Via. (11) 'H 8' aTToppa)^ irerpa Kal 6 tcov aWvi(ov

Bi'jfMOf; Kal 6 ev fieaaL<; 6pvi<^ diro rov roiovBe

yeypairrai \6yov. 01 dvOpwrroL Tal<; alOviat<;

eTTLTidevTaL /xd AC ov tmv Kpecov eveKa' jxeXav

35 ydp Kal voacoBe^i Kal ovBe Treivcovrc 7)Bu to ef avTMv Kpea^, yaarepa Be Trapexovjai iraialv Larpcbi', oXav tou? yevaafievov^i avri}^ evairou*; 368 K. d7ro(f)aLvetv Kal Koixpov^, virvrjXal ovaac Kal 7rvpidXo)TOL' vvKTcop ydp avral^ evaarpdiTTovat, iTpoadyovTat Be rov Ki]VKa opviv eirl fioipa twv dXiGKopukvwv /xeXeBcovov elvai Kal irpoeyprjyo- 5 pevai (T(f)Ci)v. 6 Be k/jv^ OaXdmo^; fiev, ')(^p7]aT6<i Be opvL^ Kal aTTpdyfKov Kal OrjpdcfaL /mev tol dBpain]<;, tt/do? Be ye vttvov eppcorat, Kal KaOevBei afJLLKpd. ravrd rot, Kal diroinaOol tou? 6<^6aX- fjiOV<^ €K€LvaL<;. eTreiBdv ovv iirl Balra aTroTTTw- 10 (TiVy 6 fiev OLKovpel irepl ti-jv irerpav, al 8' i'jKOvaiv e? eairepav dirdyovaaL BeKdrrfv avrd) roiv re6)]pa/jLevcov Kal KadevBovaiv yBr) irepl avToi' ov KaOevBovra ouS' dv yrrrjOePTa vttvov

^ Pikkolos would insert t}> ^itikos before toG hivhpovy "for a mast, judging the height of the tree in relation to his ship."

^ See critical note. 206


that Echo herself joins in the revel of the hunt. Woodsmen cut through the tall trees and trim them; and while one raises his axe, another has driven it home, a third whets his axe which he finds dull from hewing, another examines his fir tree, judging the tree with a view to a mast for his ship,i and still another cuts young and straight trees for oars.

The precipitous rock and the flock of seagulls ^ and the bird^ in their midst have been painted for some such reason as this : The men are attacking the sea-gulls, but not, by Zeus, for their flesh, which is black and noisome and unpalatable even to a hungry man; but these birds supply to the sons of the doctors * a stomach of such properties as to assure a good appetite in those who eat it and to make them agile. The birds being drowsy are easily caught by torchlight, for the hunters flash a light upon them at night. But the gulls induce the tern with a part of the food they catch to act as a warden and to keep awake for them. Now though the tern is a sea-bird, yet it is simple-minded, easy-going, and inefficient at catching prey ; but in resisting sleep it is strong and in fact sleeps but little. For this reason it lets out the use of its eyes to the gulls. So when the gulls fly away after food, the tern keeps guard around the home rock, and the gulls return towards evening bringing to it a tithe of what they have caught ; they at once sleep round about the tern, and it stays awake and is never overcome by sleep except when

2 On the island of Filicudi (the ancient Phoenicusa) visitors are shown a cave near the shore, frequented b}' an immense number of gulls. Pereira, Im Riiche des Aeolus, p. 90.

' i.e. the tern mentioned below.

  • i.e. the medical profession ; sons was the regular name

for disciples, e.g. "Asclepiads" for disciples of Asclepius ; and " sons of the prophets " for disciples of the prophets.



TTOTe, €l fii] avTal (SovXoinai. el he S6\ov rov

15 TrpoaiovTO^; al'aOoiro, o fiev ava/3od ropov re koI o^v, al h airo avvO/]fiaro<; apdelaai (f)evyovaiv dve)(^ovaai rov fieXeScovop, el ireroixevo^; direiiTOL TTOTe. aW ivravOa eaTTjKe fcal rd^ al6via<^ Treptopa. can 8' avrou to fiev ev fieaai^ eardvai

20 rat? opvLaLv 6 T\p(iiTev<; 6 ev rah (f)coKai<;, to ^e

/j,7] KaOevheiv virep rov Tlpwrea.

VII. (12) 'EvravOa Se, o) iral, Kal Kadcopiiiarai

y/jilv, Kal 6 TC /lev ovofia rfj vi'jcxw ovtc olBa,

y^pvai) 8' dv tt/oo? >ye ifiov ovofjud^oiro, el firj

25 fjidrriv ol iroiriral rrjv roidvBe eTrcovvfiiav e^ev- p}]Kaai. T0L<; Ka\ot<; re Kal OavixaaioL^ irdaLv. wKLarat fiev Sij, oiroarj /SaaiXeta, fiLKpa Se- ^aaOar ov yap dpoaei ye ivravOd ri^ ov8e d/jL7re\ovpyjjaei, irepiecm 6' avrfj Trrp/ow, a)V

30 Ta? fiev dKpai(f)veU re Kal y\rv)(pd^ eKSiScocri, rd<; Be eKirvpcoaaaa. earco 8' ovrw Tf? evpov<;, ft)? Kal TT) OaXdacnj eTTLirXi'jpLiivpelv. to to^ podiov rovTO 7r7]yal VTroKUfiari^ovai ^eovaai Kal olov €K \€/3y]T0<; dvairaXXofievai re Kal

35 dva7rr)Sooaai, irepl a? ^e/SXijTai yBe ?; vfjao<;.

309 K. TO fiev ovv Oavpa T7]<i rcov irr/ycov eVSocrew?

el're t/}? 7';? irpoarjKe vofii^eiv e'lTe rfj OaXdaay

oiKeiovv, BiKuaei oBe 6 Ilp(OTev<;' i]Kei yap Bi]

OefiidTevacov rovro. (18) Ta Be TreTroXLafieva

5 T^9 v)jaov aKoiTOifiev. wKiarat yap Brj ev avrf] TToXeft)? KaXrj^ re Kal \afM7rpd<; el'BojXov oaov olKia, Kal /SaaiXiKov e'laco rpe<^eTai iraiBiov,

^ The reference is to 01. 4. 413 f.

^ On the modern Basiluz/o, one of the Liparian Islands ("Basilidin," Gcoyr. Rev. V.23, p. 400, 12), thereare still ruin



they are willing. If it senses the approach of any danger it raises a piercing shrill cry, and they rise at the signal and fly away, supporting their warden if ever it grows weary in flight. But in this picture it is standing and watching over the gulls. In that it stands in the midst of its birds, the tern is like Proteus among his seals,^ but it is superior to Proteus in that it does not sleep.

On this island, my boy, we have put ashore ; and though I do not know what its name is, I at least should call it " golden," had not the poets applied this epithet at random to everything beautiful and marvellous. It is only big enough to have a small palace ; ^ for no one will plough here or culti- vate the vine; but it has an abundance of springs, to some of which it furnishes pure cold water and to some water that it has heated. Let us conclude that it is an island so well supplied with water that the water overflows into the sea. As for this surging water, bubbling springs that leap up and bound on high as from a cauldron cause the rippling waves, and this island surrounds the springs. Now the marvel of the source of the springs, whether one should assume that they come from the earth or should locate them in the sea, Proteus here shall decide ; for he has come to render judgment on this point. Let us examine the city that has been built upon the island. For in truth there has been built there a likeness of a fair and splendid city no larger than a house, and therein is nurtured a royal child and

of ancient walls and other remains from antiquity ; and along its eastern shore gases are said to bubble up in the sea. Pereira, Im Reiche cles Aeolus, p. 90 (Benndorf). The plural jSaot'Aeta is used of one palace, ' ' royal quarters. "



(iOvp/ia Be avT(p TroXf?. dearpa yap eajLv, oTToaa avrov re he^acrOai xal tov^ avfiTraidra^

10 TOVTcpl TTalBa^;, iTTTroBpofio^; re i^coKohofiriTai Tf? ciTTOXpMV Tol<s MeXiTatot? kviuSloi^ irepL- Bpajielv avTov 'lttttov'; yap Br] 6 Trai? ravra TTOLelrai koI avve)(ei cr(f)d<; t^vyov re kol ap/ia, ijvioxv^ovraL ^ Be vrro rovrcovl rcov 7ri6r]KQ)v,

15 01)9 TO rraiBlov Oepdirovra'; i]yelraL. (14) \aya)o<i Be ovroal %^e9 olfiai elawKiapievo'^ ^vvex^TUC fxev Ifiavn (poivLKco KaduTrep kixvv, BeBeaOat S' ovk cl^lol kuI Bio\ia6)]aaL tou? Be(r/iov<; ideXei iriarevcov rot? irpoaOioi^ rcov

20 TToBcop, ^^irraKo^^ re koI Ktrra ev olk'ktkw irXeKrw Xetpijvoov Bikiiv ev rfj vi]a(p aBovatv aBei Be rj fiev oiroaa olBev, 6 Be oirocra p.avddveL.

iri KTKAH^

(1) 0/ 6epi'C,ovre<^ re rd Xi'^ia koI rpvywvre^ 25 ra? dfXTre\ov<; ovre i'jpocrav, w iral, ravra ovre €(f)vrevaap, aXX* avrofxara 1) yPj acfiiaiv dva- rrepiirei ravra' elaX yap Bi] Ki/AcXw7re?, ol? ovk olBa ef orov rrjv yrjv ol Troirjral jBovXovrai avro(j)vd elvai o)V (pepet. ireTroLTjrat Be avTov<; ?>0 Kal iroi/jLeva'; rd irpo^ara /SuaKovaa, irorov re ro ydXa rovrwu rjyovvrai, Kal oyjrov. ol B^ ovr

^ rjyioxvcTourai Schenkl and Benndorf : 7Voxicra!j' or yji' 10x^1 (^ Of libri.

^ i.e. Maltese.

2 The first section of the description is full of reminiscences of Homer: e.g. Oil. 9. 108, the Cyclopes "plant nothing



the city is his plaything. There is a theatre large enough to receive him and his playfellows, and a hippodrome has been constructed of sufficient size for little Melitaean^ dogs to run races in; for the boy uses these as horses and they are held together by yoke and chariot, and the drivers will be these apes that the boy regards as his servants. Yonder hare, brought into the house only yesterday, 1 believe, is fastened with a purple leash like a dog, but it objects to being bound and seeks to slip its bonds with the help of its front feet ; and a parrot and a magpie in a woven cage sing like Sirens on the island ; the magpie sings what it knows, but the parrot what it has been taught.


These men harvesting the fields and gathering the grapes, my boy, neither ploughed the land nor planted the vines,- but of its own accord the earth sends forth these its fruits for them ; they are in truth Cyclopes, for whom, I know not why, the {)oets will that the earth shall produce its fruits spon- taneously. And the earth has also made a shep- herd-folk of them by feeding the flocks, whose milk they regard as both drink and meat. They

with their hands nor plough ; but all these things spring up for them without sowing or ploughing, wheat, and barley, and vines"; 112, "Neither assemblies for council have they, nor appointed laws," but they "dwell on the peaks of the mountains in hollow caves"; 246 f., Polj^phemus drinks milk and eats cheese and (291) makes his supper on two of the companions of Odysseus,




ayopav ywcocTKovaiv ovje ^ov\evTi]piov, ovhe^ oIkov, dWa ra py^yixara iaoiKKTci/jievoL rod opovi.

35 (2) Tou? /leu aX\.ov<i ea, \lo\v(j)ij/jio<; Se 6 rod 370 K. lloaeihcovo'^ dypKoraro^ avrcjv olkcl evravOa, fjLLuv /JL6V vire pr eii'Qjv ocppvv rod o^OaXjJLoi) evo^ 6i>T0<;, TrXarela Se rfj pivl 6Tn[3aivwv rod p^etX,ou? fcal aLTovfX€vo<^ toik; di'dpu>7rou<i oyajrep tmp XeovTcov 01 cofxoi. vvvl he cnTe-)(^eTaL rov roiov- 5 Tov aiTiov, ft)? /x?) l3opo<s firjSe dr]Sr]<; ^aivoiro' ipa yap rr}^ Ta\aT€La<; 7TaL^ovar)<; e? toutI to TriXayo'; cKpLaropcbv avrrjv airo tov 6pov<;. (3) Kat ?; /ULEV avpiy^ €tc viro fJidXi]^ Kal arpe/xet, ecTTL 6' avT(p TTOii^ievLKOv aapta, co? XevKi] re en;

10 fcal yavpo^ Kal ySlayp 6fi(f)a/co<; Kal co? v€fipov<; Trj TaXaTela aKVfivevec Kal dpKTov^. ahei he vTTo TTpiv(p TavTa, ovS* OTTOV avTQ) TCL TTpoffaTa ve/jL6TaL 6t3&)? ovh' oiroaa eaTiV ovh^ ottov t) yi) €Ti. opCLO^ T€ Kal heLvo<; yeypaiTTaL ')(^aiTr)v puev

15 dvaaeiwv 6p6i]v Kal dfx(f)i,Xa(f)r] 7rLTvo<; hiKTjv, Kapxdpov<; he viro^aivwv bh6vTa<i eK jSopov tov yeveiov, aTepvov re Kal yaaTepa Kal to et? ovv^a rjKOv Xdaio<; irdvTa. Kal /SXeireLV fiev 7]/j,€p6p cf)i]aii'y

■^ ovSi Kayser : ovre.

1 Cf. Theocr. 11. 31 f.,

"One long shag e3ebrow ear to ear my forehead o'er

(loth go, And but one eye beneatli doth lie, and the nose stands

•wide on the lip."

Trans. Edmonds, Orcelc Bucolic Poets, L.C.L.

2 Theocritus has written the song of the Cyclop's serenade from whicli Philostratus draws freely in §2; ef. Idi/ll 11, 19 ff.




know neither assembly nor council nor yet houses, but they inhabit tlie clefts of the mountain.

Not to mention the others, Polyphemus son of Poseidon, the fiercest of them, lives here ; he has a single eyebrow extending above his single eye and a broad nose astride his upper lip,i and he feeds upon men after the manner of savage lions. But at the present time he abstains from such food that he may not appear gluttonous or disagreeable ; for he loves Galatea, who is sporting here on the sea, and he watches her from the mountain-side. And though his shepherd's pipe is still under his arm and silent, yet he has a pastoral song to sing that tells how white she is and skittish and sweeter than un- ripe grapes, 2 and how he is raising for Galatea fawns and bear-cubs.^ All this he sings beneath an ever- green oak, heeding not where his flocks are feeding nor their number nor even, any longer, where the earth is. He is painted a creature of the mountains, fearful to look at, tossing his hair, which stands erect and is as dense as the foliage of a pine tree, showing a set of jagged teeth in his voracious jaw, shaggy all over — breast and belly and limbs even to the nails. He thinks, because he is in love, that his

"0 Galatea fair and white, white as the curds in whey, Dapper as lamb a-frisking, wanton as calf at play, And plump of shape as rudd^'ing grape, . . ." 7]5L(t}v u^KpaKos seems to be a witticism suggesting Poly- phemus' idea of a compliment ; in Theocritus 1. 21 (piapocripa 6iii<paKos Mf as, "plumper of shape than ruddying grape," is found the clue to the interpretation of Philostratus. 3 Cf. Theocr. 11. 40,

"And 0, there's gifts in store for thee, Eleven fa^vns, all white collars, and cosset bear's cubs four for thee."



€7r€iB7] epa, ciypiov Be 6 pa koX viroKaOyj/jLevov en

20 KaOdirep ra Orjpla ra avdyKT]^ r)TTa)/jL€va.

(4) 'H Be 6V ciTTokfi rf) Oakdaar) irai^ei rerpcopoi' B€\(f)LVu>v ^vvdyovaa o/jLo^vyovi'Tcov fcal ravTov irveovTwv, irapOevoi 3' avTov<s ciyovcn

25 TpLT(t)vo<;, al S/xcoal t/}? FaXareta?, iTrLaTo/il- ^ovaai a^a<^, el n dyepw)(^ov re Ka\ irapa rrjv rjviav irpdrroier. r) 8' VTvep Ke(pa\r)<; dXcTTop- (f)vpov fiev XtjSlov e? rov ^ecpvpou aipet aKidv eavrf] elvai /cal lajiov to) cipfiari, d(f)' ou Ka\

30 auyi) n^ eVl to /jLercoTrov Kal ttjv Ke(f)a\T]v ijk€l ovTTO) i)hi(jdv^ Tov Ti]<; 7Tap€id<; dvOov^, al KOfiai 8' avT?-}<^ ovK dvelvrai rw ^ecpvpw' Bui^poxoL yap By] elai Kal KpeiTTOV<; tov dvejiov. Kal fxyjv Kal dyKoov Be^io^ etcKeiraL \evKov BiaKXlvcov

35 'TTr}-)(vv Kal dvairavwv rov<; BafCTvXov<; irpo^ 371 K. diraXw rw wfiw Kal coXevac viroKv/jLaiPovaL Kal /j,a^o<i vTraviararai Kal ovBe ti]v einyovviBa eKXelirei rj copa. 6 rapao^ Be Kal rj avvairoXi]' yovaa avrco x«/0£? €(f)aXo<;, w Tral, yey pairrai Kal eTnyfravei t/}^ OaXdTTrj<; olov Kv^epvcov to 5 dpfia. Oav/xa oi o^OaXjioi- PXe-novcn yap virep- opiov TL Kal avvaiTLov r(p /j.y]Kei rod ireXdyov^.


(1) 'O fiev TTOTa/io?, w jrai, K7](piao<; BotcoTto? Te Kal ov Tcop d/jLOvacov, GKrjvovaL B iir avTcp ^Xeyvai ^dp^apoi 7r6Xei<i ovttw ovre'^. ol Be ^ 7i5t'a>j/ Haniaker : T^Sioj/ libri.

^ Phorbas was a mythical king of the Phlegyans, who is said to have lived at Panopeus in Phocis, and who made 214


glance is gentle, but it is wild and stealthy still, like that of wild beasts subdued under the force of necessity.

The nymph sports on the peaceful sea. driving a team of four dolphins yoked together and working in harmony ; and maiden-daughters of Triton, Galatea's servants, guide them, curbing them in if they try to do anything mischievous or contrary to the rein. She holds over her head against the wind a light scarf of sea-purple to provide a shade for herself and a sail for her chariot, and from it a kind of radiance falls upon her forehead and her head, though no whit more charming than the bloom on her cheek ; her hair is not tossed by the breeze, for it is so moist that it is proof against the wind. And lo, her right elbow stands out and her white forearm is bent back, while she rests her fingers on her delicate shoulder, and her arms are gently rounded, and her breasts project, nor yet is beauty lacking in her thigh. Her foot, with the graceful part above the foot, is painted as on the sea, my bo}-, and it lightly touches the water as if it were the rudder guiding her chariot. Her eyes are wonderful, for they have a kind of distant look that travels as far as the sea extends.


This river, my boy, is the Boeotian Cephisus, a stream not unknown to the Muses ; and on its bank Phlegyans are encamped, barbarian people who do not yet live in cities. Of the two men

the sacred way to Delphi unsafe for those who wished to visit the shrine of Apollo.


10 TTVKTevovTe^ TOP re oI/jiaL 'AiroWcova 6pa<;, 6 8' av ^op^a<; iariv, ov ianjaavro ol ^Xeyvat fiaaiXea, eVetS?) ytte^a? irapa iravTa^ ovto<^ koi oj/xoraro^ rod eOvov^. Trv/crevec Se \\7r6Wo)v 7Tpo<; avTOV virep rcov irapoScov. T7]V jap evOv

15 ^PcoKecov re koi i\e\(^6)v 68oi' Karaa^^cov ovre Ovei Ylv6ol ouSeU ere ovre 7raidva<; airdyeL to) Oe(p, y^piiafxoi re Kal Xoyta Kal ofx^al TpL7ToBo<; eKXeXeLTTTai iravra. (2) ArjcrreveL Be tmv dXXcov ^Xeyuwv (i7T0Td^a<; eavrov ryv yap hpvv, o)

20 iral, ravTijv oIkop ireTTOLyjTat, Kal irap avTov (ponojcriv ol ^XeyvaL BiKaao/iepoi SjJttov iv roU /3aaLX(:L0L(; tovtoi<;. toi)? Be ^aSiXovra^i e? to lepov Xafi/Scipcov yepovra^ jxev Kal walBa<^ eh TO KOivov Tcov ^XeyvMv Tre/jiTreL Xrj^eadai re Kal

25 ciTTOLvav, Tot9 Be ipp(o/ieveo'Tepoi<; dvTaTroBveTai Kal Tou? fxev KaTairaXaiei, rou? oe virepTpe^ei, T0U9 Be irayKpaTup alpel koI virepiSoXal^ BLctkcov Ke^aXci^ re ciiroKOTTTcov dvuTTTei r?}? Bpvo<^ Kal

VITO TOVTO) ^i] T(p XvOpCp, al 8' d7n]pT7]VTai TMl>

30 TTTOpOcov fjLvBcoaai Kal Td<; pev avov<; opa^, ra? Be 7rpo(7(j)dTOV<;y al Be eh Kpavia TreptyJKOvat,

K. aecnjpaac Be Kal oXoXv^eiu eoucaaiv ela7rveovTO<; avTd<^ Tov dvep^ov.

(3) ^povovvTi Be avT(p Tah 'OXvp^mdai Tav- Tttf? rjKeL 6 AiroXXayv elKdcra<; eavTOV p^eipaKLw TTVKTTj. Kal TO pev TOV Oeov elBo<; dKeipeK6p,r}<;, 5 6) Tral, yeypaiTTai Kal ra? ^atVa? dveiXijcpco^;, 7va €v^(j0P(p Trj Kec^aXfi irvKTevrj, dKTlve^ Be diraviaTavTai irepi^ ^ tov /ueTuyTTov Kal p,eiBLap,a

' Tf'pl Bcnudorf and Miinsterberg : inpl, Tcapa, or anh. 2l6


boxing you doubtless see that one is Apollo, and the other is Phorbas, whom the Phlegyans have made king because he is tall beyond all of them and the most savage of the race. Apollo is boxing with him for the freedom of the road. For since Phorbas seized control of the road which leads straight to Phocis and Delphi, no one any longer sacrifices at Pytho or conducts paeans in honour of the god, and the tripod's oracles and prophetic sayings and re- sponses have wholly ceased. Phorbas separates him- self from the rest of the Phlegyans when he makes his raids ; for this oak-tree, my boy, he has taken as his home, and the Phlegyans visit him in these royal quarters in order, forsooth, to obtain justice. Catching those who journey toward the shrine, he sends the old men and children to the central camp of the Phlegyans for them to despoil and hold for ransom ; but as for the stronger, he strips for a contest with them and overcomes some in wrestling, outruns others, and defeats others in the pancratium and in throwing the discus ; then he cuts off their heads and suspends these on the oak, and beneath this defilement he spends his life. The heads hang dank from the branches, and some you see are withered and others fresh, while others have shrunk- en to bare skulls ; and they grin and seem to lament as the wind blows on them.

To Phorbas, as he exults over these '"^Olympian" victories, has come Apollo in the likeness of a youthful boxer. As for the aspect of the god, he is represented as unshorn, my boy, and with his hair fastened up so that he may box with girt-up head ; ravs of lisrht rise from about his brow and his cheek



Ovfio) (jvyKeKpajjievov /; irapeia TTefiirei, ^okai re 6(f)0a\/jLMV evaKOiroi koI crvve^aipovaai Tal<;

10 ^epaLV ai Se evyjyjravTo tov<; Ifiavra^ i^Ziov^ // el^ aTe(pavot irepl avralf; rjaav. (4) YleirvK' Ttvrat Se avTov i]8r] — to yap ifjL^e/SXyjKO^ t?)? 8e^fa? evepyov eVt SijXol ttjv X^^P^ '^^^^ ovTrco KaraXvovaav to a)(^r}pa, (o yprjKev — o ^Xeyva^

15 Be Kelrai tjBt], koI oiroaov fiev eirex^i t>)? 7^9 7ron]TT]<; epel, Ke^^^pV^^ ^^ ^^'*> fcporacjiov aura) TO Tpavfia Kal to alfjia (oairep eK 7T7]yTj<; ckSl- SoTai. yeypaiTTat 8e co/i-o? Kal avcoBrj^; to elSo?, olo<; (jLTelaOai fidWov tol/? ^evov^ 1) KTeiveiv,

20 TO he e'f ovpavov irvp aKfjirTO^; eirl Ttjv hpvv (pepeTai av/j^cpXe^cov to Bei'Spor, ou firjv i^ai- prjacov ye ttjv eir avTw /jLVijfiyjv to yap ^co^toi^, iv <M TavTa, ^pv6<;, co iral, K€(paXal eVt.


(1) Kal "ATXai^Tt 6 'HpaKXrj'^ ovBe irpoaTci^'

avT0<; FjvpvaB6a)<; i'jpLaeVy go? toi^ ovpavov olacov

2o fidXXov y 6 "ATXa?" tov /xev yap cjvyKeKvc^oTa €copa

^ fl added by Reiske and Hertlein ; el Jacobs : oi.

^ For the " smile mingled with wrath "' Benndorf compares the expression of Apollo Belvedere ; ra^'s of light emanating from the forehead are seen on the head of Helios on later coins of Rhodes, e.g. Fig. 21, Brit. Mus. Cat., Caria, PI. XL.



emits a smile mingled with wrath ; ^ keen is the

glance of his eyes as it follows his uplifted hands.

And the leather thongs are wrapped about his

hands^ which are more beautiful than if garlands

adorned them. Already tlie god

has overcome him in boxing —

for the thrust of the right hand

shows the hand still in action and

not yet discontinuing the posture

wherewith he has laid him low —

but the Phlegyan is already

stretched on the ground^ and a

poet will tell how much ground y , .,,

he covers ; ^ the wound has been

inHicted on his temple, and the blood gushes forth

from it as from a fountain. He is depicted as

savage, and of swinelike features — the kind that

will feed upon strangers rather than simply kill them.

Fire from heaven rushes down to smite the oak and

set it afire, not, however, to obliterate all record of

it ; for the place where these events occurred, my

boy. is still called " Heads of Oak." ^


With Atlas also did Heracles contend, and that too without a command from Eurystheus, claiming that he could sustain the heavens better than Atlas. For he saw that Atlas was bowed over and crushed

2 Cf. //. 21, 406 f. "Thereupon she smote furious Ares on the neck, and loosed his limbs. Over seven roods he stretched in his fall." Trans. Murray, L.C.L.

3 Cf. Hdt. 9. 39. "The pass over'Cithaeron that leads to Plataea, which pass the Boeotians call the Three Heads, and the Athenians the Oaks' Heads."



fcai 7r€7Ti6a/jiii^ov Kal Keifievov e^'yovv ddrepov ^ kol jjLiKpa KaraXeiTTo/j^era avTM rod eardvai, avTO<; 8' tiv Kal /i6T€(i)pLaaL top ovpavov Kal arrjaai civade/ievo^ e/? /laKpov tov \p6vov. to fiev 8?) (f)i\oTL/iiov TvvTO ovBci/jiov eK^aivei, cf)7]al Se 30 avvaXyelv t€ "ArXai^Ti ecf) oU fiox^^^ ^ctt fieTa- (T\elv av TOV dxOov<; avTw. 6 h' ovto) tl a(Jiiei>o<; 373 K. eiXrjTTTaL tov 'HpavXeof?, co? UeTeveiv avTov


(2) VeypaiTTat he 6 /xev dir€Lpi]K(jc><^, co? iBpcoTi avfi/SdWeaOai, 6it6(jo<; cut' avTov (TTa^et,

5 l3pax^ov6<i T€ ^vvelvaL Tp€/i0PT0<;, 6 he epa tov dOXov. SrjXol Be tovto i) re op[xy] tov Trpoacorrov Kal TO poiraXov KaTa/3€,8X7]/u,6VOi' Kal a'l ^elpei; dnaiTOvaaL tov aOXov. aKid<; he Td<; fiev tov 'HpaKXiovf; ovTTO) 0avfxd^eiv d^ior, el eppcoPTac^

10 — TO, yap Tcov Keifievcov a)(^}]/jLaTa Kal oi opOol fidXa evaKLOi, Kal to uKpi/Sovv TavTa outtco ao(f)6v — ai he tov "ArXaz'TO? aKial ao<^ia<^ Trpoaco- ouTcoal yap tov auvL^tjKOTO^ avjJiiTiTr- Tovai Te dXX7JXai<^ Kal ovhev tmv €KK€i/x€vwv

15 eTTiOoXovaiv, dXXd ^co? epyd^ovTat irepl rd

^ ddrepop Lobeck : (Tf pop. 220


by the weight and that he was crouching on one

knee alone and barely had strength left to standi

M'hile as for himself, he averred that he could raise

the heavens up and after setting them aloft could hold

them for a long time. Of course

he does not reveal this ambition

at all, but merely says that he

is sorry for Atlas on account of

his labour and would willingly

share his burden with him. And

Atlas has so gladly seized upon

the offer of Heracles that he

implores him to venture the


Atlas is rej)resented as ex- hausted, to judge by all the sweat that trickles from him and to infer from his trembling arm, but Heracles earnestly desires the task. This is shown by on his face, the club thrown on the ground beg for the task.

Fig. 22.— Atlas.

the eager look

^ — ..^ and the hands that .^ .^. ^..^ v.v^... There is no need to admire the shaded parts of Heracles' body because they are vigorously drawn — for the attitudes of re- cumbent figures or persons standing erect are easily shaded, and their accurate reproduction is not at all a mark of skill — but the shadows on Atlas show a high degree of skill ; for the shadows on a crouching figure like his run into one another, and do not darken any of the projecting parts but they produce light on the parts that are hollow and

2 After eppoovTUL the MSS. have rov aQXov. Tov aQKov : Kavser and Jacobs delete.

adXoi', and



KoTkd re Koi 6Lae\ovTa' rijv yaarepa Kal rrpovevevKoTO'^ rov "ArXavro'^ 6pdi> re L/vrap^ei Kal a(Td/'ov(Ty]<; ^vvLevai. rd re iv rep ovpavw, ov (pepeL, yeypaTTTUL fiev iv aWepi, 67roLO<; irepl

lO darepa^;^ ecrrijKev, ecm Be ^vvelvai ravpov re, 09 Brj iv ovpavo) ravpov;, dpKTcov re, oTrolai ixel opcovrai. Kal Trvev/jidrcov rd fiev yeypairraL ^vv dWijXoL'^, rd Se i^ dXXijXcov, Kal toI<; fiev c^iXia TTpo^ dXXi]Xa, rd Be aw^eiv eoiKS to iv rco

25 ovpavQ) V6CK0<;.

(3) Nvv fjiev ovv dva6r)(jei<^ ravra, 'HpdKXeK;, fxer ov iToXv he ^vfjL^Kocrei^; avToU iv rep ovpavfo irivcov Kal irepi^aXXcov to t?j? "H/St;? elBo^i' d^rj jdp TTjv vewrdrriv Kal Trpea/SvrdTTjv rcjv Oecov,

30 Be avrrjv ydp KOLKetvoL vioi.


(1) Koi^f? ol'a iv irdXai^ iKeivaL<; iirl Tnjyjj iXaiov Kal Bvolv dOXi-jTalv 6 jxev ^vvBecov to ov<i,

  • atTTf'pay Brunn : avras.

^ The understanding of shadows in this passage shows acute observation. No shadow is unvarying solid dark (black), though the shadows on a figure standing or lying down are relatively simple. In the case of a crouching figure the shadows are very complex because of light reflected from the ground and from the figure itself ; protruding parts catch more of this reflected light, but even the hollows get enough to make their form visible,

Philostratus doubtless gives the reader the results of art criticism current in his day, as interpreted by his own observation. I'he difficulty with his statement is that he makes the shadows the agent that fails to darken protruding parts, and that produces ligiit on the hollows, whereas in



retreating.! The belly of Atlas, for instance, one can see although he is bending forward, and one can perceive that he is panting. The bodies in the heavens which he carries are painted in the ether that surrounds the stars ; one can recognize a bull, that is the Bull in the heavens, and bears, the kind that are seen there. Of the winds some are represented as facing in the same direction and others as facing in the opposite direction, and while some are friendly with each other others seem to keep up their strife in the heavens.

You will uphold these heavenly bodies for the present, Heracles ; but before long you will live with them in the sky, drinking, and embracing the beautiful Hebe \^ for you are to marry the youngest of the gods and the one most revered by them, since it is through her^ that they also are young.


Fine sand, like that found in the famous wrestling places, hard by a fountain of oil,^ two athletes, one of whom is binding up his ears ^ and

fact these results are due to the modification of the shadows bv reflected light.

'2 Cf. Od. 11, 602 f. "For he himself (Heracles) among the immortal gods takes his joy in the feast, and has to wife Hebe of the fair ankles." Trans. Murra\% L C.L. Cf. also Horn. Hymn 15, 7 f. ^ i-e. as the goddess of 3'outh.

  • Olive oil was used by the Greeks before athletic contests,

especially wrestling, to protect the perspiring skin from the sun ; it was also used before and after the bath. So much oil was needed that a tank for it was often provided.

^ Wrestlers, especially boys, sometimes wore a cap, a^u^ojTt's, to protect the ears (cf. the red-tigured kylix, Arch. Zeit. 1878, PI. XI and Schreiber, Kidturhist. Atlas, PI. XXIV. 8). Greek boxers protected their ears in this way, but in the games it was not customary for wrestlers,



o Be (iTToXvcop \eovTP}<; top m/xop koXwvol re 314K. iinKjjSeioi^ Kal arrfKai kol KolXa ypdii/jbara — Kal Ai/3w] ravra Kal 'Az^Tat09, op P?} dprJKe aiveaOai tol/? ^epov; XrjarpLKf] ol^ai ttuXt). (2) 'AOXovPTL Be avTO) ravra Kal ddirroprL ov<; 5 aiTcoXXve rrepl avri'jp, co? o/3a?, rrjp naXaiarpap, dyei rop llpaKXea )) ypa(f)i] ^pvcrd ravrl rd fxifka rjpiiKora ijBj] Kal Kara rcop 'EaireplBwp aBofxepop — ovK eK€LPa<; eXetp Oavfxa rov 'HpaKXeov^, dXX' 6 BpdKcop — Kal ovBe yopv <paal KdfjLyjra<; drroBverat

10 TTpo? rop Kpralop ep rw rr)<^ oBonropla^ daO/jLari reipcop rov<i 6(f)daXfiov<^ et9 povp ripa Kal olop BuiaKe'^iv tT/? 7rdX)}<; €/j,ffe/3Xi]Ke re t)piap rw OvpLO) fii] eK(f)€p€iif aurop rod Xoyiafiov. vrrep- (ppopcop Be 6 'Apralo^ eTrfjprai, Bvarijpcjp Be re

16 TralBef; i) ^ roiovrop rt 7r/3o? rop 'HpaKXea eoiKoo^ Xeyeip Kal pwppv<; avrop rfi v^pet.

(3) Et 7rdX^]<; rep 'HpaKXel e/ieXep, ovk dXX(o<; €7r€(f)iiKei rj &)? yeypairrai, ykypairrai Be layvpo'^ olo^ Kal re^PT]^ epuirXew^ Bi evapixoariap rov

20 crc(}/iaro<;, eirj B' dp Kal 7r€Xcopto<s Kal ro elBo<; ep vnep/SoXfj dpOpcoTTOv. eartp avrcp Kal dp6o<i a'lfiaro^i fcal al (f)Xel3e<; olop ep odBlpl Ov/jlov ripo^ vrroBeBvK6ro<; avrd<; en. (4) Top Be Wpralop, 6) iraly BeBia^; olpai- Oi-jpicp ydp^ nvi eoiKep

^ iTTiKTih^ioi Lindau : inlTrj^eioi.

2 f; added by Olearius.

^ h.v after yap in F and P, omitted by editors.

^ i.e. to kill the serpent, a terrible monster. ^ "To bend the knee in rest" is the Homeric phrase for resting after labour, e.(/. II. 7, 118.



the other removing a lion's skin from his shoulder, funeral mounds and monuments and incised letters — this is Libya, and Antaeus whom Earth bore to do mischief to strangers by practising, I fancy, a piratical style of wrestling. To the giant who undertook these contests and buried those he slew in the wrestling ground itself, as you see, the painting brings Heracles; he has already secured the golden apples here shown and has won renown for his exploit among the Hesperid Nymphs — to overcome them was not such an amazing feat for Heracles, but rather the serpent.^ Without even bending the knee, as the saying is,- he strips to meet Antaeus, while yet breathing heavily from his journey ; his eyes are intent upon some purpose, as if in contemplation of the contest ; and he has put a curb upon his anger that it may not carry him beyond the bounds of prudence. But Antaeus, disdainful and puffed with pride, seems to say to Heracles, ^^ Ye children of wretched men," ^ or some such thing, confirming his own courage by his insolence.

If Heracles had been devoted to wrestling, his natural characteristics would not have been different from those represented in the painting ; for he is represented as strong, and, in that his body is so symmetrically developed, as abundantly endowed with skill ; he might even be a giant and of a stature surpassing man's. He is red-blooded, and his veins seem to be in travail as though some passion had stolen into them. As for Antaeus, I think you must be afraid of him, my boy ; for he resembles

^ The Homeric phrase used in addressing opponents contemptuously, cf. //. 21, 151, Sva-r-nycov Se re iraiSes ificf fievei avTiooicnv,



25 oXiyov airohewv iao<; elvai rco fi)JK6i kol to €vpo<i, Kal 6 av)(^T]v iire^ev/crat roh o)/jLOi<;, mv to ttoXu iirl Tov av\kva }]Kei, 7r6piy]KTat Be Kal 6 ^pa-^LCov, oaa Kal co/ioi. GTepva Kal yaaT}]p tuvtI a(f)vp)j- XaTa Kal to /j,7] bpOov tt}? KPtj/jLy]^;, aWa aveXev-

30 Oepov la-)(ypov p-ev tov ^ XvTalov olSe, ^vvheBe- p,evov p,i]v Kal ovk eiaco Te-)(yii<;. 6tl Kal yLteXa? 'Ai^rato? K6X(j^pv^0T0<i avTcp tov t)\Iov e? ^a(f))]v. tuvtI p>ev dp,(f)OLP TO, e? ti]v irdXrjv.

(5) 'Opa<i he avTov^ Kal TvaXaiovTa^, p.dXXov

35 he Tre7raXaLK6Ta<i, Kal tov 'HpaKXea ev Tip 375 K. KpaTelv. KaTairaXaiei he avTov dvco tT;? yt]<i, OTi T) Tt] TO) ^ XvTaicp avveirdXaie KvpTovp,evrj Kal p€TO)(XL^ouaa avTOv, oTe KeoiTO,^ diTopcov ovv 6 'HpaKXrji; 6 tl ')(p)'}aaLTO t[) Vfj (Tvv€'LXi](f)€ 6 TOV KvTalov p,€(TOv dvco Keve(ovo<i, evOa at irXevpai, Kal KaTa tov p,r]pov opOov " dvaOe- p,€vo<;, eTL Kal tco %6tpe ^vp,/3aXd)v, tov irrfxyv Xayapd re Kal dadpaivovarj tj} yaaTpl vTroa')(cov eKOXi^eL TO irvevpa Kal d7Toa(f)dTT6i tov 'AvTatov

10 o^elaLf; TaL<; irXevpal^ eTriaTpacpelaai^ ei? to rjirap. 6pd<; he irov tov pev olpco^ovTa Kal /SXeirovTa t'? TTjv Ti]v ovhev avTcp iirapKovaav, tov h' 'UpaKXea la^vovTa. Kal peihidyvTa tco ^pyo). (6) Tt]v Kopv(py]v tov 6pov<; p,yj dpyM<; thyj'^, dXX' €K€L iir*

15 avTP]<; Oeov<; InrovueL TrepicoTrijv e)(eiv tov dycovo<;' Kal ydp TOi \pvaovv yeypaiTTai ve(f>o<;, v(p' (L

^ K€oiTo Kayser ; kivo7to.

' of^dhv Reiske and Kayser : opdls or dpdws.



some wild beast^ being almost as broad as he is tall, and his neck is attached to the shoulders in such wise that most of the latter belongs to the neck, and the arm is as big around as are the shoulders. Yonder breast and belly that are " wrought with the hammer " ^ and the fact that the lower leg is not straight but ungainly mark Antaeus as strong, indeed, but muscle-bound and lacking in skill. Furthermore, Antaeus is black, dyed by exposure to the sun. Such are the qualifications of the two for the wrestling-match.

You see them engaged in wrestling, or rather at the conclusion of their bout, and Heracles at the moment of victory. But he lays his opponent low at a distance above the earth,^ for Earth was helping Antaeus in the struggle by arching herself up and heaving him up to his feet again whenever he was thrust down. So Heracles, at a loss how to deal with Earth, has caught Antaeus by the middle just above the waist, where the ribs are, and set him upright on his thigh, still gripping his arms about him ; then pressing his own fore-arm against the pit of Antaeus' stomach, now flabby and panting, he squeezes out his breath and slays him by forcing the points of his ribs into his liver. Doubtless you see Antaeus groaning and looking to Earth, who does not help him, while Heracles is strong and smiles at his achievement. Do not look carelessly at the top of the mountain, but assume that gods have there a place from which to view the contest ; for, observe, a golden cloud is painted, which serves,

^ i.e. of wrought metal (not cast), "as strong as iron"; quoted from Theoer. 22. 47.

  • The contradiction in terms is of course intentional.




olfiaL a/crji'uvai, Kai o '\\p/jL7J(; ovToal irapci top 'VXpaKkia yK€L arecpavwacop avrou, on avro) Ka\a)<s vTTOKpivejai ti^v iraXi-jv.


20 (1) 'Ei/ XijSvr) KaOevBopTi tco 'WpaKkel fxera TOP 'ApTalov eiTiTidePTaL oi llvy/jLaloi TL/jiwpeli' TO) 'ApraLQ) (f)daK0PT6<i' dSeX(f)ol <ydp eipai rou ^Aptulov, yeppaloi tcp€<;, ovk ddXrjral p-ep ovh' lao7ra\6L<s, yijyepel^i Be koi aX,Xa)? Icrxvpoi, koX

25 ciPLOPTCop eK T?}? 7% viroKvpLaivei i) ylrdp.p.o<s. OLKovcn <ydp ol Ylvyp^aloi ti^p yrjp oaa pLVppL'i}Ke<^ Kal dyopcip ipaTTOTiOeprai,^ iTTiaLTi^opraL 8e ovk dWorpia, iClOC OLKcla Kal avrovpyd' Kal yap aireipovai Kal Oepl^ovat Kal TTuyp^aio) ^evyei

30 e(f)6(7Tdai, Xeyoprai Se Kal ireXeKei ')(^pr'}aaa6ai eirl TOP d(na')(yp i)yovpiepoi avrov<; BepSpa elvat,. dXXci Tov Opdaov^' irrl top 'HpaKXea ovroi, Kal UK) K. aTTOKTelpai KaOevSopra' Selaetap 8' ap ovS' iypvyopora. (2) 'O Be ip diraXfj rfj ^^dpip,cp KaOevBei Kapdrov avrop vTToBeBvKOTo^ ip irdXy Kal irapjl ro) areppw to da6p,a e<peXKeTai ^apBop 5 epTTLnXdpepo^ tov vttpov, avTo^ t€ 6 "Tttto? i(l)eaT7]K€P avTO) ep el'Bei p,eya olpai 7roLOvp,epo^ to eavTOV iirl tco tov 'WpaKXeovi TrTojpaTi. KeiTac Kal 6 ^ApTaiO<;, dXX' i) Te)^p)] top p,€P 'WpaKXea ep^iTPOVP ypd(h€L Kal Oeppup, top Be 'ApTalop

10 TedprjKoTa Kal avop Kal KaTaXenrei uvtov tjj

^ So Keiske : aw niBn'ia . 228


I fancy^ as a canopy for them ; and here comes Hermes to visit Heracles and crown him because he finds that Heracles plays his part so well in the wrestling-match.


While Heracles is asleep in Libya after conquering Antaeus, the Pygmies set upon him with the avowed intention of avenging Antaeus ; for they claim to be brothers of Antaeus, high- spirited fellows, not athletes, indeed, nor his equals at wrestling, but earth-born and quite strong besides, and when they come up out of the earth the sand billows in waves. For the Pygmies dwell in the earth just like ants and store their provisions underground, and the food they eat is not the property of others but their own and raised by themselves. For they sow and reap and ride on a cart drawn by pigmy horses, and it is said that they use an axe on stalks of grain, believing that these are trees. But ah, their boldness ! Here they are advancing against Heracles and undertaking to kill him in his sleep ; though they would not fear him even if he were awake. Meanwhile he sleeps on the soft sand, since weariness has crept over him in wrestling ; and, filled with sleep, his mouth open, he draws full breaths deep in his chest, and Sleep himself stands over him in visible form, making much, I think, of his own part in the fall of Heracles. Antaeus also lies there, but whereas art paints Heracles as alive and warm, it represents Antaeus as dead and withered and abandons him to Earth.



(3) H (TTpana he ol Uvy/jLaLOt rov 'HpuKXea

Trepiaxovre^ fiia fxev avrrj (pdXay^ ryjv apiarepav

X^^P^ /BdWovcri, Svo Se ovroi Xox^^i arpareuovaiv

15 eirl Till' Se^idv w? jidWov eppco/ievijv, Kal tco

TToSe TToXiopKOvai To^orai kol a(f)6vhov)]Tcov

6x^0<; €K7TXy]TT6fjL€l'Ol t'i]V KP7]/jL'>]1' Oatj' 01 Sc jf]

K€(f)a\f] TTpoa/jLaxo/jievoL reraKraL fxev ivravOa 6 /3aai\€v<; Kaprepcordrov avTol<; tovtov Bokovvto<;,

20 iirdyovai Be kol olov aKpoiroXei /jL7]XCivd<;, irvp eirl rrjv Ko/xrjv, eirl to\j<=; ocpOaX/iov^; SUeWav, 6vpa^ Ttpd^^ eirl to aro/Jia Kal TavTa<;'-^ tT;? piv6<i oi/jiai TTuXa?, ft)9 /jLT) dvaTTvevaai ^ 6 'HpaK\r](;, iiretSdv i) /cecpaXr] dXw. (4) Tavrl

25 hrj^ irepl tov KaOevSovra, ISov Be co? opdourai Kal CO? eVl to; Kii>Bvv(p yeXa tov<; re TroXe/i-tou? Trav- avBl (7vWe^dfxevo<i e? T't-jV Xeovrrjv evTiOeraL Kal ol/iaL Tfp KvpvaOei (pepei,.


(1) Mtt;^6c7^e, oi yevvaloi, . . rov 'WpaKXea

30 Kal irpo^are. aXX" ovv^ rov Xonrou ye vratSo?

dTrocrxoiro hvolv ijSr] Keifievoiv Kal aroxct^o-

/jL€vy]<;^ T/)? %e</)o?, w? KaXov 'WpaKXel. fieya^;

/x€P v/jLmv aBXo<y Kal fxeicov ovBev cjv irpo r?}?

^ dvpas Schenkl : dupai ; ruas Capps : riues.

2 ravTas Capps : ras.

•* aianueva-ai iSchenkl : avawuevaoi and avairyeixTr;.

  • Stj Schenkl : Se or fxtv.

■' ovv Reiske and others : ov.

^ (TTOxaCofXfvrjs Morelli : (TTa^ojxivqs or aToxo-^o^fvoiv.



The army of the Pygmies envelops Heracles; while this one phalanx attacks his left hand, these other two companies march against his right hand as being stronger ; bowmen and a host of slingers lay siege to his feet^ amazed at the size of his shin ; as for those who advance against his head^ the Pygmy king has assumed the command at this point, which they think will offer the stoutest resistance, and they bring engines of war to bear against it as if it were a citadel — fire for his hair, mattocks for his eyes, doors of a sort for his mouth, and these, I fancy, are gates to fasten on his nose, so that Heracles may not breathe when his head has been captured. All these things are being done, to be sure, around the sleeping Heracles ; but lo ! he stands erect and laughs at the danger, and sweeping together the hostile forces he puts them in his lion's skin, and I suppose he is carrying them to Eurystheus.


Fight, brave youths, [surround] 2 Heracles, and advance. But heaven grant that he spare the remaining boy, since two already lie dead and his hand is aiming the arrow with the true aim of a Heracles. Great is your task, no whit less great than the contests in which he himself engaged

^ In early life Heracles by his prowess won the inde- pendence of Thebes from Orchomenos, and received as a reward Megara, the daughter of Creon, as his wife. The end of this happy period in his life is attributed to the jealousy of Hera, who made him violently insane. In his madness he slew his young children and his wife Megara.

2 There is no clue to the word lost here.



377 K. fxavia^ avTO^ ijOXrjaep. aWa helarjTe fiyjSiv' aireariv vfiojv "Apyo^ ^XeTrcov Kal rov<; Evpva- 6eiha<; airoKrelvaL Sokcov, iyco Se i'jKOvaa avTov Trap' KvpiTTiBrj Kal ap/ia i^yovfievov Kal Kevrpa

5 69 Tou? iiTTTOv^ (pepovTO^ Kal Ti]v FjVpuadew^; OLKiav cnreCKovvro^ eKirepaeLV diraTifKov yap tl 7} fxavia Kal heivov ek tow Trapovrcov ayayelv et? ra /jur] Trapovra.

(2) TouTo^? p^ev ovv dnoxpn ravra, aol 5e copa

10 yiveaOai t?}? ypa(^7)<;. 6 p,ev Od\ap,o<;, icf)' ov a)pp,y]K€, "Sleydpav^ e;^efc Kal top iralha en, Kavd he Kal ')(^epvL^a Kal ovkal Kal ay^i^ai Kal Kparyjp, rd rou 'EpKeuov, XeXdKTiajai irdvTa Kal 6 p,ei> ravpos €(TTi]K€V, lepela he TrpoaeppiirTai rw /3a)/xft)

15 fip€(j)r] evyevrj^ dpa^ Kal rfj Xeovrfj irarpof;- fie/3\7]Tai * 8' 6 pev Kara rov Xaip^ov Kal hi dira- Xr)? ye rrj? cj)dpvyyo<; eKhehpdprjKev 6 ^ oIgt6<;, 6 he €19 avro hiareTaraL to crrepvov Kal oyKoi Tov /3eXof9 p-eacov hieKireTralKaai tmv airov-

20 hvXcov, ft)9 hrjXa eh irXevpdv eppip^p^evov.^ at mapeial he avrcov hid^po^oi, Kal p.r} Oavpidarj^, el ehuKpvaav rd irepa rod haKpvaar'^ iraial yap

^ Meydpav Olearius : jx^yaipav.

2 €u7€»'f) Reiske : ayfvvr\. ^ d/xa added by Capps.

  • )3f^A.7jTai Valckenaer : Trpo(T$e^\r]Tai.

^ 6 added by Benndoif : 6 l<TThs V.

  • ippijxfxivov Linda\i : ippiix^fvwv.

' Tlie text is Rohde's : ei 4h6.Kpv(Tdv ri irepl tov ^aKpimai- naial yap xP^(^o^^ ^b SaKpvov, Kal fxiKphv 5' XffwS Kal fifya.

I To face p- -33.


before his madness. But fear not at all ; he is gone from you^ for his eyes are directed toward Argos^ and he thinks he is slaying the children of Eurystheus ; ^ indeed, I heard him in the play of Euripides ; he was driving a chariot and applying a goad to his steeds and threatening to destroy utterly the house of Eurystheus ; for madness is a deceptive thing and prone to draw one away from what is present to what is not present.

Enough for these youths ; but as for vou, it is high time for you to occupy yourself with the painting. The chamber which was the object of his attack still holds Megara and the child ; sacrificial basket and lustral basin and barley-grains and firewood and mixing bowl^ the utensils of Zeus Herkeios,2 all have been kicked aside, and the bull is standing there ; but there have been thrown on the altar, as victims, infants of noble birth, together with their father's lion's skin. One has been hit in tiie neck and the arrow has gone through the delicate throat, the second lies stretched out full upon his breast and barbs of the arrow have torn through the middle of the spine, the missile having evidently been shot into his side.^ Their cheeks "* are drenched with tears, and you should not wonder that they Avept beyond the due measure of tears ; for tears flow

^ Much of this description seems to be drawn from the Heracles Furens of Euripides. Cf. 935 f.

"Suddenly with a maniac laugh he spake :

  • Why, ere I slay Eurystheus . . . '" Trans. Way, L.C.L.

2 The god of social institutions, and especially the family and tlie home.

^ i.e., the barb is seen projecting through the spine at an angle, showing that it entered at the side.

  • For the thought Gomperz compares Herodotus, 3. 14.


evpovv TO hiiKpvov, Kav fiLKpov heiawcn kclv fieya. (8) OlarpovvTL he tm 'WpaKXec TTepi/cetTai 7ra? 6

25 TMP 0LK6Ta)l> S7JflO<i olov /SoVKoXOL TaVpW vfipl-

l,ovri, BijaaL ti<; iiri(3ov\evwv Kal /traracr^etr rt? a<ya)va 7roLOv/jL€vo<; Kal K€Kpay(o<; €Tepo<;, 6 h' yjprrjrac ^ tmv ^^LpMv, 6 Se viroaKeXi^eL, oi he ipdWovrar rw he ataOrjcji^ pulv avTMV ovhejiia,

30 avappLirrel he rov^ 7rpocn6vTa<; Kal avfiirarel, TToXu pev Tov dcfypou hiaTrrvcov, p^eihtciyv he ^Xoavpov Kal ^evov Kal roU 6(f)0a\poL<; drevl^fov €69 aura, a hpa, tijp he tov j3\ep,pLaT0^ evvoLav cLTrdycov et? a e^rjTrdTrjTai. (4) Bpv^aTat he i)

35 (f)dpvy^ Kal 6 civ')(r]v ep^iriirXaTaL Kal dvothovaiv at irepl avTov (pXe^e^, ht ojv e? tcl Kaipia rrj<; 378 K. Ke(f)a\rjf; dvappel ndaa "^^opi^yia t?}? voaov. tiiv 'FjpLVVV he, i) TavTa ta)(y(Tev, eVt p>ev aKr)vi]<; elSe? 7ro\XdKi<;, evTavOa he ovk av Xhoi<^' et? avTov yap elcTfpKiaaTo tov 'HpaKXea Kal hid tov 5 aTepvov ^(^opevei p,ea(p avTw el'aco aKipTcoaa Kal TOV \oyiap,ov OoXovcra. Ate'x/ot tovtcov 7) ypacpij, 7rou]Tal he TTpodTrapoivovai Kal ^vvhovai tov 'HpaKXea Kal TavTa tov Hpo/ii7)6ea (fydaKOVTe^ vtt' avTov XeXva6ai.

^ ^pTTjrai Reiske and Jacobs : r/TTaraj or ^prai libri.



easily with children, whether what they fear be small or great. The frenzied Heracles is surrounded by the whole body of his servants, like a bull that is running riot, surrounded by herdsmen ; one tries to bind him, another is struggling to restrain him, another shouts loudly, one clings to his hands, one tries to trip him up, and others leap upon him. He, however, has no consciousness of them, but he overthrows those who approach him and tramples on them, dribbling much foam from his mouth and smiling a grim and alien smile,^ and, Avhile keep- ing his eyes intently fixed on what he is doing, yet letting the thought behind his glance stray away to the fancies that deceive him. His throat bellows, his neck dilates, and the veins about the neck swell, the veins through which all that feeds the disease flows up to the sovereign parts of the head. 2 The Fury which has gained this mastery over him you have many times seen on the stage, but you cannot see her here ; for she has entered into Heracles himself and she dances through his breast^ and leaps up inside him and muddles his mind. To this point the painting goes, but poets go on to add humiliating details, and they even tell of the binding of Heracles, and that too though they say that Prometheus was freed from bonds by him.

1 Eur. Her. Fur. 934 f.

"While dripped the slaver down his bearded cheek, Suddenly with a maniac laugh. ..." Trans. Way, L.C.L.

2 i.e. to the temples.

^ Eur. Her. Fur. 86.3 : oV iyw ard^Lo. hpafxovfxai arepvou els 'HpaK\4ovs (from the speech of the Fury).




10 (1) Tpa)(v<; ouTo<; Kal vi] At" eV rpax^ia rfj yfj' 'Po3o? yap avj)] i) vr)ao<;, ?/? to Tpa)(^UTaTov Au'^ioi, J)] aTa(j)iBa<; fiev Kal avKa ayaOi] hovvai, apoaai he oxjk evSal/icov Kal a/jLa^evaac aTTopo<;. 6 Se arpvcpvo^ Kai ev co/ia) toj yrjpa

15 y€(opy6<; voelada), ^)eiohd/j,avTa rov Aivhiov et irov (iKOvaa'^ e;^e/?. uWa rov Opaaovf;' opyi^erai TO) '\\paK\el %eiohdiJia'sy otl dpovvTi avrco eVfCTTrtS" d-noa(^('meL rov erepov t6)i> /Sowv Kal (TLTeLTai (T(f)6Spa iOa<; o)i> rod toiovtov airiov.

20 (2) 'llpaKXel yap irov it a pa Ylivhdpro iveru^^e^,

OTTOre €t? T7]P TOU \s.OpWVOV (JTeyilV d(f)lKO/JL€VO^

(jnelraL ^ovu oXov, a)v p^t'jhe to, oard Trepcrra y]yelaOaL, (-deioSd/jLavTi Se irepl (3ov\vtov eiri- cj)oiT)]aa<; Kal irvp Kopucrdixevo'^ — dyaOol Se

26 i/jUTTvpevaaaOai Kal /SoXltol^ — diravO paKi^ei rov

fSovv diroireipcofjievo^ Tcbu aapKcov, el /jLaXdrTOvrai,

'i]Sr], Kal fjLovop ovxl eyKaXcov o)? /SpaSel rfo irvpi.

(3) Ta T^9 ypa(f)fj<; ola pijhe to et6o9 irapewpa-

Kevai T}]<; yf]'^' oirov ydp ri Kal puKpov eauT?}?

30 dpoaai irapahehwKev i) yrj, eoiKeu, el avviij/xL,

^ ^oKiTOL Beiuitlorf : ol \i6oi.

^ In the more usual form of the story Theiotlamas is king of the Dryopes on the slopes of Parnassus ; in the service of Apollo, Heracles with Deianeira and the boy Hyllus enters the land of the Dryopians, asks Theiodamas for food, and, when refused, consumes entirely one of the yoke of oxen which the king is driving. Philostratus follows the Rhodian form of the myth ; here Theiodamas is a peasant ploughing, one of whose oxen Heracles consumes amid the curses of the peasant. This story is used to explain the worship of




This man is rough and, by Zeus ! in a rough land ; for this island is Rhodes, the roughest part of which the Lindians inhabit, a land good for yielding grapes and figs but not favourable for ploughing and impossible to drive over. We are to conceive of the man as crabbed, a farm labourer of "premature old age " ; ^ he is Theiodamas the Lindian, if perchance you have heard of him. But what boldness I Theiodamas is angry with Heracles because the latter, meeting him as he ploughed, slew one of the oxen and made a meal of it, being quite accustomed to such a meal. For no doubt you have read about Heracles in Pindar,^ of the time when he came to the home of Coronus and ate a whole ox, not counting even the bones superfluous ; and dropping in to visit Theiodamas toward evening he fetched fire — and even dung^ is good fuel for a fire — and roasting the ox he tries the flesh to see if it is already tender, and all but finds fault with the fire for being so slow.

The painting is so exact that it does not fail to show the very nature of the ground ; for where the ground presents even a little of its surface to the plough, it seems anything but poor, if I understand

Heracles, with sacrifice of an ox and curses, at the hot springs (Thermydrae) near the harbour of Lindus. Cf. Anth. Pal. 16. 101.

^ Cf. Od. 15. 357 : eV ujfjicf yifpai.

' The passage in Pindar is now lost ; Coronus was king of tlie Lapiths, enemies of the Dorians, who were said to live near the pass of Tempe.

    • The use of dried dung in the East for fuel is very old ;

cf. Livy 38. 18. 4.



ovSe airopcp. 6 he ']ApaKki)<; to fiev eppcofievov

ttJ? Biavoia^; eVt top /3ovu €^€L, to Be paOv/xou

avTP]<; Tai<; tov SeioBd/xavTO<; cipaU BeB(OK€P,

379 K. o(TOv Tr)v irapeiav avelaOai, o yecopyo^ Be XlOoi<;

eirl TOV 'HpaKXea. kuI 6 Tpoiro^; t/)? aToXP]<;

Acopio<i, av\ix6<; re t?) Kopuri kcli nrepX to* fxeTcoircp

iriva Koi eTTLyovvl'i koI ^pax^fj^^t o'lov^ ?;

5 (f)L\TdT7] yfj TOL/? eavTr]<; a^X,7;Ta9 aTTOTeXei. (4)

TouTO TOV 'H/^a/cXeof? to epyov /cal 6 (r)eLoBd/jLa<;

OL/TO? oe/iv6<i irapa AlvBloi<;, 66ev /3ov^ /lev dpoTT]^

'HpuKXec OveTUL, KaTap^ovTat Be eirapco/ievoi,

0(7 a ol/iai 6 yecopyo^ Tore, x^lpei Be 6 'Hpa/cX?}?

10 Kal AivBLOL<i BiBa)(TL KaTap(*>ixevoL<i to, dyadd.


(1) M^ ra? tTTTTOu?, w iral, ra? tov Aio/j,t]Bov<; aOXov^ i)y(t)ixeda tov 'HpaKXeov;, a? ye /cal JlprjKev i]Br) koI crvvTeTpicpe toj poTvdXw — koX i) fjiev KeLTUL avTcop, i) Be dairaLpei, tj]v Be dvair'qBav 15 epel<i, 7] Be TriTTTei, ffdp/3apoL TaU x^^'^^'-^ ^"^ 6? OTrXijv Xdauoi Kal aXXw? drjpia' (^uTvaL Be cix? dvdirXew fieXcav dvOpodireioiV Kal ogtwv elan', oU 1 Benndorf conjectures iLHKf)hy after adKov.

^ Perhaps a reference to Sparta.

2 The story of Abclerus was told to explain the foiuuling of the city of Abdera on the south coast of Thrace and the institution of the Abderite games. The death of Abderus is attributed to the mares of Diomedes, and it is Heracles' desire to pay special honour to his young friend which led him to found a city and to establish games which were called by his name.



the picture. Heracles is keeping his thoughts intently on the ox, and pays but scant attention to the curses of Theiodamas, only enough to relax his face into a smile, while the countryman makes after him with stones. The mode of the man's garments is Dorian ; his hair is squalid and there is grime on his forehead ; while his thigh and his arm are such as the most beloved land ^ grants to its athletes. Such is the deed of Heracles ; and this Theiodamas is revered among the Lindians ; wherefore they sacrifice a plough-ox to Heracles, and they begin the rites with all the curses which I suppose the countryman then uttered, and Heracles rejoices and gives good things to the Lindians in return for their imprecations.


Let us not consider the mares of Diomedes to have been a task^ for Heracles, my boy, since he has already overcome them and crushed them with his club — one of them lies on the ground, another is gasping for breath, a third, you will say, is leaping up, another is falling down ; their manes are unkempt, they are shaggy down to their hoofs, and in every way they resemble wild beasts ; their stalls are tainted with flesh and bones of the

2 The slaving of Diomedes and the capture of his man- eating mares was one of the twelve labours of Heracles ; but we are here asked to regard the second episode of it as harder than the first, since the killing of the mares has proved too easy to have been a "labour." Benndorf's con- jecture (see crit. note), "a slight task," seems unnecessary.


et9 ri]V i7r7rorpo(f)Lav ravTijv 6 Aio/iy]Sr]<; exp^j-

aaro, avro'^ re 6 i7r7rorp6(f>o<; Kal ^ aypLctirepo^

Ihelv y al 'ittttoi, 7r/30? ah iremodKev — aWa

20 TOVTOVL Tov ciOXov ')(^a\€7r(jL>T€pov ')(pT] Sofcecv

"EyOCOTO? T€ TT/JO? TToWot? 67rLTaTT0VT0^ aVTOV^

T(p 'WpaKkel /jl6)^0ov t€ eV avro)^ ov puKpov 6vT0<i. TOV jap 3?) "A/BSrjpov 6 'HpaK\i]<; 7)111- ^pcoTOv (f)epeL aTToairdaa^i tcov lttttcov, iSaiaavro

25 he avTov airaXov en Kal irpo 'Icpirov veov, tovtI Be €(7Ti Kal T0i9 \€L\lrdpoi<; avfi/SaXecrOar Ka\d yap Si] ere iv rt} Xeovrfj Kelrai. (2) Ta /nev Srj hiiKpva rd eir avroh Kal el Si] ri irepL- eirrv^aro avrcov Kal 6\o(pvp6fX€vo^ elire Kal to

30 I3apv TOV TrpoacoTTov to eirl irevOeL BeSoaOo) Kal dWo) ipaaTrj' ciW(p^ e)(eTco tl Kal 7) aTt]\7] 380 K. Ye'/oa? ec^eaTr^Kvla KaXov^ a/jpaTi' 6 8' ou;^ oirep OL iroXXol ttoXlv t6 tm W/SS/jprp dviaTJjaiv, yv dir^ avTou KaXov/J.€V, Kal ciycDv tco A^h)]p(p KeiaeTai, dycovielTaL 3' eV avTW 7rvy/jLr]v Kal 5 •nayKpciTiov Kal ttuXi^v Kal tci evayajvia iravTa


^ Kx\ Jacobs : ws.

- avrhv Reiske and Heine: avrif.

^ a-jT(f Jacobs, avrhv.



men whom Diomedes used as food for his horses, and the breeder of the mares himself is even more savage of aspect than the mares near whom he has fallen — but you must regard this present labour as the more difficult, since Eros^^ enjoins it upon Heracles in addition to many others, and since the hardship laid upon him was no slight matter. For Heracles is bearing the half-eaten body of Abderus, which he has snatched from the mares ; and they devoured him while yet a tender youth and younger than Iphitus, to judge from the portions that are left; for, still beautiful, they are lying on the lion's skin. The tears he shed over them, the embraces he may have given them, the laments he uttered, the burden of grief on his countenance — let such marks of sorrow be assigned to another lover ; for another likewise let the monument placed upon the fair beloved's ^ tomb carry some tribute of honour ; ^ but, not content with the honours paid by most lovers, Heracles erects for Abderus a city, which we call by his name,* and games also will be instituted for liim, and in his honour contests will be cele- brated, boxing and the pancratium and wrestling and all the other contests except horse-racing.

^ While other labours were assigned to Heracles by Eurystheus, the present *' labour" is difficult only because of Heracles' great love for Abderus.

2 KaXos is here used for the 3'outh who is beloved, as, for instance, on Attic pottery vases.

^ i.e. the inscription reciting the exploits of the departed.

  • i.e. Abdera, a city on the south coast of Thrace.

^ aWcf) Benndorf : &Wo. 5 KaXov Lindau : kuK^.




(1) O jjiev iv Tft) OLKiaKM \ayo)b<i Slktvov Oij- pafxa, KcidqraL Se eVt rcou aKeXoiv vttoklvmv TOu<? TTpoaOiov^; kciI vireyeLpayp to oS?, dWa kol

10 /SXeiTei iravrl tqj ^\e/j./j,aTL, (SovXerai he KaX KaroTTiv opav St viroy^iav koI to del TTTijaaeiv, 6 8' €KKpe/id/j,€vo<i T/)? auou 8pv6<; dveppcoyax; tg Tijv yaaTepa fcai hid toIv Troholv eKhehvKU)^ oiKVTrjTa KaTi]yopel tov kvvu^, o? viro t/}? hpuo<;

15 KdO^iTai hiavairaiKoi' eauTov koX hifkoiv jjlovo's ypi]K€vaL. Ta^i irXijcrLOv tov Xayco v7]TTa<;, dpiO- fxei he avTa^^, heva, koX tol*? oaaLirep al vrjTTaL X^F^'^ ou hel ^Xi/id^eiv diroTeTiXTai yap avTcop TO Trepl Ta aTepva ttciv IkeI toI<; TrXwrot? opvicrc

20 irXeoveKTOvar}^ tT;? TTifieX?]^. (2) Et he l^V[iiTa<i dpTOV^ dya7ra<; i) 6KTa(3Xd>p.ov^, e/celt'oi irXriaiov ev jBaOel tw Kavd). kol el [xev oy^ov tl ^/377^6t?, avTov^ e^eK; — tov T€ yap /juapdOov f.ieTe)(ovai Kal TOV aeXivov Kal €ti t?}? /jL^Krovo<;y iJTrep iaTlv

26 rjhvajxa tov vttvov — el he hevTepa<; ^ TpaTre^rjf; €pa<i, TOVTi e? by^07roLov<^ dvajBdXXov, av he aiTov Ta dirvpa. (3) Tt ovv ov Ta^i hpv7r€7r6l<;

^ S(uTepa<: cxddeil by Jacobs.

^ "For when the Greeks became more luxurious... they began to provide dining-rooms, chambers, and stores of provisions for their guests from abroad, and on the first day they would invite them to dinner, sending tiiem on the next chickens, eggs, vegetables, fruits, and other countr}' produce. Tliis is why artists called pictures representing tilings sent to guests 'xenia'." Vitruvius, VI. 7, 4, Trans. Morgan. The account begins with a description of the painting, then



26. XENIAi

This hare in his cage is the prey of the net, and he sits on his haunches moving his forelegs a little and slowly lifting his ears, but he also keeps looking with all his eyes and tries to see behind him as well, so suspicious is he and always cowering with fear ; the second hare that hangs on the withered oak tree,- his belly laid wide open and his skin stripped off over the hind feet, bears witness to the swiftness of the dog which sits beneath the tree, resting and showing that he alone has caught the prey. As for the ducks near the hare (count them, ten), and the geese of the same number as the ducks, it is not necessary to test them by pinching them, for their breasts, where the fat gathers in abundance on water-birds, have been plucked all over. If you care for raised bread or ^^eight-piece loaves," ^ they are here near by in the deep basket. And if you want any relish, you have the loaves themselves — for they have been seasoned with fennel and parsley and also with poppy-seed, the spice that brings sleep — but if you desire a second course, put that off till you have cooks, and partake of the food that needs no fire. Why, then, do you not take the ripe fruit,

it passes over into an address to the owner of the farm in which the painting itself is the speaker, and only in the last sentence does the writer speak in his own name. Cf. supra, p. 123.

2 In early Greek art it was customary to represent trees without leaves.

^ Quoted from Hesiod, Op. et Dies, 442, "a loaf of four quarters and eight slices for his dinner." In Hesiod the loaf is marked with two intersecting lines which divide it into four quarters ; the scholiast explains the word here quoted as "giving eight mouthfuls," but Philostratus uses it as in contrast to leavened bread.

243 r2


ap7rd^€i<;, mv icf)' krepov Kavov acop6<^ ovro^ ; ovk olaO' OTL fiiKpop varepov ov/ceO' 6/xoiai<i ivrev^r]

30 ravraif;, dWa ^Vfival<i ifirj ri]<; hpoaov ; kuI fjLJ]S6 Tpayrj/jLciTcov v7repLSr)<i, et tl aoL ixeairiXov fieXei Koi i\io<i ^aXdvwv^ a? rpecpei XeioraTOv (f)VTOP iv 6^€t TO) eXvrpcp kuI citottw Xen€LV.^ 381 K. ipperco kol to fxeXL^ 7Tapovat]<; 7raXd6r}<; Tavryjai, Ka\ovfjL€vr]<; koi 6 tl ^ av €LWOL<i' oi/to)? jjSv TTe'/UyLta. 7r€piafi7TLa)(^€i Be avrifv (f)vXXa olKela irapi'^opra rrj iraXdOr] tjjp copav. 5 (4) Olfiai Tr)v ypacpijv dirocpepeLV rd ^aua ravTL TO) Tov dypov heairoTY), 6 Se Xoverai rd-^a Ylpa/j,v€iov<; /) HaaLov<; /BXeTrcov ivov tt)? y\vKeia<; rpvyo'^ €7rl ttj Tpaire^r] TTielif, a>9 ei? darv kutlcov 6l,ol areficpvXou kol d7Tpay/.ioavv7]<; kul Kara tmv

10 daTVTpil3(i)V epevyono.


(1) 0/ fiep i/cirXijTTOfjLevoi Oeol kol Oeai, irpo- €ipi]fjL€vop avTOL<; fjLi]Se Ni^/u^a? aTrelpai tov ov- pai'ov, irapelvai Se avTol^ 7T0Ta/j,0L<i, o)v yivovTai,

^ Aeirav Sclienkland and Beuiulorf : ilire^p or I5uv libri.

^ After uLfXi the MSS. give rf)? twv /crxdSwi^ avvQi^KT]s, which Jacobs deletes as a gloss on ■naKa.dr]s, Hesychius giving as a definition of vaXadiq: t] rwv crvKcoy d'ais.

^ '6 Tl Jacobs: elfre.

^ A popular term for sweet chestnuts. 2 The hypothetical speaker uses the term palatht for the confection as though he were not quite sure of itij being the



of which there is a pile here in the other basket ? Do you not know that in a little while you will no longer find it so fresh, but already the dew will be gone from it ? And do not overlook the dessert, if you care at all for medlar fruit and Zeus' acorns,^ which the smoothest of trees bears in a prickly husk that is horrid to peel off. Away with even the honey, since we have here this palathe,^ or whatever you like to call it, so sweet a dainty it is I And it is wrapped in its own leaves, which lend beauty ^ to the palathe.

I think the painting offers these gifts of hospitality to the master of the farm, and he is taking a bath, having perhaps the look in his eyes of Pramnian or Thasian wines, although he might, if he would, drink the sweet new wine at the table here, and then on his return to the city might smell of pressed grapes and of leisure "* and might belch in the faces of the city-dwellers.


These wonder-struck beings are gods and god- desses, for the decree has gone forth that not even the Nymphs may leave the heavens, but that they, as well as the rivers from which they are sprung,^

right word. Its meaning is given by Hesychius as " a layer of figs set close together."

^ i.e., attractiveness and freshness.

  • For similar expressions cf. Aristoph. Nuh. 50,1008.

^ II. 20. 7 f. To the council summoned by Zeus "there was no river that came not, save only Oceanus,nor an}- nj-mph of all that haunt the fair copses, the springs that feed the rivers, and the grassy meadows." Trans. Murray, L.C. L.



(ppiTTOvcJi 8e TTjv ^AOrjvav apn ti)<^ tov Aio?

16 K€(f)a\i]<; iv oTrXoi? eKpayeicrav 'Hcfyala-rou /jltj- y^aval'^, w? <^i]aL 6 ^ ireXeKV^;. (2) Ti^v he v\i]V tt}? iravoirXia^ ovk av avfi^aXoi rt?" oaa yap T?}? l'piSo<; y^pcojiara irapaWarrovai^'^ eU aWore aWo (^w?, Toaavra kol tmv ottXcov. kul 6

20 "H(f)aiaro<; airopelv eoiKev, or ay irore ttjv Oeov Trpoaaydyyjrar irpoavciXwrai yap avrw to SeXeap virb rod ra oirXa avv€K(pvval ol. 6 Se Zev<; dad/jLaivei avv 7)Sovfj, KaOdirep ol /jieyav iirl /jLeyuXo) Kapirw StaTrov/jaavre^ dOXov, kol

26 Ti]V iralha i^iaTopel (f^povcov rep tokco, Kal ovSe Tfj<; "Hpa^ ri Seivov ivravOa, yeyr^Oe he, co? av el Kal avrf]^ eyevero.

(3) Kat OvovdLV i^hif rfi ^A07]va hrjixot hvo eirl hvolv ciKpoiroXewv, 'AOrjvaloc /cat PoSiOi, yfj Kal

30 OaXaTTY], . . . ^ kol dvOpcoiroL yrjyevel^, ol fxev dirvpa lepa Kal dreX)}, 6 he ^ KOi^vqai hrjiio<; TTvp eKel Kal Kvlaav ^ lepoiv. 6 Ka7Tuo<; he olov eu(oS7j<; yeypairrai Kal fierd r?}? Kviari^^ dvap- pewv. '66 ev CO? irapa aocfiwrepov^ d<^LKeTo t) 382K. ^60? Kal Ovaavra'^ ev' 'Po8toi? he Xeyerat

^ <p7](Ti 6 added after Jacobs (who puts (p-rjai after TreAf/cus.) 2 An adjective describing the Rhoilians seems to have

fallen out ; Jacobs and 8chenkl suggest 6a\\a7 Toy fuels. But

the lacuna may be more extensive.

^ Ki'laau Capps, Kulaa Reiske and He^'ne : Kvlffaai.

^ The account given has many reminiscences of Pindar, 01. 7. E.g. 38: "Heaven and Mother Earth trembled before her "' ; 35 : " What time by the cunning craft of Hephaestus, at the stroke of the brazen hatchet, Athena leapt forth from the crest of her father's head"; 48: "Thus it was with



must be at hand ; and they shudder ^ at the sight of Athena^ who at this moment has just burst forth fully armed from the head of Zeus, through the devices of Hephaestus, as the axe tells us. As for the material of her panoply, no one could guess it ; for as many as are the colours of the rainbow, which changes its light now to one hue and now to another, so many are the colours of her armour. Hephaestus seems at a loss to know by what gift he may gain the favour of the goddess; for his lure^ is spent in advance because her armour was born with her. Zeus breathes deeply with delight, like men w^ho have undergone a great contest for a great prize, and he looks searchingly at his daughter, feeling pride in his offspring ; nor yet is there even on Hera's face any trace of indignation ; nay, she rejoices, as though Athena were her daughter also.

Two peoples are already sacrificing to Athena on the acropolis of two cities, the Athenians and the Rhodians, one on the land and one on the sea, [sea- born] and earth-born men ; the former offer fireless sacrifices that are incomplete, but the people of Athens offer fire, as you see yonder, and the savour of burnt flesli. The smoke is represented as fragrant and as rising with the savour of the offerings. Accordingly the goddess has come to the Athenians as to men of superior wisdom who make excellent sacrifices. For the Rhodians, however, as we are told, gold flowed down from heaven and filled their

fireless sacrifices that, on the citadel, the}' laid out the sacred precinct " ; 49 f . : " He (Zeus) caused a yellow cloud to draw nigh to them and rained on them abundant gold."' Trans. Sandys, L.C.L.

2 As when, for instance, he made a gift of golden armour to Thetis for Achilles.



Xpvao^ ef ovpavov pevaai Kal Sia7T\y]aai a^MV ra(; OLKia<i Kal tov<; arevwirov^' v€(p6Xrjv et? avTov^ pi]^avTO^ rod Aio?, otl KUKecvot tT;? 6 *A^7;m? ^vvPjKav. (4) 'E(^ecrT?;«:e rrj d/cpoTToXet Kal 6 haijJLwv 6 IlXouTO?, 'yeypaiTTai, he Trr^/ro? pev ft)? e/c v€(f>MV, ■)(^pvaov<; Se airo t?}? i^X»/9, eV r/ €(f)dvTj. yeypawTat Kal /BXeircov Ik 7rpoi'Oia<; yap auTOt? a<^tVeTo.


10 (I) 'EttcI toi^ T7J9 ll7]V€\67ry]<^ larov a^ez? eVre- TVXV'^(*^'^ dyaOfi ypa(f)fj Kal Sokel aoi iravra larov €)(€LV, <TT7]fioaL re iKUPOt)^ evTerarac Kal avuea Kelrai vtto tmv p^ltcov Kal /jlovov ovy VTT 0(^6 eyy eraL // K€pKl<; avri] re 7; Yir^veXoirii

15 KXaiei 8a.'cpvoi<;, ot? rrjv y^iova T7]K€l 'O/jLrjpo^;, Kal dvaXvei a Blv(J)i]V€v. opa k6u ti^v dpd)(^v7]v vcpaivovaav €k yeiTovwv, el /ni] Trapvcpacvei Kal Tr]v Tly]V€X67ry]v Kal tou? '%r}pa<; en, wv rd virepXe-ma Kal p.6Xi<i opard. (2) OlKia<; fiev

  • i.e. wealth.

2 Plutus is usually conceived of as blind.

^ Although Kayser suggests that the description of a painting representing Penelope's loom once preceded this Description 28 and has been lost, Schenkl regards this introductory paragrapli as merely a rhetorical device of the sophist. The writer assumes that " the boy " has spoken of a painting near by of Penelope's loom, and uses this device to enrich his description of the present painting.

lienndorf calls attention to representations of Penelope's loom in M071. Inst. IX. 42, and Froehner, Collection Brantcghem, PI. 45 ; also to a painting of spiders' webs, Helbig, Campan. Wandmal. PI. 99.



houses and their narrow streets, when Zeus caused a cloud to break over them, because they also gave heed to Athena. The divinity Plutus ^ also stands on their acropolis, and he is represented as a winged being who has descended from the clouds, and as golden because of the substance in which he has i)een made manifest. Moreover, he is painted as having his sight ; ^ for of set purpose he has come to them.

28. LOOMS 3

Since you sing the praises of Penelope's loom, having found an excellent painting of it, and you think the loom complete in all its parts — and it is stretched tight with the warp, and lint gathers under the threads, and the shuttle all but sings, while Penelope herself sheds tears so hot that Homer* melts the snow with them, and she unravels what she has woven, look also at the spider weaving in a picture near by, and see if it does not excel in weaving both Penelope and the Seres ^ too, though the web these people make is exceedingly fine and scarcely visible.^ Now this doorway belongs to a

  • Od. 19. 204 f. What Homer really sa3-s is, "Her tears

flowed and her face melted as the snow melts on the lofty mountains . . . and as it melts the streams of the rivers flow full : so her fair cheeks melted as she wept."' Trans. Murray.

'" The people of the country of silk (sericus), somewhere in eastern Asia.

^ Cf. the description of the spider's web in Od. 8. 284 : " When the snare was fashioned for Ares, many of the bonds were hung from above, from the roof beams, fine as spiders' webs, so that no one even of the blessed gods could see them." Trans. Murray.



20 ovK €v TT parr ova 7]<; irpoirvXaia ravra' (pijaei'i avTrjv ')(r}p€V€iv SeairoTMV, avXrj Bk €p7]fjLo<; ercrw Trapacpaiverai, kol ovhe ol kLove^ avTrjv en epeiSovaiv vtto tov avvi^dveiv koI Karappelv, aXX' eanv oIktjtck; apd)(vaL(; iJL.9vaL<;' (f>i\el yap

25 TO ^(pov ev i)(TV)(^ia hiairXeKeLv. 6 pa xal ra juLyjpvp^ara' touto civaTrrvovaaL to vrjfxa /cad- idaiv 6t9 rovSa(po<; — hetKvveL he avTd<; 6 ^coypd(f)o<; KaTtovaa<; hi' avrou kuI dvappc'x^coiJLeva'; depai- 7roT7]rov<; Kara tov ^Waiohov Kal fjueXerdyaa^;

30 TrertaOat — Kal olKLa<; Se 7rpoav(f)aLvovai Tat? y(0VLai(i Ta? /xev evpela^, rd^ Se KoiXa's' tovtcov at fiev evpelau ^prjaral Oepi^eiv, a? ^ he KoiXa^

33 v^aivovcTiv, dyaOov rovro ;^e//iwi'09. (3) KaXd

383 K. /xev ovv Ka\ ravra tov ^wypd^ov' to yap ovtco

yXia)(^pw^ apd^i'V^ '^^ ayTijv hiairovrjaaL Kal

aTL^ac Kara ti-jv (f)vacv Kal to epiov avT7]<;

inropoxO^-jpov ypdyjrai Kal to ^ dypiov dyadov

6 h-fp^Lovpyov Kal Secvov rrjv dXtjOeiav. 6 8' rjp^lv

Kal ra XeirTa Swcpijvev. ISov' TeTpdy(ovo<; p.ev

avTrj py]pLv6o<; Trepi^e/SXyjTai. Tal<; ya}mai<^ olov

Tretapa tov laTOu, rrepiijirTai Se ttj p,r)pivOfp

XeTTTo? /o-To? TToXXov^ aTroTeTopvev pLevo^ tov^

^ h.s Brunn : tos. ^ ^^ added by Jacobs.

^ One looks through the doorway into a court surrounded by columns ; the wooden columns have given way, the flat roof has fallen in, and the room is occupied only by spiders.

2 Quoted fi'om Hes. Op. et Dies, Til.

^ One must assume one of the three alternatives : (1) that Philostratus did not observe accurately, for spiders do not make tlieir webs in squares, or (2) that nTpdywvos should be amended, e.g. to some such word as t(t pairKdo-ios (" woven of four strands," cf. Bougot, p 552), or (3) that it should be interpreted as "four-angled," not with the usual meaning 250


house by no means prosperous ^; you will say it has been abandoned by its master, and the court within seems deserted, nor do the columns still support its roof, for they have settled and collapsed ; nay, it is inhabited by spiders only, for this creature loves to weave its web in quiet. Look at the threads also ; for as the spiders spew out their yarn they let it down to the pavement — and the painter shows them descending on it and scrambling up and " soaring aloft," as Hesiod says,^ and trying to fly — and in the angles they weave their nests, some spread out flat, some hollow ; the flat ones are good to summer in, and the hollow sort they weave is useful in winter. Now the painter has been successful in these respects

also : that he has w


the spider itself in so painstaking a fashion, has Fi'^- --!•

marked its spots with fidelity to nature and has painted its repulsive fuzzy surface and its savage nature — all this is the mark of a good craftsman and one skilled in depicting the truth. And he has also woven these delicate webs for us. For look ! here is a cord forming a square ^ that has been thrown about the corners to be as it were a cable to hold the web, and to this cord is attached a delicate web of many

"square." In the latter case the web in the corners would take the usual form. Bougot (p. 486) quotes Blanchard, Metamorphoses des Insectcs, p. 684, who describes the web of the large Epeira as having clearly " a cable to hold the web." Cf. Fig. 24, which is drawn to represent a web of the Epeira type, i.e., hung from "cables," the encircling lines in a spiral, and the whole " four-angled."


10 kvk\ov<^, ^p6\0L he eKJevel^ airo rov irpwrov kvkXov fiexpi^ '^ou a/jLifcpordrov SiairXeKOvrai 8ia- X€L7T0VT€<^ uTT ^ d\\7]X(i)v odov 01 kvkXoi. al he epiOoi Sl avTwv /SaSl^ovaL reivovaai tou? k€- 'y^aXaa/nevov; tmv fiircov. (4) WXXd Kal fiiadhv

15 dpvvvTaL Tov vcfyaiveLV xal aiJOVvjaL Ta<; fiviw;, eireiSdv rol^ Icrrol^ efiTrXaKcoaiP. odep ovBe ttjv Otjpav avTOiV iraprjXOev 6 ^coy pd(f)0(;' rj fiev yap e^eraL tov 7roh6<;, y Be ciKpov rod Trrepou, rj Be eaOierai t?}? K€(f)aX7]<;, dcTiraLpovai Be TreLpco/jLevac

20 Bia(f)uyeLP, 6/jlo)<; ov rapdrrovaLP ovBe hiaXvovai TOV lajov.


(1) Tou? iJLev d/uL(j)L TvBea Kal Kairavea Kal el Bt] Ti9 'iTTTro/xeBcov Kal TlapOevoTralo^ evTavOa ^AOrjvaloL Odyjrovaiv dyoiva dpdpevoi tov virep

25 T(iiv awfidToyv, YloXvveiKrjv Be tov OlBiiroBo^ WvTiyovi] r) dBeX(f)Tj OdivTeL vvKTcop eK(f)0iT7]aaaa TOV Teixov<; KaLTot KeK7]pvy/ievov eV avTw /xi] OdiTTeLV avTov /jirjBe evovv ttj yfj, rjv eBovXovTO. (2) Ta /Jiev Bij ev tw rreBUp veKpol eirl veKpoU

30 Kal LTTTTOL, CO? €7reaov, Kal tcl oirXa, co? aireppurf T(ov dvBpoiv, XvOpov re ovToal 7r7;Xo9, (p (fyam T7]v 'EvvcD %at/?ef J/, vtto Be tw Teix^i to, fiev tcov 383 K. ciXXmv Xox(iy^v acopLaTa, p,eydXoL re elai Kal vTrepftefiXyjKore^ dvOpconcov, Ka7rav€v<; Be yiyavTi e'lKaaTaC irpo^ yap tm peyeOeL jBe^Xi^Tai vtto

1 d7r' added by Beutle}'. 252


concentric circles, and tight lines, making meshes, running from the outside circle to the smallest one, are interwoven at intervals corresponding to the distance between the circles. And the weavers travel across them, drawing tight such of the threads as have become loose. But tliey win a reward for their weaving and feed on the flies whenever any become enmeshed in the webs. Hence the painter has not omitted their prey either ; for one fly is caught by the feet, another by the tip of its wing, the head of anotlier is being eaten, and they squirm in their effort to escape, yet they do not disarrange or break the web.


Tydeus and Capaneus and their comrades, and any Hippomedon or Parthenopaeus that may be here, will be buried by the Athenians, when they take up the war to recover their bodies ; but Poly- neices the son of Oedipus is being buried by his sister Antigone, who steals outside the walls at night, though proclamation has been made that no one shall bury him or commit him to the earth he had tried to enslave. And so we see in the plain corpses upon corpses, and horses lying as they fell, and the arms of the warriors as they slipped from their hands, and this mire of gore in which they say Enyo^ delights; while beneath the wall are the bodies of the other captains — they are tall and beyond the normal height of men — and also Capa- neus, who is like a giant ; for not only is he of huge stature, but also he has been smitten by the thunder-

^ Goddess of war. the companion of Ares.



Tov Aio<s Kol €71 Tv^erai} rov UoXuveLKrjv Be

5 T) WvTLyovtj fieyav kul fcar eK€ivov<^ ovra Kai civyjpi]TaL TOV VEfcpov Kal Odyjrei Trpo? rw tov 'Et€0/c\€Ov<; cn^jxaTi SiaWciTTeLP ijyovfjLeprj tov^ aB€\(f>ov(;, 0)9 Xolttov gtl} (3) Tt (fn^aofiev, w iTOL, TTjV ao(f)Lav T/}? 7/)a(/>7J9 ; aeXijvrj fiep yap

10 TTpoajBdWei (pco^ ovttw tticttov 6(f)da\fioL^, /jLeaTi) Se eK7r\i]^6co<i i) /copy] Opi^velv o)p/jiy]K6 irepL- iSdWovaa tov d6€\(j)6v ippcofievoi^ toT? injxeai, KpaTel he o/aco? tov 6pi]vov SeSoLKvld irov tcl tcov (j>v\dK(ov a)Ta, TrepiaOpelv t€ /3ov\ofu,evy] irdvTa

15 TO, irepi^ o/ico<i e? tov dSeXcpov fiXeTret to yovv €9 yr)v KdfiiTTOvaa.

(•i) To 3e rTy? poid<^ epvo<; avTO(f)V€<;, m iral, XeyeTUL yap 8r] KrjTreuaai avTo 'Epiz^ua? eVi to) TdcbcD, Kciv TOV KupTTOv a7rdar)<s, alp.a €KOLOOTai

20 vvv €Ti. davfia Kal to irvp to iirl Tol<i iva- yla/jLaaiV ov yap ^vfifidWei, eavTcp ovBe ^vyKe- pdvvvai TT]v (f>\6ya, to ivTevOev Se dWrjv kuI dWrjv TpeireTai Kal to dp^LKTOv BifKol tov Td(j>ov.


25 (I) 'H TTVpd Kal TCL e? avTijv ea(f)ayp,ha Kal 6

diroKeip^evo^ eirl tyj irvpa p^el^cov i) dvOpco-rrov

^ 6TJ TiKperai Wesseling and Reiske : i-nirvcptTai. 2 ert Salmasius : eVn.

^ As were the Giants in their battle with the Gods, cf. supra, Description 17, p. 199 and note 1. For the fate of Capaneus cf. p. 257.

2 Benndorf calls attention to the relief in the Villa Pamtili (Robert, Sarkophagreliefs, II. p. 193, PI. 60), where Antigone


bolt of Zeus 1 and is still smouldering. As for the body of PolyneiceSj tall like his associates, Antigone has lifted it up ^ and will bury it by the tomb of Eteocles, thinking to reconcile her brothers in the only manner that is still possible. What shall we say, my boy, of the merits of the picture ? Well, the moon sheds a light that the eyes cannot quite trust, and the maiden, overcome with fear, is on the point of uttering a cry of lamentation as she throws her strong arms about her brother, but nevertheless she masters the cry because, no doubt, she fears the ears of the guards, and though she wants to keep watch in every direction, yet her gaze rests upon her brother as she kneels on the ground.

This shoot of a mulberry, my boy, has sprung up of itself, for the Erinnyes,^ it is said, caused it to grow on the tomb ; and if you pluck its fruit, blood spurts out even to this day. Wonderful also is the fire that has been kindled for the funeral sacrifices ; for it does not come together or join its flames into one, but from this point on * it turns in different directions, thus indicating the implacable hatred that continues even in the tomb.

30. EVADNE5 The pyre and the victims sacrificed upon it and the corpse, laid on the pyre, which seems too large

is carrying the body of Polyneices ; and to Helbig's discussion of night-scenes {Camp. JVandmal. p. 363 f.).

3 i.e., the avenging Furies.

  • The speaker apparently points to the place where the

flame begins as a solid mass, before it spreads out in divergent directions.

^ Compare the story of the death of Evadne, Euripides, Suppl. 990 f.



Bo^ai veKpo<^ 7] yvv)] re ?; a^ohpov ovro) irijBrjpa e? TO TTvp aipovaa iirl roiotaSe, m iral, yeypairrai' rov }\.aiTavea ol 7rpocn']KOV7e<i Oc'iTTTOvcnv iv tm 30"Apyei, airedave Se apa iv &)}l3aL<; vtto tou Ato? €7ri./3e^7]Ka)<; 7J877 rod t€L')(ov<;. ttoitjtmv yap rrov i]Kovaa<;, &)? K0/jL7rdaa<; tl 69 top Ala Kepavvcp ej3\i]6ri fcal irplv e? rrfV yrjv ireaelv anreOavev, ore Si) Kol ol Xo^ayol 01 Xoittoi vtto rfj KaS/jL6ia 35 eireaov.

(2) l^iKJjadvTcov W.6qvaio)V racjiPjvai. (j<^a<; irpo- 385 K. Ketrai 6 Ka7rap6v<i rd fiev ciWa e)(^(ov loaiTep


virep TTcivra^i Xo%a70i79 re kol /SacnXea^i' E.vdBpi] yap T) yvvi] diroOavelv iir avrco cop[xi-jK6v ovre 5 ft(/)09 TL eVt T))V hipi-jv eXKOvaa oure ^poy^ov TLV0<^ eavT7)v aTTapToyaa, ola yaTrdaavro yvvalKe<; iir dvhpdaw, dXX' e? avrb to irvp 'lerai ovttco TOP c'lphpa ex^t'V ^lyovfjiepop} el /jli) kuI avTijp 6X01' TO fieu Si] €PTd(f)iop Tft) KaTTapet toiovtov, 10 /; 8e yvP7) KaOdvep ol e? ra lepela ^ aTe(f)dpov(; re Kal xp^^^v i^aaK0vpT€<i, co? (f^aiSpd Ovolto Kal e? X^P^^ '^^^^ 6eol<^, ovtco<^ eavTi^v aTclXaaa Kal ovBe iXeeiPOP /SXeirovaa TrijSa e? to TTvp

^ So F and the first hand in PL, rjyouyue'j/Tj the other MSS. ("she ... in the belief that slie does not yet possess her husband uidess he likewise possesses her "). Some editors ^vould emend to jield the meaning, "thinking that her husband had not yet received due honours (irdi'Ta fx^iv Heyne, ra irpoacpopa <x^"' Schenkl) unless . . .

2 The M.SS. read Upa, M'hich all editors have ooriected.

^ Philostratus apparently follows a different version of the story from that of Euripides, for in the latter the burial


BOOK II. :;o

for that of a man, and the woman who takes so mighty a leap into the flames, make up a picture, my boy, to be interpreted as follows. Capaneus is being buried in Argos ^ by his kinsmen, having been slain at Thebes by Zeus, as you recall, when he had already mounted the walls. Doubtless you have heard the poets ^ tell how, when he uttered a boast against Zeus, he was struck by a thunderbolt and died before he reached the ground, at the time when the rest of the captains fell beneath the Cadmeia.^

Now when the Athenians have secured by their victory the burial of the dead, the body of Capaneus is laid out with the same honours as those of Tydeus and Hippomedon and the rest, but in this one point he was honoured above all the captains and kings : his wife, Evadne, has determined to die for love of him, not by drawing a knife against her throat nor by hanging herself from a noose, modes of death often chosen by women in honour of their husbands, but she throws herself into the fire itself, which cannot believe it possesses tlie husband unless it has the wife as well.* Such is the funeral-offering made to Capaneus ; and his wife, like those who deck their victims with wreaths and gold ^ that these may go to the sacrifice resplendent and pleasing to the gods, thus adorning herself and with no piteous look,

is conducted by the Athenians, whereas here Capaneus is being buried by his kinsmen in Argos.

2 e.g. Aesch3'lus, Sept. in Thel 127 f.; Euripides, Phoai. 1172 f.

3 The citadel of Thebes.

  • But see the critical note.

^ Probably the reference is to gold-leaf used to cover the horns of the victim, a practice often mentioned by Homer.


KoXovaa olfiai tov avhpa' koI 'yap (Booiar] eoLKev.

15 SoK€L S' aV flOi Kol T1JV K6(f)a\7]V VlT0(7-)(^elv TO)

aK^TTTw virep tov \\aiTavew<;. (3) Ot hi "E/jcore? kavTMv TTOLOv/jLevoi ravra rijp irvpav airo rcov XafiiraSicov amovai koI to irvp ov (f)aai ')(^paiveiv, aW' i^hiovi re /cat KaOapwTepw ')(^pyj(j6(j- 20 Oai 6d\jravT€'; avTw tov^ /caXco? )(pr]aa/jL€VOV<; to) ipdv,


(1) ' EXX?;!^ iv ^ap^dpoL^, dviip ev ov/c avhpd- aiv UTe ^ diToXwXoai kol Tpvcpcoaiv, dTTiK(x)<; €)(0)v /jbdXa TOV TpL/3(ovo<;, dyopevec ao(f)bv oljiai tl

25 fieTaiTOLCdV avTov<i kol fieOiaTd^; tov OpviTTeadai, MrjSot TavTa koI 3a^vX(ov /juia^] kuI to cn]fjLeiov TO (SaaiXeiov 6 ')(pvaov<^ iirl r?)? TreXr?;? deTo<i koI o ^aaiXeij^; iirl 'X^pvaov Opovov cttlkto^ olov Tad)(;. ovK d^iol eTraiveloOai o ^a)ypd<f>o<;, el Tidpav kuXox;

30 fxepipirjTai Kal KaXdaipLV rj KdvSvv ?') drjpLcov T6paTcoS€L<^ /jLop(f)d(;, ola iroLKiXXovaL /Sdpfiapoi,

^ are added by Schenkl.

^ Ic, the fire of their torches which association with death will in this instance not pollute, but render more pure.

2 Ostracized from Athens in 472 B.C., Themistocles went first to Argos, then to Corcyra and Epirus and Ionia. When



leaps into the flames^ calling her husband, I am sure ; for she looks as if she were calling out. And it seems to me that she would even submit her head to the thunderbolt for the sake of Capaneus. But the Cupids^ making this task their own, kindle the pyre with their torches and claim that they do not defile their fire, but tliat they will find it sweeter and more pure/ when they have used it in the burial of those who liave dealt so well with love.


A Greek among barbarians, a true man among those who are not men, inasmuch as they are ruined and dissolute, surely an Athenian to judge by his coarse cloak, he addresses some wise discourse to them, I think, trying to change their ways and make them give up their luxury. Here are Medes and the centre of Babylon, and the royal device — the golden eagle on the shield,^ — and the king on a golden throne richly spangled like a peacock. The painter does not ask to be praised for his fine representation of tiara and tasselled cloak (kalasiris) or sleeved jacket [kandys) or of the monstrous shapes of animals with which barbarian garments are em-

Artaxerxes came to the throne in Persia, Themistocles went up to Susa and won favour with the new king ; he was assigned the government of the district of Magnesia, where he died.

^ Xenophon, Anah. 1. 10. 12, uses these same terms in describing the standard of Cyrus the Younger. "They did see, they said, the royal standard, a kind of golden eagle on a shield, raised aloft upon a pole." Trans. Brownson, L.C.L.




dW iiraiveiaOw fiev eirl tu> )(^pvaa) ypdcfxop 38G K, avjov evijrpiov Kal aw^ovra, o i]vdyKaaTaL, koI VT) Ata eiTi rw rcov evvovx^cdv el'Sei' koI t) avXrj 'X^pvaP] earo) — SoKetynp /x?) yeypd(f)6ai' yeypaTrrai, yap o'la ojKoBofiJ]aOat — Xi^avwrov re koI afj.vpv7}<; 5 alaOavofieOa — rd^; yap to)v depcov eXevOepia'^ ovTco TrapacpOelpovaLV ol ^dp^apoL — Kal hopv- (f)opo<; dX\o<; dXXw SiaXeyeadco irepl TovRXXr]vo<; €K7rXi]TT6fM€voi avTov Kajd Sj] Tiva crvvecTLV fieydXwv avrov epywv. (2) (de/xiaroKXea yap

10 ol/iat TOP Tov Neo/cXeov<; ^ Xdi]vt^6ev e9 ^a^vXoiva TjKeLv /bLerd rrjv XaXa/iilva jr^v Oeiav diropovvra, OTTOL a(iidi]aeTaL irore tP]<; 'RXXdSo<;, Kal Bia- XeyeaOai ^aaiXel irepl 5)v ar parity ovvto<^ avrov 6 He/3f7;9 o)V7]TO. €K7rXi]TT€L Ss avrov ovSev rcov

16 \l7]SLK(t)v, dXXd reOdpaiiKev olov Kadearo)^ irrl rod XiOoV Kal i) (fxovr) ovk drro rov rj/jLeSaTrov rpoTTOV fjLijBl^oyv 6 Se/jLcaroKXrj^;' e^eirovifae yap eKel rovro. el 8 diTLarei<^, opa rov<; aKOvovra^, &)? TO ^ ev^vverov eTriarjfiaivovaL rol<i o/jUfxaaiv,

20 opa Kal rov (defiiaroKXea ri]v /lev rod irpoaooTTOv Grdaiv TrapaTrXyaiov rol<^ Xeyovai, rrerrXavi]- fxevov he rrjv rcov 6^6aXfi(ov evvoiav viro rod Xeyeiv, w? fierefiaOev.

^ rh added by Kciyser.

^ On tlie dress of Cyrus the Great, see Xenopl)on, C'pr. 8. 3. 13: "Next after these Cyrus himself upon a chariot appeared in tlie gates wearing his tiara upright, a purple tunic shot with white (no one but the king may wear such an one), trousers of scarlet d3'e about his legs and a mantle {k-(cndys) all of purple. He had also a fillet about his tiara, and his kinsmen also had the same mark of distinction, and 260


broidered ; ^ but he should be praised for the gold which he has painted as threads skilfully interwoven in the cloth and preserving the design to which it has been constrained, and, by Zeus, for the faces of the eunuchs. The palace court must also be of gold — indeed, it seems not to be a painting at all ; for it is so painted as to seem to be a real building — • we catch the fragrance of both frankincense and myrrh — for the barbarians use these to pollute the freedom of the air ; and let us infer that one spear- man is talking to another about the Greek, mar- velling at him from a vague knowledge of his great achievements. For I think that Themistocles the son of Neocles has come from Athens to Babylon after the immortal victory at Salamis because he is at a loss to know where in Greece he would be safe, and that he is conversing with the king about the services which he rendered to Xerxes while in command of the Greek forces. He is not perturbed at all by his Median surroundings, but is as bold as though he stood on the Athenian bema ; and this language he speaks is not ours, but Themistocles is using the Median tongue, which he took the pains to acquire there.^ If you doubt this, look at his hearers, how their eyes indicate that they under- stand him easily, and look also at Themistocles, the posture of whose head is like that of one speaking, but note that there is hesitancy in the thoughtful expression of the eyes, due to his speaking a new language recently learned.

they retain it even now. His hands he kept outside his sleeves." Trans. Miller, L.C.L.

2 Cf. Plutarch, Them. 126D, tV Uepaiha yXCnrav drro- )(pa)VTa)S iKfjiaOojv ivervyxcive ^aoLXel St' avrov.




(1) 'O fi€v xw/30? 'ApKaSla, to KoXXiarov

25 ^ ApKahia^ kuI m /idXiara 6 Zeu? %at/?€t —

^OXv/jLTTiav avTO ovofid^Ofiev — aOXov he outto)

7rdXr]<; ovSe rov TraXaieiv epo)?, dXX' earai.

UaXaiarpa yap ?; 'Kpiiov r)^y]aaaa vvv ev

WpKahia TrdXrjv evpffKe, koi i) yij y^alpei ttw?

30 T&) evpi^fjLari, eireihrj aihrjpo^ /xev iroXe/iiaryjpio';

evaiTovho'^ diroKeio-eraL roU dvOpcoiroi^, ardBca

Be i)Bico arparoTTeScov So^et koi dywviovvraL

387 K. yv/ivoL. (2) Ta /lev St] TTaXalafiara iraihia.

Tavrl yap dyepwya aKipTa irepl rrjv TLaXalarpav

aXXo e-TT^ dXXw e? aini]v Xvyi^ovTa, eh] 8' av

yrjyevrj' ^rjal yap vir dpBpela^ i) KOprj /iijr av

5 yrjiiaadai to) eKOvaa /jli}t av reKetv. Sia7re(f)UKe

Se diT dXXijXcov ra it aXaicr fxara'^ KpdrKTTOv yap

TO ^VVrj/JL/JLeVOV Trj TTVyflf].'^

(3) To he elBo^ r?)? HaXaL(rTpa<;, el iiev ecfyyj/Soy SiKd^OLTOy Kopi] ecTTai, el he. ei? Koprjv Xa/jL^d-

^ Schenkl and Beinidorf think that something has been lost from the text after iraXaia/^aTa — an enumeration of the kinds of wrestling ending witli the pancratium, a combina- tion of wrestling and boxing (Plato, Hep. i. 338c).

2 Trvy/xfi Kayser : TraAp.

^ Pelops, near whose tomb the Olympic games were cele- brated, seems to have been originally a deity of the pre- Dorian population of Arcadia and Pisa ; in the earliest form of the legend he was the son of Hermes, the autochthonic




The place is Arcadia,^ the most beautiful part of Arcadia and that in which Zeus takes most delight — we call it Olympia — and as yet there is no prize for wrestling nor even any love of wrestling, but there will be. For Palaestra, the daughter of Hermes, who has just come to womanhood in Arcadia, has discovered the art, and the earth seems to rejoice at the discovery, since iron as an instru- ment of war will be laid aside by men during the truce, and the stadium will seem to them more delightful than armed camps, and with naked bodies they will contend with each other. The kinds of wrestling are represented as children. For they leap sportively around Palaestra, bending towards her in one wrestler's posture after another ; and they may be sprung from the earth, for the maiden shows by her manly aspect that she would neither marry any man willingly nor bear children. The kinds of wrestling differ from one another ; ^ indeed, the best is the one combined with boxing.^

The figure of Palaestra,* if it be compared with a boy, will be that of a girl ; but if it be taken for a

god of Arcadia. In locating Olympia in Arcadia rather than EHs, Philostratus follows the pre-Dorian story of the origin of the Olympic games.

2 See critical note.

^ The reference seems to be to the pancratium ; see critical note.

  • Frohner {Gaz, arch. XIV, 1889, p. 56) published a Roman

terracotta vase with medallions, in which are depicted Schoeneus, Atalanta with an apple, the victorious Hippo- medon carrying a palm branch, and Palaestra, a seated young woman nude to the waist and carrying a palm branch (Fig. 25, p. 265).



10 vono, 6(f)7]/3o(; 86^ei. Ko/xt] re yap oaij /i7]S' avairXeKecrOai 6/u/ia re d/i(f)OTep(p tm ijOet /cal ocppix; o'la kol ipdjvrcov virepopav koi iraKaiov- Tcov' (p7]al jap Trpo^ afitpco ra eOvq ippayaOac fia^oiv re ovS' ai> iraXaiovTa Oiyelv nva, roaovrov

15 avrfj irepielvai rr}? re^i^?/?. koI avrol Se ol fia^ol piKpa rf;? 6p/jLf}<; irapacfyaLvovaiv coairep iv /jL€ipaKi(p (i7ra\(p, 6r}\v re iiraLvel ovBev, 66 ev ovBe \€VKd)\evo<; deXei elvaL, ovBe Ta<; ^pvdSa<; €7raiv€LV €0iK6v, OTL XevKalvovaiv eavTa<; iv ral'^

20 aKiaL<;, dXkd tov "WXlov are kolXtjv WpKaSiav OLKOvaa alrel )(p(o/jLa, 6 8' olov di>Oo<; rt iirdyei avrfj Kal (poiviTTCi t7]v Kopi-jV fxeTpia rfj eiXr]?- (4) KaOrjaPai Be, m iral, rijv Koprjv irdvao^ov n TOV ^(oypdcpoV Trkelarai yap toI<; KaOr)/i€voi<; al

25 (JKial Kal to KaOvjadai avrf}^ iKavco<^ eva')(^ij[iov, TTpdrret Be tovto Kal 6 OaX\h<; t?)? e\aLa<; ev yvfivu) TO) koXttw. daTrd^erac Be ttov to (pVTOv TOVTO i) llaXataTpa, eTreLBrj irdXr] re dptjyei Kal Xcilpovaiv avTw irdvv dvOpwiroi.

^ f'lArj Heringa and Reiske : tSri. - ai/rf) Kayser : avTrjs or avTo7s.

1 Cf. p. 263, note 4. 264


girl, it will seem to be a boy. For her hair is too short even to be twisted into a knot ; the eye might be that of either sex ; and the brow indicates disdain for both lovers and wrestlers ; for she claims that she is able to resist both the one and the other, and that not even in a wrest- ling bout could anyone touch her breasts, so much does she excel in the art. And the breasts them- selves, as in a boy of tender years, show but slight signs of beginning full- ness. She cares for nothing feminine ; hence she does not even wish to have white arms, and apparently even disapproves of the Dryads because they stay in the shade to keep their skin fair ; nay, as one who lives in the vales of Arcadia, she begs Helius for colour, and he brings it to her like a flower and reddens the girl with moderate heat. It shows the skill of the painter, my boy, that the maiden is sitting, for there are most shadows on seated figures, and the seated position is distinctly becoming to her ; the branch of olive on her bare bosom is also becoming to her. Palaestra apparently delights in this tree, since its oil is useful in wrestling and men find great pleasure in it.


Fig. 2i



30 (1) 'H fjLev ')(pvar) ireKeia er eVt t?)? Spv6<; iv \ojiOL<; i) ao(f)y} koI y^p-qajjioi, ou<; eV Ato? dva- (ftOeyyerat, Kelrai 8' ovto<; 6 7re\€KV<;, ov /uedrJKcv 388 K. 'EXXo? 6 SpVTO/xo';, a^' ov Kara AwScovrjv ol 'KWoi, are/jL/jLara 8' uvrjirTaL Trj<; Spv6<;, eTreiSi] KaOdirep TlvOol TpL7rov<; ^p7;cryU0L'? eKc^epet. (poira 8' 6 fiev epeaOai, tl avnjv, 6 8e Ovaai, koI X^P^^

5 ovToal eV ^tj^mv TrepieardaL ttjv Spvv olfcetov- jievoL Trjv ao(pLav tov SevSpov, ol/jLac Be kol ttjv Xpvo'V^ opvLV eKsl TaXevOrjvaL. (2) 0/ 8' viTo<f>rj- rai rou Ato?, ou<; dvLTrroirohd'^ re Ka\ x^/jLaL€vi^a<i eyvo) "OfMTjpo^, avToay^e^Loi Tive<^ elat Kal ovttq)

10 /careaKevaa /levoL tov ^lov, cjiaal 8e fi7]B' dv Kara- (TKevdaaaOai' tov yap Ala x^lpeiv a(f)laiv, eTreiSr] daird^ovTai to avToOev. i€p6t<; yap ovTOL, Kal 6 fJLev TOV €pe^|raL /cvpio<;, 6 8e tov KaTev^aaOat, tov ^ 8' e? ^ iroiTava xph TrpdTTeiv,

15 TOV 8e es' ov\d<; Kal Kavd, 6 8e Ov6l tl, o h ov

irap/jaec eTepw Betpac to lepelov. ivTavOa 8e

lepecaL Act)8a)i^t8e9 iv cTTpvcpvu) re Kal lepw tw

^ Thv Reiske and Kayser : rtf. ^ 5' es Schenkl : Sc.

^ Dodona was the seat of the oracle of Zeus, reputed to be the oldest oracle in Greece (cf. Iliad 16. 233) ; it was situated in Epirus near the modern Janina. Hesiod places it in Hellopia {Cat. of Jf'omen mid Eoiae, 97) : " A ri(,-h land on the border of which is built a city, Dodona ; and Zeus loved it and (appointed) it to be his oracle, reverenced by men. . . . And they (the doves) lived in the hollow of an oak {<p-r)yov)." Trans. Evelyn-White, L.C.L. Herodotus (II, 55) speaks of the holy doves who first called attention to its niantic power. The oracles were answers to questions, in the form of a




Here is the golden dove still on the oak^ wise in her sayings ; here are oracles which are utterances of Zeus ; here lies the axe abandoned by the tree- cutter Hellus, from whom are descended the Helloi of Dodona ; and fillets are attached to the oak, for like the Pythian tripod it utters oracles. One comes to ask it a question and another to sacrifice, while yonder band from Thebes stands about the oak, claiming as their own the wisdom of the tree ; and I think the golden bird has been caught there ^ by decoy. The interpreters of Zeus, whom Homer knew as ^-men with unwashen feet that couch on the ground," ^ are a folk that live from hand to mouth and have as yet acquired no substance, and they assert that they will never do so, since they think they enjoy the favour of Zeus because they are content with a picked-up livelihood. For these are priests ; and one is charged with hanging the gar- lands, one with uttering the prayers, a third must attend to the sacrificial cakes, and another to the barley-grains and the basket, another makes a sacri- fice, and another will permit no one else to flay the victim. And here are Dodonaean priestesses of

rustling of the oak's branches. (Cf. siipra, Description 15, p. 187.) A spring at its foot inspired those who drank of it. The priests, called by Homer " Selloi " (here Helloi), found favour by depending wholly on Zeus for their food ; the fact that they slept on the ground suggests contact with the god in sleep (incubatio) as a means of learning the divine will.

2 This would naturally mean in Thebes. The allusion is uncertain. Benndorf thought that the reference was to Egypt, where, according to Aelian, Dc Nat. An. 6. 33, birds are brought down from the skv by a kind of magic.

3 Quoted from Iliad 16. 235.



ecSei' eoLKaai 'yap Ov/jna/jLarcov re avairvelv Kal airovhoiv. (3) Kat to ')(^cdpiov Se avro ^fco^e?, w

20 Trat, yeypaTTTat Kal ofjL(f)Pj<; p^earov, ')(^a\Krj re 'Fl;)^<jt) iv avTcp T6Tip7]TaL, r)v olpai 6pa<; iiTL- /SdXXovaai' t7]v %e?/3a ro) aropari, eireihi] ')(^a\K6lov aveiceiTo rco Ail Kara AcoScovtjv yx^Vf e? 7To\v ri]<; r}pepa<; Kai, pi^pi Xd(3ono rt? avTov,

26 p,ii aicoTTCov.

x5' nPAi

(I) To pev iirl ral'^' D.paL<^ elvai ra<^ rov ovpavov

TTuXa? 'OpDJpw d(f)(t}p€v elhevaL Kal e^^iv — etVo?

ycip TTov avTov ^vyyeveaOai Tal<; "D.paL<;, ore rov

aWepa eXa^e — tovtI he to (nrovhat^opevov viro

30 T?)? ypa(f)}j<^ Kal dvOpcoTTw ^vp^aXelv paSiov. at

yap Si] ^D-pat avT0L<; eLSecriv e? ttjv yrjv d(f)tK6'

pevat ^vvdiTTOvaai Td<^ j(^elpa'^ eviavTov olpuaL

380 K. eXiTTOvai Kal i) yfj ao(f)}] ovcra ev(f)opei ai)Tal<i tcl

eviavTOv TrdvTa. (2) "M?; iraTelre ti-jv vaKLvOov

Tj TO, poSa " ovK epM 77/309 Ttt? 7]pivd<;' VTTO yap

Tov iraTeladai tjSlco (j)aiveTaL Kal avTcov tl tcop

5 ilpwv l]Siov TTvel.^ Kal " pjj ep^aiveTe diTa\al<;

rat? dpovpai^ " ovk epoi Trpo? ra? ■)(^ip,epLov<;

(T(f)0)V' to yap TraretaOaL avrd^; viro rwv 'Hpcov

TToiyjaei darax^v. at ^avdal he avTai /Saivovaiv

^ Man}' attempts have been made to emend ifiSiov irvd : ^7J At" drnTTj/ft Jacobs, vrj Am Tri/e? Westermann ("exhale, by Zeus, a fragrance of the Horae themselves").

^ The Seasons.

2 Cf. Iliad, 5. 749: The gates of Heaven which the Horae had in their keeping, to whom are entrusted great



stiff and solemn appearance, who seem to breathe out the odour of incense and libations. The very place, my boy, is painted as fragrant with incense and replete with the divine voice ; and in it honour is paid to a bronze Echo, whom I think you see placing her hand upon her lips, since a bronze vessel has been dedicated to Zeus at Dodona, that resounds most of the day and is not silent till some- one takes hold of it.


That the gates of heaven are in charge of the Horae ^ we may leave to the special knowledge and prerogative of Homer,^ for very likely he became an intimate of the Horae when he inherited the skies ; but the subject that is here treated in the painting is easy for a man ^ to understand. For the Horae, coming to earth in their own proper forms, with clasped hands are dancing the year through its course, I think, and the Earth in her wisdom brings forth for them all the fruits of the year. " Tread not on the hyacinth or the rose " I shall not say to the Horae of the spring-time ; for when trodden on they seem sweeter and exhale a sweeter fragrance than the Horae themselves. '^ Walk not on the ploughed fields when soft " i shall not say to the Horae of the winter-time ; for if they are trodden on by the Horae they will produce the ear of grain. And the golden-haired Horae yonder are walking on

heaven and Oh'mpus, whether to throw open the great cloud or shut it to." Trans. Murray.

^ It is implied both here and in the phrase "inherited the skies " that Homer became a god after his death ; and works of ancient art depict his apotheosis.



€ttI t/}? rcov aaraxixov KOfirj'^, ov /j,7]V a)<; KXdaat,

10 7] Kd/jLyjraL, dW' elcrlv ovrco tl iXa(f)pai, 009 yu-?;Se e7rj]/iv€iv TO X)]iov.^ ^apiev v/jlwj', o) cifiireXoi, to \a/3ea6aL tojp oircopivcov eOeXeiv epdre 'yap irov TOiv Qpcov, on vp,d<^ epyd^ovrai KaXd<; koX r)SvoLvov<;.

15 (3) TauTL ix€v ovv olov 'yecdp'yiaL t/)? >ypa(f)r]<;, avral 3' al ' flpai fidXa i)helai koI haifioviov Te'xyrjf;. olov fieu yap avrcov to aBetv, o7a Se 17 SlVT] TOV KVkXoV Kul TO KaTOTTLV rj/uilv /jL-qSe/jLid'i ^aiveodai vtto tov Tracra? olov ep-^eaOat^

20 ^pa')(iwv he civco Kal iXevOepla d(f)€TOV k6/jL7]<; Kal irapeid 6epfiy] vtto tov Spofiou Kal 01 6(f)6aX/jLol avy')(^op€vovTe<^. '^d^a tl Kal p^vOoXoyrjcraL avy)(^(jL>povaiv virep tov ^coypd(f)OV' Bok€l ydp fxoL ')(opevovaai'^ Tal<^ "npai<; evTVX^^ aeiaOijvaL utt'

25 aL/TWi/ et? Tr]V Tex^^W, t'cro)? alvLTTOfievodv twv Oewv, OTi XPh ^^^ cjpa ypd(f)€LV.

^ rh Arjicu Scheiikl : rep 'i]\i<f or t^ Arj'y.

^ Cf. Iliad, 20. 227 : " Would course over the topmost ears of ripened corn and break them not " (said of the mares of Krichthonius). Trans. Murra\'.

2 The word is taken from Homer, Iliad, 2. 148.

^ The interpretation of Benndorf, who compares supra p. 302, 4K, and p. 311, 23. The painting furnislies the writer witii fruits to gather as the fields yield a harvest to the farmer.



the spikes of the ears, but not so as to break or bend them ; ^ nay, they are so Hght that they do not even sway the stalks. It is charming of you, O grape-vines, that ye try to lay hold of the Horae of the autumn-tide ; for you doubtless love the Horae because they make you fair and wine-sweet.^

Now these are our harvestings,^ so to speak, from the painting ; but as for the Horae themselves, they are very charming and of marvellous art. How they sing, and how they whirl in the dance ! Note too the fact that the back of none of them is turned to us, because they all seem to come towards us ; and note the raised arm, the freedom of flying hair, the cheek warm from the running, and the eyes that join in the dance. Perhaps they permit us to weave a tale about the painter; for it seems to me that he, falling in with the Horae as they danced, was caught up by them into their dance, the goddesses perhaps thus intimating that grace (Jiord) must attend his painting.*

  • According to Benndorf, whose interpretation is here

followed, (TiLddnvai (for ivaeiadrivaL) seems to mean that one of the surrounding spectators has been caught up by the dancers and made to share their dance. Benndorf interprets in this way a relief found on the Athenian Acropolis (pub- lished by Lechat, Bull. corr. hell. xiii. PL XIV, p. 467 f.), where Hermes with a flute is leading the dance of three Charites, the third of whom is initiating a small figure, i.^. not a divine being but a man, into their dance. Lechat calls attention to the essential likeness of Charites, Horae, and Nymphs, but names these figures Charites because the latter were worshipped in mysteries "in front of the entrance to the Acropolis " (Paus. 9. 35. 3).








In his preface to this^ the second, series of Imagines the younger Philostratus states his intention to " vie with earlier writers " in his description of paintings. Specifically he is following in the steps of his grandfather, the author of the earlier series of Imagines, though we find nothing like slavish imitation of that work. His high regard for the older Philostratus is stated in the eulogy of his preface ; it is indicated by the frequent use of phrases borrowed from his predecessor, inten- tionally or unintentionally ; and it is clearly shown by his choice of subjects. While he also frequently quotes from classic authors, the phrases taken from the older Philostratus number rather more than phrases or quotations from all other authors put together. As to his choice of subjects, ten of his seventeen descriptions deal with themes suggested by his predecessor.

Philostratus the Younger. Philostratus the Elder, 3. Hunters resting. I. 28. Preparation for and

progress of the hunt.

5. Heracles in swaddling I. 26. Hermes in swaddling

clothes. clotlies.

6. Music of Orpheus; ani- I. 10. Music of Amphion ;

mals and trees. stones of Thebes.

275 t2


Philostratus the Youxcer. Philostratus the Elder.

9. Pelops, Hippodanieiaand I. 17. Hippodameia, Pelops

Oenomaiis. and Oenoinaiis.

10. Pyrrhus and Eurypylus. I. 7. Memnon and Achilles.

11. Departure of the .-ir^o. II. 15. Arrival of the yir^o.

12. Hesione freed. I. 29. Andromeda freed.

13. Sophocles and bees. II. 12. Pindar and bees.

14. Hyaciuthus before death. I. 24. Hyacinthus after


15. Meleager and the Caly- I. 28. Boar hunt.

donian boar.

None of them is a co])y of the material he found, but all treat the same or similar themes in a way that invites comparison.

The most striking difference from his predecessor lies in the fact that the later writer makes far less effort for rhetorical effect. The so})hist, the lecturer for display, has retreated into the background. We find none of the curious knowledge" that was scattered through the works of his grandfather; the studied simplicity is no longer noticeable ; the " boy " and the effort to show a conversational manner rarely appear. In general the description is much more definite, as though he wished to make clear the particular pictures he is describing, although some of the descriptions confuse the story and the picture (cf. \a, Achilles on Scyrus), sometimes confusing elements are introduced into the picture/ and sometimes two or three scenes arc described in the .same picture without indicating the transition from one to another.^ Moreover, he takes satis-

^ Three figures representing the river in the contest with Heracles, in No. 4; three goddesses, not Athena alone, seek to bribe Eros to help Jason, in No. 8.

^ ?>os witli Ganymede, and Eros clinging to the skirts of Aphrodite, in No. 8 ; the single combat of Pyrrhus, and the outcome of the combat, in No. 10. 376


faction in filling out the details of the description (cf. Nos. 5; 15),i when the elder Philostratus de- scribed only the main points as illustrating the story of the painting.

While the elder Philostratus constantly stressed the illusion of reality in the paintings, perhaps as an inherited rhetorical device, his grandson rarely mentions it. He does speak of the hands and feet and garment of Orpheus as in motion (No. 6), of reflections on the ball offered to Eros when it is tossed into the air (No. S, 5), of the rapid motion of Aeetes' chariot (No. 11, 5), and the waves made by the onrush of the monster that attacked Hesione (No. 12, 4), but he does not suggest that the painted object could be confused with the object itself His figures of speech are relatively few. Under the spell of Orpheus' music the trees weave their branches to make a music-hall for him (No. G, 2), the tail of the monster attacking Hesione is like the sail of a ship (No. 12, 4), the legs of Meleager are firmly knit, " good guardians when he fights in the hand-to-hand contest" (No. 15, 5). He makes less use of literary allusions than does his predecessor, though his method of handling them is similar.- His one excursion into literature is his

^ References to the descriptions of the younger Philo- stratus are here given by the number (or number and section) of the description.

2 It should be noted, however, that the range of literary aHusion is neither so wide nor so free as in the case of the older Philostratus. Nearly half the allusions are to the Imagines or the Heroica or the Lives of his grandfather ; as the Shield of Achilles is based on Homer, so the account of the babe Heracles is based on Pindar (Xo. b), and the account of Medea (Nos. 7, 8) on Apollonius of Rhodes ; and



somewhat dull rendering of the scenes on the Shield of Achilles (No. 10, 5f.) ; this may be based on a painting or relief reproducing Homer, though the evidence for such a view is not convincing ; but it is certainly written for readers who know well the Homeric passage. He does not dwell on the drawing of the pictures, on symmetry or proportion, or on special devices used by the painter ; and his allusions to colour do not suggest that colour interested him as an important factor in painting. In one instance (No. 3, 2) he follows the method of his grandfather (e.g. Phil. Sen. I. 14, 3) in de- scribing the beauty of a grove, but the beauty of nature does not seem to appeal to him personall}'.

Perhaps the most interesting example of his relation to the older Philostratus is found in his panegyric of Sophocles (No. 13 infra). Because the elder Philostratus wrote a jianegyric of Pindar in the form of a description of a picture, the younger writes a panegyric of Sophocles in the same manner. Nevertheless there is a striking difference in that the Pindar is hardly a picture, while the Sojihocles takes clear form as a picture. The only pictorial elements in the Pindar ^ are the bees and a statue of Rhea before the house of Pindar's father ; the bees are there, their stings extracted, to a])ply tiieir honey to the newborn babe and instil their

^ svpra, p. 179.

of the relatively few alhisions tliat remain, his references to the Greek tragedians are curiously, -with one exception, references to fragments preserved in other literature (four times) and to the opening lines of plays by Sophocles or Euripides (six times). One cannot attribute to him the wide, intimate acquaintance with classical literature which was shown bj' his grandfather.



sweetness into him as he lies on laurel branches in- side the house^ but the babe is not in the picture ; and Pan^ we are told, will stop his leaping to sing the odes of Pindar, but apparently Pan is not in the picture. The Sophocles is no less a panegyric than the Pindar ; bees are flying about anointing Sophocles with mystic drops of their own dew, as though they might sting the onlooker ; Asclepius himself will listen to a paean of Sophocles ; but here we are presented with a definite picture of Sophocles standing modestly before a Muse in the presence of Asclepius.

This dependence of the younger Pliilostratus on his grandfather, which is most evident in his choice of subjects and in particular in the description of the picture of a poet just described, may well raise the question whether the later author is describing real pictures or imagining pictures to suit his literary purpose. In spite of the logical and often detailed descriptions, the latter view seems perhaps the more reasonable. None the less it may be said of him as of his predecessor, that his paintings are so genuinely conceived in the spirit of the age that they may be treated as sound data for the student ot late Greek painting.

In his Introduction the younger Pliilostratus, after his eulogy of his grandfather, outlines succinctly a theory of pictorial art which may also be regarded as an expression of the thought of his age. It is the function of painting, we are told (§ .3), to set forth the character and the inner life of the persons represented ; (§ 4) to produce the illusion of reality, that charming deception" by which men are led to think that things exist which do not exist ;



(§ 5) to follow the rules of symmetry and harmonious relation of parts, which have been laid down by men of old time ; and (§ 6) to present to the eye the same play of the imagination which is character- istic of poetry. Of these several factors which enter into painting, only one seems to have made a deep impression on the personality of our author, namely the delineation of character and inner ex- perience. Tlie nature of Diomedes and Odysseus (No. 1), the state of the mind of Marsyas and the barbarian and Apollo (No. 2), the character of the different hunters and the thoughts they are ex- pressing (No. 3), the spiritless and dejected Oeneus and the frightened blushing Deianeira (No. 4), the fright of Alcmene, the courage and intelligent caution of Amphitryon (No. 5), the love of Medea and Jason (No. 7), the haughty spirit of Pelops, the modesty of Hippodameia, and the Mildness of Oenomaus (No. 9), and similar features in later descriptions, are what the younger Philostratus chooses to dwell on. For him the art of the painter consists in the ability to delineate the character, the tlioughts, the intentions, tlie emotions of the persons represented. While the older Philostratus continually stressed the illusion of reality in paint- ing, his grandson grouped the art of painting Avith dramatic literature as forms of art to be judged by their success in presenting personalities.





3C0 K. (1) M?; dcpaLpco/jLeda Ta<i Te')(ya<; to ael acp^ea- Oai SvaavTi/SXeirrov i)'yovfxevoi to irpea^vTepov fir)S\ et T(p TMV iraXaLOTepcov irpoeiXiiiTTai ti,^ TOVTO ^ijXovv KUTa hvvafxiv (^eihaifieOa cr;^;;/iaTi 5 evTrpeirel to paOvfiov v7roKopi^6/jL6vot, aW' Ittl- /3d\(i)/jLev Tw (j>6daavTi- tvx,opt6<; yap aKOirou d^Lco<i \6yov irpd^ofiev, el he tttj ical Gc^aXrjvai ^vfi/Saii], TO yovv eTraivovvTa^^ c^aiveaOai 'Oj- Xovv TCL ev e')(ovTa eavTol<^ Scoao/xev.

10 (2) Tt Br] /jLOi tuvtI TTpoavaKeKpovcjTai ; ecnrov- hacTTai Ti9 ypa(piK)]<i epycov eKcfypaai^ tcd/jlo) 6fxa)vi>/jLCp Te KoX /ir/TpoTrdTopL Xiav 'ArTi/cw? t/}? yX(OTTri<; e^ovaa ^vv copa Te Trporjy/iepTj kol ToVfi). TavTT]<; KaT lx^V %co/9^jcrat 6eXi]aavTe<^

15 dvdyKi^v ea^Ojiev irpo tt}? 6Xq<^ eirL^oXr]^; koI TTepl ^coypa(f)La(; Tivd hieXOeh', &)? dv koI o X0709 e)(r) TrjV oLKe'iav vXi^v icpapfioTTovaav tol<; vtto-


(3) Za)ypa(f)La<; dpiaTOv koI ovk eVl ajJUKpol^

20 TO eTTLTijSevfjba' ^PV J^P '^^^ 6p6(0<; TrpoaTa-

TevcrovTa r/}? re^i^/;? (f)vaiv Te dvdpwTreiav ev

Bie(TK€(j)6aL KOL LKavov elvai yvcofiaTevaat ^)6(i)v

^v/jL/3oXa Koi aiooTTcovTcov Kal tl fiev ev irapeicov

Ti added by Olearius.

iiraivovvra'i Reiskc, Hey lie : 4iraivovvra.



Let us not deprive the arts of their chance to be kept up for ever, on the ground that ^ve think the earlier period hard to match ; and let us not, just because we have been anticipated in any undertaking by some writer of former time, refrain from emulating his work to the best of our ability, using a specious pretext with which to gloss over our indolence ; but let us rather challenge our predecessor for, if we attain our goal, we shall accomplish something worth while ; but if at any point we fail, at least we shall do ourselves the credit of showing that we strive for the noble ends we praise.

Why have I made this prelude ? A certain de- scription of works in the field of painting was written with much learning by one whose name 1 bear, my mother's father, in very pure Attic Greek and with extreme beauty and force. Desiring to follow in his footsteps we felt obliged before setting out on the task to discourse somewhat on the art of painting, in order that our discussion may have its own matter in harmony with what is proposed.

Most noble is the art of painting ^ and concerned with not insignificant matters. For he who is to be a true master of the art must have a good knowledge of human nature, he must be able to discern the signs of men's character even when they are silent, and what is revealed in the state of the cheeks and

^ Lit. "figure-painting."



KaraardaeL, ri 8e iv 6<^6a\ixodi> /cpdcrei, ri ht iv

25 6(j)pv(OV Tjdei K6LTai Kal ^vvekovTi elirelv oiroaa

391 K. 69 yvco/jiTjv Teivei. tovtcov Se iKavoi<^ ^X^^ f^^'

atpijaet irdpra /cal cipiara vTroKpivelraL i) %et/3

TO oIksIov eKdarov Spafia, /jLe/jLtjvora el tu^ol t)

6pyil,6/ievov y evvovv i) x^lpovra i) 6p/jLi]T7]v i)

5 ipojvra, Kal KaOdira^ to dpp-oStov icj) CKdara) ypd-yjrei. (4) 'HSela Se Kal i) iv avrco dirdri^ Kal ovBev 6v€lSo<; (j)epovaa- ro yap roL<; ovk ovaiv &)? ovai irpoaeardvaL Kal ayeadau vtt' avrojv, co? elvaL vofii^eLv, d(f) ov /3Xa/5o9 ovhev, ttw? ov y^rv^^a-

10 ywyrjaaL iKavov Kal alria^; eKro^ ;

(5) AoKovai Se jjlol iraXaioi re Kal cro(f)ol av8pe<; ttoWcl virep ^v/jL/i6Tpia<; t^? eV jpacpiKfj ypdyjrai, olov v6/jlov<; TiOevTe^; tP]<; eKdarov roiv fieXcov dva\oyLa<; &)? ovk ivov t/}? Kar^ evvoiav

15 KLV)]a€a)<; eTTiTV')(^elv cipiara /it) el'aco rov €k (f)vaea)<; fxerpov rf]^ dppLovia^ yKovai]^;- ro yap eK(f)v\ov Kal e^o) /lerpov ovk dirohex^adai (pv- aew<; 6p6co<; ixovay]<; Kivrjaiv. (G) ^KOTrovvri Be Kal ^vyyeveidv riva tt/do? TTOLr/rLKrjV €)(€iv i)

20 rexi^V evpiaKerat Kal kolvi] ri^ dfKpotv ehat, (pavraaia. 6eo)v re yap irapovaiav ol TTOtrjral 69 ry]P eavroiv aKy]V7)v eadyovrai Kal irdrra oaa oyKov Kal aep.vorT]ro<; Kal yjrv^^aycoylaf; e)(erai,

^ I'lutarch (Mor. 348 C) discusses the " deception " inherent in tlie art of the drama, in particular tragedy, (|Uoting(iorgias to the effect that the poet who deceives is wiser tlian the one



the expression of the eyes and the character of the eyebrows and, to put the matter briefly, whatever has to do with the mind. If proficient in these matters he will grasp every trait and his hand will successfully interpret the individual story of each person — that a man is insane, perhaps, or angry, or thoughtful, or happy, or impulsive, or in love, and, in a word, will paint in each case the appropriate traits. And the deception ^ inherent in his work is pleasurable and involves no reproach ; for to confront objects which do not exist as though they existed and to be influenced by them, to believe that they do exist, is not this, since no harm can come of it, a suitable and irreproachable means of providing entertainment ?

Learned men of olden times have written much, I believe, about symmetry in painting, laying down laws, as it were, about the proper relation of each part of the figure to the other parts, as though it were impossible for an artist to express successfully the emotions of the mind, unless the body's harmony falls within the measurements prescribed by nature ; for the figure that is abnormal and that exceeds these measurements cannot, so they claim, express the emotions of a rightly constituted being. If one reflects upon the matter, however, one finds that the art of painting has a certain kinship with poetry, and that an element of imagination is common to both. For instance, the poets introduce the gods upon their stage as actually present, and with them all the accessories that make for dignity and grandeur and power to charm the mind ; and so in like manner

who does not ; and that the hearer who is deceived is wiser than the one who is not, in that he is easil}' moved by his pleasure in what he hears.



ypa(f)iK)} 76 6/iiOLCo^, a Xeyeiv ol Troiyral €)(^ov(n,

25 javT iv T(p ypd/jLfiart aiifxaivovaa.

(7) Kat Tt ')(^py] Xeyeiv irepl tmv apL^i]X(i)(; eipr^fievwv 7roWot<; rj irXelova Xeyovra hoicelv e? iyKcofXLa KaOiaraadai rod 7rpdy/ia70<; ; dpKel yap Koi ravra SeLKVvvai to aTTovSa^o/jievov ij/juv

30 &)9 ovK airo^e^XrjaeTai ttoi, el Kal ^ Kopuhf] (T/jLLKpd' ypdfi/jLaai yap Trpoarv^wv ')(eipo<^ d- (TTeta?, ev oh dp-^alac irpd^cL^ ovk dpiovaw^ exovaai rjaav, ovk ij^lcoaa aiwirfj irapeXOelv ravra. dXX iv i)pZv /xij 6(f)' evo^ ro ypdjifia

35 TTpoioi, earo) Ti? vrroKeifjievo^, irpo'^ ov ypr) rd KaO' efcaara SiapOpovv, IV ovro) Kal 6 \0709 to dp/jLorrov exoi^


392 K. (1) 'H KOfJLMaa rfj a^^ufp ijpcoivi] — opa^; ydp rrov rrjv vtto rco Spec crri(f)pdv ro eZ^o? koI 6<jraXp6vy]v KvavM — XKvpo<;, w Tral, vrjao^, rjv 06LO<i ^o^oatX,/}? dvep^coBea KaXel. eari 8' avrfj 5 Kal 7rr6pdo<; iXda<; iv ralv x^polv Kal dfxireXov KXrj/jLa. 6 5' VTTO TOi? irpoTToai rov opov^ wvp-

^ ci kjX Jacobs : 1^.

^ Cf. Plutarcli {Moi\ 748 A), who discusses the relation of poetry, dancing, and painting. "For dancing is silent poetry, and on the other hand poetry is a dance of speech. ... It would seem that as poetry resembles the use of colour in painting, so dancing resembles the lines by which figures are defined."

2 Cf. the same sentiment, Od. 12. 451 f.



does the art of painting, indicating in the lines of the figures ^vhat the poets are able to describe in words. ^

And yet why need I say what has been admirably said by many,^ or by saying more give the impres- sion that I am undertaking an encomium of painting ? For even these words^ few indeed though they be, suffice to show that our present effort will not have been wasted. For when I have met with paintings by a clever hand, in which ancient deeds were treated not without refinement, I have not thought it right to pass them by in silence. But in order that our book may not proceed on one foot,^ let it be assumed that there is a person present to whom the details are to be described, that thus the discussion itself may have its proper form.


The heroine crowned with reeds — for doubtless you see the female figure at the foot of the mountain, sturdy of form and dressed in blue — is the island of Scyros, my boy, which the divine Sophocles calls " wind-swept." ^ She has a branch of olive in her hands and a spray of vine. And the tower in the foot-hills of the mountain — that is the place where the

^ i.e., as a discourse of one person.

  • While the Homeric poems tell nothing of Achilles' con-

nection with Scyros, later writers say that Peleus sent him there to king Lj'comedes at the age of nine in order to keep him out of the expedition against Troy. There he was brought up in maiden's garments with the daughters of LN'comedes, till Odysseus and Diomedes (or Ajax or Phoenix and Nestor) were sent at the bidding of Calchas the prophet to fetch him. The scene was a favourite one with Greek painters from Polvgnotus on.

» Soph. Frag. 539 N.



70?, irapOevevovjai evravda al rod Av/cofA,ijSov<; fcopai ^vi' rf) hoKovar) irapa ©eViSo? r}K€LV. (2) To 'yap roi yioipojv eirl tw ttcilSI 86y/j,a rov

10 TTarpo^; N7]peco<; 1) BeVf? jiadovcra koI ox; iir a/x^o) TTeiTpwfjLevov avrw eh] 7) ^i]v a^Xew? *] evKXed yevo/uLevov Ta^iara reXevrav, airoOero'^ avrfi 6 7ra2<; ^vv Tat9 AvKOfjL)]8ov<; dvyarpdaip iv ^Kvpo) KpvTTTeraL, Koprj fiev elvai SoKcav Tal^

15 aXXaL<;, fxiav he avTMV rijv Trpea^uTcirijv ^vv a7ropp/]Tcp yvov<; epcori, Koi irpoLonv ye e'<? rofcov copav 6 ')(p6vo<; top Hvppov efcScoaei. (3) 'AXX' ouK evravda Tavra. Xet/JLcov Be irpo rov irvpyov — €7rLT7]Beio<; yap 6 t6tto<; tt)? vrjaov K6paL<^

20 dvdcbv d(f>6oviav hovvai — kol 6pa<^ ye^ 00? dXXi] dXXa-)(^oae inroaKiBvavTaL rd civOrj cnroKeipovaai. KaXXo^ fxev ovv dfjLi])(avov diraacbv, dXX' al fiev aTe;)^t/&)? e? OtjXecav copav aTroKXivovai ^oXah T€ 6(p6aX/jLMV dirXd eK^XeTrouaac; /cal Trapeidf;

25 dvdeL Kal rfj Trpo^ eKaara op/iy ev fxdXa to 6r}\v eXeyxovaai, i]Bl Be 1) dvaxai'Ti^ovaa Tr)v KopiTjv Kal 0Xo(7Vpd avv dffpoTijrc avriKa fidXa hLeXeyxOi^o-erai T7]v (f)vaLv Kal to ^vv dvdyKjj eTTLTrXaaTOV eK^vaa top 'Ax^XXea eKSel^ei- Xoyov

30 yap e? tov<; "EjXX7]va<; e/iTreaovTo^ tov t/}? HeTiBo^ diroppyjTOV aTeXXeTaL Aio/x>;S>;? ^vp 'OBvaaet errl tijv ^Kvpov BieXey^ovTe^;, oirr) TavTa e^^i. 393 K. (*i) 'O/oa? Be d/i(f>(i) tov p.ei' Kal jSe^vOiCfievov TTfv TO)v 6(f)daX/jL6)v dKTLva Bid iravovpyiav oifiai

1 Cf. Iliad 9. 410 f. "Thetis telleth me that twofold fates are bearing nie towards the doom of death : if I abide



daughters of Lycomedes follow their maidenly pur- suits with the seeming daughter of Thetis. For when Thetis learned from her father Nereus the decree of the Fates about her son — that one of two things had been allotted to him, either to live ingloriously or becoming glorious to die very soon ^ — her son was put away among the daughters of Lycomedes on Scyros and now lives hidden there ; to the other girls he seems to be a girl, but one of them, the eldest, he has known in secret love, and her time is a])proaching when she will bring forth Pyrrhus. But this is not in the picture. There is a meadow before tlie tower, for this part of the island is a garden made to produce flowers in abundance for the maidens, and you see them scattered here and there plucking the flowers. All are surpassingly beautiful, but while the others incline to a strictly feminine beauty, proving indisputably their feminine nature by the frank glances of their eyes and the bloom of their cheeks and their vivacity in all they do, yet yonder girl who is tossing back her tresses, grim of aspect along with delicate grace, will soon have her sex betrayed, and slipping off the character she has been forced to assume will reveal Achilles. For as the rumour of Thetis' secret spreads among the Greeks, Diomedes in company with Odysseus sets forth to Scyros to ascertain the truth of this story. You see them both, one keeping the glance of his eyes ^ sunk low by reason, I think, of his craftiness

here and war about the city of the Trojans, then lost is my home return, but my renown shall be imperishable ; but if I return home . . . lost then is my glorious renown, yet shall my life long endure." Trans. Murray, L.C.L.

2 For the phrase tV tSiv ocpdaX/xwv aKrlva, cf. the elder Phil. Vit. Soph. 61, 3, and Ima(j. 311, 18 K.


KOI TO hiaOpelv tl aei, 6 Se rou Ti^8eco9 e/xcfypcov jjiev, €TOi/jLO<i Be TTji/ ypco/uLrjv koI to hpaaTt]pLov 5 TTpoTeivwv. KaTOiriv he avTcov kul 6 rfj adXTTLyyi (Ti-jiiaivdyv ri By) ^ovXcTai Kal tl to rj6o<; r/}? <ypacf)P]<; ; (5) "^ocfyo^; cov \)Bvaaev<^ kol iKavo^ TMV aBrjXcov 6i]paTri<; tt/jo? tov tmv Oi^pcDfievwv

eXeyx^^ f^VX^^^'^^^ '^^ ^^^' p^^^'i y^P eV tov 10 Xeifiwva TaXdpov^ re Kal oaa iraial Kopat*; e? TvaiBiav evTrpeir?] Kal TravoirXiav, al jxev ovv AvKO/jLt]Bov<; e? to oIkeIov y^copovcnv, 6 Be tov Il>;Xeco9 TaXdpoi<; fiev kol KepKiai ^aipeiv Xeyei rrapaXLTToov avTO, rat? K6pat,<; yBij, e? Be ttjv 16 iravoirXlav 6p/iyjaa^ yvfivovTai re to evTev-

(1) . . . aOai. 6 Be IIvppo<; ovk dypoiKO'; eTC ovB' ev avxP-^ acppiycoi', ola /SovkoXoov veavcev- fiaTa, dXX' ijBrj aTpaTL(t)T7]<;. eaTrj fiev yap 20 olkoi'tIm €7rep€Laa<; eavTov Kal aTro/SXeTTcov e? TTJV vavv, ea6)]<; Be avTw (f)oiviKl<; ef cjfiov aKpov €9 Tr]V cipLCTTepav dveiXij/jL/jLevy] X^^P^ '^^^ XevKo^; virep yovv x^^cov, to Be Ofifxa auTw yopyov fiev, ovk ev op/jufj Be, dXX' ev dvafioXaU

^ Jacobs saw that the end of this description and the beginning of the next have been lost.

^ The same phrase is used by the elder Philostratus, Fit. A poll. 11, 20 (02, 24 K).

^ Cf. .Soph. Ajax 2, where the word d7]p(ifxeyov, " ever on the prowl," is used by Odysseus.

3 Pyrrhus (Neoptolemus) was the son of Achilles by Deidameia, daughter of Lycomedes, Born after the de-



and his habit of continual scheming, the other, Tydeus' son, prudent, ready in counsel and intent on the task before him. What does the man behind them mean, the one who blows the trumpet? and what is the significance of the painting ? ^ Odysseus, shrewd and an able tracker of secrets,^ devises the following plan to test what he is tracking out ; when he throws down on the meadow w-ool-baskets and objects suited to girls for their play and a suit of armour, the daughters of Lycomedes turn to objects suitable to their sex, but the son of Peleus, though he claims to find pleasure in baskets and weaving- combs, forthwith leaves these things to the girls, and rushing to the suit of armour he divests himself of the feminine attire he has been wearing. . . .


. . . And Pyrrhus is no longer a countrj^ boor nor yet growing strong amid filth like brawling sons of herdsmen, but already he is a soldier. For he stands leaning on a spear and gazing towards the ship ; and he wears a purple mantle brought up from the tip of the shoulder over to his left arm and a white tunic that does not reach the knee ; and though his eye is flashing, it is not so much the eye of a man in full career as of one still holding

parture of Achilles, the boy was brought up by Lycomedes lill, at the bidding of the seer Helenus, Odysseus and Phoenix came to fetch him to accomplish the capture of Tro}'. His victory over Eurypylus is described below (Xo. 10, p. 325f. ). The departure of P\'rrhus from Scyros, his assistance to Odysseus in securing the bow of Philoctetes, and his exploits at Troy are scenes frequently depicted on Greek red-figured vases.

291 U2


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back and vexed at the delay ; and his mind images something of what will happen a little later in Ilium. His hair now^ when he is at rest, hangs down on his forehead, but when he rushes forward it will be in disorder, following, as it tosses to and fro, the emotions of his spirit. The goats skipping about unchecked, the straying herds, and the shepherd's staff with its crook lying among them where it has been thrown ^ imply some such story as this, my boy : — Vexed with his mother and his grandfather for being kept on the island, since after the death of Achilles in fear for the boy they had sworn that Pyrrhus should not depart, he set himself over the goats and kine, subduing ^ the bulls that scorned the herd — the bulls that may be seen on the mountain at the right. But when the oracle came to the Greeks that Troy would be captured by none other than the descendants of Aeacus, Phoenix is sent to Scyros to fetch the boy, and putting ashore he en- counters him, each unknown to the other except in so far as the boy's graceful and well-grown form suggested that he was x\chilles' son. And as soon as Phoenix recognized who he was, he himself be- came known to Lycomedes and Deiodameia. All this is what art would teach us by means of this small picture, and it is so painted as to furnish to poets also a theme for song.

^ Iliad 23. 84:5-(j : "Far as a herdsman flings his crook, and it flieth whirling over the herds of kine. . . ."

^ Lit. "turning back the neck and thus throwing them to the ground ; cf. Philostratus, Her. 190, 1, where the same phrase had been used.

^ aTttKrija-ei Jacobs : droKTrjo-eie.




L") (1) Ka6yjp7]TaL 6 ^pv^, /SXeirei yovv airo- \a)\o<; i]S?] 8ia ^vveaiv ojv Trelaerai koI varara Sj] avXijaat ireTTLarevKev ovk e? Kaipov e? tov T^9 At^toO? Opaauvd/jL€vo<;, eppLirrai re uvtm 6 avXo<; aT{,/io<; /xt) avXelv en, co? Kal vvv aircihwv

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^ avyr]u F: avTrtw suggested by Jacobs, opyV ^>y an anonj-mous critic.

^ The story is that Marsyas presumptuously undertook to prove that tlie music of his flute was superior to Apollo's music on the lyre. Defeated in the contest, he was flayed alive. Cf. Xen. A^iab. I. 28: "It was here (at Celaenae), according to the story, that Apollo flayed Marsyas, after having defeated him in a contest of musical skill ; he hung up his skin in the cave from which the sources issue, and it is for this reason that the river is called Marsyas."




The Phrygian has been overcome ; at any rate his glance is that of a man already perished, since he knows what he is to suffer, and he realizes that he has played the flute for the last time, inasmuch as inopportunely he acted with effrontery towards the son of Leto. His flute has been thrown away, con- demned never to be played again, since just now it has been convicted of playing out of tune. And he stands near the pine tree from which he knows he will be sus- pended, he himself having named this penalty for him- self — to be skinned for a wine-bottle. 2 He glances furtively at the barbarian yonder who is whetting the edge of the knife to be applied to him ; for you see, I am sure, that the mans -^^•-^' -^•

hands are on the whetstone and the iron, but that he looks up at Marsyas with glaring eyes, his wild and squalid hair all bristling. The red on his cheek betokens, I think, a man thirsty for blood, and his eyebrow overhangs the eye, all contracted as it faces the light ^ and giving a certain stamp to his anger ; nay, he grins, too, a savage grin in anticipation of what he is about to do — I am not

^ i.e. in case he should be defeated by Apollo in the contest. The expression is current in classical writers, e.g. Solon. Frag. 33, 7 Bergk. ; Aristophanes, Nv.h. 442.

^ A similar expression is used by the elder Philostratus, Vit. Apoll. 283, 10 K (VII. 28).



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(1) Ti 5' OVK av eiiroi^ irepl tovtwv, ov<; ayec 15 p,€P diro 0)]pa<; rj ypa(f>7], Trrjyrjv 8' avTol<i dva- SlBcoaiv (iKpaicpvi) ttotl/jLOV tc Kal hiavyov^ vd/iaTO<i ; 6pa<; Si ttov Kal to irepl T7]v injyrjv a\ao<^, (pvo-€(o<; epyov olfiai t)]<; ao(f>i)<;' iKavij yap irdvTa, oaa /SovXeTai, Kal BetTai Tex^V^ 20 ovSei', i] ye Kal Te;^/'at9 avTaU dpxr) Ka6eaT7jK6. (2) Tt yap ipSet 7rp6<; ttjv t?}9 aKid<i irapaaKevtjv ; aiSl fiev 7)fiepihe<; dypiai dvco epirvaaaai ^ twj/ hevhpodv ^vp^e/SXi'jKaac tov^ twv KXyj/jLaTcov KopvpL^ov^ dXXov dXXcp avpSeovaai, crpiXa^ he

  • TrpoawTTCf Olearius: aa-wiroo.

^ auw fpirvffacrai Arnim : dt/epTrvaaaai.



sure whether because he is glad or because his mind swells in pride as he looks forward to the slaughter. But Apollo is painted as resting upon a rock : the lyre which lies on his left arm is still being struck by his left hand in gentle fashion^ as though playing a tune. You see the relaxed form of the god and the smile lighting up his face ; his right hand rests on his lap, gently grasping the plectrum^ relaxed be- cause of his joy in the victory. Here also is the river which is to change its name to that of Marsyas.^ xAnd look, please, at the band of Satyrs, how they are represented as bewailing Marsyas, but as dis- playing, along with their grief, their playful spirit and their disposition to leap about.


Is there any praise you would withhold from these men whom the painting is bringing back from the hunt ? And it causes a pure spring of sweet and pellucid water to gush for them from the earth. And no doubt you see the grove around the spring, the work of wise Nature, I believe ; for Nature is sufficient for all she desires, and has no need oi art ; indeed it is she who is the origin of the arts themselves. For what is lacking here to provide shade ? Those wild vines climbing high up on the trees have brought clusters of shoots together, fastening them to one another : while the bryony

1 Ovid, Metam. VI. 383 f., after describing the death of Marsyas, tells how the tears of his companions gave rise to a river which bore his name.

2 Cf. the treatment of the same theme by the elder Philostratus, Imag. I, 28, p. 107 f.



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15 opcoaiv e? avTov dcpTjyovfievov, dTepo<; Se a<f)a)V

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^ TTuKfOTTTepoi Olearlus from Sophocles : TrvKiSrepoy, ■kvkv6-


^ (TTKppoi Olearius : <npi<pvoi. ^ ava-ypd-^wv Reiske : avaypacpcav. 398


yonder and the ivy, both together and separately, provide for us over there a close-knit roof that is more pleasant than art could produce.^ The chorus of nightingales and the choirs of other birds ^ bring clearly to our tongues the verses of Sophocles, sweetest of poets : And within (the copse) a feathered choir makes music." ^

But the band of hunters, charming sturdy youths still breathing the excitement of the hunt but now variously engaged, are resting themselves. Ye gods ! how wonderful and how charming is the clearness of the painter's art, and how well we may discern the story of each one I This improvised couch, made of nets, I think, receives those whom we may rightly call ^' the leaders of the hunt." They are five in number. You see the midmost of them, how he has raised himself and has turned towards those who lie above him, to whom, it seems to me, he is relating the story of his contest and how he was first to bring down one of the two wild beasts which are suspended from the trees in nets, a deer ap- parently and a boar. For does he not seem to you to be elated * and happy over what he has done } The others gaze on him intently as he tells his story ; and the second of them as he leans back on the couch seems to be resting a while and planning soon to describe some exploit of his own in the hunt. As to the other wing of the company, the

^ The description is based on a passage in the elder Philo- stratus, Vit. ApolL 49. 2.3 fK (II, 7).

2 Eur. Frag. 88. 2 f. has the phrase "choir of nightin- gales."'

3 Quoted from Soph. Oed. Col 17 f.

  • For this use of iiraipeiv, cf . Phil. Imag. 347, 7 K.



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man next to the central figure, a cup half full in one hand and swinging his right hand above his head, seems to me to be singing the praises of Artemis Agrotera,i while his neighbour, who is looking towards the servant, is bidding him hurry the cup along.

The painter is clever and exact in his craftsman- ship ; for if one examines the whole picture, nothing has been overlooked, not even as regards the attend- ants. The man yonder, having found a branch broken from a tree, sits on it, dressed just as he was in the chase after the quarry and making a meal from the pouch which hangs at his side. One of the two dogs, stretched out in front of him, is eating, while the other squats upon his hind legs and stretches out his neck to catch the morsels that are being thrown to him. A second man kindles a fire, and putting over it some of the pots adapted to this use he makes ready for the hunters the abundant food, hurrying at his task ; this wine-skin has been thrown down here at random for anyone that wishes to draw drink from it; of two other servants, one, the carver I suppose, tells us that he is cutting portions with due care to make them equal, and the other holds out the platter that is to receive the meat, doubtless demanding that the portions be equal ; for in this matter at least the management of a hunt leaves nothing to Fortune.

^ Artemis the goddess of wild beasts whom the hunter must propitiate.

^ 6 added by Olearius.

^ KOLK Jacobs : /cat.

2 it/Sexdn-^vos added by Arnim.



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15 L€Tat, Kal dvBpo^; tovtov i^jiidi-jpo^;' ^ovirpwpa fiev yap avrw irpoawira- Kal y6P€ia<; d/j,(f)L\a<f)))(; irriyai re va/Ltdrcov iKTrXrj/jL/jLvpovaat rov yevelov. TO re (TvveppvrjKo^ <jo^ €9 Oeav irXrjOo^ Kal 7) iv /jbiaoi^; Koprj, vvpucfyr] Tt,<; ol/iaL, rovrl yap ^pr)

20 VO6CV TO) dficf)' avTrjv KoapLW, Kal yepwv ovto<; iv dOvfio) TM eiSei veavLw; re iKSv6/jL€V0<; X€ovTrj<; Kal ponaXov iv ralv ^^epoiv €)(^wr, Tjpcoivtj re ti<;

^ The contest between Heracles and Acheloiis was a favourite subject in art from early times (cf. Pans. 6. 19, 22 for the description of a group at Olympia, which included Ares, Athena, Zeus and Deiaueira as well as Heracles and Acheloiis). In early drawings Acheloiis is given the form of a centaur, but by the fifth century he is regular!}' repre- sented as a bull with a human face. As pointed out by Jahn {Eph. Arch. 168'2, p. 317 f.), Acheloiis here has the form of a man, but witli the horns of a bull springing from his fore- head. While tlie presence of the serpent and the bull with Acheloiis is not explained in the description, apparentl} the painter intended to depict two of the forms that the river assumed during the struggle. The failure of Pliilostratus to understand what he described may be regarded as direct evidence that he was dealing with an actual picture. Evi-




Probably you are asking what these three figures have to do with each other — a serpent "ruddy of back " ^ which rises there Hfting its long form^ a beard hanging beneath an erect serrated crest, its glare terrible and its glance one that cannot but work consternation ; a bull that curves its neck beneath those mighty horns and, pawing the earth at its feet, rushes as for a charge ; ^ and here a man that is half animal, for he has the forehead of a bull and a spreading beard, while streams of water run in floods from his chin.* The multitude that has gathered as for a spectacle ; the girl in their midst, a bride, I suppose (for this must be inferred from the ornaments she wears) ; an old man yonder of sad countenance ; a youth who is divesting himself of a lion's skin and holding in his hands a club ; and here a heroine of sturdy form who has been crowned

dentl}' the picture gave two scenes (if not three) : first the situation before the conflict, and secondly the outcome of the conflict ; for the hitter can hardly be treated as mere rhetoric on the part of Philostratus. The subject is depicted on a tripod base in the Constantinople Museum [Mitlh. d. deutsch. Palaestina-vereins Yll, PI. Ill), where Acheloiis appears as a bearded man with horns of a bull ; one horn lies at the feet of Heracles, and blood spouts from the head where it had been broken otif. (Benndorf.) 2 Quoted from Homer, 11. 2. 308.

^ Cf. Eur. Her. Far. 869 : " Like a bull in act to charge."

  • Cf. Soph. Track. 8f. : "For my wooer was a river-god,

Acheloiis, who in three shapes was ever asking me from my sire — coming now as a bull in bodily form, now as a serpent with sheeny coils, now with trunk of man and front of ox, while from a shaggy beard the streams of fountain-water flowed abroad." Trans. Jebb.


avT7] aTi(f)pa Kal Trpo? \6yov tw fivOfp r;'}? 'ApKaScov TpO(f)T]<; i>^y^ iarepL/iei^i). KaXvBoov

25 olfiai ravra.

(2) Tt? Be 6 T)]<; ypa(f)7]<; A-070? ; 'Ai^eXwo? TTorayLio?, u) TTOLy AriiaveLpa<^ r/}? OiVeo)? e/owz^ toi' ycip.ov anevBei Kal YI€lOu> jxev air ear l twv Spco- /j,ev(i)v, a\\o<; Se ciXXore Sokcov vtto rot? opw-

30 /jL€voi<; elheaiv eKTrXtj^eiv ^jyelraL rov Olvea. TOVTOv yap elvai yivwGKe rov iv rfj ypa(f>(j, KaTi](f)f] Brj^ iirl rfj iratSl Ayjiaveipa a6vp,(0^ 39S K. TOP]cTTi]pa opcoarj. yeypaiTTai yap ovk alSol T7]i> irapeiav i^avOovaa, aWa irepLhei]^ ola TTeiaerai tw irapa (f)vatv t/}9 av^vyia<^. aW 6 fiev yevvalo<^ 'H/ja/tX?}? oBov irdpepyov (paalv

5 €Kovai(o<; vc^icnaTat rov aOXov.

(3) Kal ra fiev ev dva0o\ai<; ravra, IBov Se Kal o)? ^vveariJKaaiv i]Sr], Kal oaa fiev iv dp-)(^al<i rrj<; Bi,a/jLd)(r]<; 6eov re Kal drpeirrov i']p(oo<; vtto- voeuaOco, ro S' av reXo<; 6 fxev €? ^ovKepwv

10 dvafiop<pci)aa^ eavrov 6 7TorafjLO<; eirl rov 'HpaKXea oopfirjaev, 6 Se rfj Xaia rov Be^iov Xafiofievo^ Kepw'^ Odrepov rw poirdXcp roiv Kpo- rd(f)(i)v €KTrpe/jiVL^€L, KuvrevOev 6 fiev alfiaro<; tjB^j jjidXXov 7) vdparo<i dcptyat Kpovvov<; aTrayopevayp,

15 6 Be 'llpaKXi]<; yavv/jL€vo<; rw epyrp 69 ryjv A7)id- veipav opa Kal ro fxev porraXov avrw e? yrjv eppiirrai, irporeivei Be avrfj ro rov 'A^eXtoOf Kepa^ olov eBvov rod yd/xov.

1 S)} Schenkl : 5e.



^vith beech leaves in harmony with the story of her Arcadian nurture — all this, I think, is Calydon.

What is the meaning of the painting? The river Acheloiis, my boy, in love with Deianeira the daughter of Oeneus, presses for the marriage ; ^ and Persuasion has no part in what he does, but by assuming now one and now another of the shapes we see here, he thinks to frighten Oeneus. For you are to recognize the figure in the painting as Oeneus, despondent on account of his daughter Deianeira, who looks so dolefully at her suitor. For she is painted, not with cheek reddening through modesty, but as greatly terrified at the thought of what she will suffer in union with that unnatural husband. But the noble Heracles willingly assumes the task as an "incident of his journey," to use a popular phrase.

So much by way of prelude ; but now see how the contestants have already joined battle, and you must imagine for yourself all that has transpired in the first bouts of the struggle between god and irresistible hero. Finally, however, the river, as- suming the form of a horned bull, rushes at Heracles, but he, grasping the right horn with his left hand, uproots the other horn from its forehead with the aid of his club ; thereupon the river-god, now emitting streams of blood instead of water, gives up the struggle, while Heracles, full of joy at his deed, looks at Deianeira, and throwing his club on the ground holds out to her the horn of Acheloiis as his nuptial gift.

^ It must be remembered that Deianeira had been promised to Acheloiis by Oeneus.



(1) W0vp6i<;, 'HpaK\€i<;, aOvpei^ Kal yeXa^; i^Bt)

20 Tov aOXov, ev a7rapydvoL<; (ov Kal ravra, Kal tov<;

e^ 'Hpa^ SpciKOpra^ eKcirepou cKarepa %ef/3l (Itto-

Xa/Scov ovS€V€7riaTpi(f)r) tT;? fir]Tpo<; €K(ppovo^ irape-

(7T6t»a-?;? Kal irepiheov^. aXX ol fiev i]Sr} irapelvraL

/i7]Kvi'aPT6<s e? yfjv Tou? 6Xkov<; Kal tol'; Ke(f)aXa<;

25 e'jTLKXivavT6<^ rah rod vyjiriov ')(6palv vTrocpaiv-

ovaa<i TL Kal tmv oBovtcov Kupxapoi he ovtoi Kal

tcoSei? Xo(f)taL re avroU vtto tov Oavdrov e?

Odrepa eTTLKpejiel's koI rd Ofi/xara ov SehopKora

r} T€ (/)oX/? ovK e^avOovaa ^(pvo'M Kal (^oivlkl

30 ert ovSe irpo^ rd^; Kivi]ae(o<i Tp07rd<; viravyd^ovaa,

dXX' vircoxpo^ ^al iv tm Sa(f)OLvw TreXiSvr].

(2) To ^e tT/? WXk/jL7]V7]<; elBo^i dvaaKOTTOvvri di>a(f)6p€iv fxev diro tT;? tt/ocot*/? eKirXi^^iw^ SoKel, 399 Iv. dTnaret Be vvv oh ')]8t] opa, i) 8' eK7rXi]^L<i avrip ovSe Xe-^co KelaOai ^vv 6^(^00 pr] or ev 6pa<; ydp ttov, O)? d/3XavT0<: Kal jXOvoxiTwv draTnjhijaaaa t/)? €VP7]<i avv draKTW rfj ko/itj Td<; y^elpa<^ eKire- 5 rdaaaa ^oa, Oepdiraival re, oaai iraprjaav TiKTovar), eKirXayelaaL dXXr) dXXo n rrpoaSia- Xeyovrai tt) irXi^aiov. (3) Ol he iv ottXol^ ovtoi

^ Cf. the treatment of the birth of Hermes bj tlie elder Philostratus. I, 26, p. 99.

2 The description of the scene follows closely the story as told by Pindar, Ncm. I. 41 f., viz. the attack of two serpents on the new-born babe, Alcmene's rush to the rescu(;, the approach of Theban chiefs led by Amphitryon, and the prophecy of Teiresias. Theocritus, XXIV. 55 f., gives the story in much the same form, except that here the babe




You are playing^ Heracles, playing, and already laughing at your labour, though you are still in swaddling clothes ; and taking the serpents sent by Hera one in each hand you pay no heed to your mother, who stands near by crazed with fear.^ But the serpents, already exhausted, are stretching out their coils upon the ground and drooping their heads towards the babe's hands, showing withal a glimpse of their teeth ; these are jagged and poisonous, and their crests sag to one side as ^^^' -"•

death approaches, their eyes have no vision in them, their scales are no longer resplendent with golden and purple colours, nor do they gleam with the various movements of their bodies, but are pale and, where they w^ere once blood-red, are livid.

Alcmene, if one looks carefully at her face, seems to be recovering from her first fright, but she now distrusts what she really sees, and her fright has not permitted her to remain in bed even though she has lately given birth to a child. For doubtless you see how, leaping from her bed, unsandalled and only in her shift, with disordered hair and throwing out her arms she utters a shout, while the maid- servants that were attending her in her travail are in consternation, talking confusedly each to her neighbour. Here are men in armour, and one man

Heracles is ten months old. Cf. Fig. 27, from a coin of Thebes.

X 2


fcal 6 yv^po) TU) ^L(f>6i eroifio^y ol fiev Qrj/BaLcou

eKfCpiTOL ^OT]doVl>T€<; ' A/ji(f)lTpV(i)VL, 6 8' VTTO Tr;i^

10 7rpcoT7]v dyyeXiav a7ra<Td/jL€Vo<; to f/0o? 66? d/jivvai' ofiov eirearr) toT? Spci)/x€voL<;, /cal ovk oW elre eKTreirXip/ev el're ;\;at/3et Xolttov t) p,ev yap X^^^P ^'^' ^'^ "^V ^TOLfio), 7) 8e r(ii)v 6(f)0aXp,cou evvoia x^^Xivd rfj %6t/Dl e^iaTTjaLv, ovhe e^ovro^i

15 6 Ti KOi djjLvvaLTo, Koi ^PV^M-^^ TTpo fxt^Oeia^ SeofjLBva TO, TTapoi'Ta opcovTo<;. (4) Tavrd rot Kal a)3t 7r\i]aL0v 6 Teipeaia^ OeaTTi^wv ol/xac oTToao^; 6 vvv ev (f7rapydvoL<; ojv earai, yeypaTrrai Se evdeo^i fcal pavTiKOv iiraaOiiaivwv. (5)

20 FeypaTrrai Kal i) Ni)f ev ecBei, ev y ravra, \afjL7rahi(p KaraXdfiTrovaa eavrrjv, w? /X7; dfjidp- Tupo<^ Tov TraiSo? 6 dOXo<; yevifrai.


(1) 'Op(pea TOV ri}? Movar)<; OeX^ai ttj /jlou-

aLfcfj Kal Ta /x)] pbeTe^ovTa Xoyov Xoyoiroioi (fiaai

25 irdvTe^;, Xeyei he Kal o ^(oypd(f)o<;' Xecov re ovv

Kal crO? avTrp TrXrjaiov dKpoaTal tov 'O/jc^eo)?

Kal eXa^a Kal Xaywo'^ ovk d7ro7r7]Sa)VTe<; r?}?

^ The plirase is taken from the elder Philostratus, Her. 182. 14 K.

2 The phrase is from the elder Phil., ImcKj. II. 21, p. 38C, 21 K.

^ For (f eUei in this sense, see the elder Phil., Imag. p. 376, 5 K.

  • Cf. the elder Phil. I, 10, p. 45, on the power of music.

Priest, seer, founder of mystic cults in many parts of Greece, 308


who stands ready with drawn sword ; ^ the former are the chosen youth of the Thebans^ come to the aid of Amphitryon ; but Amphitryon has at the first tidings drawn his sword to ward off danger and has come with them to the scene of action ; nor do I know whether he is overcome with fear or rejoices ; for his hand is still ready to act, but the thoughtfulness revealed^ by his eyes sets a curb to his hand, since he finds no danger to ward off, and he sees that the situation before him needs the insight of an oracle to interpret it. Here, in fact, is Teiresias near at hand, foretelUng, 1 think, what a hero the babe in swaddling clothes will become ; and he is represented as divinely inspired and breathing out prophecies. Night also, the time in which these events take })lace, is represented in human form^; she is shedding a light upon herself with a torch that the exploit of the child may not lack a witness.


That Orpheus, the son of the Muse, charmed by his music even creatures that have not the intelligence of man, all the writers of mytlis agree, and the painter also so tells us. Accordingly, a lion and a boar near by Orpheus are listening to him, and also a deer and a hare who do not leap away from the

Orpheus is here simply the ' ' son of the Muse,"' the singer whose music liad power to charm nature, animate and inanimate, as well as men. As a musician he was closely associated with Helicon and the Muses, and in this capacity lie went on the Argonautic expedition. In wall-paintings, on painted vases, and in mosaics, Orpheus the musician was a favourite subject.


6p/jL)]<; Tov Xeoi^To?, kuI 6aot<; iv di'jpa B6ivo<i 6 Otjp, ^vpayeXd^ovrai avrw paOv/jLco vvv paOvpioi.

30 av he p^ijBk tou? 6pvida<i a/oyw? J'S???, fXT] tov<; fiovaLKOv<; /jlovop, ol<; evevarop^elv rot? dXaeaiv e6o<;, cOOC opa /jlol kuI top Kpayenjp koXolop koX 400 K. TTjP XaKepv^av avrrju Kal top tov Ato? deTOP. 6 flip, oTTOio^ ap.(f)co TO) TTTcpvye ToXaPTevaa^, efw ^ eavTov arei^e? e? top ^Op(j)ia ^Xeireiy ovS' iiri- aTpe(f)6/i6PO<i tov 'JTT(OKo<i rrXtiaiop 6pto<;, ol he o ^vyKXeiaaPTe^; Ta<; yepv^ oXol ^ elal tov OeXyop- T09, XvKOL T€ ovTOi Kul dpp€<^ dpafiL^, f) Tedrj- TTOTe^;, (2) peapieveTat he tl kol /jLel^op 6 ^coypd(f)o<;' hephpa yap dpaa7rdaa<; tcjp pi^oyp dicpoaTa<^ ayei TavTa tm ^Op^el Kal irepiLaTrjo-LP

10 avTW. irevKT] re ovp Kal KV7rdpiTT0<; Kal KXi)Opo<; Kal aXyeipo^i avTrj Kal oaa aXXa hephpa ^vfx^a- XoPTa Tou? TTTopOov^i olov ^^elpa^; irepl top ^Opcpea eaTTjKC Kal to OeaTpop avTw ^vyKXeiovaip ov herjOePTa Te')(pri<^, 'ip oi re 6ppi6e<; eV avTcop

15 Kadet,oLPJO Kal eKelpo<^ utto crKta fiovaovpyon].

(3) 'O he KaOrfTaL dpTi'X^vovp pep €K(SdXX(OP

LOvXop iinppeoPTa Trj irapeia, Tuipap he

^ €|a) Piccolos : e|.

2 6\oi Morelli : o followed by space for three letters.

1 Quoted from Find. Nnn. III. 82.

^ Quoted from Hesiod, 0pp. 747.

^ Cf. Find. Pyth. I. 6 f . and .'^cliol. The notes of Apollo's lyre cause the eagle to sleep on the sceptre of Zeus.

  • Orpheus is frecpiently represented in art as wearing the

tiara or Fhr^'gian cap, apparently because of his associations 310


lion's onrush, and all the wild creatures to whom the lion is a terror in the chase now herd with him, both they and he unconcerned. And pray do not fail to note carefully the birds also, not merely the sweet singers whose music is wont to fill the groves, but also note, please, the '^chattering daw," ^ the

eagle of Zeus poised aloft

' 2 and the The eagle, both

ventures a still more torn trees up by the

on Dotn his wings,^ gazes intently at Orpheus and pays no heed to the hare near by, while the animals, keeping their jaws closed — both wolves yonder and the lambs are mingled together — are wholly under the spell of the enchanter, as though dazed. And the painter striking thing ; for having roots he is bringing them yonder to be an audience for Orpheus and is stationing them about him. Accordingly, pine and cypress and alder and the poplar and all the other trees stand about Orpheus with their branches joined like hands, and thus, without requiring the craft of man, they en- close for him a theatre, that therein the birds may sit on their branches and he may make music in the shade. Orpheus sits there, the down of a first beard spreading over his cheeks, a tiara * bright with

witli Thrace and Asia Minor. Cf. Fig. 28, wall-painting of Orpheus charming animals and birds.


Xpvaavyf] iirl K€(pa\ij<; alcopcov to re o/jl/jlu avrw ^vv dffpoTi^TL ivepyov koI evdeov ael t^? jpcio/jLrj'; 20 el<; OeoXoyuiv Teivov(n]<;. Tci^a he tl /cal vvv dhei- Koi i) 6(f) pv<i olov airocDipaivovaa rov vovv TMV aapidTcov ea6i]<; re auTw fieravdovaa 7r/3o?

Ta9 T7}9 KLV)](7€W^ TpOTTU^i, KOl TOtV TToSolu fl€V

\aio<; direpeiScov els ry^v yrjv dvex^c rrjv KiOdpav

25 vTTep fjLTjpov K€ifi€V7iv, 6 8e^io<; Be dva^dWeraL

rov pv6/J.ov iTTLKpOTCov rovSa(f)o^ rw irehiXrp, al

X^^P^'^ ^^ V P'^^ Be^id ^vvexovaa dirpl^ ro

irXrjKTpov iTrtreTaTai tul<; ^OoyyoL^ iKKeLp,ev(p

Tw dyKOdVL KOL KapiTcp elaco vevovn, rj \aid Be

30 opdoU 7r\/]TTeL Tot9 BaKTv\ot<; tou? fxirov^,

aXX* earai Tf? dXoyla Kara aov, (b Opcpev'

teal vvv p,ev Oi-jpia Oe\y€c<; Kal SevBpa, SparTai<;

Be yvvai^lv €Kp,6\7]<; Bo^eL'^ Kal BiaaTrdaovrai

a6)p,a, w Kal 6i]pia (pOeyyo/xevM evp,evel'^ dKod<;

35 irapeax^v.


401 K. (1) Tt? ?; ^Xoavpov pev einaKvviOv virep 6(f)daXpL03v atpovaa, ti]v Be 6<^pvv evvoia<; p^ecrrr] Kal lepOTTpeiTi]^ t7]v Kop^ijv TO re 6p,p,a ouk oiB' etre epcoriKov 'i]Bri etre n evOeov vTrocpaLvouaa

1 Cf. the description of Amphioii, the elder Phil. Iniag. p. 43. The erect tiara was the prerogative of roj^alty in Persia and Xear East kingdoms.

2 The pin-ase is taken from the elder Phil. Imxg. 324, 2G K. ^ Apparently the left arm steadies the lyre, which rests

on the left tliigh.



gold standing erect upon his head, his eye ^ tender, yet alert, and divinely inspired as his mind ever reaches out to divine tliemes.^ Perhaps even now he is singing a song ; indeed his eyebrow seems to indicate the sense of what he sings, his garment changes colour with his various motions, his left foot resting on the ground supports the lyre which rests upon his thigh, his right foot marks the time by beating the ground with its sandal, and, of the hands, the right one firmly grasping the plectrum gives close heed to the notes, the elbow extended and the wrist bent inward, while the left with straight fingers strikes the strings.^ But an amazing thing will happen to you, Orpheus : you now charm wild beasts and trees, but to women of Thrace you will seem to be sadly out of tune and they will tear your body in pieces,^ though even wild beasts had gladly listened to your voice.


Who is the woman with a grim frown above her eyes,^ her brow charged with deep thought, her hair bound in hieratic mode, her eye shining either already with love or with inspiration, I know not which, and

  • The story of Orpheus' death at the hands of the Thracian

women was widely current in Greece, but it is told in most various forms and explained in different ways. Commonly it is stated that he was torn in pieces b}' the women of Thrace, as Pentheus was torn in pieces b}' the Bacchantes, while the Muses, the animals and trees, and even the rocks joined in mourning his death. Cf. the version of Ovid, Met. 11. 1-66

^ Lit. "lifting tlie ridge of skin above her eyes in a grim frown."


5 avyjjv ^ re dppt]TOv eKheiKvvaa rov Trpoaco-rrov T7JV Heap ; rovrl hrj to tcov 'HXidScov yvcopia/ia' yiijheiav oJpai y^pyj voelv ti]v AliJtov. (2) ^ FjVopfj.i(Td/i€vo^ yap tm ^daiSi 6 tov ^ldaovo<; <7ToXo9, 6t€ to xPvaovv perrjeL Bepa<;, Kal et?

10 T7]v TOV AltJTOv TrapekOodv TToXiv, ipa i) Kopi] TOV ^evov XoyLCTfio^i re vireiaiv avTtjv di]6ri<;, Kal 6 TL fikv ireTTovOev, ovk olSev,^ uTaKTel Be Ta<; iv- voia<^ Kal Trj "^v^fj dXvei. ecnaXTai he ovk evepyo<; vvv ovhe ev ^vvovaia tcov KpeiTTOvcov, dW' ox? Kal

1.3 TToXAot? opdv. (3) To Se tov '\daovo<; eZSo? d/3pov fiev, ov /ji7]v e^o) tov eppwaOai, o/jLfia re avTcp )(apo7rov vrroKeiTai tq} tyj^ bcppvo^ I'-jOei (f)povova7]<; re Kal 7ravT0<; v7r€paipova7]<; tov dvTL^ooVy loiikw Te I'jOr] ffpvei KadepirovTL Kal i)

20 KopLTi ^avOr] einaaXeveL tw /leTooTra), to. he ye T>}? cttoXj)? XevKov ^^^tTCOva e^coaTai XeovTTJv €^7]pT7]fj,€vo<; Kal Kprjirlha evrjiTTai, ukovtiw re eirepelaa^ eavTov eaTTjKC to Te 7]0o<; tov irpoa- (OTTOV ^ olov fJ^i'jTe vTTepcppovelv, alSetTaL ydp

25 fjLTjTe viroKeladai, Oappel ydp tov ddXov. (4) "Epw? he eavTov jroielTai Tavra Kal tm to^w €7repeL(Ta<; eavTov evaXXd^ tw TTohe laTijac to Xafiirdhiov e? Trjv y?]V r/oe'-v/ra?, eTreihrj ev dva^o- Xal<; eTL Ta tov €po)TO<;.

^ o'77v Gonipcrz : avri^v. ^ o!5*v Jacobs : o'.Sa

^ TrpoffwiTO Morelli : dcruiirov.

' Cf. Apollonius Rhodius, Argon. IV. 726 f. Circe recognises Medea by this characteristic, " And she longed to hear the voice of the maiden, her kinswoman, as soon as she


with an ineffable radiance^ when she permits her face to be seen? This in truth is the distinguishing mark of the descendants of Helios ^ ; I believe one must recognize Medea, the daughter of Aeetes. For now that the expedition of Jason, on its quest of the golden fleece, has come ashore at the river Phasis and has arrived at the city of Aeetes, the girl is in love with the stranger, and unwonted reflections enter her mind ; and though she does not know what has happened to her, her thoughts are all confused and she is distraught of soul. She is not now dressed for her priestly functions, nor as if she were in the company of her superiors, but in a manner suitable for the eyes of many. The form of Jason is slender, but not at all lacking in strength ; his flashing eye is overhung by a brow that is haughty and defiant of all opposition ; the first beard creeping over his face grows luxuriantly,^ and his light-brown hair tumbles down upon his forehead ; as for his dress, he wears a white tunic fastened by a girdle, over which a lion's skin is flung, and on his feet are laced boots ; he stands leaning on his spear ; and the character revealed by his face is that of one who is neither over-proud, since he is modest, nor meek, since he is bold for his undertaking. Eros is claiming this situation as his own, and he stands leaning on liis bow with his legs crossed, turning his torch towards the earth, inasmuch as the work of love is as yet hardly begun.

saw that she had raised her eyes from the ground. For all those of the race of Helios were plain to disc2rn, since by the far flashing of their eyes they shot in front of them a gleam of gold." Trans. Seaton, L.C.L.

2 The phrase is taken from the elder Phil. Her. 141, 27 K-



(1) 0/ ii> A/0? av\f} a6vpovTe<^, "E/ao)? olfiai

402 K. Kal ravvfit]Si]<;, el' tl xph '^^^ /^^^ '^V ^'^P?^

voetv, Tov 5' ciTTo Tou To^ov Kal Tcov iTTepwv 69

iiriyvwaiv ayeiv. aOvpovaL fxev ovv aaTpayaXoi^

ouToi,^ yeypdcparai 8' 6 /lep v^piariKcof; eiri-

5 T(t)6d^(ov 6 "E/3<w9 Aral irXi'^pi) rP]<; liKtjf; tov koXttov dvaaeicov, 6 he hvelv acrrpayciXoiv en TOV fiev Kal avTov a7roX(i)XeKQ)<^, tov S' e(f>' o/iola TT poire /jLttcov iXiriBc. KaTr](f)r)<; Se avTcp irapeia Kal 7) tov OjifjiaTO^ clktU KaLTOt d^pov

10 oVto? ^elBvOiafievri - to t/}? dvLa<^ €7rtai]fjLaLV6i. (2) Heat T6 Tp€t<; avTat €(f)eaT(oaal acpiaiv, al /JL€V ovS' e(f)6p/jir]vevovTo<i SeovTai, W6)]vd re yap avToOev ISovTi SyjXr] Trjv opioyvLOv TTOirjTau (pacri, TTavoirXiav dpurexop^evrj Kal yXavKOV vtto tt)?

15 K6pvOo<; opcoaa ^vv dppevwirw re tw -ijOei Tt^v irapetdv eirKpoivLTTOvaa, ?)St Se av to (f)LXop,€iS€<;

^ ouToi Morelli : ouai,

2 a and P give ^^^vOiafxevov ; cf. sui>ra 393, 1 K., p. 288.

^ Eros and Ganymede are associated apparently as the two young boys in the company of the gods, who play together in Olyinpus. Cianymede, son of Tros (or Laomedon) ■was snatched away by Zeus from the hills near Troy to be the cup-bearer of the gods, since he was the most beautiful of mortal men. As coming from Asia Minor rather than Greece proper, he wears a tiara.

2 The account follows closely the description of Eros and Ganymede playing dice in ApoU. Rhod. Aryon. III. 117 f. Cf. Fig. 29, l)oys playing dice.

' Because "born" with her when she sprang from the head of Zeus.




The boys who are playing in the palace of Zeus are, I suppose, Eros and Ganymede,^ if the one may be known by his tiara and the other identified by his bow and his wings. They are playing with dice ; and Eros is represented as taunting the other insolently and as shaking the fold of his garment, full as it is of his win- nings, while his companion is represented as having lost one of the two dice left to him and as throwing the other with no better hope.^ His cheek is downcast and the glance of his eye, albeit a beautiful eye, indicates by its despondency his vexation. And these three goddesses standing near them — they need no interpreter to tell who they are ; for Athena is recognised at a glance, clothed as she is in what the poets call the " panoply of her race," ^ casting a '^'bright glance"* from under her helmet, and ruddy of face as well as masculine in general appearance ; the second one


FiG. 29.

  • Referring to the Homeric epithet yKavKunns, " bri

glancing," if this interpretation of the word be accepted



vTTo tP] tov Kearov I'vyyc kuv tw yp(i/j./iaTt. arjixaiveL/'Wpav he ye rijv TpLTi-jv elvai to aefivov fcal ^aatXiKov tov etSou? (^rjai.

20 (3) Ti Brj /SouXovTUi koI rt? /; t>}? ^vvovaia^ avTac<; uvdyK^] ; ciyovaa roi)? 7revT7]Koi>Ta i) ^Apyo) evcop/xiaTai tm <t>dcnSL Y^oaTTOpov re Kal 'S,vfi7r\r)yd8a<; Sie^eXOovaa. 6pa<; Se Kal tov TTOTa/jLov avTov ev ^aOel hovaKL Keifxevov, ev

25 ^Xoavpo) Tft) etSei, k6/jli] Te yap dfi(piXa(j)T]<; avTO) Kal dvecTTrjKvla yeveLu^; t€ v'7T0(f)pLTT0vaa Kal yXavKLOdVTe'^ ocj^OaXjioi, to Te ddpoov tov pevfiaTo<; ovk diro kuXttiSo'^ eK^^eofjuevov, fjirep ovv e'lcoOev, aW' utto iravTo^ eKirXrj/i/jLvpov

30 evvoelv SlScoctiv rjfMtv, 67r6ao<; iiri'^^eLTat, Toy Il6uT(p. (4) Tov Be T?5? vavTiXia^i ddXov dK0V€L<; olfiaL Kal TTOLrjTcov TO j^pvaovv hepa<i XeyovTcov irdcn pteXovadv re T-qv 'Apyco Kal 'Ofiy']pov (phal cf)pd^ovcriv. dXX^ o'l fiev t>}? W.pyov<; vavffdTai

35 eV i7ri(TK€\jrec TOiv KaT6iXf](f)6T(ov, ai Oeal Se e? LKeaiav tov "E/)&)to9 yKovaLv alTovaac ^vXXa/Belv 403 K. (j(f)Laiv eirl acoTtipia twv TrXojTTjpcov ttjv Aljjtou yhjSeiav peTeXdovTa, fjnaOov Be ol r^? virovpyia^ i) p/]Tr)p a(f)atpav TrpoBeiKWcn Aio<i avTrjv dOvppa yeyovkvai Xeyovaa. (5) 'Opdf; Kal t?]V 5 Te)(y7]v ev ttj ypa(f)fj ; ')(^pvaov fiev avTi-j, pacfyrj Be avTrj oia voelaOat fiaXXov rj opdaOai, eXcKd^;

^ The epithet applied to Aphrodite in Homer, e.g. Iliad 3. 424.

^ The " magic of her girdle" i.s described, Ilmd 14. 214 f.

^ On the representation.? of the river Pha.sis, of. Purgold, Archaeologische Unter.^udaingcn zu Claudian inid Sidonius, p. 34 f. (Benndorf). The type of the recumbent river god is



even in the painting shows the " laughter-loving " ^ disposition caused by the magic of her girdle ; ^ and that the third is Hera her dignity and queenliness of form declare.

What do the goddesses desire and what necessity brings them together? The Argo carrying its fifty heroes has anchored in the Phasis after passing through the Bosphorus and the Clashing Rocks. You see the river himself lying on his deep bed of rushes ; ^ his countenance is grim, for his hair is thick and stands upright, his beard bristles, and his eyes glare ; and the abundant water of the stream, since it does not flow from a pitcher as is usually the case, but comes in a flood from his whole figure, gives us to understand how large a stream is poured into the Pontus. You have heard, I am sure, about the prize which was the object of this voyage, since poets tell of "the golden fleece," * and the songs of Homer also describe the Argo as "known of all." ^ But while the sailors of the Argo are considering the situation, the goddesses have come as suppliants to beg Eros that he assist them in saving the sailors by going to fetch Medea, the daughter of Aeetes ; and as pay for this service his mother shows him a ball which she says was once a plaything ^ of Zeus. Do you see the clever art of the painting ? The ball itself is of gold ; the stitching on it is such as to be assumed by the mind rather than seen

found in description of Meles, the elder Phil., supra, p. 159, and again in the description of Xanthiis, infra, p. 325.

  • The word for the golden fleece, S4pas, is the one regularly

used by the poets, e.g. Eur. Med. 5.

^ Qu(jted from the Odyssey, 12. 70.

^ Here also the account closely follows ApoU. Rhod. Argon. III. 132 f.


re Kvavov icf)' eavT7]<; eXtTTOvaa ^ Ka\ dvappKpelaa Td\a TTOV TO diroxf^povi^ a€\a<; fiapfiapvyal'i darepwv eiKa^eiv avrrjv" Scoaei. (6) 'O Be tov<; 10 fiev darpayciXovi; ovSe opa en, pL'\jra<; Be avToif^ ^a/jbd^e i^tjprt-iTai tov t/)? fX7]Tpo(; ireirkov eV- aXydeuaai rrjv V7r6a)(€aiv avrw, ov yap iWelylreLP TOV dOXov.

6' IIEAO^^

(1) 'O p.ev inrep reTpoopcov Be rjirei'pov fiea^]<;

15 iTTTrevaeiv p,eXX(ov vir opOf) Tidpa kul AvBla aToXfj, HeXoyjr oipai, Opaau<^ i)vio)(o^ kuXov elirelv. Wvve yap ttotc Kal Bid 6aXdaai]<; tovtl TO dpfia, Tlocr6LBa)j>o<; oI/jlui Bovto'^, aKpa ttj tov Tpoxov dyjriBi vir dBidvTW d^oii Ta tt)^ yaX/]v)]^

20 BiaOewv vcoTa. (2) "Oppa 5' avTM yopyov Kal av)(y]v dv€crTT}K(b<; to t/}9 yvcopj]<i eTOipov iXey)(^€L 1] re 6(f)pv<i virepaipovaa Bi]Xol KaTacppopetaOat TOV Olvopaov VTTO TOV p,€LpaKLOv. (ppovcL ydp T0i9 'iiTiroi^, eTreiBi] v^jravx^^^^ '^^ ^^^^ ttoXXol

25 TOV p,vKTr}pa fcal kolXoc ttjv oirXrjV Kal to 6p,p,a KvdveoL T€ Kat €T0ip.0L y^aiTi^v T€ dpcpiXacprj

^ khirrovaa Olearius : eKiTTOvaav. ^ avTTjv Jacobs : avrfi.

^ The description should be compared witli the treatment of the same subject by the elder Thil. Jving. I. 17, p. 69. The scene is laid at Olympia and pictures the preparation for the race.

2 The upright tiara was tlie prerogative of royalty, cf p. 260, n. 1.

3 Quoted from Iliad 8. 126.

  • Iliad 13. 127. Poseidon in his car "set out to drive

over the waves . . . and the axle of bronze was not wetted



by the eye^ and spirals of blue encircle it ; and very likely, when it is tossed in the air, the radiance emanating from it will lead us to compare it with the twinkling of stars. As for Eros, he no longer even looks at the dice, but throwing them on the ground he clings to his mother's dress, begging her to make good her promise to him ; for, he says, he will not fail in the task.


The man mounted on a four-horse chariot who is setting out to drive across the mainland, wearing an upright tiara 2 and Lydian dress, is Pelops, I believe, a bold charioteer"^ it is fair to call him. For he once guided this chariot even across the sea, doubt- less because it was the gift of Poseidon, speeding- over the back of the calm sea on the very edge of the wheel and keeping the axle unwetted.* His flashing eye and erect head attest his alertness of mind, and his haughty brow indicates that the youth despises Oenomaiis.^ For he is proud of his horses, since they hold their necks high, are broad of nostril, hollow of hoof,^ dark-eyed and alert, and they lift

beneath " ; cf. the description of Pelops' chariot, the elder Phil., supra, p. 71. In Greek story, Pelops is associated with Asia Minor, usually with Lydia, from which he came to the Peloponnesus, which bears his name. Because he was the favourite of Poseidon, the god gave him the chariot which bore him across the sea from Asia Minor to secure Hippo- dameia as his bride.

^ The father of Hippodameia.

^ Xenophon, Art of Horsemanship 1. 3: "For high hoofs have the frog, as it is called, well off the ground. . . . More- over, Simonides saj's that the ring, too, is a clear test of good feet ; for a hollow hoof rings like a cymbal on striking the ground." Trans. Marchant, L.C.L.

321 Y


Kvai'Mv a.7raLcopovi>T€<; avx^i'cov, o? Srj dakaaaiwv rpoTTO';. (3) YlX'Tjaiov he avrcjv 'Imrohdfxeia rrjv fiev irapeiav alhol ypd(f)ovaa, i'vp,(f)7]<; Be aroXrjv

30 dfiTTexofjLevTj /SXeirovad re 6(f)0a\/ioL<; ol'oi<; aipelaOai to rov ^evov fidWov. epa re yap Kal Tov yevvtjropa p^vaaTTerai toloutol<; aKpoOi- vioL's (ppovovi^ra, a Sr] Kal opa^, Ke^aXd^ ravra^, 404 K. TO)v ^ TrpoTTvXalcov dvrjp,pevy~i eKdart], Kal a)(^)]fia EeS(i)Kev 6 'X,p6vo<; IBlov, ov eKaaro^ dircoXero a(f)6t)v. Tou? yap Srj pv7]aTi]pa<; tt}? Ovyarpo^ 7]K0VTa^ Kreuvcov dydWerai rol^ yvcopLa/jLaat tov 5 <p6vov. (4) KiScoXa Be vTrepLTrrd/ieva acpcov 6\oij)vperac tov eavTCJp dyfova ttj tov yd/iov ^v/ji^daei i(pVfivovvTa' ^vpL^rjvaL yap Bt] 6 rieXo'vl^, ft)? iXevOepa Xoittov ?) iral'^ eh] tov dXdaTopo';. Kal 6 AlupriXo? ^e ^vviaTwp r?)?

10 ^vpb^daeo)^ avTolv eaTLv. (5) 'O B' ovk airoOev 6 Olvojxao'^y dXX! eTOLjiov avTco to dpfia Kal to Bopv vTrepTeTaTat tov Bi(f)pov KaToXa^ovTi to peipdKLOv KTelvaiy 6 Be tu) iraTpl Ovcop "Xpec airevBet ciypw^ IBelv Kal (j^opwv to oppa Kal tov

15 MvpTiXov eTTLairepx^L. (6) "E/jco? Be KaT7]<^r]<i

^ A relative like wv seems to be required before tw ; or possibly we should read dvrjufxdvag (Reiske) kKaaTOT^ (Capps).

^ i.e. she sides with Pelops, while her father is hostile to all the suitors.

^ The covenant of marriage seems to mean in the first instance the agreement that a suitor should win Hippo- dameia if his chariot should outrun tliatof Oenomaiis, while otherwise he should be slain by Oenomaiis. In the case of Pelops the covenant includes Pelops' promise to Hippodameia to free her from the curse due to the death of her former suitors. 322


their abundant manes above their dark necks as is the manner of sea-horses. Near them stands Hippo- dameia ; she colours her cheek with a modest blush, wears the raiment of a bride^ and gazes with eyes that choose rather the stranger's part.^ For she loves him and she loathes the parent who takes pride in such spoils as indeed you see — these heads which have been suspended one after another from the gateway, and the time which has elapsed since each of the men perished has given them each a distinctive appearance. For Oenomaiis slew those who came to sue for his daughter's hand and he de- lights in the tokens of their death. But their shades hovering over the place lament each the contest in which it took part, as they descant upon the cove- nant of marriage ; ^ for Pelops, they recount, has made a covenant, promising that henceforth the girl will be free from the curse. And Myrtilus is witness to the covenant of the twain. Oenomaiis is not far away ; nay, his chariot is ready, and on the seat is laid the spear with which to slay the youth when he overtakes him ; ^ and he is hurriedly sacrificing to his father Ares, this man of savage aspect and with murder in his eye ; and he urges Myrtilus on. But Eros, sad of mien, is cutting ^ the

3 Cf. Rhod. Argon. I. 756 f. : "And therein (on the mantle of Pallas) were fashioned two chariots, racing, and the one in front Pelops was guiding, as he shook the reins, and with him was Hippodameia at his side, and in pursuit Myrtilus urged his steeds, and with him Oenomaiis had grasped his couched spear, but fell as the axle swerved and broke in the nave, while he was eager to pierce the back of Pelops."

  • The action of Eros may be ascribed to the love of Pelops

for Hippodameia, or we may think of the love of Myrtilus for Hippodameia as the reason for the betrayal of Oenomaiis by his charioteer (Benndorf).



rbv a^ova tov apfiaTO<i ivre/jLveL eKarepov hihov^ voelv, OTL re ipwaa y Kop-q tov ipa)VTO<; ^ iirl tov TTUTepa ^vfiffaiveL Kal to, fieWovTa ire pi ti-jv ITeXoTro? oIkIuv eV yioLpMv ^iveadai.


20 (1) Ta EvpvirvXov koi NeoTTToXe/jLOv ttoljjtcjv V/JLV6L x^P^'^ iraTpM^eiv re avTov<; d/jL(j)(t) Kal Trjv %et/)a €vSoKifjLOV<; kut la^vv elvai, (f)rjal Se Kal 7; ypa(f)ri TavTW 1) tv^V yap ttjv i^ ciTracr?;? 7/79 dp€Tt]v e? /jiiav iroXiv avveveyKOuaa 01 fiev ovk

25 a/cXeei? o'lxovTat, uX)C olot irpo^; ttoXXoi/? SvaTt]- vcov Bi T6 TratSe? elirelv oc epiw /levet dvTLocoatv, ol Be yevvaloL yevvaLwv KpaTovat.

(2) Ta fxev Srj irepl tcov iv tw vlkolv CTcpa, vvvi he irepl tov<; ^vveaT(OTa<; rj Oea. TroXt? fiev

30 avTTi "iXio? ocppvoecraa, Kad^ "Ojxripov, ireptOel he avTyv Tclxo'i olov Kal 6eov<; firj ciira^LcocraL rr}? eavTcov x^^P^^^ vavaTaOfiov re eVt OciTepa 405 K. Kal GTevo<^ 'ILXX^jaTTuvTOu 8idppov<; ^Aalav ]Lvpa)7rr)<; Btelpycov. tovv fieaw he Trehiov TroTa/JLO) hiaipelTat 'B.dvOw, yey paiTTai he ov fiop/xvpcov d(f)pa), ovh' 0I09 enl top tov Ilr)Xect)<; eTrXr^/jL/jLvpev, 5 dXX^ evvr] p.ev avTW Xcoro? Kal Opvov Kal ciiraXov hovaKO'^ KOfxai, KaTUKetTaL he fxaXXov 7) dveaTrjKe

^ ipwvTos Jacobs : (puTos.

^ In the later years of the Trojan war tlie son of Telephus, Priam's nephew P^urypyhis, leads the Mysians to the aid of the Trojans, where he is slain by Achilles' son Neoptolemus (Pyrrhus) at the head of the Myrmidons. Cf. the account of Achilles and Memnon, supra, p. 29.

  • The reference is to the heroes gathered at Troy.



axle of the chariot, making clear two things : that the girl in love with her lover is conspiring against her father, and that the future which is in store for the house of Pel ops comes from the Fates.


The story of Eurjpylus and Neoptolemus is sung by a chorus of poets, who tell us how each resembles his father and is famous for the prowess of his arm ; and this painting also relates this tale. For when fortune has gathered into one city the valour of every land,^ some go away not inglorious but able to say to the world, " children of wretched men are they who encounter my wrath," ^ and men of noble birth overcome men of noble birth.

The account of the victory is another tale, but the scene before you now has to do with the combatants. Here is the city of "beetling Ilium," as Homer ^ calls it ; and a wall runs round about it such as even the gods disdained not to claim as the work of their own hands. On the other side is the station of the ships and the narrow strait of the Hellespont that separates Asia from Europe. The plain between the city and the strait is divided by the river Xanthus, which is represented, not as ^^ roaring with foam " ^ nor yet as when it rose in flood against the son of Peleus,® but its bed is lotus grass and rushes and foliage of tender reeds ; it reclines instead of stand-

^ Quoted from lUad 6. 127. Cf. si'pra, p. 225 n.

  • 762^.22. 411.

^ Ibid. 18. 403, where the phrase is used of the stream of Oceanus: of. 21. 302 f.

  • For the attack on Achilles by the river Xanthus see

Iliad 21. 212 f. For the personification of the river, cf. supra, pp. 159 and 319.


Kal Tov TToBa iirex^L raU injyaU xjirep ff/x- fierpla's vvv hivypaivcov avra . . . vd/jLarofi to pevfxa fierpiov,^ (3) ^rparid re eKarepcoOev

10 Wvacjv T€ (vv Tpcjal Kal 'KWyjvcov i/c Oarepov, 01 pep KeKpL7]K6Te<i I'-jhi) oi Tpcoe?, oi Se dKpi]T€<^ 01 ^vv KvpvTTvXo). 6pa<; Be avrcjv, co? ol iiev ev ToU oTrXoi? KuOrjvTai Td')(^a irov rovro Eupu- TTvXov aLTT](7avT0<;, Kal ^aipovai rfj dvaKW)(^fj, ol

15 Be eKOvpoL re Kal e^opp,oiV7e<s ol Mucrot levTai TO T6 ro)v '¥jXki]v(jdv ev opLoia Karaardaei, toZ? ^pwalv ovrcov irXrjv twv ^ivppiBovcov ipepyol yap Kal irepl tov Uvppov eroipioi.

(4) T&) veavia Se, KdX\ov<; p.ev evcKev icpeppi]-

20 revocT^ av ovBev, eTreLBr) ev ottXol^; rd vvv, peydXoL ye ixrjv Kal virep tou? dXXov<i' r)XLKia re dp,(f)0LV I'ar} rd<; re tmv 6(f)0aXpa)v l3oXd<i evepyol Kal ov peXXovre^, yopyov yap ro opfia viTo rrj<; KopvOof; eKdcrrw, Kal avvairovevovre's

26 Tat9 TO)v X6(f>a)v KLvrjGeai Kal 6 Ovp.6<; eTniT perret^ a<^l(TL aiyf) re pevea irveiovaiv eoLKaai. Kal ra oirXa Be dpcpolv irarpwa, dXX' 6 pev KvpvirvXo^ darjpoL^; earaXraL Kal rrapaXXdrrovcri rrjv avyr]v OTTT] re Kal ottw^ Kivolro, rj lpi<;, rw Wvppw Be

30 rd e'f 'H(f)aiarov irdpearLV, eKo-rd<; rror avrcov ^OBvo-aev<; Kal d7Tev^dpevo<^ rrjv eavrov vlktjv.

^ IxtTpivv P and Morelli : ixerpov. The text is corrupt. 2 iinirpdirci Olearius : (TnTpdwd.

^ Cf. the account of the sources of the Nile, the elder Phil., supra, p. 21.

^ See critical note

^ Quoted from Iliad 3. 8.

  • For a garment compared to the rainbow cf, the elder

IMiil., Imag. p. 67 ; ffcr. 200, 2f. 326


ing erect, and presses its foot on the sources ^ to keep them within bounds, now moistening . . . the stream keeps within bounds. ^ On either side is an army — of Mysians together with Trojans, and oppo- site them of Greeks ; the Trojans are already ex- hausted, though the Mysians under Eurypylus are fresh. You see how the former sit down in their armour, no doubt at the command of Eurypylus, and how they enjoy the respite from fighting, whereas the Mysians, full of spirit and impetuous, rush for- ward ; and how the Greeks are in the same state as the Trojans with the exception of the Myrmidons, who are active and ready for the fray under Pyrrhus.

As for the two youthful leaders, nothing can be made out regarding their beauty, since they are clad in armour at this time, but they are certainly tall and overtop their fellows ; the age of the two is the same, and to judge by the glance of their eyes they are active and unhesitating. For the eyes of each flash beneath their helmets, they bend their heads with the waving of their plumes, and their spirit stands out conspicuous in them, resembling as they do men ^^ who breathe out wTath in silence."^ Both wear the armour of their fathers ; but while Eurypylus is clad in armour bearing no device, which gives forth, like a rainbow,* a light that varies with his position and movements, Pyrrhus wears the armour made by Hephaestus, which Odysseus, regretting his own victory,^ has yielded to him.

' i.e. his victory in the contest for the arms of Achilles, which were by vote awarded to him as the bravest warrior, as against Ajax, who committed suicide because of his defeat.


(5) Se(opa)i> Se ri^ ra oirXa Xelttov evpyjcreL rwv '0/jL7]pov iKTVirciy/xdrcov ovSeu, dXX' OLKpL^co*; i) re^i'V ^eiKvvai TaKeWev iravra. to fiev yap

35 7>}? T6 Kul OaXd(7aT]<; Kal ovpavov a)(^7]/ia ovSe (ppd^0PTC<i ol/iac Serjaei tiv6<;, i) fxev yap avrodev A{)i6K. Ihovri 8)]Xy] rijv eavTrj<; XP^^^ ^'^^ '^^^ ^^/" fiLovpyov Xa/3ov(Ta, rrjv 3' al 7r6X€i<; /cal ra ev avrfj yrjv ypdcpovai Kal fxiKpov ye varepov izevar) Trepl eKdarcoVy ovpavov he ohe. 6pa<; irov rov re 5 Tov 7]\lou kvkXov, CO? dKd/jLa<; ev avru), Kal to tt;? TvavaeXrjvov <j)aihp6v. (6) AXXd fioi hoKel<^ irepl t6)v KaO' eKaarov aarpcov irodelv OLKovaar TO yap SLaXXdrrov avroiv rrjv alriav act irapey^ei t?)? irevaew';' alSl fxev aoL HXefaSe?

10 arropov re Kal d/jirjTov ^vfi^oXa hvofxevai rj av irdXiv eK(j)avci)<; exovcrai, &)9 av Kal ret ttJ? copa<; avTCK; ayr],^ 'TdSe<; 8' eirl Odrepa. 6pa<; Kal rov 'D.pia)va, rov 8e iir avTu> fivdov Kal rrjv ev darpoi<; alriav e? erepov dva^aXcofMeOa, w rral,

15 Kaipov, ft)? ai> /jL7] dirdyoifiev ae roiv vvv ev ttoOo).

^ avTOLs 6.yy) Kayser : our' 6.y, avrijs ayei, or avrols o.yei.

1 It is clear that the scenes on the shield of Achilles as described by Homer were represented in painting and sculpture, for we still have fragments of the so-called Tabulae Iliacae depicting this subject (cf. Jahn-Michaelis, Griech. BiUhrchronikcn, II B, p. 20, and fragments in the Capitoline Museum, Rom. Mitth. VI. 183 f., PI. IV). The shield described by Philostratus agrees with tliese repre- sentations in that the difTerent subjects are depicted, not in concentric zones or circles, but in bands one over the other, so that the sky is not found in the centre of the shield as in Homer, but rather at the top of the shield. Just as the painter based his work on the Homeric



If one examines this armour he will find that none is missing of the representations in relief which Homer describes, but that the work of art reproduces all that Homer gives. ^ For the repre- sentations of earth and sea and sky ^ will not, I think, require anyone to explain them ; for the sea is evident at once to the observer, since the crafts- man has given it its proper colour ; the land is designated by the cities and the other terrestrial things, and you will soon learn all about them ; but here is the sky. You see here, of course, the orb of the unwearying sun and the brightness of the full moon. But I believe you want to hear about the stars in detail, for the differences between them provide a reason for your inquiry. Here are the Pleiades, signs for sowing and for reaping ^ when they set or when they appear once more, as the changing seasons bring them ; and opposite them are the Hyades. You see Orion also, but the story about him and the reason why he is one of the stars we must defer to another occasion, my boy, that we may not divert you from the object of

description, so Philostratus, in describing the painted pic- ture, works in many details drawn directly from Homer (Benndorf).

2 Iliad 18. 483: "Therein [on the shield of Achilles] he wrought the earth, therein the heavens, therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full, and therein all the constellations wherewith heaven is crowned — the Pleiades, and the Hyades, and the mighty Orion, and the Bear, that men call also the Wain, that circleth ever in her place, and watcheth Orion, and alone hath no part in the baths of Ocean." Trans. Murray, L.C.L.

^ Cf. Hesiod. Op. 383 f.: " When the Pleiades, daughters of Atlas, are rising, begin your harvest, and your ploughing when they are going to set." Trans. Evelyn- White, L.C.L.



01 8' eV auTft) d<7Te/369 apfCTo<; i) el ci/xa^av KaXelv ^ovXoLo. <f)aal 8e avT)]v koI fiov^iv ov Svecrdai 6V Qfceavw, aW avrijv rrepl avrrjv arpecfyeaOuL olov (fivXaKa rod 'flpL(ovo<;.

20 (7) ^'la)/jL€P 8r) XoLTTov Sia 'y}]<; a(f)€fi€Poi rcov cii'co Koi TOiv ye iv yfj KiiXXiarov OeaifxeOa Ta<; TToXei?. 6pa<i fiev 8^, co? ^Lrrai riv€<; avrac TTorepav ovv irporepav a(f)€p/jLy]V6vOrji>ai aoi ffou- Xel ; 7] TO Tcoi' XafiTTuBcov (f)(o<; kuI to tov

25 vfjievaiov fieXo<; kuI 6 rwv avXcov yx^^ ^^ V "^^ fciOdpa^ fcpovaL<; kol 6 rS)v op^ov/jLevcov pvOjxo^ e? avrd ae dyeL ; 6pd<; Se koX ra yvvaia rcov irpodvpwv o)? SLacpalvovrat Oav/xd^ovra Kal fiovov ovK 6K/3oo}vra viro xapixovrj<;. ydjioL ravra, w

30 iral, fcal TTpGorr] ^vpoSo<; vvfK^icov kol dyovrai Ta<? vv/ji(f)a<; ol ya/xfipol. to Be r?)? alSov<; Kal TOV ifiepov, ft)? iiTLTrpeiTeL cKdaTO), iraphipn, Xeyeiv, o'0(f)(OT€pov avTCL TOV SrjfiLovpyov aivL^afievov. (8) 'AXX' Ihov Koi SiKaaTi]pi6v tl kol ^vveSpa

35 KOiVTj Kal yepovTe^ ae/ivol a€/ivco<^ 7rpOKa0r]p.€VOL

407 K. TOV o/jllXov. to he iv /xecro) ^P^^^^^ ToXavTa

fiev hvo TavT ovk oW e0' otw' i], vt) Al,

eiKdaai XPV> ^*> fJii(jBo<^ Tcp 6pO(b<; EKSiKdaovTi,

ft)9 av fir) 7r/90? Baypd ti<; ttjv ovk ^ evOelav (pipoi.

5 Tt9 8' 7] Blkt) ; BlttoI fiev ev fieaw ra'e? ovtol,

^ OVK added by Schenkl.

^ Iliad 18. 490: "Therein fashioned he also two cities of mortal men exceeding fair. In the one there were marriages and feastings, and b}' the light of the blazing torches they were leading the brides from their bowers through the city, and loud rose the bridal song. And young men were whirl-


your present desire. The stars next to Orion are the Bear^ or the Wain if you prefer that name. Men say that this constellation alone does not sink into Oceanus, but revolves about itself as a guard over Orion.

Let us now make our way over the earthy leaving the upper regions, and let us examine the most beautiful of things on the earth, namely, the cities. ^ As you see there are two of these. Which of the two do you wish explained to you first? Do the light of the torches, and the marriage hymn, the sound of the flutes and the twanging of the lyre and the rhythmic motion of the dancers attract your attention? You see also the women visible through the vestibules as they marvel and all but shout for joy. This is a marriage, my boy, the first gathering of the bridal party, and the bridegrooms are bringing their brides. I shall not attempt to describe how modesty and desire are clearly de- picted in each, for the craftsman has suggested this with great skill. But look ! Here is a court of justice and a general session, and dignified old men preside in a dignified manner over the gathering. As for the gold in the centre, the two talents here, I do not know what it is for, unless, by Zeus, one may conjecture that it is a reward to be paid to the judge who shall pronounce true judgment, in order that no judge may be influenced by gifts to give the wrong judgment. ^ And what is the case? Here are two men in the centre, one of

ing in the dance, and in their midst flutes and lyres sounded continuously." Trans. Murray, L.C.L.

  • The natural explanation of the "two talents" would

be to regard it as the "blood-money" referred to in the next sentence.


BoK€ip €/jlol, (f)OviKov ejKXij/jia 6 fiev iTrdjcov Oarepo), top S' 6pq<;, a;? e^apvo^ iariv' ov yap aLTiav e;\^6t;v Mvirep'^ avTw Trpocpepet 6 Kari]yopo<^, KaTaOei's 3e tcl v7ro(f)6i>ia KaOapo's yKeiv. 6pa<;

10 Aral Tou? €7ri/3o'qdovvTa<; eKarepcp ^^XV ^^^^ i>e/iiovTa<; ry]V jSo/jv, orcp (f)i\ov aXV ij ye tmv K}]pvKo)v irapovaia KciOiaTi^GLV avTov<; koI el<; TO i)(Jvxcuov ciyei. tuvtI /aev ovv aoi pieai] Ti? TToXe/jLov KOL €Lp7]pi]i; iv ov TToXefiov/jievr} iroXei

15 KaTd(JTaaL<^.

(9) '¥^T6pav he 6pa<;, co? retxyjpv^) ^^'^ to ye TeL')(0<; ft)? Oi St r]\LKiai> diropiayoi ^povpovcri hia- \a^6vTe<;, yvvaid re yap eanv ov twv eir dX^ewv Kul yepovre^ ovtol kuI KOfiiSrj iraihia. irol hi]

20 TO fidxt/jLov avTol^ ; ivravda evpoi^ av tovtov<;, ot St} "ApeL re kuI WOtjvcI eTrovrat. rovrl ydp, fiOL BoKelv, T) Texyii (prjal toi)? /xev XP'^^V '^^ '^^^^ IxeyeOei hrjXdxiaaa Oeov^ elvai, TOt? he to vito- heearepov hi avTP)<; hovcra. e^iaai he tt)v roiv

25 evavTioov ov he^dfievoL irpoKkricnv, vepLeaOat ydp Tov iv rf) TToXei ttXovtov rj firj pe/xo/jbevcov ev roU oTrXof? elvai. (10) Ao;^oi^ hj] hLardTTovaiv ^ ivrevOev tovtI ydp, /loi hoxelv, i) irpo'^ raU oyOai^i aLVLTTerai X6)(fir], ov hrj KaOcowXia fxevov^;

30 avToixi 6pa<;. dXX' ovk dp eyyevoir avTOL<;

^ alTiaf ex*'**' wr'Trep Ka3'scr : Karacrx^^y unfp Y, f^^' *'*' Hircp aP.

^ SiaTcxTTOL'crj*' Ka}>er : SiaWaTTuvaiu.


whom, I believe, is bringing a charge of bloodshed, and the other, as you see, is denying the charge ; for he claims that he is not guilty of that which the accuser brings against him,^ but that, having paid the blood-money, he has come free of offence. You see also the adherents of each man, in two groups, who applaud according to their preference ; but the presence of the heralds checks them and restores them to silence. This scene, accordingly, represents a state of affairs midway between war and peace in a city that is not at war.

The second ^ city is walled, as you see, and those unfitted for war by reason of age guard the walls at intervals ; for there are women at certain points on the battlements, and here are old men and even children. Where, pray, are their fighting men ? Yonder you may find them — the men who follow Ares and Athena. ^ For this is what the work of art means, I believe, indicating by the use of gold and by great stature that the leaders are gods, and giving to the others their inferior rank by this device. They are issuing forth for battle, having refused the proposals of the enemy, namely, that the wealth of the city be apportioned among them, else, if it be not so apportioned, it shall be the prize of battle. Accordingly, they are devising an ambush on this side ; for that, it seems to me, is suggested by the thicket along the banks of the river, where you see men under arms. But it will not prove possible for them to profit by the

^ i.e. voluntary homicide ; but he acknowledges by his payment of the " were-geld" or blood-money the commis.sion of involuntary homicide.

2 Cf. liiad 18. 509 flF. for the Homeric description.

' Here a goddess of war.


')(^pi]aaadaL rw \6')(^(p'^ o <^dp tol e7n]Xv<; aTparo<^ aK07rov<; riva^i Ka6i(ja<^ Xeiav iXdaaaOai irepi- voel. Kal Sr] ol fxev ayovai vofxeU ra Ope/jL/j-ara VTTO aupLyywv. rj ov TrpoajBdWeL ere rb \lt6p

35 Kal avTOcbve<; tT;? /xoucrr;? Kal drex^^^'i opeiov ; 408 K. varara 8e Xp^]ad/jL6voi, rf} /lOvaiKTJ 8t ayvocav Tov eV avTol^ BoXov TeOvdaiv, co? opa<i, twv TToXefXiOiv eTTekOovTwv, Kal aTreXavverai rf? XeCa irpo^ avTOiV, (p^ifirj Srj roiv TTpax^^vrayv e? tov<; 5 Xo;)(;wi^Ta? iXdovaa dvicravTaL ovtol Kal i(f>^ 'lttttcov e? TOV iroXejiov x^^povai Kal Td<^ re 6xOa<^ eaTiv ISetv 7rXi]p6i<; tcop jjLaxofievwv Kal 0aX- XovTcov e? avTOv<;. (11) Tou? Se ev avTOL<; dva- (TTp€(pO/J.€VOV^ Kal TTjV iTe^oLVLypLevqv XvBp(p

10 Sai/jLOva avT7]v re Kal rrjv eaOrjra tl ipovfiev ; "Epi<; Kal Ku^ot/io? ravra Kal K?;/^, i;^' y ra TToXe/jLOv Trdvra. opa<^ yap tol, co? ov filav ohov Xfopel, aXV ou fiev drpoyrov e9 ra ft^?/ irpo- iSdXXei, 0? 8' vcpiXKerat utt' avrip' v€Kp6<;, ov Be

15 Kal veoTpwTOv eina'Trepxj^i. ol 8' avSpe^; cf)ol3epol T>)<? 6pfjL7]<i Kal TOV ^Xe/jLpLaro<; &)? ovBev BiaX- XaTTetv ep,ol ^ayvrcov ev Tat9 op/jLah Sokovctlv.

^ A<Jx¥ Morelli : \oxij.(^--

^ The difficult passage in the Iliad (18, 509-534) was variously interpreted by ihe ancient grammarians. Of their three interpretations as stated by Porphyry and repeated b}' Eusebius, none agrees with the description in Philostratus, while one phrase of Alexander Cotyaeus (p. 195, 5 Dind. ), ovk ibexovTo T-qv -npoKXrjoiv, " they refused the proposals of the enemy," actually recurs in Philostratus. Evidently the latter conceived the scene as follows:— The inhabitants of the city devised an ambush against the army that threatened them, but without avail ; for the eneni}-, after disposing its scouts



ambush ; for the invading army, having stationed some scouts, is contriving how to drive off the booty. ^ Indeed, we see here shepherds herding their flocks to the music of pipes. Does not the simple and ingenuous and truly highland strain of their music reach your ears ? ^ But they have made their music for the last time ; and through ignorance of the plot devised against them they die, as you see, for the enemy has attacked them, and a portion of their flocks is being driven away as booty by the raiders. A report of what has occurred has reached the men in ambush, and they rise and go into battle on horse- back ; you can see the banks of the river covered with men who are fighting and hurling javelins at the foe. What shall we say of those beings who pass to and fro among the combatants and of that spirit whose person and clothing are reddened with gore ? These are Strife and Tumult, and the third is Doom, to whom are subject all matters of war. For you see, surely, that she follows no one course, but thrusts one man, still unwounded, into the midst of hostile swords, a second is being dragged away a corpse beneath her, while a third she urges onward wounded though he is. As for the soldiers, they are so terrifying in their onrush and their fierce gaze that they seem to me to diifer not at all from living men in the charge of battle.

shrewdly, rushed on the flocks of the citizens as they were feeding by the river and slew the shepherds, who were ignorant of their danger. Thereupon those in ambush arose and joined battle with the enemy. Such is the transforma- tion by Philostratus of the somewhat confused account in Homer, in which the city-dwellers set an ambush, send out scouts, and capture the flocks and herds of the besiegers. 8 Cf. Iliad 18. 541 f.



(12) 'AXX' ISov itclXlv eLpj}Vi]<; epya' veio^ yap avTJ] hia(j)aLV6Tai, TptVoXo? olfiai ri?, el ri ^(^py]

20 T(p TOiv apoTi]po)v ^v/jL/SdWeaOac TrXijOei, koX rd ye ^evyy] tmv (Bomv Oafid dvaarpecpei ev ravrr) kv\ik6<; tlvo<; €KBe)(^o/jL6V7]<; dportjp eVl tco t/}? av\aKO<; reXei, fieXaLveaOal re SoKel^ rov ')(^pvaov irepicry^i^ovaar (13) 'E^f;? 6pa<; rep^evos fiaaiX€0)<;

25 olp^al TLvo^ T6icp,/)paaOai, o? to yeyi)do<; iXeyx^Tai Tr}<; ^/^f^?)? VTTO T?}? eV oyjrei (f^athpoTTjro^i. Kal T)]v ye air Lav Trj<; %a/oa9 ovEe ^rjrelv XPV' "^^ 7^^P

TOl \l']LOV IToXXw TO) fieTpO) TT}V (JlTOpdv VTTep-

/3aXetadaL hieXeyy^ovaiv oi re Bid ctttouSt}?

30 dpMVT€<; Kal oi raU dp,aXaL<; rd Keipop^eva tmv Spayp^drayv Seoz^re?, oI? erepoi irpoadyovai Kal paXa avvTovcD'^. (14) 'H he Spv<i ovk aKaipco^; eurauOa ouS' e^(o Xoyov aKid re yap dp,(^LXa(^yi<^ VTT avrfj ylrv^daai rot's ev rw epyw Kapovai, Kal

36 /Sou? ouToal ttlcov KadiepcoOel'^ viro rcov K)]pvKa)v, 4C9 K. ov<; 6pa<;, vtto rfj Spvl Bal<; irpojiOeTaL^ toI<; irepl TVjV GvWoyi-jV Tou TTvpou KajjU'ovai. rd he yvvaia ri (^rj^ ; dp^ ovk inroijaOai aoL hoKel Kal StaKe- \evea6at dXXrjXoi'i av)(yd p^drreiv rwv dX(f)ircov 5 heiTTVov elvai roU epiOoi^ ; (15) Et he Kal 6iTcopa<; Se7]<Tei, Trdpeari aoc d\a)7] * XP^^V M^^' '^^^ dp^ireXcov, p^eXaiva Be rov Kapirov. ro Be rr]^ Karrerov Kvavov ere')(y}]6ri olpac ru> BjjpLovpyo) '7rpo<=; Br]Xo)aLV rov ev avrfj fidOov<;' dpKel yap

10 aoL ro irepl ral^ r)/jLepicnv 6pK0<; ev rfo KamrepM

^ 5oKH added by Westennann. ' irpoTiderai Morelli : trpoariQiTai.


But look again at the works of peace. This is clearly fallow land^ to be thrice-ploughed, I think^ if one may judge at all by the number of the ploughmen ; and in the field the ploughman fre- quently turns the yoke of oxen back, since a wine- cup awaits the plough at the end of the furrow ; and the plough seems to make the gold turn black as it cleaves the soil. In the next scene you perceive a domain — a king's, as I think you may infer — and the king who attests the gladness of his spirit by the radiance of his eyes. The cause of his delight is not far to seek ; for that the crop greatly exceeds the sowing is proved by the workers who busily cut the grain and by those who bind the bunches of cut stalks into sheaves, while others very zealously bring them more grain to bind. The oak tree stands here not unfittingly nor without good reason, for there is abundant shade beneath it for the refreshment of such as grow weary with their labour ; and yonder fat ox, that has been consecrated by the heralds whom you see, is ap- pointed as a meal beneath the oak for those who labour at harvesting the wheat. And what do you say of the women ? Do they not seem to you to be full of excitement and to be encouraging each other to knead plenty of barley meal as a dinner for the harvesters ? If there should be need of fruit as well, here you have a vineyard, golden for the vines and black for the grapes. The dark blue inlay of the ditch is the device, methinks, of the artificer to indicate its depth ; and you have no difficulty in recognizing in the tin inlay the

  • aXuT] Jacobs : avrrj.



voelv. 6 3' ap'yvpo<; o iv tw cifiTreXcopi, Kd/j.aKe<; ravra, rov /jli] x^^fial K\iOy]vai ra (f^vra /Splaavra

T(p KapTTM. TL 6' UV €i7rOL<; TTCpl TOiV TpVycOVTWV ,'

o'l B)] Bia tt}? arevr}^ ravrrj^; elaoSov elacppyjaavre^

15 €avTov<; Ta\dpoL<; ivairoTiOevTaL rov Kapuov /idXa r;Set? Kal 7rp6a(f)Opoi T)]V i)\iKiav ro) epyo). (16) IlapOevoi re yap koI r]ideoL evLov Kal ^aK)(^LKov iv pvOfjLW jSaLvovaiv €vSiS6vto<s avTol<i rov pvOjiov erepov, ov olfiai fuw;? diro re t/)?

20 Ki9dpa^ Kal rov XeTrrov irpoadheLv SoKelv tol<; (f)06yyot<^. (17) Et Be Kal ti]v dyeXrjv ivvoi](T6La<i Tcov /3oo)v, at By] tt/oo? rijv vofxr)v tevrai, e-rro/jievcov avral^ rcov vofiecov, tt)? /xev %/0oa9 ouk dv Oav- fidaeta';, el Kal ')(pv(Tov Kal Karrnepov irdcra, to

25 Be Kal fxvKWfievwv wairep dKOveiv iv rfj ypacfyfj Kal rov TTora/iov KeXdBovra etvat BoKelv, nap' ov ai l36€<i, TTW? ovK ivapyeia^ irpoaco ; roi)? Be Xeovra^ ovB' dv dipepp^tjvevaal poi tl<; iira^ico'i BoKel Kal Tov vtt" avTo2<; raupov, 6 pev yap

30 pep^VKevai Bokmv Kal GTraipeiV cnrapdrTerai rjBr] 7T0)<; ipirecfyvKOTcov T0i9 ivToa6iBLOL<; t(ov Xeovrtov, 01 Be Kvve<;, ivvea 5' olpai ovtol, eirovrai rfj dyeXrj Kal irapd rcov Wvvovrcov avrov<; vofiewv 410 K. iyyv<^ p,6v 'levrat rcov XeovTcov vXaKr} Tnoecv iOeXovTe<; avT0v<s, irpoafiLyvvvaL 5' ov roXpcoaiv iTTiaTrepxovTcov avTov<; Kal ravra rwv vopewv. 6pa<i Be Kal BiaaKtprwvra rov 6pov(; 6pep.p,ara 5 Kal rov<; aradpoi)^ Kal rd<; aKt]vd^ Kal tou? cn]Kov<i- oIkov TTOi/JLVLoyv voei ravra.

^ Cf. the "silver props " on the shield of Heracles, Hesiod, Salt. '298.



barrier surrounding the vines. As for the silver in the vineyard^ these are props^^ to keep the vines which are laden with fruit from being bent to the earth. And what would you say of the men gathering the grapes? Making their way through this narrow passage they pile the fruit in baskets, charming persons of an age adapted to their task. For young men and maidens move forward in rhythm, with Evian and Bacchic step, while another gives them the rhythm, one whom you doubtless recognize, not only from his lyre, but also from the fact that he seems to be singing softly to the lyre's notes. And if you should also notice the herd of cattle which press forward to their pasture followed by the herdsmen, you might not, indeed, marvel at the colour, although the whole scene is made of gold and tin, but the fact that you can almost hear the cows lowing in the painting and that the river along the banks of which are the cows seems to be making a splashing sound, — is not that the height of vividness ? As for the lions, no one, it seems to me, could in a description do justice to them or to the bull beneath them ; for the bull, that seems to bellow and quiver, is being torn to pieces, the lions having already laid hold upon its entrails. The dogs here, 1 believe there are nine of them, follow the herd and at the command of the herdsmen who set them on they rush close up to the lions, wishing to frighten them by barking, but they dare not come to close quarters though the herdsmen urge them even to that. And you also see sheep leaping on the mountain, and sheep-folds, and huts and pens ; you are to recognize herein the home of the flocks.

339 z2


(18) Ao/7ro9 oil fiat X^P"^^ *^^*^ ovrocrl irpoao- jjiOLo^ Tfp AatSdXov, (f)aal 5' avrov 'ApidSvrj rfj ^MtVo) TT/jo? avTov hoOrjvaL. Tt9 3' i) Texvij ;

10 iTap6evoi<i TjiOeoL ra? xelpa<s eViTrXefaz'Te? ^opeu- oua-t. av 8', CO? eoLKev, ovfc dpKeaOyjarj rovro), el /jLt] (Toi Kal rd tT;? ia0)]TO<; i^a/cpLlScoaofiat. tw \6y(p' ovKOvv alSl fiev 606vai<; ijadijvrai crre- (jidva^ eirl Ta2<; K€(f)aXat<; ^j^/juo-a? (pepovaai, tol';

15 3' evjjrpiot jiev Kal XeTrrol TrepiKeivrai %fTcoi^69, yLta^at/Da? 8e rcov /mjjpcov ^ e^-qprr^vrai XP^^d<; dpyvpcov TeXajjLcovoov ^uvexovrcov avTd<;. (19) 'AXX' iv kvkXm fjuev Iovtcov, tovt eKelvo, Tpo^ov Trept- hivifaLv 6pa<; voijaec Kepap^eco^; epyov t^i'o?, ei irrj

20 hvdKoXw^ rj /xrj tov TrepiOelv exoi, Tretpcovro^. aroLXV^ov Be lovrwv av9i^ iroXv n xp^lp-^ e-mp- pel, birco^ exovcri re'/Q-v/^ew?, eTTihifkovvTwv /cal yap Ttz'e? ev f.tecjOL'^ ovroi Kv/3L(TTMVTe<^ Kal dXXore aXXt]!' opx'^icnv iiriheiKvviievoi dyeiv fioi aa^o)<^

26 auTou? 69 TO Oavfia SoKOvaiv. (20) 'H Se Brj kvkXo) TTj^ dvTvyo<; 0aXd(Ta7]<i eiKoov ov ddXarra, 0) iral, ^flKcavov Be voelv XPV opov elvai rex^V- Oevra Tij<; iv rw aaKei yrj<;. iKavoi's e%ei9 roiv eKTViTwpc'ncov.

30 (21) A6peL By] Kal rd irepl tov<; v€avia<;, ^iv OTTorepw avTMV i) VLKrj' IBov yap Kal Ka07Jpi]TaL" 6 EvpvTTvXo^ Kara Tr/9 /iaaxdXtj<; toaavro^; avrto KaLpiav TOV Ilvppov Kal Kpovvi]Bov eV;^6tTai to alfxa, KeLTai tc dvoLp.wKTl 7roXv<; Kara Tt]<; 77)9

35 eKX^dei's, p.6vov ov (^6daa<^ ti]1' TrXijyyv ru)

" KaQrip-qrai Morelli : KadypTj/xrai or Ka.6ijpr]VTaL,


One more scene remains, I think — a troup of dancers here,^ like the chorus which Daedalus is said to have given to Ariadne, the daughter of Minos. What does the art represent ? Young men and maidens Avith joined hands are dancing. But apparently you Avill not be content unless 1 go on and give you an accurate account of their gar- ments also. Well, the girls here are clothed in fine linen and wear golden crowns on their heads; while the young men wear delicate thin chitons, and golden swords hang at their sides held by silver belts. But as they move in a circle, behold the result — you see in imagination the whirling of a wheel, the work of a potter making trial of his wheel to see whether or not it turns with difficulty. And as they advance again in rows, a great crowd of men approaches, who show how merry they are ; for some who here in the centre are turning somersaults and exhibiting sundry kinds of dancing seem to me evidently to fill the dancers with wonder. The image of the sea on the circle of the rim is not the sea, my boy, but you are to imagine that Oceanus is designed by the artist to represent the boundary of the land depicted upon the shield. Enough has been told you of the scenes in relief

Now turn your glance to the youths themselves and note with which of them the victory lies. For behold, Eurypylus has been laid low, Pyrrhus having given him a fatal wound in the armpit, his blood pours forth in streams, and he lies without a groan, stretched at full length upon the ground, having

^ For the description of the dance in Homer, see Iliad 18, 590 f.



TTTMfiari Blcl to e? Katpov rod rpavfjLaro^;. eV ip Tft) ri]<; 7r\t]y7J<; 6 Ylvppo^ ax^j/iari peofievo^ 411 K. TrjV xelpa T(p Xvdpo) ttoWw Kara rov ^L(j)ov<; ive-)(devTL, oi MvaoL re ovk dvaa'^^era yjyov/jLevoi ravra iwl rov veaviav )(^a)povcnv. 6 6' e? avrov<; ^Xoavpov opwv fieL^La kol vcpiararaL to (nl(^o<; 5 Koi rdxa irov Kpvyjrei rov EuyOfTTuXou v€Kpov acoprjBov eV avrw tou? veKpov<; vi)aa<i.


(1) 'H Bie/CTraiouaa rov Trora/jLou vav<; vrro

TToWw TW podicp T7}9 elpeaia^ Koprj re Tt9 avrrj

eVt T?)? 7rpvfMV7]<; oirXirov TrXrjaiov koX 6 e/ji/i€\e<;

10 TrpoaaSwv rot? r?)? Ki9dpa<i Kpov/iaai ^iiv opOfj

Tidpa b re virep tt}? iepd<^ eKeivy^<; (prjyov hpdKwv

TTOXXft) GTTeLpdp.aTi fCe)(V/JL€V0's KOL TrjV K€(f)aXl]V

eh Tr]v yrjv vevwv vttvm ^piOovaav, top TTOTafiov jxev ^daiv yivcoaKe, MijSeiav Be ravTijv, 6 8' eVl

15 T^? 7rpv/j.vr)<; ottXitt;? ^Idacov dv eh], KiOdpav Be fcal Tidpav 6po)VTa<; kol tov Bl dfi(f)OLP Koa/j,ov- fjbevov '0/3(^61'? vireiaiv i)/jLd<; 6 t% KaWioTrT]'^, fjierd yap top iirl toU Tavpoi<; dOXop deX^aaa eh virvop top BpdxopTa tovtop tj \lijBeia aeavXif-

20 Tai fiev to ')(pva6fiaXXop tov Kptov pdKo^, ^'^yfl Be XevTat, Xolttop ol t?}? ' Apyov^ 7rXa)Tj]pe^, eTretBrj dpdiTvaTa Toh K6X-)^oi<; Kal tw AlrjTrj tcl t?)<?

^ Cf. tlie account of the voyage of the Argo, the elder Phil. II, lo, s%(yra, p. 187 ; also p. 319.

2 For tlie tiara of Orpheus, cf. notes on pp. 310, 312 supra.

^ ApoU. Rhod. Argon. 156 f. : "But she [Medea] . . . drawing untempered charms from her mystic brew, sprinkled 342


fallen almost before the blow was struck^ so deadly was the wound. Pyrrhus still stands in the attitude of striking, his hand all covered with the copious blood which drops from his sword, when the Mysians, thinking this unendurable, advance against the youth. But he, looking at them grimly, smiles and takes his stand against their ranks ; and doubt- less he will soon bury the body of Eurypylus by heaping over it a mound of dead bodies.


The ship, which forces its way along the river with much splashing of the oars, a maiden yonder at the stern who stands near a man in armour, the man with erect tiara 2 who sings in tune with the notes of his lyre, and the serpent which sprawls over the sacred oak tree over here with many a coil and bows to the earth its head all heavy with sleep ^ — in these you should recognize the river as the Phasis, the woman here as Medea, the armed man at the stern would be Jason, and when we see lyre and tiara and the man who is decked out with both it is Orpheus, son of Calliope, who comes to our mind. For after the contest with the bulls Medea has charmed this serpent to sleep, the '^ ram's fleece of golden wool " ^ has been seized as booty, and the crew of the Argo have now set forth in hasty flight,

the serpent's eyes, while she chanted her song ; and all around the potent scent of the charm cast sleep ; and on the very spot he let his jaw sink down, and far behind . . . were those countless coils stretched out." Trans. Seaton, L.C.L.

  • Quoted from Pindar. Pyth. 4. 68.


K6pr]<i. (2) Kal TO, iJLev rcov r?}? 'Apyoi/? vav/Sa-

TOiv Tt dv aoL XeyoL/jLL ; opa^ yap l3pa')(^L0va^ /jlcv

25 i^wSijKora^; avroU vtto tov et? ttjv elpeaiav

^vvTovov, ra Be irpoawira ola ykvoiT av €avTov<;

O-7r€p)(^6vTC0V, TO Bk TOV TTOTafjLOV KXvhdtiVLOV

vTre pKa)(\d^ov tov t?}? veox; €/j,/36\ov Karacpepo- p,6vi]<; ^vi' ttoWt] TTj pv/xr) Td->^ov<^ Sely/na. /; Koprj

30 Se dfiyxctvov Tiva vovv SeLKVvaiv eV TOVirpoauiTTOv, 6/jbfia fiev yap avTrj SeSaKpvfievov e? yi]v opa, 412 K. 7Tepi(f)0^o<i Si eaTLV vn ivvoia^; ojp SeSpaKe Kal Xoytafxov tcov fxeWovTcov ttXi'ipii^,^ avTi] re tt/Oo? eavTTjv dvaKVKkelv SokcI jiol tcl^; ivvoLa<; Biopcoaa TTJ 'v/^t'xS eKaara Kal ireiri-jyvla Ta<; tcov 6(j)6a\fio)i^ 5 ^o\d<^ 69 ra tt}? '^i^XV'^ uiropprjra. (3) 'Iciawv Be avrf) irXriaiov ^vv oiT\oL<i eToifio^ 69 dfivvav. 6h\ Be TO evBoatpLOv toI<; epeTaL<; aBei, v/jlvov<;, jjLOL BoK€LP, avaKpovojievo^ 6eol<; tou9 fJiev ')(^apL(TT7]plov^y i(f)' ol(; /caTcopOcoKaai, Tov<i Be €9

10 iKecriav TeivovTa^, icp' oh BehoiKaaiv. (4) 'Opa<; Be Kal TOV Al)]Tr}v eirl TeT poopov p.eyav re Kal virepaipovTa dvOpa)7rov<;, onXa fxev ivBeBvKOTa dpy]ia yiyavTO<; olfiai tivo<^ — to yap virep dvOpco- TTov TovO' i^yeladai BiBooai — Ovfiov Be to irpo-

15 acoTTov 7r\yjpy] Kal fxovov ou irvp e^tevTa tmv 6(f)0a\/jLCOV, XafxirdBiov re ttj Be^ta alwpovvTa, €fi7rp7]aeiv yap avToh TrXcoTTJpcn ttjv 'Apyco,

^ TrArj^Tjs Olearius : irXripuvs.

^ The plirase is taken from Horn. Odyss. 11. 274.

  • Tlie phrase is from the elder Phil., Imng. 315, 7 K.

^ Tlie phrase is from Homer, Iliad 6. 340.



inasmuch as the maiden's deeds have become known ^ to the Colchians and Aeetes. As for the crew of the Argo, what need that I should describe them to you ? For you see that the muscles of their arms are swollen ^ Avith the strain of their rowings and that their faces have the look of men who are urging one another to haste, and the wave of the river which foams about the beak of the ship be- tokens that it is rushing forward with great speed. The maiden shows in her face a certain desperation of mind, for while her eyes filled with tears gaze towards the land, she is frightened at the thought of what she has done and is preoccupied in planning for the future, and she seems to me to be turning over her thoughts all to herself as she beholds in her mind each detail and has the gaze of her eyes steadfastly fixed upon the hidden secrets of her heart. Jason, who stands near her fully armed, is ready to defend her. Yon singer gives the rhythm to the oarsmen, striking up hymns to the gods, I should say, partly of thanksgiving for the success they have so far had and partly by way of supplica'- tion with reference to the fears they cherish. You also see Aeetes on a four- horse chariot, tall and overtopping other men, wearing the war-armour ^ of some giant, methinks — for the ffict that he exceeds human stature leads to this impression — and his countenance is filled with wrath and he all but darts fire from his eyes, and he lifts a torch aloft in his right hand,"* for he intends to burn the Argo,

  • Cf. the description of Aeetes in Apoll. Rhod. Argon.

222 f "In his left hand he raised his curved shield, and in his right a huge pine torch, and near him in front took up his mighty spear." Trans. Seaton.



TO hopv Se avrw virep ti]v avrvya tov hi(^pov iTp6')(eipov 'lararai.

20 (5) Tl St] 7ToOel<; twv ^/eypaixpLevcov ; i) ro rcov 'iTTircov ; jJLVKTYjpe^ fiev (iva7r67rTa/J.evoL tovtoi<; Kol dv€aT7]Koo<; avxh^ fioXai re 6(^6a\iiMV eroi/ioc aW(o<; re fcal ivepyol vvv ovaai — BlScoctl yap tovtI Oewpelv y ypacpj] — to Se aa6/ia i^ai/jbarro-

25 fxevwv e? toi^ Spofiov rrj fidaTiyi viro tov Wyjrvp- Tov — irapa^arelv yap tovtov (f)aai tw Al'^rrj — VTTO TravTo^ kXKOfievov rod arepvov Kal i) twv Tpo')(^ct)v hivrj /lovov ov •wpoG^aXovcra rw dpiiareicp avpfxan rd<; dKoa<^ ro Ta;^09 SiBcoai, yivooaKeiv.

30 /} yap hiaviarapievri k6vi<; Kal Ihpwaiv enavdovaa ToU L7nroi<; dfivSpdv Tr}<^ XP^^^ iroiel ttjv Sid- o-Keyjnv.


( I ) Taf tI fjiev ovB' eirLTdrTOVTo^ ol/ial Tt,po<i 6 yevvalo^ 'llpafc\rj<; fio'x^Oel ovS" eariv elirelVf 413 K. &)? Evpv(T6€v<; Bi' ox/^ov vvv avrw, BeaTTO^eiv 8e Tr/i^ dpeTTjV eavrov Taf a? eOeXovaiov^ dOXov<; vTTOfievei. rj tl fiaOcov (po^epov ovro) kt)to's v^iaTaTai ; (2) 'Opd<; ydp, oTroaoi fiev 5 avTw ol 6(f)0aX/jLol KVKXoreprj t av rrjv oyjriv d7roTopv€vovT€<; Kal Seivax; e? ttoXi; BeBopKorcfi

^ Xenoiihon, Art of Horsemanship, 1. 10: " A wide dilated nostril is at once better than a contracted one for respiration, and gives the animal a fiercer aspect."

^ Cf, the description of Amphiaraiis driving his chariot, the ehler Pliil. Iviag., supra, p. 105.

^ Ilesione was the daughter of Laoniedon. Tlie story is that Poseidon, angry with Laomedon for breaking his promise


sailors and all^ and his spear lies ready to hand on the chariot-rail.

VVhat^ now, do you still wish to hear about the painting? Shall I describe the horses? Their nostrils are dilated^^ their heads erect, the glance of their eyes alert and particularly now when they are excited — for the painting makes you infer this — and the panting ^ of the horses which are being lashed to full speed by Apsyrtus till they are red- dened with blood — for it is he, they say, who is charioteer for Aeetes — the drawing of their breath from the entire chest, and the whirling of the wheels that almost brings to your ears the rumble of the chariot, all this makes you realize the swift- ness of the motion. Indeed, the spreading cloud of dust that sprinkles the sweating horses makes it difficult to determine their colour.


It is not, I think, at anyone's command that the noble Heracles is undertaking this labour, nor is it possible to say this time that Eurystheus is causing him travail ; rather we must say that, having made valour his master, he is submitting to tasks of his own choosing. Else why is he confronting so terrible a monster? For you see what big eyes it has, that turn about their encircling glance and glare so terribly, and that pull down over them-

about the walls of Troy, sent a sea-monster to ravage the country. When an oracle promised relief if Laomedon gave his daughter to the monster to be consumed, Laomedon left her chained to the rocks on the coast ; but Heracles appeared to free her and to slay the monster. Cf. the account of the freeing of Andromeda, the elder Phil. I, 29, supra, p. 115.



i-TTLaKi'viov T€ 6(f)pvo)v uKavOcohe^ koI a'ypiov i(f)' eavToijf; eXKOvre^, oirco^ Be o^ela ?; rov crTOyuaro? €K^o\r) Kap')(^dpov<^ koI rpiaroLXov^ 6S6vTa<;

10 iK(j)aLi'OV(Ta, (jdv ol fxev dy/cLarpcoSei^; kol ave- arpa/ifiei'oi Kare^eiv ra \t-j(f)OevTa, ol Se ofet? rT}v ai-)(/ji7]v Kai e? irokv dvecrTC0T€<;, oai) Be rj K€(f)a\7] aKoXiov Kal vypov rod av)(^evo^ e^tovcra. (3) Meye^o? Be airiarov jxev elrrelv ev fxifcpw, 7) Be

15 6\jrL<; viKa tov<; aTnaTOvvra^;. i/CKvpTOVfievov yap ov^ aira^, ciXXd Kara ttoWcl [xeprj rov Ki]TOV<; ra /juev vcpaXa BiacftaLveTaL to ciKpifih rf;? o\/re&)9 KXeTTTOvra rco ^dOei, rd Be dvia'^eL v7]aiBe<; dv toU direLpoOaXdrroL^ Bo^avra. (4)

20 'Arpe/jLOvvTi TrpoaeTvxo/iev rfo Kijrei, Kivov/xevov Be vvvl a^oBpoTUTij pvfir) iroXvv eyeipei poOiov ktv- irov ev yaXi'ivr) Kal ravra, Kal kXvBcov ovto<; vtto T>}? ifi^oXij^; avTOv>LaTdfiepo<; 6 fiev rrepl Toh €K(t)atvofieiOL<; fxepeai KV/jLalvet TrepiKXv^cov avrd

25 Kal BiaXevKaLvwv Karcodev, 6 Be Td<; 7]6va<^ irpocr-

/3e/3Xr)K€V 7] re tcov ovpalwi' dvaKXaais eirl ttoXv

Tr)v OdXaacrav e? i;-VjEro? dvappLirrovvTcov larla

i^eoj? dv dTreLKaaOeiT] 7roLKLXa)<; irpoaavyd^ovra.

(5) 'AW ovK eK7TX7]TT6Tai ravra 6 Oeaireaiof;

30 ovro^, dXX 7) fxev Xeovr?] Kal ro povaXov iv TToalv avrcp ercLfia 7rpo<; rrjv ;^^eta^', el rovrcov Bejjaeiev, ear7]K€ Be yvfivo^ ev rrpoiSoXfj rov fiev dpiarepov iTporeiva<; iroBa oy^ifpLa elvai rco rravrl 414 K. a(i)/j.arc /xedtara/jLevo) Trpo? to t>}? Kiv7']aea)(; o^vppoTTOv, Kal t;}? 7r\€vpd<; Be tT;? dpiarepd<;

1 Quoted from Odyss. 12. 91 348


selves the overhanging brow all savage and covered with spines ; and how sharp is the projecting snout that reveals jagged "teeth in triple row/' ^ some of which are barbed and bent back to hold what they have caught, while others are sharp-j)ointed and rise to a great height ; and you see how huge a head emerges from its crooked and supple neck. The size of it is indeed incredible, when briefly described, but the sight of it convinces the in- credulous. For as the monster's body is bent not at one point alone but at many points, the parts which are under the sea are indeed visible, though in a way to deceive the accuracy of vision because of their deptli, while the other parts rise from the water and would look like islands to those unacquainted with the sea. The monster was at rest when we first encountered it ; but now it is in motion with a most violent onrush and raises a great noise of splashing even though the weather is calm, and yonder Mave which is raised by the force of its charge surges, on the one hand, around its exposed parts as it flows over them and makes them show white beneath, and, on the other, dashes against the shore ; and the bending of its tail, which tosses the sea far aloft, might be com- pared to the sails of a ship shining with many colours.

This wonderful man, however, has no fear of these things, but the lion's skin and the club are at his feet ready for use if he should need them ; and he stands naked in the attitude of attack, thrusting forward his left leg so that it can carry the whole weight of his body as he shifts it to secure swiftness of movement, and while his left side and



Tov Tofou ra Se^ia vTrearaXrai tt)? Sefta? x^ipo'i 5 7r/309 TOV fiacTTOV TT]v vevpav eXKovai]';. (6) Trjv S* alrlav, w Trai, firj ^ijTM/iev tovtwv, 77 fyap rcov irerpoiv avrifi/jiivf] Koprj irpoKeiTai tcG Ki]Tei fiopd, 'WcjLovrjv 8' avTijv XaojJLehovro^ iralha vofii^w- fiev. TTOL he ovTo^ ; eiaco, pLOi hoKelv, rod t?}? 10 TToXeco? reixov^i iv TreptMirfj toov TTparTOfievcov,

(7) 'Opa<; yap TroXeoj? kvkKov koI ra^ eVaXfet? dvOpcoTToyv /jL€aTa<; kol o)? dvareraKaaiv e? ovpavov euxofxevoL Ta<i ^^Ipa^^ t^^X*^ '^^^ S€8olk6t€<; vtt' iK7T\y]^60)<; TrepLTTrjf;, fii] Kal irpoa^dXoL rw

15 reix^i to /ct/to?, eTreiSr] co? x^ptrevaov MpfjLy]K6.

(8) To he T)}? K6pii<; fcd\\o<; 6 Kaipo<; i(pepfiy]V€V€iv eV dKpLjSh ovK id, to yap irepl ttj ^vxfj ^fo? f^cil eirl TOt? opct)p,€POi<; dycov dirop-apaivei fiev to tt}? wpa? dvOo^, SiScoaL 3' oyLtw? to2<; opoiicnv eK tmv

20 irapovTcov to cVreXe? aTOxdaaadai.


(1) Tt hiapikWei^, oj 6ele ^o^6k\€l<^, tu t?)? MeX7ro/xei^?7? Six^adai hd)pa ; tl 8' e? 7^)1^ o/oa? ; CO? eywy OVK olSa, elVe dOpol^cov ivvoia^ ySr] eW VTTO Trj<; 7Tpo<; Trjv deov eKTrXi^^ew^i. dXkd Odpaei,

^ irpoKfi/xeurjs Salmasius ; irfpiKfi/xeuris.

^ Cf. the account of the birth of Pindar, the elder Phil. 11, 12, p, 179 ; and Introduction, supra, p. 278.

2 The "gifts" were probably honey in the comb, such as Cheiron fed to the young Achilles (the elder Phil. Imag.,


left hand are brouglit forward to stretcli the bo\v_, his right side is drawn back as his right hand draws the string to his breast. We need not seek the reason for all this^ my boy, for the maiden who is fastened to the rocks is exposed as prey for the monster, and we must believe her to be Hesione, the daughter of Laomedon. And where is her father? Within the walls of the city, it seems to me, in a look-out where he can see what is going on. For you see the circuit of the city and the battlements full of men, and how they stretch out their arms towards heaven in prayer, overcome no doubt with prodigious fear lest the monster even attack the city wall, since it rushes forward as if it meant to go ashore. As for the beauty of the maiden, the occasion precludes my describing it in detail, for her fear for her life and the agony occasioned by the sight she sees are withering the flower of her beauty ; but nevertheless those who see her may conjecture from her present state what its full perfection is.


Why do you delay, O divine Sophocles, to accept the gifts of Melpomene ? ^ Why do you fix your eyes upon the ground ? Since I for one do not know whether it is because you are now collecting your thoughts, or because you are awe-stricken at the presence of the goddess. But be of good heart,

supra^ p. 13o}. Cf. also sujyra, p. 163, where the Muses in the form of bees are said to lead the Athenian ships to Ionia to found a colony ; and supra, p. 179, where bees anoint with honey the infant Pindar. (Benndorf.)


25 0) 'yade, Kai he^ov ra BiSo/JLeva. aTroffXyjra jap ovK etvai ra 6eon> hoypa olaOci rrov i^ evo^; rCov }s.a\\i67n]<; diaacorcov nKOvaa<;. {'1) 'Opa<; yap Kal Ta9 fieXLTTa^;, co? vrrepirerovTai aov Kal ^Ofi- povaiv rjSv ri Kal Oelov €7ri\6i/3ovaai arayova'^

SO aTTopprjrov^ t?)? otVem? Spoaov rovrl yap /cal tt)? cr?}? 7roLj]a€(o<; SiacpvaeaOai, iravrb^; /jLciWov. 415 Iv. (3) H TTOv Tt? Kal dvaffyOey^eTai [liKpov varepov iiri aol ^lovaMv evKoKwv dvdptjviov Xeywv Kal hehoiKevai tm Trapeyyvyjaei, fitj irr) \dOot, ri<; eKTTTaaa rod aov aro/jLaro'; fxeXirra Kal to

5 Kevrpov (k^vXclktco^ eyy^piaaaa. (4) 'Opa? Se ttou Kal Ti]V Oeov avTr]v ro fiev vy\n]yopov Kal iiryp- fiivov T>)? yv(i)fii](; cnToderov e^ovaav eU he vvv Kal peiSidfiart evfjuevel to hwpov fierpovcrav. WaKX7]7rio<; Be oljxai ovro^; iyyv<; iraidvd ttov

10 Trapeyyvcov ypd(f)€iv Kal KXvTopi]Tr]<;'^ ovk dira^iCov Trapd aov aKovaai, /SXifijia re avrov Trpo? ak (paiSporyjTi fiepiypevov Trapd piKpov vcrTepov eTTL^eixoaei^ alviTTeTai.

iS' TAKixeos

(1) TlvOco/jieOa Tov /iietpaKiov, c5 Traihiov, rt?

15 re ai/To? eir} Kal rt? aiTLa tT;? Wit6XX(jovo<;

avT(p Trapovala^;, 6apai]aei yap '))/j,d<; yovv

irpoa^Xeyjrai. (2) Ovkovv 6 fxev 'TdKiv6o<^ elvai

^ K\vT6/xrjTii conj. Bergk, cf. Horn. Hymn. 19, 1.

^ Ilicul 8, 65: "Not to be flung aside . . . are the glorious gifts of the gods."

  • Cf. the elder Phil., IIe7\ 217, 2; Amazons anoint their

infants " with mare's milk and the dew's hone\comb."


good sir, and accept her gifts ; for the gifts of the gods are not to be rejected/ as you no doubt know, since you have heard it from one of the devotees of Calliope. Indeed you see how the bees fly above you, and how they buzz with a pleasant and divine sound as they anoint you with mystic drops of their own dew,2 since this more than anything else is to be infused into your poesy. Surely someone ^ will before long cry out, naming you the honeycomb of kindly Muses," and will exhort everyone to be- ware lest a bee fly unnoticed from your lips and insert its sting unawares. You can doubtless see the goddess herself imparting to you now sublimity of speech and loftiness of thought, and measuring out the gift with gracious smile. This is Asclepius near by, I think, doubtless urging you to write a paean,* and though "famed for his skill " ^ he does not disdain to listen to you ; and his gaze that is fixed upon you, suffused as it is with joy, dimly foreshadows his visit to you a little later as your guest.


Let us ask the youth, my boy, who he is and what is the reason for Apollo's presence with him, for he will not be afraid to have us, at least, look at him. Well, he says that he is Hyacinthus, the son of

^ Probably Aristophanes or some other writer of the old comedy ; cf. Com. Grace. Frag. Kock, III. 402 (Mein. IV. 655).

  • Cf. Philostr. Vit. Apoll. 96, 26: "The paean of

Sophocles, which they sing to Asclepius at Athens."

^ Quoted from Horn. Hytnns XIX. 1.

® Compare the treatment of the same theme by the elder Phil. Imag. I. 24, supra, p. 93 f.



cf))]criv 6 Ol^ciXov, fxaOovTa'^ he rovro '^^prj XoLTTOv Koi rrjv alrlav Trj<; rov Oeov irapovcria^;

20 yLVcoa/ceiv ipcov 6 rrj<; Atjrov'i rov fieipaKiov TTuvTa hooaeiv avrw (pijaiv, oaa €)(€i, ro ^uvelvai ol irpoaejxevw, TO^eiav re yap Kal /iovatKT]v ScSd^eii^ Kal iiavTLKrf<s iiraieiv Kal Xvpa^ firj d7r(pB6v elvai Kal tol<; d/j.(f)l TTaXalarpav eirt'

25 (7Ti]<TeLV, Bcoaeip Be virep kvkvcop avrov o)(^ov- fievov irepLTToXelv 'xcopia, oaa ^ KiroXKwvo^ ^L\a. (3) Taurt piev 6 ^eo?, yeypairrai he dK€ipeK6pLr]<; fiiv, TO el(t)06<;, ^aihpav he 6(^pvv virep 6(f)6a\/jLcov eyelpwv, o)v uKrlve'^ olov eKXdjJLiTovai, Kal /nec-

30 huipLari rjhel rov "TuklvOov Oapavvcov irpo- reivwv fiev rrjv he^iav eirl rfj avrf) alria. (4) To fieipuKLOv he e? yr/v jxev djevh opa, ttoXXt) 416 K. he rj rwv o(^6aXp.(ov evvoia, ydvvTai re yap e(p' oI? uKovei, Kal to 6dp<T0<; en fieXXov alhol filyvvaiv. eo-TTjKe he rd pbev dpiarepd rov a(OfiaT0<; dXiTTOp^vpw \XavihL KaXv-mayv, a hrj 5 Kal vTreaTaXrai, aKOVTiw he rrji' he^idv eirepeihet €KKeL/jiev(p TO) yXovTO) Kal rfj irXevpa hiopco/jLevp, ^pax^^"^ '^^ ovToal yv/xv6<; hihcoai jjfilu e? rd opco/ieva Xeyeiv.^ ac^vpov fxev avTw Kovcpov eir evOeia rfj Ki>i)ixr] Kal einyovvl<; avri] eXa(f)pd virep

10 Kvri/jL7j(; fxripoi re direptTTOi Kal lax^'OV dveyov TO XoiiTOv awpLa irXevpd re evirvovv dirorop- vevovaa to arepvov koi fipa)(LO)v ^vv uTraXoTTjTC ^ acjipiyoiv Kal avxh^ dv€aT7]Kco<=; to fierpiov t) Kofiy Te ovK dypoLKO^; ovhe ev avxP-V dvea-rr/KVLa,

^ Jacobs would emend to koi to. /xjj Spwutva e'Ae'yxftv, " to judge also of the parts not seen." The text as it is can hardly be sound.

2 aira\6Tr)Ti Olearius : airk6Tr]ri.



Oebalus ; and now that we have learned this we must also know the reason for the god's presence. The son of Leto for love of the youth promises to give him all he possesses for permission to associate with him ; for he will teach him the use of the bow, and music, and understanding of the art of prophecy, and not to be unskilful with the lyre, and to preside over the contest of the palaestra, and he will grant to him that, riding on a chariot drawn by swans, he should visit all the lands dear to Apollo. Here is the god, painted as usual with unshorn locks ; he lifts a radiant forehead above eyes that shine like rays of light, and with a sweet smile he encourages Hyacinthus, extending his right hand with the same purpose. The youth keeps his eyes steadfastly on the ground, and they are very thoughtful, for he rejoices at what he hears and tempers with modesty the confidence that is yet to come. He stands there, covering with a purple mantle the left side of his body, which is also drawn back, and he supports his right hand on a spear, the hip being thrown forward and the right side exposed to view, and this bare arm permits us to describe what is visible.^ He has a slender ankle below the straight lower leg, and above the latter this supple knee-joint ; then come thighs not unduly developed and hip-joints which support the rest of the body; his side rounds out a full-lunged chest, his arm swells ^ in a delicate curve,^ his neck is moderately erect, while the hair is not unkempt nor stiff from grime, but falls

^ See critical note. For the attitude, cf. p. 91, supra.

^ Compare the description of Hyacinthus by the elder Phil. Imag., supra, p, 95.

3 i.e. robust for all its delicacy ; the phrase is from the elderPhil.,^6r. 151, 28K.


AA 2


15 a\X' €7riKpe/jLa/j.ip)] rco iJLsr utTT (o , avvairovevovaa he rat? tov lovXov dp')(aL<;. (5) 'O 8' eV iroal

BLaKO<i €X^^ f^^^ Cr/COTT . . . ^ TL 776/91 kaVTOV

"E^a)9 Te Kol TTcivv (^aLhpo<; a/ia Kal KaTJ](p/]^, Koi Z€(f)upo<; ix irepLOiiTr}^ aypiov virocfiaLvoiv ro 20 ofifia, alvLTTeraL 6 ^o)ypd(f)0<; rijv dircoXeLav tov jxeipaKLov, 8iaK€V0PTi Be tw ^AwoWcovl 7rXdyio<; e/jLTTPevaa'; epi/SdXel rep 'TaKLv6(p top SlaKOP.


(1) Sav/jLd^€i<; opcop e? toctovtop dycopa Kopyjp

opficoaap, dypiov re ovrco avo<; Kal roaovrov

25 opfirjp v(f)LaTap€P')]P ; 6pa<; ydp, o)? ixfyaufiop fxev

aura> to ojjLpLa \o(f)id t€ ^piTTOvaa Kal ttoXu?

6 KaTCL Tcop oSoPTCDP d(f)p6<; e? ttoXv dpeaTJjKOTcop

Kal TijP alxP'h^ dTpLTTTCOP, TO T€ 6^/009, 60?

Trpof; \6yov ttj /3daeL, rjp 3?) kol tcl tx^V TavTi

30 heiKPvaL Tavpcop diroBeoPTa ovhep' ovSe ydp tov-

Tcop irapekLire tl 6 ^o)ypd(f)0<; epTV7rd)aa<; avTa

417 K. TTJ ypa(j)7]. (2) Ta Se opco/xepa Kal heipd ijSrj'

i/jL7Te7rTO}Kco<; ydp o crO? 'AyKaio) tovtco KaTa

TOP /jL7]p6p, KeiTai 6 peapLa<^ dOpoop eKpecop to

alfia Kal e? ttoXv dp6pp(joyd><; tov f.u]pov, oOep

5 €P ')(ep(jlp )jSi] TOV dOXov oWo? ?/ /lep 'ATaXdpTrj,

^ Lacuna of one letter in F., ckottci P.

^ The story is that Zephyrus liad been a lover of Hya- cinthus, and out of jealousy deflected the discus of Apollo to kill the youth.

2 The Calydonian boar, according to the usual form of the story, was sent by Artemis to devastate the crops of the country because she had been neglected by the King Oeneus in a harvest festival. His son Meleager, himself a great

[To face p. 357


over his forehead and blends with the first down of his beard. The discus at his feet . . . about him- self, and Eros^ who is both radiant and at the same time downcast, and Zephyrus/ who just shows his savage eye from his place of look-out — by all this the painter suggests the death of the youth, and as Apollo makes his cast, Zephyrus, by breathing athwart its course^ will cause the discus to strike Hyacinthus.


Are you surprised to see a girl entering into so great a contest and withstanding the attack of so savage and so huge a boar ? For you see how blood- shot is his eye, how his crest bristles, and how abundant is the foam that drips from his long upright tusks, which are iinblunted at the point ; and you see how the beast's bulk is proportional to his stride, which indeed is indicated by these tracks that are as large as those of a bull. For the painter has not failed to embody any of these points in his painting. But the scene before us is already terrible. For the boar has attacked Ancaeus here in the thigh, and the youth lies pouring out his blood in streams and with a long gaping wound in his thigh ; therefore, now that the contest is already under way, Atalanta

hunter, summoned the heroes of Greece to take part in the destruction of the boar. Theseus came among others, and Jason and Achilles' father Peleus and Ancaeus with his niece Atalanta, herself a huntress and beloved of Artemis. Atalanta wounded the boar with an arrow, and Meleager finally killed it. Philostratus does not take up the rest of the story which dealt with Meleager's love for Atalanta. Cf. Fig. 30.

Cf. the account of a boar hunt bv the elder Phil. {Imag. I. 28, supra, p. 107).



Tavr^]v yap elvat ti-jv Koprjv voelv XP^'h Trpox^eipov e-mOela-a rfj vevpa to /5eX,09 d(f)7]a€iv /leXkec. (3) "EaraXrat Se ecrOrjrt /lev virep yovv, KprjirlSa Se TOtv iToholv evYjinaL kol al x^cpe^; e<? m/iov

10 yufival Sta to ivepyol elvat. t/)? €(TOr]ro<; eKel e? ir€p6va<^ ^vvexofi€vrj<;, to Se KdXXo<; appevcoirov eK (f)va€(o<; ov dviarrjaLP 6 fcaipo<; cttI fJidWov ovK icpl/jLepov ISXeiTOvar]';, dXXa rd<; rcov 6cf)0aX- pb(hv 0oXa<; €9 TTjv twv hpodfiivtov evvoiav

15 reivovari^. (-4) 01 veaviai Se ovrot ]^leXeaypo<; Kai n?;Xeu9, TouTOf? yap Syj tou? Ka6eX6vTa<; TOP avv (firjcnv rj ypa<f)i], 6 fiev iirepeiaa^; ev TrpofioXfj TO) Xatw ttoSI kavrov 6 INle^eaypo? Kai rrjv jBdatv rr)prjaa<; da(f)aXa)<^ ifcSex^rai rrjv

20 opfir)v Tov cuo? Xoy^V^ VTroaryjaa^;.

(5) ^€p€ Srj Kai TCL irepl avrov e'lTTco^ev (TTL(f)po<^ fiev 6 veavia<; Kai iravrr) (Kppiywv, Kvrjiiai 5' avrqt evirayeU Kai opOal (pepeLv re €V TOfc? ^ hpofioL^ iKaval Kai v(pi(7Ta/jLevM top

25 eK %ef/)09 dycbva (f)vXaK€<; dyaOai, iirjpo^ re ^vv iiTLyovvihi o/ioXoycov Tot9 KaTCJ Kai lax^ov olov hihovai dapaelv o)<; ovk dvarpaTryjao/jLevov vtto T7J9 ToO o-f09 e/X/5oX?}9 ToO veaviov, TrXevpd re /SaOeta Kai yaari^p direpiTTO^ Kai arepva to

30 fJi€TpLOV 7rpO€KK€i/jL€Va Kai jSpaX^f^^ Sl7]pOp(0-

fi€Vo<; Kai a)/jLOL 7r/oo9 av^^va eppwfjbevov ^vv- dirT0VTe<; Kai fidaiv avrw BlB6vt6<;, ko/jltj t€ rjXicocra Kai dvecTTrjKvla vvv vtto tov t?}9 6pfi7j<; evepyov Kai ^apoTro^' iKavM<^ BehopKO<; to ofXfxa 35 T) Te ocppv^i OVK dvei/jiipf], dXX' ev tw Ov/jlm irdaa Kai rj tov Trpocrcoirov KardaTaai^ ovSe 418 K. ^vyx^^povaa irepl KdXXov<^ tl Xeyeiv Bid to



— for we must recognize that the girl is she — having put to the bowstring the arrow she has ready, is about to let it%fly. She wears a garment that does not reach the knee and boots fastened on her feet ; her arms are bare to the shoulders for freedom of move- ment, and the garment is fastened there by brooches ; her beauty, which is naturally of the masculine type, is made more so by the occasion, since her glance is not alluring, but she strains her eyes to observe what is going on. The youths here are Meleager and Peleus, for the painting tells us that it is they who have slain the boar ; Meleager in an attitude of defence throws his weight upon his left foot, and watching closely the boar's advance, awaits his onset securely with couched spear.

Come, let us describe him in detail. The youth is sturdy and well developed all over; his legs below the knee are firmly knit and straight, well able to carry him in the foot-race, and also good guardians for him when he fights in the hand-to-hand contest ; the upper and lower parts of the thigh are in harmony with the lower leg, and the hip is the kind to make us confident that the youth will not be overthrown by the boar's attack ; his flanks are broad, his stomach lean, his breast protrudes a little, his arms are well articulated and his shoulders join in a strong neck, providing it wit)i a firm foundation ; his hair is ruddy, and at this time stands erect because of the vehem- ence of his attack ; the flash of his eye is very bright, and his forehead is not relaxed but all instinct with passion ; the expression of his face does not permit a word to be said of its beauty because it is

^ re before roh deleted by Kayser.



€7riTeT(iaOai, €adr)<; Be Xev/crj virep yovv koI Kpii'TT)<; virep acpvpov epeiafia aa(f)a\(<; rfj ^daei, ')(\a/.LvBa T€ KOKKo/Sacpf] inrep avy^ivo^ KoXiraxTa^ 5 TO Orjplov v(f)L(TTaTai.

(6) TavTl p,€v croL ra rov OtVew?, UrjXev'i Be ouTO<; irpo^e^X'qTaL c^olvikovv <^apo<^, /jL(i')(aipa Be avTcp t) irap* 'Hcpalarov ev ^(^epa'iv CKBe^o- fieprp Trjv rov crvo<; 6pp,7Jv, to Be o/jL/xa drpeTrro'^ 10 Kal ofu opcjv KOI olo^ /irjBe xjirepopiov ddXov rov e? KoX;^ou? avv ^Jdcrovi Belaai.


(1) M?) BeBiOi, o) Trat, toi^ Kv7]vov irora/jiov TToWw KVfxalvovTa Kal virep Ta? o;^^a9 alpo- fievov, '^/eypaiTTai ydp, dWa /idWov rd ev

15 avTw BcaaKeyjrdyfxeOa, oirt) re Kal oVo)? e;^6t rd tt}? Te^27?9* y yap ovk emaTp€(f)€i aeiTpo<; eavrov 6 Oelo^ 'HpaK\rj(i ovrco^; e/x3e/9>;/cft)? fxeaw rw iTorafMO) Kal irvp eKXd/iircov dirb rwv 6<pda\iJ.wv rov aKoiTOV /leTpovvrcov ro^ov re e^f^i' ^v rfj

20 \aLa irpofiepXrjiievr], en Kal rrjv Be^idv ev rw rrj(; d(jieae(0^ rov l3e\ov<; e%a)i^ axVf^cLTi ; e? fia^ov ydp avrrj. (2) Tt 8' dv eiiroi<; irepl rr]<; vevpd^ ; dp ovk alaOdveaOat BoKeh 67r7;;^oucr?;? rfj rov olarov dcfyeaei ; irov Be ovro<; ; 6pd<; rov

25 vararov dvaaKLproovra Kevravpov ; Necrcro? Be

^ i.e. the Argonautic expedition, cf. pp. 1S7, 343, awpra.

^ The death of Heracles was attributed to the poisoned arrow with which he shot the centaur Nessus. The story is that Ncssus gave Deianeira some of his V)lood to use as a love- charm in case the aflfections of Heracles strayed to another woman. When Deianeira had occasion to use it, she anointed a garment with the charm and sent it to Heracles ; but when



so tense ; he wears a white garment that does not reach to the knee, and his high boot that reaches above the ankle gives him secure support in walk- ing ; and letting his scarlet mantle hang in a fold from his neck he awaits the beast.

So much for the son of Oeneus ; but Peleus here holds his purple mantle out before him ; and he holds in his hand the sword given him by Hephaestus, as he awaits the rush of the boar ; his eye is un- swerving and keen of glance, and he looks as if he did not fear even to cross the borders and go with Jason on the adventure to Colchis.^

16. NESSUS 2

Do not fear ^ the river Evenus, my boy, though it rises in great waves and the water overflows its banks, for it is a painting ; rather let us examine its details, to see how and in what manner they are represented in art.* Does not the divine Heracles attract your attention as he advances thus into the middle of the river, his eyes flashing fire and measuring off the distance to the mark, while he holds the bow in his outstretched left hand and still keeps his right hand in the attitude of one who has let fly the arrow ?s for he holds it close to his breast. And what would you say of the bowstring ? Do you not seem to hear it sing as it lets fly the arrow ? Whither is it aimed } Do you see the centaur giving his last leap ? This

he put on the garment, the poison caused his death in agon}-, and Deianeira in remorse hanged herself.

3 The phrase is from the elder Phil., Her. 196, 20 f.

  • Cf. supra, 410, 8 K for this use of rex^V-

^ Cf. the elder Phil., Imag., p. 219 supra, for this device of the painter, who chooses the moment when an action is just completed to suggest the action itself.



oJ/jLat ovTO<; Biacfyvyoov €K tt}? ^o\6y]^ Trjv 'Hpa- KXeiav fiovo^ ^elpa, ot eTn-)(^6ipovvTe^ ttSiVa)9 avTw hLe(j)V<yev ovB€l<; irXrjv ovto<;. ot^^exai Be Kol ovTO<; olBlko^ e? avrov ^avel^' iropOfievovrofi

30 <ydp Tou? B6o/jL€pov<; tovtov i7rtaTa<; 6 'HpaKXi]<; ^vv rfj jwaiKi Arjtaveipa kol tw TraiBl "TXX,(p, eTrecBr) airopo^ 6 7roTa/jLO<; e^alvero, tt]v yvvalKa 419 K. TTOpOfievaat irapeyyva, ai'TO? Be eiTtj3a<i rov Bi^pov ^vv TO) TraiBl €)(^copeL Bca rov Trorafiov, Kavravda o p,ev KaKco^; IBcov jrjv yvvaiKa Iito- iTOi^ eirejoX^ia rrj^ ox^V^ eVt/Sa?, o Be ^oi)<;

5 aKOvaa^ 6 'Hpa/cXr)? ro^evei Kara rov NeVcrou. (3) T€ypd(f)aTai Be r/ /lev Arjidveipa ev tw rov KivBvvov (TXfj/^cLTL Kal 7r6pcBe7]<; €? Tov 'HpaKXea Ta<; 'X^lpa<; reivovaa, 6 Be Neo"cro9 apri, tov olarov Be^d/JL€vo<; kol irepl eavrcp cr(f)aBa^(ov

10 ovTTO), BoKecv, TOV eavTOV XvOpov ^ diroOeTOV e? 'Hpa^Xea tt) Arjiaveipa B6B(0Ka)<;. (4) To Be TTaiBiov 6 "TWo? e(j)€(TTi]K6 jiev tm TraTpwo) Blchpfp KaTCi T7J9 avTvyo^ BeOevTcov, cocTTe oLTpe- fielv, Tcov iLTTTToyv, KpoTel Be vcf)^ rjBovrjf; Ta<;

15 )(eLpa<; yeXcoTL Bov<; a /jl^tto) eppcoTai.

^ KvQpov Jacobs : Bi<ppou.


Fig. 31. — Deianeira at the Death of Xessiis.

[To face p. 3C3.


is NessuSj I think, who alone escaped the hand of Heracles at Pholoe,^ when none but he escaped of those who wickedly attacked the hero. And he too is dead, caught in a manifest wrong to Heracles. For Nessus ferried across any who called for this service, and Heracles arrived, together with his wife and his son Hyllus ; and since the river seemed unfordable, he entrusted his wife to Nessus to carry over, while he himself mounted his chariot along with his son and proceeded to cross the river. Thereupon the centaur when he reached the bank cast wanton eyes on the woman and dared a monstrous deed ; and Heracles hearing her cry shot an arrow at Nessus. Deianeira is painted in the attitude of one in danger, in the extremity of her fear stretching out her arms to Heracles, while Nessus, who has just been hit by the arrow and is in convulsions, apparently has not yet given his own blood to Deianeira to be put aside for use on Heracles. The boy Hyllus stands on his father's chariot, to the rail of which the reins are fastened so that the horses will not run away, and he claps his hands in glee and laughs at what he has not yet the strength to do.

^ When Heracles came to Pholoe, Pholos the centaur opened the cask of wine which Dionj'sus had given him long before with instructions to keep it till Heracles visited him. Drunken with the wine the other centaurs attacked Heracles and were slain bj" his poisoned arrows with the exception of Xessus who escaped. I'holos, like Cheiron, is described as a different type of centaur ; he met his death accidentally with one of the poisoned arrows. Cf. Fig. 31.




(1) 'O fiev iirl TO) arpaTJjyelv apri^ koX 701/9 eV MeXt/Soiaf; eirl Tpoiav aywv TijjL(i)pov<; Me- veXdcp Kara rod ^I>pvy6<^ ^l^tXoKTijri]^ 6 rod Hol- avTO<; yevvalo^ ttov Kal di^acpepcov e? tjjv v^)

20 'WpaKkel Tpo(f)7]v — OepdiTdiv Br] yeveadai tw 'HpafcXel 6 ^iXoktj'jtt]^; ck vrjirlov, ore Kal (popev^ elvai ol tmp to^cov, a Brj kol varepov paaOov Xa/Secv Trap' avrov t?}? 6t9 rr)v irvpav v7rovpyLa<; — Be vvv ivravOa ^v/iTreTrrcDKOTt, Bid

25 T7]V voaov Tft) irpoacoTTO) ^vvvecpi} ocppvv eirl roi>(f)6aX/ico icpeXKCov kcltw ttov Kal ev ^dOei 6vTa<; Kal d/jievrjvov opcovTa^!, k6/jL1]v re XvOpov Kal avxi^ov TrXijpj] B€lkvv<; Kal TrjV yeveidBa vTTave(jT7]Kco<^ Kal ^piTTo^v Kal pdKia avrof; re

30 d/jL7riaxoiji€vo<; Kal top rapaov KaXvirrcov roiovBe, 0) Tral, BiBwai Xoyov. (2) 'Ai^avrXeoi^Te? e? TpoLav ol 'Ai^afol Kal 7rpoaaxoPT€<^ Tal<; pr)aoL<i 420 K. efiaarevoPTO top t?)? \pva7]^ ^co/jlop, op ^Idacop IT ore IBpvaaTO, ore e? KoX^^ol'? eirXei, ^lXo- KTi]Ti]<; re eK tt)? ^vp 'HpaKXel p,P7]fir](; rov l3a)/iop roL<; ^ijrovai B€Lkpv<; eyxpl^ciPro<^ avra> 5 rov vBpov TOP LOP e? Odrepop tolp ttoBoIp ol /JL6P inl 'Vpoiap ol 'A;^aiot areXXoprat, 6 Be ep Arj/jLP(p ravrij Kecrai, BtaBopo) ^7]al Xo(f)OKXf)<; Karaard^wp IQ) rov iroBa "...

^ &prL Haniaker : tr/.

2 The rest of the MS. is lost.

^ The stor}' of Philoctetes was treated by Aeschylus and Euripides, as well as in the extant drama of Sophocles.




The man who but recently was in command of an army and led the men of Meliboea against Troy to avenge Menelaus on the Phrygian^ is Philoctetes the son of Poeas^ noble of birth, no doubt, and one Vv'ho owes his upbringing to Heracles — for Philoctetes became the servant of Heracles from early youth and was the bearer of his bow and arrows, the bow which later he received from his master as a reward for his services in lighting the funeral pyre ; but now with downcast face because of his malady and with clouded brow above lov/ered eyes, hollow eyes that glare with wrath, showing hair that is full of filth and grime, his beard unkempt, shivering, himself clothed in rags and with rags concealing his ulcered heel, my boy, he supplies the following story : — The Achaeans, when they sailed for Troy and put in at the islands, were earnestly seeking the altar of . Chryse, which Jason had formerly erected when he / made his voyage to Colchis ; and Philoctetes, re- ' membering the altar from his visit to it with Heracles, pointed it out to the searchers, whereupon a water- serpent drove its poison into one of his feet. Then the Achaeans set sail for Troy, but he was left here in Lemnos, "his foot dripping with devouring poison," 2 as Sophocles says. . . .

When the Greeks learned from an oracle that the bow and arrows of Heracles were necessary for the capture of Troy, Neoptolemus was sent to get Philoctetes and these weapons from Lemnos. Neoptolemus won his confidence and received the bow and arrows, but refused to betray the trust. Only when Heracles appeared from heaven to direct Philoctetes to let them go were they secured for use against Troy. 2 Quoted from Soph. Phil. 7.






Callistratus is known to us only through the Descriptiojis. His quotations from the younger as well as the older Philostratus furnish evidence that he was familiar with the works of both writers, and therefore that he himself wrote not earlier than the latter part of the third century a.d. ; on grounds of style Schenkl and Reisch ^ point out that pre- sumably the work should be dated at least a century later. Of his life we only know that he writes as if he had himself seen statues which he describes as existing in Sicyon (No. 6), in Athens (No. 11), in Egyptian Thebes (No. 1) and in Macedonia (No. 13). There is, of course, nothing improbable in the belief that he had travelled to this extent.

The present Descriptions belong to the same class of rhetorical literature as the Imagines of the older and the younger Philostratus, in that they are essentially examples of the rhetorician's skill rather than of serious art criticism. While it would be possible to draw comparisons more or less close between these Descriptions and the Imagines, such a procedure would probably be misleading. Doubt- less the present work is one of many in which

^ Introduction, pp. xxii-xxiii. Cf. W. Me3'er, Der accentuirte Satzschluss in dcr gricchischen Prosa rom. IV his XVIJahrhundert, Gott., 1891.



paintings and sculpture were praised ; doubtless it is far truer to dwell on the influence of Philostratus the elder on this whole branch of later rhetoric than to attempt comparisons between any two examples of such rhetoric. In fact the study of Callistratus' work brings out the differences between him and his known predecessors quite as much as his dependence on them.

In general his descriptions have so little to say of the statues described that the name of the work seems inexact ; his aim is rather to praise, and the description is quite subordinate to his rhetorical encomium of the sculptor's marvellous success in his work. Ap})arently he is as much indebted to writers who have praised works of literary art as to those who used painting and sculpture for their themes. His method is quite simple. He begins with the name, the location, and often the material of a statue ; after some general remarks he praises the success of the artist in making the material express the living being he depicts ; and in con- clusion he adds some general remark on art or the artist which the statue had suggested. We find none of the rhetorical devices of the older Philo- stratus — the ornate language, the complicated effort for a conversational style, the mixture of actual description with other elements of the story which are not represented in the picture ; the " boy " who served as the audience has all but disappeared (but of. a> v€oi, }). 428, IK.); the numerous allusions to classical literature and the constant use of phrases from the poets are no longer found. Nor do we find the careful descriptions of the later Philo- stratus ; his aim is to praise the success of the



artist, and to this end is directed all the elo- quence he can command. Callistratus is primarily not a student of art, but a sophist who displays liis powers in these encomia. Like his predecessors, he held that literature as well as sculpture and painting was an inspired art ; he too competed with tiie works of art he described in the effort to make his descriptions equally works of art ; like the poets and the historians, like Demosthenes and Euripides (cf. Nos. 2, 8, 13), he would speak with an inspiration similar to that of sculptor or painter.

While the elder Philostratus emphasized the realism, the illusion of reality in the paintings he described, and at times mentioned the technique by which this illusion was produced ; while the younger Philostratus treated paintings primarily as expressing the character and the inner experience of the persons represented, it was the aim of Callistratus to glorify the success of the sculptor in making bronze or marble all but alive in the figures he created. Briefly, he points out in each case how art almost transformed dead matter into the living beings which the artist represented, apparently endowing the material with the softness and colour of flesh, with sensations, with emotions, with passion and intelligence, and with the power to move ; and because the statues were all but living beings, they represented the character and inner experience of these beings. There is a certain sameness and conventionality in the way this formula is developed. The details he praises are in almost every instance first the hair, its softness, its waving locks, its moist curls ; then he often speaks of the eyes (Nos. 5, 8, 11) as expressing


BB 2


character ; he constantly dwells on the flesh, its softness and its varying colour as exj)ressed in a material that was hard and of one colour ; the power to move, or to seem to move, belongs to his statues as to the statues made by Daedalus (Nos. 3, 8, 9) ; but the statues he describes are superior to those of Daedalus in that they not only felt sensations of grief or joy or desire (Nos. 1, 3, 5, 8, 9), but they also had the power of sense perception (Nos. 2, 5) and intelligence (Nos. 3, 10, 13) and personal character (Nos. 5, 11, 13). The language of the Alexandrine epigrams dealing with sculpture and statuary, which are j^reserved in the Anthology, Callistratus transfers to these prose descriptions in order to lend eloquence to his treatment of the theme. If his eloquence sometimes becomes tedious, if it adds little or nothing to our knowledge of (jreek sculpture, nevertheless these descriptions are valuable in the light they throw^ on the significance of the greater Greek art for the fourth and fifth centuries a.d.

It is of little consequence, therefore, whether or not the Descriptions of Callistratus are based on real statues he had seen. Probably we should assume that he writes about what he had himself seen, either in originals or copies, for there is no real reason against this belief; and when he uses the language of hearsay in speaking of the statue of Memnon (pp. 379, 409, infra), he expressly states the fact. At the same time, such praise as he offers to the " Oj)portunity " of Lysip])us or the IJacchante of Scopas or the Eros of Praxiteles is by no means dependent on his personal acquaintance with these statues ; indeed it rather smacks of a literary origin,



To say that ^^art carried imitation over into reality " (2, 2), that ^'^the image passes over into the god himself" (10. 2), that art gave bronze the power to breathe (11^ 2), is the language of the rhetorician rather than of one who is carried away in looking at the statue itself.




a \L\t 2ATTP0N

421 K. (1) " AvTpov 7]v TL Trepl S)]l3a<; ras" AlyvTrria^;

TT poaeiKaa fievov avpL'y^/i et? €XiKa<; avro(f)vco<; iv

kvkXw irepl rov<; rrj? 77)9 eXnTofievov 7rv6/jLeva<;'

ov yap eV evOeia^ avoLyofievov eh evOviropov^

5 avXodva^ eV^^tfero, dWa ti-jv vironpeLov Trepirpexov

Ka/jL7ri]v vTToyeLov; €XiKa<; i^ereivev et? Svaeuperov

7r\dp7]v eKTTliTTOv. (2) "IhpVTO Be iv avrw ^arv-

pov TL a')(^rjp.a TSX^TjOev i/c XlOov. eiari^Kei, /xev

' eTTL TiPo^ Kp7]7rtBo<^ CLS xopeiav evrpeTTL^cov to

10 axrjiia Kal rf]^ Sefm? /SaVeco? top rapaov rov

OTTiaOeu e^aipwv /x6T6)(€ipL^eT0 Kal avXov Kal

77/909 Ti]v i)xh^ irpwro^ e^avifnaro' rfj /xev yap

aKofj yLteXo? ou irpoari'TTTev av\ovvro<; ovSe rjv

av\6<; €/ji(l)u>vo<;, to Be tmv avXovvTcov irddo^ Bia

15 T?}9 Tex^l^ ^t? TTiv ireTpav elaPjKTO. (3) EtS69 ai>

v7ravLaTa/jL€Pa<; Kal (^\e/3a9 ft)9 dv €k tivo<; yept^o-

/xeW9 rrvevpaTO<; Kal eU ti^v eiT)]X)-}aLV tov avXov

Tj-jv 7ri'0T]p ix aTepvwv top 'EaTvpop dpaairMPTa

^ Tlie statue here described corresponds to the "Satyr playing a flute" in the Villa Borghese (Brunn-Bruckman, Dcnlmahr gricch. it. rom. Sculptur, No. 435). It is quite possible that at one time this Satyr was set up with a statue of Pan embracing the nymph Echo, for it is well known that after tlie death of Alexander the (^reat, single statues of men and gods Mhich logically l)elonged together were set up together in gardens and public places. However, the question may be raised whether in this instance the nymph



There was a certain cave near Thebes in Egypt which resembled a shepherd's pipe, since as it followed its winding coarse in the depths of the earth it formed a natural spiral ; for it did not take a straight course at the opening and then branch off into straight-running corridors, but winding about under the mountain it made a huge spiral, ending in a most difficult maze. In it was set up an image of a Satyr wrought in marble. He stood on a base in the attitude of one making ready to dance, and lifting the sole of his right foot backward he not only held a flute in his hand but also was being the first to leap up at its sound ; though in reality the flute's note was not reaching the player's ear, nor yet was the flute endowed with voice, but the physical effect which flute-players ^^^- ^-•

experience had been transferred to the stone by the skill of the artist. You could have seen the veins standing out as though they were filled with a sort of breath, the Satyr drawing the air from his lungs

is reall}' ]i]cho. While in the myth Pan is said to have been disappointed in his love for Echo, here he is represented as enjoying the satisfaction of his love, and as eager to defend the nymph from the danger which the Satyr threatens. (Benndorf.) This statue (Fig. 32) is wrongly restored with cymbals.



Aral ivepyelv iOeXov to ecScoXov Kal et? aycoplav

20 rov \idov TriTTTOPra' elvai 'yap enreLde Kal irvorj^i e^ovGiav ev eavrw €/jL(f)VTOP Kal aad/iaTO<s €P- 422 K. BeL^LP iyeipo/ieprjp o'UoOep — Kal tmp d/jLrj^dpwp TTOpop. (4) OvK r}p Be d/SporrjTO'; fxerexop ro awfia, a\V ?; rcop /xeXwp areppoTT]'^ ttjp copap €K\€7rT€v et? dpOpayp crvfi/jLeTplap dpSpcKcop rrjv 6 iheap rpaxvpovaa. KaXfj /jl€p yap Kopr) ^ ^pcore^ fiaXOaKol 7rp6(T(popoi Kal pbiX-q OpvTrrojxeva, Xarvpov Be av')(fX7]pop to €lBo<; o)? dp opeiov Bal/jLOPO'^ Kal Aiopvaw aKipT(x)PTO<;, Kiaao^ Be avTOP eaTecpdpov ouk eK Xeifioypo^ Bpeyjra/iiepq^;

10 TOP KapTTOP T/}? T€X,vi]<;, dXX' 6 XlOo<; diro^ (tt€pp6t7)to<; 6t9 KX(x)pa<i ^u^ei? irepieOeL ttjp KO/jbTjv et<? avfx/BoXrjp eirl T0v<i av)(epiov^ TepoPTa^ eK fjLeTcoircjp irpoaepirwp. (5) YlapeiaTrjKeL Be 6 Yidp yapvfjiepo<^ Trj avXrjTLKy Kal epayKaXiad-

15 /jL€po^ Ti-jP 'H;(6o, coGirep oJ/iai SeStc<J9, /-ly TLpa <^66yyop e/jifiovaop 6 avXo<i Kipr)aa<^ dpT7]')(^€ip dpaireicrr} tw ^aTvpw t7]p Nv/jL(j)r]p. tovto OeaadfjLepoi to eiBcoXop Kal top A10l6it(dp XlOop e/jL(f)(opop yiefjiP0P0<; eiriaTevofiep yepeadai, 69

20 7rpoaLova')](; fiep T759 'H/ji€pa<; iirl Tat9 7rapov(TLai<; i(f)aiBpvpeTO, diriovari^; Be dvia l3aXX6fiepo<; irep- OifjLop eireaTepep Kal p.opo'^ eK XlOcop 7)Boprj<; Kal Xv7rr]<; irapovala BioiKov/iePO^; Ti]<i olKeia<^ direaTr} K(O(f)6Tr]T0<; 669 e^ovaiap <f)copi]<; ttjp dpataOrjalap

25 eKPiKrjaa<^.

^ Ka\r\ fiiv yap K6pri Weinberger : KaXr) fxfu yap K6pr]. 2 ttTrb Olearius : virh.

^ Cf. the elder Philostratus, mpra, p. 81, the description of Zephyrus.


to bring notes from the flute, the statue eager to be in action, and the stone entering upon strenuous activity — for it persuaded you that the power to blow the flute was actually inherent in it, and that the indication of breathing was the result of its own inner powers^ — finding a way to accomplish the impossible. 2 The body had no trace of delicacy, but the hardness of the members had stolen away their beauty, making the form rugged with the symmetry of manly limbs. For though soft skin and dainty limbs befit a beautiful girl, the appearance of a Satyr is unkempt, as of a mountain spirit that leaps in honour of Dionysus. The statue was wreathed with ivy, though the sculptor's art did not cull real berries from a meadow, nay, rather, it was the stone which for all its hardness spread out into sprays and encircled the hair, creeping back from the forehead till the ends met at the sinews of the neck. Pan stood beside him, delighting in the music of the flute and embracing Echo, in fear, I suppose, lest the flute set in motion some musical sound and induce the Nymph to make an echoing response to the Satyr. When we saw this statue we could well believe that the Ethiopian stone statue of Memnon ^ also became vocal, the Memnon, who when Day came was filled with joy by her presence, and, overcome by distress when she de- parted, groaned with grief — the only stone figure that has been moved by the presence of joy and sadness to depart from its natural dumbness, so far overcoming its insensibility as to gain the power of speech.

2 The text seems to be imperfect. The last phrase is proverbial ; cf. Aeschylus, Prom. 59, and infra, p. 433, 5 K. ^ Cf. supra, p. 31, and infra, p. 407.




(1) Ou 7T0U]T(x)V Kal XoyOTTOlMV fJLOVOV CTTl-

TTveovrat ^ rexvcii iwl raf; yXcorraf; eic dewv deiaa-fiou Trecroi/ro?, aWa Kal tmv BTjfiiovpycov at X^tpe? Oetorepcov TTvevfiaTwv ipdvoi<; \rj(^6el- 30 oaL Kdro)(a Kal ixeara fiavla^; irpo^rirevovaL ra TTonjpara' 6 yap Srj ^Koira^;, coanep €k TLVo<i eTTLTTPOiaf; KLV'i]Oel<i eh rrjv rod dydXfjLaTO^ hi-jiJLLovpyiav r-qv 6eo(^opiav ec^rjKev. ri he v/jllv K. 423 ovK dvwOev tov ivdovaiaa/jLov tt)? re^^i/?;? Snjyou/jLaL ;

(2) ' ]^v l3dKXV^ dyaX/jLa eK \lOov Uaplov TreiroLTJixevov aXkarrofievov 7rp6<; ttjv oWo)? PdK')(r]v. iv yap rfj oiKela rd^et fxevcov 6 \l6o<;

5 TOP ev XiOoi^ vofJLOV eK/Salveiv iSoKer to fiev yap (^aivopevov 6vTa><; yv etScoXov, rj Te;^^'>; 8' et? to ovTW^ ov diTr]yaye ttjv fXL/jLi]criv. elSe? av otl Kal aT€p€o^ o)v eh Tr)v tov ^>;X,eo9 eiKaaiav €fiaXdTT€T0 yopyoTTjTO^ Bi,opOov/jLevT)<i TO OrjXv 10 Kal eh i^ovaiav djjLOipMv Kivijaeco^; fjhei ^aK- y^eveadai Kal tw deep elaiovTi Ta evBov vtt^x^^- (3) YlpoaooTTov ye p^rjv 186vt€<; vtto d<^aaia<; eGTiifiev outco Bi] Kal aladi]ae(jo<^ avveiTTeTo

^ eVjTrveovToi Jacobs : irvfovrai.

^ The word means primarily to act as interpreter for the gods, and then to speak under divine inspiration.

2 Cf. Plato, riiaedr. 245a on the madness which inspires the poet. " The third kind is the madness of those Mho are possessed by the Muses ; which takes hold of a delicate and virgin soul, and this inspiring fren/y awakens lyrical and all other numbers ; with these adorning the myriad actions of




It is not the art of poets and writers of prose alone tliat is inspired when divine power from the gods falls on their tongues, nay, the hands of sculptors also, when they are seized by the gift of a more divine inspiration, give utterance ^ to creations that are possessed and full of madness.^ So Scopas,"^ moved as it were by some inspiration, imparted to the production of this statue the divine frenzy within him.* Wliy should I not describe to you from the beginning the inspiration of this work of art ?

A statue of a Bacchante, wrought from Parian marble, has been transformed into a real Bacchante. For the stone, while retaining its own nature, yet seemed to depart from the law which governs stone ; what one saw was really an image, but art carried imitation over into actual reality. You might have seen that, hard though it was, it became soft to the semblance of the feminine, its vigour, however, correcting the femininity, and that, though it had no power to move, it knew how to leap in Bacchic dance and would respond to the god when he entered into its inner being. When we saw the face we stood speechless ; so manifest upon

ancient heroes for the instruction of posterity." Trans. Jo wet t.

^ Scopas of Paros, the sculptor of passionate emotions, worked during the first half of the fourth century B.C.

  • Cf. Anth. Pal. IX. 774: "The Bacchante is of Parian

marble, but the sculptor gave life to the stone, and she springs up as if in a Bacchic fury. Scopas, thy god-creating art has produced a great marvel, a Thyad, the frenzied sla3-er of goats." Trans. Paton, L.C.L.



B)}\u)/j.a fjLT] TTapovarj^ ala6i'-)aew<;, Kal fiaK^Vi

15 iK/3aK)(€vo)v OeiacTfio^ ifii]vv6T0 Oeiadfiov firj

TrXyTTOvTO^; Kal oaa (pepet fiavia^ olarpMaa

'^vxh Tooavra irdOov^i SieXa/jLire TeKfiijpia viro

T?}? Teyin)<^ dpp7]T(p Xoyw Kpadevra. dveljo 8e

rj KOfirj ^€(j)vp(p cro/Selv Kal 6t? rpc^o^ dvOt^aiv

20 v'JTea)(i^ero, o Brj Kal pLoXiara rov Xoyiafiov

vTrelcaTT], on, Kal rpiybf; XeTrrorrjTL Xt^o? cov

eireiOeTO Kal irXoKcip^cov virrjKovaev iiifnj/jLacnv

Kal Tr]<; fwrf/c/)? efeco? yeyv/ivco/ievo^ to ^cdtlkov

€i')(^ev. (4) "E^?;? av on Kal av^rjaew^ d(pop/jid<;

25 r) riyi^T} avvijyayev oi/tco? Kal to opcopievov


ciXXa Kal ')(elpa<^ ivepyov<; eTreheiKVVTO — ov yap TOP l3aK)(^LK6v eTLvaaae Ovpaov, ciXXd tl a^dyiov 6<p€pev Marrep evd^ovaa, 7riKpoTepa<^ p,avLa<; (7vp./3o-

30 Xov TO Se rjv ')(^ip,aipa<; tl TcXdapa ireXihvov Tr)v y^poav Kal yap to Tedv7]Ko<; 6 Xl6o<; vireSveTO — Kal fJLLav ovaav t^i^ vXr]v eh OavdTOV Kal ^(07]<; hirjpei pLLfir)(TLv, ttjv pLev epurvovv CTrjaaaa Kal olov opeyopLevrfv Ki6aLpa)vo<;, ttjv Be €K tov

35 fiaK)(iKov OavaTwOelaav ol'aTpov Kal twv alaOi]- 424 aecdv diropiapaivovaav ti-jv dKpLi]v. (5) 'O pikv ovv ^KOTTa^; Kal Td<; dyjnj-yov^ elSwXoTTOtcov yeveaeL<i hijpiovpyo^ dXT]Oeia<i rjv Kal Toh acop-aai tt)? vX7]<i ^ direTUTTOvTO to, 6avpLaTa, 6 Be to, ev 5 XoyoL^ BiairXaTTCov A7]pLoa66VT]<; dydXpaTa puK- pov Kal Xoycov ehet^ev elBa alaOrjTov toZ? vov

^ Jacobs would emend i/Atj? to »//ux^?'

^ Cf. Eur. Baccli. 32 f.: (forprja iyd) fiavLais. Dionysus says, "I goaded them with madness. . . ."



it was the evidence of sense perception^ though perception was not present ; so clear an intimation was given of a Bacchante's divine possession stirring Bacchic frenzy though no such possession aroused it ; and so strikingly there shone from it, fashioned by art in a manner not to be described, all the signs of passion which a soul goaded by madness ^ displays. The hair fell free to be tossed by the wind and was divided to show the glory of each strand, which thing indeed most transcended reason, seeing that, stone though the material was, it lent itself to the lightness of hair and yielded to imitation of locks of hair, and though void of the faculty of life, it nevertheless had vitality. Indeed you might say that art has brought to its aid the impulses of growing life, so unbelievable is what you see, so visible is what you do not believe. Nay, it actually showed hands in motion — for it was not waving the Bacchic thyrsus, but it carried a victim as if it were uttering the Evian cry, the token of a more poignant madness ; and the figure of the kid was livid in colour,^ for the stone assumed the appearance of dead flesh ; and though the material was one and the same it severally imitated life and death, for it made one part instinct with life and as though eager for Cithaeron, and another part brought to death by Bacchic frenzy, its keen senses withered away. Thus Scopas fashioning creatures without life was an artificer of truth and imprinted miracles on bodies made of inanimate matter ; while Demosthenes, fashioning images in words, almost made visible a form of words by mingling the medicaments of art

2 Cf. Anth. Pal. IX. 774, p. 381, supra.



Kal (ppoi>7]aea)(; y€PV7]/jLaaL avyKepavvv^ ra tT;? T^X^V^ (j^cipfJLaKa. Kal yvGoaecrde Be avriKa, o)? ovhe rr)<^ otKoOev Kivy]aeQ)<; eareptfTaL to et? 10 Oewpiav irpoKeiiievov ayaX/ia, aWa Kal 6/iov heairo^ei Kal iv tm x^paKTijpi crw^ei top yevv)]Topa.


(1) Kat eTepa<^ iepci<; Te)(yr]<^ ol XoyoL 7Tpo(l)yj- revorai /SovXovrar ou yap fxoL Oe/JLirov firj KaXelv

15 lepa TO, Te^i^V^ yewi^fiaTa. "E/3&)9 rjv, lipa^i- T€Xov<; Te)(yiifxa, 6 "Epa)9 avro^;, iraU di'Oi]po<; Kal vio<; Trre/juya? exo)^ f^ctl ro^a. x^^^^'^ ^^ avrbv irvirov, Kal co? av "Epcora tuttcov Tvpavvov Oeov Kal piiyav Kal avro^ ihwaareveTO' ov yap

20 rjveLX^TO %aX/co9 elvai ra Trdvia, dW 6ao<; rjv, "Ep&)9 eyiveTO. (2) ElSe9 dv top x^^^^v 6pv- TTTOfievov Kal et9 evaapKiav d/ji7]xdv(o<; xXihoivra Kal 0)9 ^paxeco^i elirelv rd dvayKala irXrjpovv eavrf) rrjv v\y]v dpKovaav. vypb<; /lev rjv d/jLOL-

25 pMv ixa\aK6TqT0<^} x^^^V ^^ ^X^^ avvwhov rr]V

^ fiaXaKoT-qTos Jacobs : (.LcyaKoTriTO's.

^ i.e. the power of movement native to a Bacchante.

- " Keeps alive its own creator," i.e. its life, bestowed by the sculptor, is a continuation of the life of the latter; is "master" of its creator, in that it is divine, wiiile he was human.

^ Since Mhat is said of the dress and attitude of this figure agrees with the manner of Praxiteles, there appears no reason to doubt the statement of Callistratus that it is the work of that sculfitor. Compare the Eros from tlie Chigi Collection, now in Dresden (Clarao, Mus. de .fculpt. PI. 645, No. 14(37 ;


with the creations of mind and intelligence. You will recognize at once that the image set up to be gazed at has not been deprived of its native power of movement ^ ; nay, that it at the same time is master of and by its outward configuration keeps alive its own creator.^


My discourse desires to interpret another sacred work of art; for it is not right for me to refuse to call the productions of art sacred. The Eros, the workmanship of Praxiteles/ was Eros himself, a boy in the bloom of youth with wings and bow. Bronze gave expression to him, and as though giving expression to Eros as a great and dominating god, it was itself subdued by Eros ; for it could not endure to be just bronze, but it became Eros with all his greatness. You might have seen the bronze losing its hardness and becoming marvellously delicate in the direction of plumpness and, to put the matter briefly, the material proving equal to fulfilling all the obligations that were laid upon it. It was supple but without effeminacy ; and while it had the proper colour of bronze, it looked

Michaelis, Arch. Zeit., 1879, p. 173, PI XIV. 6), in which, however, the right hip is thrown out (cf. 425, 2 K) ; also the Eros from the Palatine now in the Louvre, Fig. .33, p. 387 (Frohner, Notice de la sculpt, ant., p. 311, No. 325; Furt- wiingler, Roscher's Lex. d. griech. u. r'oin. Mifth. I. 1360 f. ), in which the left arm with the bow is not raised — but /iercojpi^ctjv (425, 1 K.) does not necessarily mean "raised." (Benndorf. )

  • Praxiteles of Athens, probably son of the sculptor

Cephisodotus ; his artistic activity falls about the middle of the fourth century B.C.




y^poav evavO)]'^ ecopcno, tmv Se Kiv)ja€co'; epywv €crT€p7]fi6i'0^ €ro{po<; i]v Sel^ai Kiviiaiv eh p-ev yap ehpav ardaipiov 7SpvTo, iiTrdra he co^ kol Tr}<; p^erecopou Kvpteixov (f)opd<;. eyai'povro Se et?

30 yeXcora, e/iirvpoi' tl Kal p,eiXi)(ov e^ opiparwv Biavyd^cov, Kal rjv Ihelv VTraKOvovra rep irdOei rov y^akKov kol Be)(6/jL€Vov eu^roXo)? ti]V yeXcoro'^ pipbi^aLv. (3) "\hpvTO he et? p.ev t)]V Kopv(py]i> tov 425 he^iov iirLKdp.TnMv Kapirov, Trj he erepa pLereo}- pi^cov TO To^ov Kal TT]V T?}? ^acr6ft)? laoppoiriav eiTiKXivcDv eirl rd Xaid, Tip> yap r/}^ dpcarepaf; Xayovo^ eKtnaaiv dviarrj 7rp6<i ti-jv evp^apoTrjra o TOV ')(aXKOv TO (TTeyavov eKK\daa<;. (4) IlXo- KapLOL he avTOv ti]v Ke(f)a\^]v eaKia^ov dvOrjpol Kal evovXoL veoTi']aiuv v7ro\dp,7rovT6<i dv6o<;. Kal i^v 6avpLaaT0<; olo<=; 6 ;^aX/co9* IhovTL piev yap epev6o<^ direaTLX^ev i^ aKpcov ^o(JTpv)(wi' alpo-

10 pLevov, d\j/apLevrp he i) 6pl^ vTre^aviaTaTO p.a\Oa- KLt,opevii irpo^ T)]v al'aOtjaii^. (5) 'Eyuol pter hr] 6eaorapev(p tyjv Tey^in-jv eiryjei TriaTeveiv, otl Kal Xopov i]aK))(Te KivovpLevov Aaiha\o<; Kal ^pvacp Trapel^ev alaO/jaei^, ottov Kal HpaffreX?;? eZ?

15 Ty]v ecKora tov EpcoTO<; ei>e6qKe piKpov Kal voyjpaTa Kai iTTepvyt tov depa Tepiveiv epn^-x^avi']- aaTO.



bright and fresh ; and though it was quite devoid of actual motion, it was ready to display motion ; for it was fixed solidly on a pedestal, it deceived one into thinking that it possessed the power to fly. It Avas filled with joy even to laughter^ the glance from the eyes was ardent and gentle, and one could see the bronze coming under the sway of passion and willingly re- ceiving the representation of laughter. It stood with right hand bent toward the head and lifting the bow with its left; and the even balance of the body's posture was modified by an inclination toward the left^ for the projecting left hip was raised so as to break the stiff- ness of the bronze and produce an easy pose. The head was shaded by locks that were bright and curly and shining with the brightness of youth. And what wonderful bronze it was I for as one looked a ruddy colour shone out from the ends of the curls, and when one felt the hair it yielded as though soft to the touch. As 1 gazed on this work of art, the belief came over me that Daedalus ^ had indeed wrought a dancing group in motion and had be- stowed sensation upon gold, while Praxiteles had all but put intelligence into his image of Eros and had so contrived that it should cleave the air with its wings.

^ Cf. p. .341, buyra, for the dancing group of Daedalus.

Fig. 33.

cc 2




(1) Uapa Kpi]viiv \vho<; elaTi]KeL avdOij/jLa raU ^v/icf)ai<; IhpvOei^, i]v he 6 ^lvho<i \l6o^ jieXaLvo-

20 fievo<^ Kal rrpo^ ttjv €K (j)vae(o<; tou yivov; avro- p,o\cov xpoa^, ^Ix^ ^^ evOaXr) fisv Kal ovXrjv Trjv XCtiTijv ovK d/cpdro) rfo fieXavi Xcip^irovaav, dXX^ €K T(x3v dvpcov 7r/309 KoxXov Tf/Oia? dvOo^ epl^ov' aav olov yap eviraOovcra Kal voTL^o/jL€vr) raU

25 TTpoaoiKOL^ Ni>fi(pai<; y) Opl^ €k pL^MV dviouaa peXdvT€po<^ 7r/3o? Tol<i uKpoi^; irropcfivpev. (2) '0(f)6aX/jL0L ye jjltjv ov avvfjhov rw XlOw, Kara yap ra? Tcov o/jL/jbdrwv K6pa<; TrepUOei X€vk6t7]<; Kar e/celvo TO /x€po<; tj)? rrerpa^ fieraTrnTTOvaT]'^ 66?

30 XevKOTTjra, KaO' o Kal r/}? rov 'Ir8o0 (f)vaea)<; i) Xpoa XevKaiverai. (3) ^leOr) Be avrovi^iarr] Kal TO iiep^eOvapevov ov KaTep,yjvva€v i) rov Xidov K. 426 XP^^ — ^^ y^P V^ avT(p fij]xdp7]pa rat; Trapeid^ (^OLvl^ai (TKeTTOvro<^ rov /xeXavo^ rrjp fieO^iv — , eV ^e Tov ax^'^p^CLTO^ Ka-ri^yopei to 7rdOo<;' 7rapdcf)op6<i T€ yap Kal Kwp^dt^wv €i(TT7]K€t ov hvvdpevo^ 5 ipeiSet-v ro) TroSe, dXX vrroTpop.6^ re Kal vtto ^ TJ]v yf]v OKXd^cov. (4) '0 8e Xt^o<? utto tov 7rd6ov<i efjdKei irXi^yevTi Kal olovel aiTaipei tov diro t?}? p,eOr]<; ipcpavi^wi' aecafMov. eZ;^e Be d^pov ovBev TOV ^IvBov TO eiBcoXov ovS* eh ttjp KaTO, xP^^^

10 e^i](JKi)TO x^P'^^i aXX' eh /jlovcop tmv p,eXcov ^ Text corrupt. Reisch suggests virh ttjs juedr}?.

^ In the eastern campaigns of Alexander the Great certain orgiastic cults in India were identified with the worship of Dionysus ; the names of Dionysiac legend were applied to them, statues of the Indian Dionysus were erected, and 38S



By a spring stood an Indian^ set up as a dedica- tion to the Nymphs. The Indian was of a marble verging on black and shifting of its own accord to the colour given by nature to his race ; and it had thick, woolly hair, shining wdth a hue not exactly black, ^ but at the tips vying with the brilliancy of Tyrian shellfish ; ^ for the hair, as if it w^ere well cared for and moistened by the neighbouring Nymphs, was rather black where it rose from the roots but grew purple near the tips. The eyes, however, w^ere not of a colour to match the marble ; for whiteness encircled the pupils of the eyes, since the marble changed to whiteness at that point where the natural colour of the Indian becomes white. Drunkenness was overcoming him, and yet the colour of the marble did not betray his drunken- ness — for the artist had no means by which to redden the cheeks, the black colour being proof against this effect of drink — but this condition was indicated by the attitude ; for he stood reeling and jovial, not able to plant his feet steadily, but tremb- ling and tending to sag to the ground. The marble resembled a man overcome by this condition, and it all but quivers as it indicates the trembling that comes from drunkenness. There was nothing delicate about the statue of the Indian, nor yet was it carefully wrought to match the charm of its colour, but it was perfected only as regards the composition

stories were told of the visit of Dionysus to India with the train of his foUowers. Cf. the visit of A poUonius to one of these shrines of Dionysus in India, Philostr. Fit. Apollon. 11.8.

^ Cf. the description of Memnon, p. 31, s^ipra.

^ i.e. Tyrian purple, made from the murex.



avfj,l3o\7]i> BiijpOproTo. aa/<€7r)]^ St i)v KalyvfjLvo<; u}<; ai> TMV 'IvSlkwu (TcofjidTCOV irpo^ to t/}? dKfir]<; (pXoywSe^ elcodoTcoi' oLTravSpt^eadai,


(1) "AXcro? yv Kol iv avTw /cp7]V)] 7rdyKa\o<;

15 eK jidXa /caOapov re koI Siavyov<^ v8aT0<;, €L(TT)J- K6i Be eV avrfj NdpKiaao<; €k \l6ov 7T€7TOLr]fi€vo<;. TTol^i rjv, fidWov he r]i6eo<^, i)\LKid>Tri<; 'Epcorwv, dcTpairi^v olov i^ avrov rod aw/iaro'^ diroXdpnTwv KuWovs. r)V he Toiovhe to <j')(rjiJia' KOfiaL's eiTi-

20 )(pvaoL<; i]aTpaiTT€v KUTci fiev to fxeTOdTrov rr)? TpL')(h^ eXLaao/jLem]^ 6t9 kvkXov, KUTa he top av)(^era Ke)(u/xei'ri<; ei9 voiTa, e^Xeire he ovk dicpdT(jd<i yavpov ovhe iXapov Kadapoi^i' e7ri7re(j)v- Kei yap iv tol<; ofifxaaiv Ik, ty]^ re^i'?;? Ka\ Xvini,

25 'iva fjueTa rod KapKiaaov kol Tr]V TV)(riv rj eLKOiV fxipLrjTai. (2; "[^laTaXTo he wairep oi "Epcore?, oh KOL T?}9 (opa<; Ti]v uK/xijv TrpoaeiKaoTo. a')(^r}iJLa he r)v TO Koa/jLovp TOiovhe' TreTrXo? XevKav6r]<^ 6/jl6xpco<; TO) GcofxaTi tov Xidov irepiOewv eh

30 kvkXov, KUTci TOV he^iov w/iov irepovyOeh virep yovv KaTa^aivcov eiraveTO /xovrjv drro tov TropTn]- yLtaro? eXevdepcbv Tyjv ')(^eLpa. ovto) he r)v diraXo'^

K. Kal TTyoo? TreirXov yeyovu)^; /xL/jiijaLV, o)? kuI ti-jv

^ The statue of Narcissus in tlie Vatican, Fig. 34(Helbig, Fiihrcrdurrhdie Ant.-Samml. Rums, 2, 18), inscribed with the name of Fhaedinuis agrees in ahnost all respects with this description; cf. Welcker, Narcissits, p. 38 f. (Benndorf.) Tiiis interpretation of the statue of Narcissus has been disputed (cf. Greve, in Roscher, Ler. d. grirch. n.rom. Myth. III. 19). The cloak on the left shoulder is the usual garment of an Jmos.


of its limbs. It was unclothed and nude, on the ground that tlie bodies of Indians are wont to endure manfully the fiery heat of the midday sun.


There was a grove, and in it an exceedingly beautiful spring of very pure clear water, and by this stood a Narcissus made of marble. He was a boy, or rather a youth, of the same age as the Erotes ; and he gave out as it were a radiance of lig-htning from the very beauty of his body. The appearance of the statue was as follows : — It was shining with gilded hair, of which the locks encircled the forehead in a curve and hung free down the neck to the back ; and its glance did not express unmixed exultation nor yet pure joy, for in the nature of the eyes art had put an indication of grief, that the image might repre- sent not only both Narcissus but also his fate. He was clothed like the Erotes, and he resembled them also in that he was in the prime of youth. The garb which adorned him was as follows: a white mantle, of the same colour as tiie marble of which he was made, en- circled him ; it was held by a clasp on the right shoulder and reached down nearly to the knees, where it ended, leaving free, from the clasp down, only the hand. Moreover, it was so delicate and imitated a mantle so closely that the colour of the


Fig. 34.


Tou (Ta)/j,aTO<; hLaKajjuTeiv 'y^poav r/}? Iv rfj irepi- l3o\rj X€vk6t7]to<; ^ rrjv iv rol^ /jueXeaiv avyrjv e^Levai avyx^P^^^V^' (^) "^(^tt] 5e KaOdirep 5 Karorrrpfp rfj Trrjyij ^^co/xei'o? Kal 6l<s avrrjv irepi^^eoiv rov irpoaoiirov to elSo^, i) he Tov<i air avToi) hexo/J-evt] x^paKT7Jpa<; tjjv avTrjv elScoXo- TTOilav i]vv6v, 0)9 hoKelv ak\i]\ais avTicf)i\oTip€C- aOai ra? ^vaei<;. rj jiev yap \lOo<; oXt] tt/oo?

10 eKelvov jJLerrfkXaTTeTo rov oVrco? TralSa, rj he TTTjyr] 7r/309 ra iv rfj XiOcp /jir])(^av7]/xaTa t^? T€XV7](; dvTr]ycovL^€To iv dawficirw a^7]/jLaTL rrjv ix aoofxaTO^ aTTepya^o/jLevrj rov irapaheiyixaTO^ ofjLOLOTrjTa Kal rw iK r?]<i el/covo^i Karep^opevw

15 dKidafiari, olov tivci adpKa rrjv rov vSaTO<: (pucriv Trepidelaa. (4) Ovrco he r)v ^cotikov kul e/jLTTVOVV TO Ka6* vhdTcov a')(rjiia, co? avTov elvai ho^dcrat crov l^dp/ciaaov, ov iirl Trtiyrjv iXOovTa tT;? ixopc^rj^ avTfo Kad' vhaTwv 6(f)0eLaTj<; irapd

20 Nv/jL(pat<; TeXevT fjaai \eyovaiv ipaaOevra T(p elhd>\(p avfific^ai Kal vvv iv Xei/dcoat i^avTu^eaOai iv r)pivat<i copaL<; dvOovvTa. elhe'^ 3' dv &)? eh cov 6 \l6o<; Trjv %/Ooaz^ Kal o/jL/bLaTcov KaTaaKevj]v Tjp/io^e Kal 7]0(bp laTOpiav eacp^ev Kal alaOrjaei^

25 iveheiKVVTO Kal ttuOi] iiJii]vvev Kal irpb^ Tpi)(copaTO<; i^ovaiav i)Ko\ov6eL et? ti]v Tpiyh<; Ka/jL7ri]v Xvo- /jievo^. (5) To he ovhe Xoyco ptjTov Xt^o? els vypo- T7]Ta KexciXaafievo<; Kal ivavTiov GMjxa tjj ovaia Trapexop^evc;' aTepecoTcpa^ yap reru^T/Arft)? ^ixrecof;

30 Tpv(f)ep6T7]T0<; dTreareWev acadi]aiv 6i? dpaiov

^ Jacobs would emend to AeTTTc^Trjros ; Welcker compares the elder Phil., Inutg. 352, 27 K.



body shone through, tlie whiteness of the drapery permitting the gleam of the limbs to come out. He stood using the spring as a mirror and pouring into it the beauty of his face, and the spring, receiving the lineaments which came from him, reproduced so perfectly the same image that the two beings seemed to emulate each other. For whereas the marble was in every part trying to change the real boyi so as to match the one in the water, the spring was struggling to match the skilful efforts of art in the marble, reproducing in an incorporeal medium the likeness of the corporeal model and enveloping the reflection which came from the statue with the substance of water as though it were the substance of flesh. And indeed the form in the water was so instinct with life and breath that it seemed to be Narcissus himself, who, as the story goes, came to the spring, and when his form was seen by him in the water he died among the water-nymphs, because he desired to embrace his own image, and now he appears as a flower in the meadows in the spring-time. You could have seen how the marble, uniform though it was in colour, adapted itself to the expression of his eyes, pre- served the record of his character, showed the perception of his senses, indicated his emotions and conformed itself to the abundance of his hair as it relaxed to make the curls of his locks. Indeed, words cannot describe how the marble softened into suppleness and provided a body at variance with its own essence ; for though its own nature is very hard, it yielded a sensation of softness, being dis-

^ i.e. The statue of the boy.



TWa (7(i)/jLaT0<; OJKOV Sia^(€6/jL6l'0<s. /.l€T€)(€ipi^6T0

Be Kal avpi'^/ya, //9 vofiioi^ Oeoh 6Kelvo<; d7rj]p^€T0, Kal ryjv ipi^ixiav KaTi]')(^eL tol<=; fxeKeaiv, eiTrore /jiovaLKOL<; yjraXT7]pioL<; Trpoao/jLiXfjaai TroOtjcreiev. 428 K. TOVTOV Oav/jidaa<;, o) veoi, rov Sdp/CLaaov kuI el<; v/jid<; 7rap/]yayov 6t? Moucrcor avXi]V d-Korvirwad- /ji€vo<;. €^^L Se 6 X6yo<;, co? Kal i) ^Ikojv €l^(^€v?-


(1) 'E^eXco he goi kcli to KvaiiTTTOv ZiijJLiovp-

5 yi)p^a Tw Xojfp TTapaaTpjaat, oirep dyaX/idrcov

KdXXtajov 6 S7]/jLLOVpyo^ T€)(V)]ad/ji€Po<; '^LKvwvioi'i

eU Oeav irpovOy^Ke' Katpo^ rjv et? dyaX/jia rerv-

^ The last sentence, omitted by FP, is ver}' likeh' a marginal gloss.

^ The syrinx or shepherd's pipe is a series of tubes of different length, fastened together side by side, to produce the difl'erent notes.

- Cf. Anth. t'al. XVI. 275, on the statue of Opportunity (Time) by Lysippus : "Why dost thou stand on tiptoe? I am ever running. And why hast thou a pair of wings on thy feet? I fly with the wind. And why dost tliou hold a razor in thy right hand ? As a sign to man that I am sharper than any sharp edge. And why does thy liair hang over thy face? For hiin who meets me to take nie by the forelock. And wliy in Heaven's name is the back of thy head bald ? Because none wliom I have raced b}' . . . will take hold of me from behind." Trans. Paton, L.C.L.



solved into a sort of porous matter. The image was holding a syrinx/ the instrument with which Narcissus was wont to offer music to the gods of the flockj and he would make the desert echo with his songs whenever he desired to hold converse with stringed musical instruments. In admiration of this Narcissus, O youths, I have fashioned an image of him and brought it before you also in the halls of the Muses. And the description is such as to agree with the statue.


I desire to set before you in words the creation of Lysippus '^ also, the most beautiful of statues, which the artist wrought and set up for the Sicyonians to look upon. Opportunity was re})re-

This statue is to be understood, not as pure allegory, bat as representing one of the mythical beings created in the classical age of Greek thought. The accounts of the god and this statue vary greatly, but the common elements in the accounts which may be conceived as belonging to a statue indicate that the type was developed out of the form of the Hermes who granted victory in athletic contests. Probably Lysippus represented him as a youth, presum- abl}' witli winged feet, possibly with hair long in front and short behind to indicate that opportunity cannot be grasped when it is past, and perhaps wath a razor (or a pair of scales balanced on a sharp edge) in his hand to suggest that success is balanced on a razor's edge. Cf. Benndorf, Arch. Zeit. XXI. 87 f., and Curtius, Arch. Zeit. XXXIII. 33 f., PL L 2 ; infra, p. 397, fig. 35.

^ Lysippus, head of the Sicyonian school of sculptors, was a prolific sculptor of statues in bronze during the middle and latter part of the fourth century B.C.



TTcofxevo^ €K ^aXKov TT^o? Ty]P (f)vaiv afiiWcofiePT]^ tT/s" rexi'V^' Tral^; Se rjv 6 Kaipo<; rj^ow eK

10 K€(f)a\7]<; e? 7r68a<; eiravOoov ro Tf/? 7//9?y«? av6o<;. ijv Se rifv fxev oyjrLV copalo'^ aelcjv ^ lovXov, koI ^€(f)vp(p Tivdaaeiv 7rp6<; o ^ovXolto KaraXcTrcov TTji' KOfjiijv averovy rijv Se ^(poav ely^ei' dvdrjpav rff XapLTTySuvL rod aoi)fxaTO<^ rd civdr] SjjXmv. (2)

15 'II^' Be Aiovvaq) Kara to irXelaTOv e/x(f)€pyj^' rd /lev yap fxeTwira y^dpiaiv eaTiXfBev, al irapeLol he avTov ei? dv6o^ ipevOofxevai veorrjaiov oopai^ovTO iiTi^dXXovaai roi<; 6/u,/jLaaiv diraXov epvOrjixa. eiar/jfcei Se eirl tlvg^ (T(paLpa<; eV

20 ctKpcov TMV rapacov ^e^ijKco^; iiTTepwpLevo^i roi TToSe. e7r€(pvKei Be ov vevo/xia/ieva'x; t) Opi^, tlAV 7] [xev KOjJLi-} Kara rcov ocfipvcov i'(f)ep7rovaa rat? 7rap€iac<; eireaeie rov /36aTpv)(ov, rd Be oiriadev Tjv Tov K^aipov irXoKUfjicov eXevOepa /i6v7]v ti-jv ck

25 yeveaew^ /3Xd(JT)]v eTricpaivopTa t?)? rpi'^o's. (3) 'llixel^i pAv ovv dfpaala 7TXy]yevTe(; tt/Oo? tt]v Oeav elar/jKeipev tov ')(^aXKov opodVTe^ epya ^vae(o<; /iy)(^av(i)/u,€V0v Kal Trj<; olfceia<; eK/3(iLvovTa rafeo)?* ')(^a\/co<; p.€V ydp mv ypvOpai'vero, cr/cX7;^o? Se cov

30 T}]v (f)vaiv Biex^LTO fiaXuKM^; cI'kcov ttj Tey^yy

7rpo<; ^ovXoLTO, airavL^wv Be alaOijaew^ fwrt-

Krj<^ evoiKov e^eiv eTTKJTovTO Tr]v aiadfjaiv, Kal

429 K. oVtw? eaTtjpiKTO TTuyiov tov Tapaov ipeiaa^,

^ Jacobs (T-niipoov ; but cf. Philostr. /mrr^. 370, 15 K. and Eur. Cijd. 75.


sented in a statue of bronze^, in which art vied with nature. Opportunity was a youth, from head to foot resplendent with the bloom of youth. He was beautiful to look upon as he waved his downy beard and left his hair unconfined for the south wind to toss wherever it would ; and he had a blooming complexion, showing by its brilliancy the bloom of his body. He closely resembled Dionysus ; for liis forehead glistened with graces, and his cheeks, reddening to youthful bloom, were radiantly beautiful, con- veying to the beholder's eye a delicate blush. And he stood poised on the tips of his toes on a sphere, and his feet were winged. His hair did not grow in the customary way, but its locks, creeping down over the eyebrows, let the curl fall upon his ^^^- ^^^

cheeks, while the back of the head of Opportunity was without tresses, showing only the first indications of sprouting hair. We stood speechless at the sight when we saw the bronze accomplishing the deeds of nature and departing from its own proper province. For though it was bronze it blushed ; and though it was hard by nature, it melted into softness, yielding to all the purposes of art ; and though it was void of living sensation, it inspired the belief that it had sensation dwelling within it ; and it really was stationary, resting its foot firmly on the ground, but though it was standing, it nevertheless gave



ecTTco'; Be op/iy]'^ e^ovaiav ey^eiv ehe'iKvvTO Kai aoL

Tov 6(f)6a\/jLOV 7]7rdTa, co? kuI tt}? et? to irpoaw

Kvpievcov (popa^ kqI irapa tov 8)]/jiiovpyov Xa^cov

5 Kal Tr]v aepLOv Xfj^ip^ re/iveiv, el /SovXolto, rah


(4) Kal TO [lev i)/j,LV Oavjia tolovtov rjv, €l<i Se Ti<; TMV irepl ra? Te)(^i'a<^ ao^cov, koI elSoTcov avv aladi](J6i Te^viKcoTepa to, tCov hiiptovpywi' ai't)(^-

10 veveiv OavfiaTa, Kal XoyiapLov eTrPfye^ tw Teyin')- fiaTi, Tijv TOV Katpov hvvafiLv ev tyj Te')(yr] aw^o- /iievijv €^r]yov/j,6i'o<;' to p-ev yap iTTepwfia tCov TapaCov alvLTTeaOai t)]v o^vTrjTa, Kal &)<» ^ tov iToXvv civeXiTTcov alcova cfiepeTai- rat? copai<;

15 €7TO)(ovp.€VO<;, Ti]v Se iiravOovaav wpav, otl ttciv evKaipov TO copalov Kal p,6vo<; kuXXov; Bij/jbtovpyo^ 6 KaLp6<;, TO Be a7n]v07)Ko<i airav e^o) T'/js" Katpov (fivaeo)^, Ti-jV he KaTa tov pLerdyirov ko/jL7]v, otl irpoaiovTo^ avTOv Xa/SeaOai poiSior, irapeX-

20 66vTO<^ he vj TMV TTpayp^uTcov aKp.)] avve^ep)(^€Tai Kal ouK ecTTLV oXiywprjdevTa Xa/Secv top Kaipov.

^ Abrcsch Xrji^LV : ir\rj^Ly.

2 €7^776 A and Jacobs : eViiSe the other MSS.

^ ws Olearius : u).


evidence of possessing tlie power of rapid motion ; and it deceived your eyes into thinking that it not only was capable of advancing forward, but that it had received from the artist even the power to cleave with its wings, if it so wished, the aerial domain.

Such was the marvel, as it seemed to us ; but a man who was skilled in the arts and who, with a deeper perception of art, knew how to track down the marvels of craftsmen, applied reasoning to the artist's creation, explaining the significance of Opportunity as faitlifully portrayed in the statue : the wings on his feet, he told us, suggested his swiftness, and that, borne by the seasons, he goes rolling on through all eternity ; and as to his youthful beauty, that beauty is always opportune and that Opportunity is the only artificer of beauty,^ whereas that of which the beauty has withered has no part in the nature of Opportunity ; he also explained that the lock of hair on his forehead indicated that while he is easy to catch as he approaches, yet, when he has once passed by, the moment for action has likewise expired, and that, if opportunity has been neglected, it cannot be recovered.

^ i.e. beauty is alwa3^s in season and seasonableness is the only artificer of beauty. Cf.

"Gather ye rose-buds while ye may, Old Time is still a-flying." Herrick, To the Virgins to make much of Time.

•'Let us crown ourselves with rose-buds, before they be withered."

Wisdom of Solomon, 2. 8.




(1) *Ei^ 7(0 'EXlkojpi, Te'yuei'O? 3e tmv Movacov (TKiepov ^OJyOO?, TTapo, Tov<; ^OXfieiov tov ttotu- fiov puuKa^ Kal rtjv loeiSea Ilrjydaov Kpi]vi)v 'Op(f)60)<^ ayaXfia tov ttj? KaWtovr?;? irapa ra<;

25 Moucra? €iart]KeL ISelv fxev KaWiarov' 6 yap ^a\/co9 Tjj r€)(vrj avvairerLKTe to KdWo<^ rfj^ TOV a(i)/jiaT0<; dyXaia to piOvaiKov iTria^j/iaLvcov TTJ? ipv)(^rj<^. €/c6a/jLeL Se avTov Tidpa HepaiKT] ')(pvau) KaTaaTLKTc; drro Kopv(f)'fj<; et? vyjro'; dv-

30 kyovaa^ -yiTiov Be i^ cofxcov d7ray6p-€vo<; et? TToSa? TeXa/xMi'i )(^pva€M kutcl aTepvwv 6a(f>iyy6T0. (2) 430 K. KoyLt>/ Se oi/TO)? i]v 6vavdr]<; Kal ^(otlkov einar)- fiaivovaa koI e/jLirvovv, co? diraTciv ti]V acaOtjaiv, OTL Kal iTpo^ Td<; ^6(f)vpov 7Tvod(; aeiopevr] hovelTai — 7] p,ev yap e'TTav')(^e.vL0^ /caTa vcotov ;^L'^6Zo-a, tj

5 Be Tal<^ 6(f)pvaip dvcoOev hicj-^^Lhii^ eTTL^aivovaa ^ Kadapd<i TMV ofxpdTWV ec^auve Td<; /3oXd<^. to irehiXov he avTcp ^avOoTUTw ■)(pvo'(p KaT)jv6i(TT0 Kal TTCTrXo? d(f)€T0<; KaTO, vcotov et? acpvpov KaTrjei, fieTex^ipl^eTo Be ti]V Xvpav, -q he laapid-

10 //.Of? rat? ^\.ovaai<; e^rjiTTO tou9 <^d6yyov<;' o yap XaXKo<; Kal v€vpd<; vireKpiveTO Kal 7rpo<; tijv €KdaT0v pbip,i)(jLv dXXaTTopevo'; 7reiOyvL(o<; vtti]- yeTO fiLKpov Kal Trpo<^ avTi]v Trjv riX'W "^^^ (j)66yy(ov <^(ov>]eL<i yev6p.evo<^. (3) 'Ttto he tmv

15 TTohcbv TTjv jBdcTLV ovK ovpavo'^ Tjv TV7r(oOel<; ovhe nXetaSe? tov aWepa Tefivovaai ovhe "ApKTOv

^ Se after rfj deleted by Jacobs. ^ iTri^aivou(ra Jacobs : i-mcpaivovcra.




On Helicon^ — the spot is a shaded precinct sacred to the Muses — near the torrent of the river Ohneius and the violet-dark spring of Pegasus, there stood beside the Muses a statue of Orpheus, the son of Calliope, a statue most beautiful to look upon. For the bronze joined with art to give birth to beauty, indicating by the splendour of the body the musical nature of the soul. It was adorned by a Persian tiara - spangled with gold and rising high up from the head, and a chiton hanging from the shoulders to the feet was confined at the breast by a golden belt. The hair was so luxuriant and so instinct with the spirit of life as to deceive the senses into thinking it was being tossed and shaken by gusts of wind — for the hair behind on the neck fell free down the back, while the parted hair which lay above the eyebrows gave full view of the pure glance of the eyes. The sandal shone brightly with the yellowest of gold, and a robe fell ungirded down the back to the ankle ; and he was carrying the lyre, which was equipped with as many notes as the number of the Muses. For the bronze even acted the part of strings and, being so modified as to imitate each separate note, it obediently carried out the deceit, almost indeed becoming vocal and producing the very sound of the notes. Beneath his feet heaven was not represented nor the Pleiades coursing the aether nor the revolving Bear that " has

1 Cf. Pausanias, IX. 30, 4. On Helicon with statues of other poets and famous musicians "there is a statue of Orpheus the Thracian, with Telete standing by his side, and round about him are beasts in stone and bronze listening to his song."'

2 Cf. supra, p. .311 and note 1.



7r6pLaTpo(f)al tcop ^ClKeavov Xovrpwv a/jLoipoi, dXX^ 7]v irdv fxev to opviOwv >yei'0<; Trpo? rrjv (pBr]V i^tarrdfievov, vraVre? Se opeiOL Orjpe^ Kal

20 oaov ev 0a\dTT7]<; pv)(OL<; vep^erai Kal 'itttto's iOeXyero uvtI ')(^a\ivov tc3 pe\€i KpaTOvp.evo<; Kal ^ov<; a(/)ei9 ras" vo/xa<; ttj? XvpwSia<; I'jKOve Kal Xeoi'Tcov dreyKTo^; (f)vaL<; tt/do? Tr]v cipjioviav KaT7]Vi'd^6T0. (4) El3e? av Kal nrora-

25 /jLov<; TVTrovvra top ')(aXK0V Ik injyojv eVt rd fieXr] peovTa<; Kal KV/ia 6aXdaa7]<; epcort ttJ? ojSrj<^ vylrov/xerov Kal TreV/oa? alad/jaet ttXjjttO' p,€va<; iiovaiKrj<; Kal iraaav jSXdarijv ojpLov e^ 7)6 (hv iirl Tr,v fiovaav rr^v 'Op(f)iKr]i> (Tirevhovcyav,

30 Kal ovSev fxkv rjv to r)X^^^ ovSe rrjv dp/iovLav tj^v XvprpBov iyetpov, tj re^vi] Se iv tol<; ^(poi<; rod irepl T}]P p-ovaiKYju epwro'^ rd TrdOt] Kare/iijvve Kal ev T(p ')(^aXKw xa? rjSova^; e-noiet ^aiveaOau Kal rd iiTavOovvra rfj aladi](jei, ro)v ^wwv OeXKTijpia dpp)JT(o<; i^ecpatpev.


(1) AatSdXfp pLev i^vjv, el Bel rw ire pi Kpyjrijp iTiareveiv Oav/jLori, Kivovp^eva fjurj^avdaOaL rd TTODjpara Kal 7rpo9 dvOpfoirlvyu ataOtjcTiv €K- /Sid^ecrOaL rov y^pvaov, al he 8r] Upa^treXetoi

^ Quoted from I/iad 18. 486 : for the reliefs on the pedestal, Brunu {J'lhrh. Phil. CIII. 21) compares the base of the Nile in the Vatican, and of the Farnese Bull.

^ Cf. p. 311, svpra.

^ Apoll. Rhod. Argon. I. 26 f. : "Men say that he by the music of his songs charmed the stubborn rocks upon the 402


no part in the baths of Oceanus/' ^ but there was every kind of bird, brought under the spell of the singing,^ ^nd all beasts of the mountains and what- ever feeds in the recesses of the sea, and a horse stood entranced, held in control, not by a bridle, but by the music, and a bull, having abandoned its pasturage, was listening to the strains of the lyre, and lions by nature fierce were being lulled to sleep in response to its harmony. You could see the bronze taking on the shape of rivers flowing from their sources toward the singing,^ and a wave of the sea raising itself aloft for love of the song, and rocks being smitten with the sensation of music, and every plant in its season hastening from its usual abode towards the music of Orpheus ; * and though there was nothing that gave out a sound or roused the lyre's harmony, yet art made manifest in all the animals the emotions excited by their love of music, and caused their pleasure to be visible in the bronze, and in a wonderful manner expressed the enchant- ment that springs up in the sense-perceptions of the animals.


Daedalus, if one is to place credence in the Cretan marvel, had the power to construct statues endowed with motion and to compel gold to feel human sensations, but in truth the hands of Praxiteles

mountains and the course of rivers. And the wild oak trees to this day, tokens of that magic strain . . . stand in ordered ranks close together, the same which under the charm of his lyre he led down from Pieria." Trans. Seaton, L.C.L.

  • Cf. p. 311, supra.

403 DD 2


5 %er/3e? ^MTiKci CLoXov Karecr/ceva^ou ra t€)(^p)]- fiara. (2) "AXcro? yv Kal Aiovuao'^ elari^Kei. i)i6eov ay^rjfjia fii/jiov/iepo^;, ovtco fiev a7ra\6<;, &)? 7r/)o? (Jc'ipKa fierappvO/jLL^eadaL tov ycCKKov, ovtco Be iiypov Kal K€)(^a\aa/jL6vov e)(^cov to aCofJia, &)?

10 e^ €r6pa<; vXrjf;, dWa /ly ')(^a\Kov 7r€(pvK(i)<;, 09 Xa\Ko<i fiev oiv r]pv6paiveT0, f&))79 he fieTOvalav ovK e%a)i^ i^ovXero r))V Iheav hei/cvvvai, dxjra- jxevcp Si aoi Trpo^ rrjv ciKfjii-jV vrre^iaraTO, kol 6vTW<^ fiev rjv 6 ')(a\KO<; aT€yav6<;, vtto Be r/)?

15 re^i^/;? pLaXarro/jLevo^ et9 adp/ca cnrehiBpacrKe rrj<i ')(^eipo<; ri^v aicrOijaip. (3) ^Hv Se dvdr]p6<;, d^p6Tr]T0<; yepLwv, tpuipcp pe6/jL€vo<;, olov avrou EvpLTriSt]^ ev Y^dfC')(aL'^ elBoTroLi^cra^ €^i(f)T]V6, Kiaao<; S' avrov earec^e TreptOeoyv ii> kukXco — &)?

20 Kiaao<; i)v 6 ')(aXKO<^ et? fcXo)i>a<^ KapLiTTopi€vo<^ kol ro)v ^oaTpv^wv toi)? eXiKT?]pa<^ etc pLerooirov Ke')(^vpLevov<s dvaareXXMv. yeXcoro'; Se e/iTrXeft)?, o Si] Kal 7ravT0<; yp iireKeiva OavpLaro^, 7)BovP]<; d^ievai TrjV v\i]v re/cpLyjpia Kal ti]V iraOoiv

25 BrjX(0(Tiv vTTOKpiveaOai rov ')(^aXKov. (4) Ne/SpU Be avTOV eaKeirev ov^ oiav eicodev 6 Aiouuaof;

^ On statues of Dion^'sus by Praxiteles, cf. Furtwangler, Meisterwerke d. griech. Pladik, p. 586, Eng. trans, p. 337. Two Praxitelian types arc discussed: (a) Represented by the "Bacchus de Versailles" in the Louvre, Fig. 30 (Frohner, Notice, 218), the figure of a delicate 3'outh wearing a fawn-skin fastened on the left shouMer and a Bacchic initra in his hair which falls in curls to his shoulders, and holding his right hand over his head, (b) The Dionysus in Madrid, Fig. 37 404


wrought works of art that were altogetlier alive. There was a grove, and in it stood Dionysus ^ in the form of a young man, so dehcate that the bronze was transformed into flesh, with a body so supple and relaxed that it seemed to consist of some different material instead of bronze : for though it was really bronze, it nevertheless blushed, and though it had no part in life, it sought to show the appearance of life and would yield to the very finger-tip if you touched it, for though it was really compact bronze, it was so softened into flesh by art that it shrank from the contact of the hand. It had the bloom of youth, it was full of daintiness, it melted with desire, as indeed Euripides repre- sented him when he fashioned his image in the Bacchae.^ A wreath of ivy en- circled the head — since the bronze was in truth ivy, bent as it was into sprays and holding up the curly locks which fell in profusion from his forehead. And it was full of laughter, nay, it wholly passed the bounds of wonder in that the material gave out evidence of joy and the bronze feigned to represent the emotions. A fawn-skin clothed the statue, not such as Dionysus was accustomed to wear, but the

Fia. 36.

(Clarac, PI. 690 B, No. 159S A), a nude figure leaning his left arm on a bearded lierm of Dionysus.

2 Cf. Eur. Bacch. 233 f. : "Men say a stranger to the land hath come. . . . With essenced hair in golden tresses tossed, Wine-flushed, Love's witching graces in his eves." Trans. Way.



i^dirreaOai, dW et? ryjv tT;? Sopd<; ixifii-jaLv 6 'X^a\Ko<i /jLerefidWeTo. elar/jKeL 8e Ti]v Xaidv^ eirepeihwv rep Ovparp, 6 Be Ovpao<; rjTrdra rrjv 30 aiadi]aiv kol Ik ^uXkov 7r€7roiJ]/jL€vo<; ^(Xoepov tl Kal Te67]\o<; dTroaTiX/Seiv iSo^d^ero tt/jo? avTT)v d/jL€i/36fi€vo<; rrjV vXi]v. (5) "0/i^a Be r}V irvpl Biavyh fiavLKov IBelv Kal yap to /3aK)^6V(Tifiop 6 432 K. ;)^aA-/co9 eveBeiKvvro Kal eTTiOeLdt^eiv iBoKei, coairep ol/jLat Tov Ilpa^LTeXov<; Kal top (3aK-^elov olarpop eyKarafJU^ai Bvv))0ePTO<i.


(1) 'E^eXo) Be crot Kal to \le/ivovo^ d(^iiyi]-

5 aaaOaL davpta- Kal yap 6vt(d<^ irapdBo^o^; r;

rex^V Kal KpeiTTcov di pwrrivii^ x^Lp6<^. tov

TlOwvov ^lepLVOvo^ eiKoov yv ev AWioTria eK XiOov

TreTTOLT] pievT], ov pirjv ev Tot<^ oIksIol^ 6poi<i e/xeve

XLdo<; cov ovBe to t^? (f)va€(o^ aiyyjXou rjveixeTO,

10 dXXd Kal XiOo<; cov ely^ev i^ovaiav (jxovi)'^' vvv

fiev yap dvLaxovaav tt]v 'li fiepav '7rpoaecf)6eyy€TO

einai^liaivwv Tr} (f)covf] tiiv x^P^^ ^^^l ^'^^^ rot?

tt}? /jLi]Tpo^ TTapovaiai'^ (paLBpvv6fievo<;, vvv Be

d7roKXLVOfiev7]<; et? vvKTa eXeeivov tl Kal dXyeivov

15 eaTeve 7rpo<; ttjv dirovaiav dvico/.Levo<;. (2)

^HTTupet Be ovBe BaKpvcov 6 Xt^o?, dXX elx€v

v7Ty]peTovfji€va ttj ^ovXi']aeL Kal TavTa. Kal i)v

X\eixv6vLo<^ i) eiKcov p,6v(p /xev tov dvOpwrrivov.^

^ Jacobs Xaiav : Kvpav. ^ TOV avdpwTrivov Kayser : tw dv6pu}invu>. 406


bronze was transformed to imitate the pelt ; and he stood resting his left hand on a thyrsus, and the thyrsus deceived the beholder's vision ; for while it was wrought of bronze it seemed to glisten with the greenness of young growth, as though it were actually transformed into the plant itself. The eye was gleaming with fire, in appearance the eye of a man in a frenzy ; for the bronze exhibited the Bacchic madness and seemed to be divinely inspired, just as, I think, Praxiteles had the power to infuse into the statue also the Bacchic ecstasy.

Fig. 37.


I wish to describe to you the miracle of Memnon also ; for the art it dis{)layed was truly incredible and beyond the power of human hand. There was in Ethiopia an image of Memnon, the son of Tithonus, made of marble ; however, stone though it was, it did not abide within its proper limits nor endure the silence imposed on it by nature, but stone though it was it had the power of speech. For at one time it saluted the rising Day, by its voice giving token of its joy and expressing delight at the arrival of its mother ; and again, as day declined to night, it uttered piteous and mournful groans in grief at her departure. Nor yet was the marble at a loss for tears, but they too were at hand to serve its will. The statue of Memnon, as it seems

^ Cf. pp. 31, 155, supra. Memnon was the son of Tithonus and Day (or of Eos, The Dawn).



BiaXXurreip jjlol Sokcl aco/xari, vtto Be a^i^;^?}?

20 Tivo<i Kal ofJLolas irpoaipeaeo)^ dyofxevrj Karr^vOv-

veio. €i)(6 joui> eyKeKpafxeva /cal ra Xvirovvra

Kal irdXiv i]Sovf]<; at(j6)]aL^ avTOV tcaTekdfi^avev

VTt' d/jL(f)0T€pC0V TOiV lTa6(i)l> nXl^TTO fXeVOV. Kal 7)

fxev (pvai^ Ti]v XiScov 'yevecTLV d(f)doyyoi> irapyjyaye

25 Kal K0)(p7]v Kal fi/jre vtto \v7r7]<^ iOeXovaav SioiKela-

6ai fi7]T€ elhvlav 7)a6r]vai, dXkd Kal irdaai^; ri^p^at?

drpcoTOi', €K€LVM Sc TO) ^lefjLvovo<; \i6w Kal

}]Sov7]v irapehiOKei' ?; t6xv'>] Kal irerpav dvejjLi^ev

d\y6iv(p, Kal fJLovTjv ravrrjv eirtardfieOa tj]V

30 rexv7)v vo^jfiaTa tw XiOro Kal cjxoyyjv ivOelaav.

(3) 'O fi'^v yap AalSaXo^ /^^XP^ f^^^ KiV7Ja60)<;

€veavL€V6T0 Kal hvvafjiiv el^cv ?; eKeivov rix^rj

433 K. e^Lardvai ra? vXa^ Kal et? x^peiav Kivelv, d/jL7]-

■)(avov Be r]v Kal 7ravT6Xoi<^ diropov Kal (f)covi')<;

/xeroxa Trpayfiareveadai, ra iroiy^ixaTa' at Be

AlOiOTTCov x^^P^^ TTopovf; TMV dfi^jxdvcov e^evpov

5 Kal TT/^" d^Ooyyiav €^evLK7j<7av rov XiOov. eKeivw

T(p XlejxrovL Kal ryv 'tl;)^w /V0709 di'Trjx^LV, oirore

(f)OeyyoLTo, Kal yoepov fiev arei'd^ovTL yoepov

dvTLTTefjiTTeiv peXo's, euTraOovvrt Be avrairoBiBovaL

TTjV 7)xhv dvTL/Xl/jLOP. €K€tl'0 TO Bl]/jLtOVpy)]/jLa Kal

10 T77 'H/jLepa Trt? dvia<; eKolpL^e Kal ovk e'la fiaareveip top iralBa, ci)9 av di>TtTiOeLaJ]<; avTW ^ T)]<; AWioTTWP TexPV^ '^op Ik t?}? eLpapp.ei'rj<; d(f)apia6ePTa ^le^popa.



to me, differed from a human being only in its body, but it was directed and guided by a kind of soul and by a will like that of man. At any rate it both had grief in its composition and again it was possessed by a feeling of pleasure according as it was affected by each emotion. Though nature had made all stones from the benrinnino- voiceless and mute and both unwilling to be under the control of grief and also unaware of the meaning of joy, but rather immune to all the darts of chance, yet to that stone of Memnon art had imparted pleasure and had mingled the sense of pain in the rock ; and this is the only work of art of which we know that has implanted in the stone perceptions and a voice. Daedalus did indeed boldly advance as far as motion, and the products of liis art had power to transcend the materials of which they were made and to move in the dance ; but it was impossible and absolutely out of the question for him to make statues that could speak. Yet the hands of Aethiopians discovered means to accomplish the impossible,^ and they over- came the inability of stone to speak. The story runs that Echo answered this Memnon when it spoke, uttering a mournful note in response to its mournful lament and returning a mimicking sound in response to its expressions of joy. The statue in question both lulled to rest the sorrows of Day and caused her to abandon her search for her son, as though the art of the Aethiopians were compensating her by means of the statue for the Memnon who had been snatched away from her by fate.

^ The expression occurs svpra, p. 422, 1 K.

^ Jacobs, perhaps rightly, proposed outtj for aura).




(1) Etra TO iJiev WpyCoov aK(i(f)0<i efi(i)wvov

15 yeveadat iretOoiJieOa to vtto tmv ^ A.6i]vd^ re^vijOev XGipcov, Koi Ti]v iv aarpoL<; i/cX^jpovx^jcrG tv-)(t]v, ayaX/ia Be ov marevaopev, et? o Ta<^ 8vpd/j,€t<; AaKXy]7rio<; dviyaL rov irpovo'iiTLKov eTreiadycov vovv i-rrl T7]u eavrov KOLVwviaVy rov (jvvolkovi>to<^

20 Tr)v Svva/jiiv iTpeiren>, a>V et? (.up dvOpuoiriva KardyeaOai ro Oelov Scoao/iev, evOa kol fxiavdrjvai TraOjj/jiaaiVy ov rriGTevcrofxev Be, fj fitjhev eyyovov KaKLa^; nrapairecjiVKev ; (2) 'Efiol /lev ovv ov tvtto^ elvai S0K6L TO opcofiepov, dXXd Tr]<; dXyOela^

25 irXda/JLa. Idov yap &)? ovk dvyjOoTroiyjTO's rj Tex^V' oXX^ ip€iK0jnaa/j.6vy] tov Oeov et? avrov e^iaTaTai. vXrj fiev ovaa OeoeuSe'^ dvaTrefxireL voTj/xa, St]pLovpyy]fia Be x^^P^^ Tvyx^i^ovaa a fir] ByfiLovpylai^ e^ecFTL irpuTTei T6f<-/jLyjpta "^f;^?)?

30 dpp)/Tco<i drroTiKTovaa. TrpoacoTrov Be aoL dea- aajxevw BovXovrai Trjv aicrOtjaLV' ov yap 6i? 434 K. /caXXo? eTriOtTOv eV;j^7;/^aTfo-Ta«, d\Xd irdvayvov Kal tXecov draKtvcov ou/jia /3d0o^ d(f)paaTOv vTraaTpdiTTei, aefivoTi^To^; alBol /iLy€iarj<^. (3) TIXoKa/Kov Be eX^/ce? peo/ievoc x^ipiaiv 01 /Mfv eh 5 pwTa t£^//\6t€? d(p6T0L KtE^vvTai, 01 Be virep

^ The Greek paean was a choral song accompanied by dancing, wliich \\as used as an incantation to cure disease, as well as for celeljration of a victory and in the worship of certain gods. Personitied as a god. Paean was closely akin to Asclepius, and at the same time, especially at Delphi, was




Are we then to believe that the vessel Argo,^ which was wrought by the hands of Athena and later assumed its allotted place among the stars, became capable of speech^ and yet in the case of a statue into which Asclepius infused his own powers, introducing purposeful intelligence therein and thus making it a partner with himself, not believe that the power of the indwelling god is clearly manifest therein ? Nay, more, shall we admit that the divine spirit descends into human bodies, there to be even defiled by passions, and nevertheless not believe it in a case where there is no attendant engendering of evil ? To me, at any rate, the object before our eyes seems to be, not an image, but a modelled presentment of truth ; for see how Art not only is not without power to delineate character, but, after having portrayed the god in an image, it even passes over into the god himself. Matter though it is, it gives forth divine intelligence, and though it is the work of human hands, it succeeds in doing what handicrafts cannot accom- plish, in that it begets in a marvellous way tokens of a soul. The face as you look at it enthralls the senses ; for it has not been fashioned to an ad- ventitious beauty, but as it raises a saintly and benignant eye it flashes forth an indescribable depth of majesty tempered with modesty. Curly locks abounding in grace, — some fall luxuriant and uncon- fined on the back, while others come down over the

often identified with Apollo as Apollo Paean. Cf . Fairbanks, A Study of the Greek Faean, 1900. 2 Cf. supra, p. 187 and note 3.



/jL6Tco7rou 7r/5o? Ta<; ocppiK e7Ti/3aiPOVT€<; toI<; Ofxfxacnv elXovinai. olov he i/c ^(otlk?]<; alTia<i KOI avTol Karaphufxevoi et? tjjv tCov /Boarpuxcov Ka/j,7r}]i> avveX-iTTovrai, rrp vofxcp t/}? rixvrjf; /jlt]

10 7r6iOofxeu7]<; t?}«? uX.);?, dWa voovaif^ on a)(^]/ia- Ttfet debv Koi Set hwaareveiv. tcov Be yevo- fxevwv elcoOoTcov ^OeipeaOai 7) rod dydXfjLaro^; Ihea, are By rrj^; vy€La<; ti]v ovaiav ev eaurfj (f)€povaa, ciKp^i^v dvcoXeOpov eTriKTco/jievT) OdWeL.

15 (4) 'H/xet? fiev Stj aoi kuI Xoycov, m Tlatdv,^ veapcov Kal p.V})/jL7]<i iyyovcov dmip^dpeOa' Ke\ev6i<i yap olpai' irpoOvpbo^ he aoi Kal rov vopuov aheLv, el vepiOL'^ vyeiav.


(1) Tedeaaai rov rjiOeov iir' dfcponoXet, ov Upa^t- 20 reX^;? 'iSpvaev, r} Sec aoi rP/<; re-^vrj'^ rrapaarrjaau ro iTpdyfia ; Trai? i^v dira\,6<i re koI veo<; tt^o? TO fiakOaKov re Kal veonjaiov r?}? re')(yri<^ rov ^a\Kov fMaXarrovai]^;, T^Xt^Ty? 8e rjv Kal ifiepov p.earo<^ Kal ro rrj<; 7]/37]<; 6(^auev dvOo<;, irdvra he 25 i]v Ihelv 7rpo<; rr)V t^}? re^^z'?;? fiovX^jaiv d/ji€i/36- fxeva' Kal yap diraXo^; rjv ^ /jLa)(^op.€V7]v rfj dira- Xorrjri rr]v ovaiav e^wv Kal tt/oo? to uypov i]yero eareprj/iievo^ vyp6ri]ro<; Kal oXw? e^e/Saive tt}? avrov (pva-eco^i 6 ;^aXA:o9 tou? 6pov<; el<; rov

^ Jacobs Tlaidv : MSS. ttoi.

2 lj.rj after i^v deleted by Olearius : ^17 jxaxoixhrtv {ix-qx^-vu)-

/jLCVTiV A).

1 Overbeck (Gcschichte d. griech. P.'asiik*, II. 63) points out that this passage is the only extant reference to a 412


forehead to the eyebrows and hang thick about the eyes. But, as if stirred by hfe and kept moist of themselves, they coil themselves into the bending curls, the material not rendering obedience to the law of art, but realizing that it represents a god and that he must work his own will. And although all things that are born are wont to die, yet the form of the statue, as thougli carrying v»ithin itself the essence of health, flourishes in the possession of indestructible youth. And so we, O Paean, have offered to you the first fruits of discourse, freshly made, and the offspring of memory ; for you bid us do so, I think ; and I am eager also to sing the strains to you if you allot me health.


Have you seen on the acropolis the youth which Praxiteles set up, or must I set before you the w^ork of art } It was a boy tender and young, and art had softened the bronze to express softness and youth ; moreover, it abounded in daintiness and desire, and it made manifest the bloom of youth. Indeed, it w^as plain to see that in all points the statue was respon- sive to the will of the artist ; for it was tender though the essence of the bronze is opposed to tenderness, and though devoid of suppleness it yet inclined to be supple, and the bronze departed totally from the limitations of its own nature and was transmuted

Diadounienos, "Youth binding his hair with a fillet,"' of Praxiteles on the acropolis, no doubt the Athenian acropolis ; and Furtwangler [Mekiencerke d. cjriech. Plaslik, p. 335) finds the data here given entirely insufficient to enable the student to identify any copy of this work.



30 aX^]6P] rvTTOv fie6LaTdfjiei>o<^. (2) "Afiotpo^; Be 7rvevfiaT0<; Kal ro €/jlitvovv virehvero' a yap jxrj irapeXajBev vXij /it]h€ €2)(^v^ e/.i(f)VTa, tovtwv ?; 435 K. re^i^)] ti]v e^ovaiav iiropitero. eKOivovro Se Ta<; iTap6La<^ €pvd)']/j.aTt, o 3?; Kal irapdSo^or rjv, 'y^aXKov TLKTofxevov 6pev6o<i Kal 7raiSi.Ky]<^ rjv ')]XiKLa<; avOo^ eKXd/nrov. ko/jLT] Be el)(^ei> eXLKa<; 5 raZ? b(f)pvcnv eirilSaLvovTa^. (3) 'O he t(o reXa- fjioyvi KaraarecjiMV ti]V Kopn^v Kal eK rayp 6(f)puo)V diTwOovixevo'^ T(p hiahi'^iiaTL ra? Tpiya<; yvixvov TrXoKajxcDv irrjpei ro fiercoTrov. co? oe Kal Kara aepo? e^rjT dt^o fiev ti]v Te)(^v)]v Kal ra ev avrfj

10 haL^dXixara,^ d(f)aaia irXijyevre^; eiarrjKeLfjLev 6 re yap yaXKo^ evrpaSP] Kal XtTrcoaav eVe- BeiKVVTO Ti-jV adpKa Kal irpo^ rrjv Tpi)(^o^ Kivrjcrtv fiediipfJLoteTo, ore fiev jSoaTpvy^wv ovXcov irXoKal^; (jvve^eXmoixevo^, ore 8' iOeXovarj rfj TpiXL

15 eKrdh-qv Kara vcotou '^vdPjvaL avpa7rXov/bLevo<;, Kal ore fiev iOeXec to irXda^ia Ka/x(f)OP)vat Trpo^; ttjv Ka/i7r7]v dviefievo^, ore Be eirLTelvai. ra fieXy] 7rpo<; TO avvTovov [xeOicTTdiievo^. (4) O/x/xa Be l/jiepcoBe^ Tjv alBol avfi/iLye(; dcj^poBtala ^ Kal ep(OTiKrj<^ *

20 yejxov y^dptro^;' Kal yap rjBei ^ifXovv 6 ')(^aXK0<; to ipdaipLOv Kal vTv/jKovaev iOeXovri rfo elBcoXro yavpovaOai. dKivr]TO<; Be cov ovro'^ 6 e(f)r)f3o<; eBo^ev av aoi KLvi](jew<; iji€Te)(eLV Kal et? ;\;o/^eta^' evrpeTTL^eddai.

^ f'lX^v (IjxcpvTa Jacobs : elx^ '^^v (pvyra. 414


into the true qualities of the subject. Though not endowed with breath, it yet began to breathe ; since what the material had not inherited as a gift of nature, for all this art furnished the capacity. It imparted to the cheeks to make them blush — a thing incredible — a ruddiness born of the bronze, and a bloom of young boyhood shone from it. And the hair had curls which tended to fall over the eye- brows. But fastening his hair with a band and thrusting it back from his brows with a fillet, he kept his forehead bare of the locks. When, however, we went on to examine the statue part by part and the matters of artistry in it, we stood overcome by speechlessness ; for the bronze showed the flesh well nurtured and sleek with oil, and it adapted itself to the movement of the hair, now coiling in strands of curly locks, now unfolding with the hair that strove to pour in broad mass down the back ; and where the figure wished to bend, the bronze would relax itself to the bending, and where the figure would make tense its limbs, the bronze would change and become rigid. The eye held a look of longing commingled with a passionate modesty, and w^as full of the grace of love ; for tlie bronze knew how to imitate love's passion and yielded to the image when it wished to indulge in wantonness. Though it was motionless, this youth seemed to possess the power to move and to be making ready to dance.

- SatSaA^ara Jacobs : de aXuara.

^ acppohiaia. Reisch : dcppoSiaias or afpoBicrlov.

  • ipcvTiKTJg Reisch : ipwriKov.



25 (1) Et? lepov elaLODV ae/jLvop tl Kal fjueya, o rrjv KaWiarrjv el/caalav et? eavro /jLeOiary], iv Tot<; 7rpo7rvXaioi<; tov vecd Ihpvfxevov Oeoijjiai /cevravpov, ovK avSpl Kara rrjv OfitjpeLOv ecKova, aXXa plcp irapaiTXjjaiov vXijevTL. avOpcowo^ yv a-)(^pi Xa-

30 701/0? KarioDV 6 K6VTavpo<=; el<^ 'iirirov (3d(TLV rerpaa/ceXi] Xi'jywv. (2) Toi/ 'yap ittttov koI tov avOpwTTOv 1) (pvai^ i^ i)pLiaeia<^ refiovaa et? €v aoifia avpi]p/jLoa€, ra p,6v airoKpivaaa rcov fiepcov, 436 K. ra Be aXXijXoi^ T€)(V'r]aap,€V7] avpLcpfjova' r?}? pev yap dv0po)7rLV7]<; oaov air l^vo<; el<; aKpav arro- (fyeperac ri^jv ^daiv a^etXe, tov he iTTireiov <Ta)p,aTO<; oaov 66? 6p,(f)aXov KaTajSaivei Tepovaa 5 TO) dv6 punnvcp avvijye tvttco, co? tov fiev lttttov Tr)v Ke(f)aXr]v iroOelv Kal tov<; au)(€VLOV<; TevovTa<; Kal oaov €L<; to vcotov KaTajSalvov evpvveTai^ tov he avOpcoiTov tov diro 6p(f)aXov pe)(pt r?}? /3da€co<; aTrjptypov ^rjTeiv. (3) Tolovtov he 6vto<; tov

10 crco/xaro? eZSe? civ Kal Ovpov eTriirveovTa T(p Te)(yrjpaTL Kal I'jypiaypevov to awpa Kal tw 7rpoad)TT(p TO 07]pio)he^ iiraiOovv Kal to Tr)<s Tpi')(o<; KuXXtaTa viroKpivopevi^v Trjv ireTpav Kal irdvTa 7rp6<; tov dXtjOPj tvttov airevhovTa.

^ Cf. Jnth. Pal. XVI. 115. On the Centaur Cheiron, "A horse is shed forth from a man, and a man springs up from a horse ; a man without feet and a swift horse without a head ; a horse belches out a man, and a man farts out a horse ;" and 116, "There were a horse without a head and a man lying unfinished. Nature, in sport, grafted him on the swift horse." Trans. Paton, L.C.L. Cf. also the elder Phil., supra, p. 138.




On entering an awe-inspiring and ample shrine which had received into itself the most beautiful statues, I behold set up in the entrance-hall of the temple a centaur, not like a man,^ as Homer repre- sents him, but like a '^wooded mountain peak."^ The centaur was a man down as far as the flanks, tlien it ended in a horse's four-legged stance."* For both the horse and the man Nature had cut in two in the middle and joined into one body, omitting some members and cleverly adapting the rest to each other : since of the human form it took away every- thing from the waist to the ieet, while of the horse's body it cut off everything down to the navel and joined the rest to the human figure, as though the horse desired the iiead, the neck-sinews and that part of a man's back which broadens as it descends, while the man sought the firm suj^port of a horse from the navel to the feet. Such being the body, you could see also a spirit breathing upon the work of art, and the savage type of the body, and the animal nature coming to light in the face ; and you could see the stone most beautifully interpreting the hair and every element striving to express the truth.

2 Homer never described Cheiron or the other centaurs as part horse, part man.

^ Quoted from Odyssey, 9. 191. when the expression is used of Polyphemus : ' ' For he was fashioned a wondrous monster, and was not like a man that lives by bread, but like a wooded peak of lofty mountains, which stands out to view alone, apart from the rest." Trans. Murray, L.C.L.

■^ Cf. Eur. Her. Fur. 181 : rerpacrKeAes d' v^pi(T/j.a, Kevravptav yevos, The four-foot monsters ask. the Centaur tribe"; JJec. 1058, TerpiiroSos ^xaiv drjphi opearipov, "The stance of a mountain beast."





15 (1) ElSoi^ KoX Trjv iro\v6pvXiiTOv ev opoi<s MaKeSovcov ^h]8€iav. Xi6o^ yv firfvvcov to tP)<; 'x/ru^/'}? elSo? d7ro/ia^afi6vi]<^ 66? avryjv ti]<; rex^V^ ra avfiTrXrjpovvTa r)]P ^vx^']^' x^cu 'yap Xoyia/uLov KaTTjyopelro 8)']\a)fjLa fcal 6vfjLb<; vTravKTraro Kat,

20 Trpo? \v7rr}<i hidOeaiv pere^aivev rj euKcav, kol ct)9 ^pax^W'i elirelv tov irepl avrrjv Spd/jLaro^ €^/]yr]af<; rjv TO opco/ievov. (2) 'O /xev yap Xoyia/jio<^ inrep T-qv irpd^LV ihi'-jXov t^? yvvaiKo^; tcl /SovXev/xaTa, 6 Be dvixo^ TTj pvfJbij ti)<^ 6pyy}(; 'jTapaypa(f)6/j,€i>0(;

25 Tr]V (fivaiv Trpo? to epyov I'-jyeipe ttjv iirl tov (f>6vov ^ opjjbrjv ela 7]y 01) iievo<^, rj Xvirr) Se tov iirl TOi? iraialv €7T6a)j/jiaiv€V oIktov eh ti]v /j,i]Tpu)av (jvvecnv dppct)aTco<; eK tov Ov/jlov TrjV Xidov eX/covaa. ov yap dTeyKTO<; ov8e 6ripL(iihri<^ rj

30 eLKOt)j>, dXX' et? Ovfiov Kal fiaXaKia^; " evhei^Lv BLrjpecTO virrjpeTOV/jLevT] rot? t% yvvaiKeLa<i <f)vaect)<? ^ouXev/jiaa-LV et/co? yap r/v jxeTa tov ;^oXoi^ K. 437 Kadapevovaav tov Ov/jlov eiTLaTpecfieaOaL 7rp6<i oIktov /cal et? evvoiav epxoP'evr]v tov KaKOv ti-jv "yfrvx^]^ OLKTi^eaOaL. (3) TavTa fieTa tov a(jo/jLaTO<s TO, TTuOr] 7] eiKcov €fii/JielTO fcal y)v ISelv tijv XlOov 5 ore iiev ^epovaav tov Ov/jlov ev o/jL/xaaiv, OTe Se aKvdpcoTTov opcbaav koX /juaXaTTO/ievT/v eh crTvyvo- TT]Ta, wairep dvTiKpv; tov Texi^V^^/^^^^^ '^V^

1 (povov, Olearius : y\>6(pov, ^6yov.

2 fxaKaKias Schenkl, avias Huschke : fxavias.

1 Cf. Anth. Pal. XVI. 135-141 on the picture of Medea in Rome, e.g. 135: "The art of Timomachus mingled the love




I also saw the celebrated Medea in the land of the Macedonians.^ It was of marble and disclosed the nature of her soul in that art had modelled into it the elements which constitute the soul ; for a course of reasoning was revealed, and passion was surging up, and the figure was passing over into a state of grief, and, to put it briefly, what one saw was an interpretation of her whole story. For her reasoning about her course of action revealed the schemes of the woman, the passion connoted by the onset of her anger roused her nature to the deed by introducing the impulse to murder, and the grief denoted her compassion for her children, transforming without violence the expression of the marble from passion to the natural feeling of a mother. For the figure was not relentless nor brutal, but was so apportioned as to show both passion and tenderness, thus minis- tering to the varying purposes of her womanly nature ; for it was but natural that after her wrath was over and she was purified of her passion, she should turn to pity, and that when her soul came to a realization of her evil deed it should be stirred to pity. These passions the figure strove to imitate as well as the form of the body, and one could see the marble now flashing passion in its eyes, now wearing a look sullen and softened into gloom, exactly as if the artist had modelled the woman's passionate impulse

and jealousy of Medea, as she drags her children to death. She half consents as she looks at the sword, and half refuses, wishing both to save and to slay her children." Trans. Paton, L.C. L. For the subject compare the Pompeian wall- painting, Baumeister, Denkmdler d. klass. AUertums, I, 142,


EE 2


opfirjv ei? tt}? KvpLTriBov Spa/iaT07roiLa<^ irXyja- az^TO? Tr/z^ /jLl/jl7]<tlv, iv y koX /SovXeveraL avvava-

10 KLVovaa koI crvveaLv e/j.(f)poi'a Kal 6t9 6v/jlov a<y piaivei to i]0o<; tov<; 7r€7r7]y6ra<i rfj cbvaei 7rp6<; ra eKjova t?'}? (jji\oyovLa<; 6pov<; i/c^dX- \ovaa Kal TraiBiKcov Xoyoyv pera tijv avopov a^ayi-jv aTrreraL. (4) ^Hi^ Se avrfj Kal ^i(f)y]^6po<i

15 7} Xelp hiaKovelv eroiprj rw Ovp,w eirl to piaapa (Tirevhovar] Kal i^ pbcXy pevt] ^pl^ to av)(p,7]pov eTTLay/xaivovaa Kal aToXy tl<; Trevdip^o^; cikoXovOo^^


(1) ¥2ko)v yv eirl TaU 'S^KvOiKal^ ipooiv ovk et?

20 iirihei^LV, dXXa et? ^ dywvlav tcov t?}? ypacf)P]<; KaXcjv OVK dpovaco^ e^yaKypievy. €KT€TV7rcoTat Se KaT avTTjV ^Add/jia<; p,avi,ai<; olaTpovp,(:VO<;, rjv 5' ISecv yvp,v6<;, aXjxaTL (f)OLVLacr(ov ttjv Kopiyv, yvepiwp,evo^ t^v Tpixa, 7rapd(f)opo(; to opLpua, €K-

25 irXri^ia^i yepwv, Kal oWXiaTo Se ov paviai<s piovov eh ToX/jtav ovSe rot? e^ ^ILpivvcov heipLaai Ovfxo- (p06poi<i ^ 7)y plaivev, dXXd Kal auBypov tT;? \€ipo<; 7rpo/3e/3X7]To €KOeoi>Tt 7rapa7TX7]aio<;. (2) 'H pev yap cIkoov oz^to)? yv dKLvyTO<^, iSoKei Se ov TJjpetv ^

^ its for Koi MS.S. Jacobs, who also inserts -KKaariKfiS after ivihu^iv. Kayser inserts jxovov after iiriSet^iv. ^ 6vij.o(p66pois JacoV)s : hr)ixo(pQ6pois. ^ TT]pilv Jacobs : o£; n ^v.

^ Atliainas king of Orchoinenos, in secret love witli Ino (laughter of Cadmus, became tlie father of Learchus and 420


in imitation of the drama of Euripides^ in which Medea not only forms her plan with the exercise of a rational intelligence^ but also excites her spirit to anger as she casts aside the principles fixed by nature to govern a mother's love for her offspring, and then after the lawless murder she speaks the fond words of a mother. Her hand was armed with the sword, being ready to minister to her passion as she hastens to her foul deed, and her hair was unkempt, a mark of squalor, and she wore a garment of mourning in conformity to the state of her soul.


There was a figure on the Scythian shores, not set up for display but fashioned not inelegantly for a contest of beauty in painting. It represented Athamas goaded on by madness.^ He was shown as naked, his hair reddened with blood and its locks flying in the wind, his eye distraught, himself filled with consternation ; and he was armed not by mad- ness alone for a rash deed, nor did he rage merely with the soul-consuming fears which the Furies send ; nay, he even held a sword out in front of him, like a man making a sally. For though the figure was in reality without motion, yet it seemed not to retain a

Melicertes. Smitten with madness by Hera to avenge her- self on Ino, who had cared for the infant Dionysus, he slew his son Learchns. Thereupon Ino threw herself with Melicertes into the sea, where both were transformed into sea divinities. For the later story of Melicertes Palaemon, see supra, p. 191, note 1. 2 Cf. supra, p. .383, note 1,



30 TO ardaLfiov, aWa Su^y Kiv/jaeco^; tou? deaTa<i •43S K. i^larr]. 7rapf)v Se rj 'Jj^co 7re/3iSe?;?, t'TTorpoyLto?, VTTO Tov (f)6^ou 'X}^ci)p6i> TL KOI TeOvrfKo^ opcoaa, evTj'yKaXLaro he kol TralSa vi']itiov koI rr]v OijXrjv TOi? ')(^ei\eaLV avrov irpoaijye ra? Tpo(f)ifiov<; 5 eTTLaTci^ovaa Tr^^-ya? roi? rpocpi/jLOi^;. (3) ^EjTTijyero Se Tj elfccov hirl^ Ty]v ciKpav tov ^K€ip(ovo<; koI ttjv OdXarrav ri]v viropeiov, ro Se poOtop tt/qo? vtto- So)(rjv eKoXirovTo Kv/jLaLvetv etoj^o?, Kal Ze(f>vpov TV fcarelxG ^ ro /cv/ia ^ \i<yvp(p Tri/ev/jLari t))V

10 OdXarrav /caT€vvd^ovTo<;- 6 yap Sr] Krjpo<^ icf)dvTa^€ TTjv aiaOyaiVy w? Kal TrvorjV hripaovpyelv eTTiard- fievo'^ Kal draKOVTi^eiv OaXaaalov^; avpa^ Kal eh epya (f)vaeco'^ errdyeiv ti-jv /jiifii]aiv. (4) Ylapecr- KLpTwv he Kal evdXioi heX(piue<; to poOwv ev rfj ypac^fj rep-vovTe^ Kal 6 K7]p6<; ehoKet hiairveeaOai

15 Kal 7r/3o? TO t/}? 6aXdTTy]<; voTi^eaOai^ /jLL/jL7]/jLa 7r/309 avTr]<; ti]V e^ovaiav i^aXXaTTOfievo^;. (5) "Ez^ ye fJLrjv toI<; tov TrtVa^o? Tepfiaaiv ^A/iKptrpiTi] Tt? iK ^vOmv dve^7] dypiov tl Kal (f)piKMh€<; opwaa Kal yXavKOV tl aeXa<; eK rwv OfifiaTCOV

20 /juapfjuaipovaa, NT/yOT;/^^? he irepl avTTjv eiaT7]Ke(T^v, diraXal he rjcrav avTai Kal dv6i]pal irpoaihelv KOL d<^pohi(7Lov 7fxepop e'f o/jbjjidTcop aTu^ovaaL, virep he ciKpcop tcop OaXaaalwp KvpidTwv eXla- aovaai ti]P 'X^opelap^ €7rX7]TTop, irepl he avTd<;

25 'nKeapo<; /3a . . . . ^ w;^eTo ye fiiKpov tt)? tov TTora/jLOV Kip)]ae(ji)<; Kal Kv/xatpeip h€LxOei(T7]<;,

^ en-l Petrettini: Kara Kayscr : koI.

~ /caT67;!(;e Ka^'ser : waTe'xf.

^ Kv/j.a Arnini (with Karrix^t for /carexet ) : crSifxa.

■* voTi(fadai Kayscr : vo/xi^eadai.

^ Jacobs x'^piiav : iropeiav.



fixed position ; instead it astonished those who saw it by a semblance of motion. Ino too was present, in a state of terror, trembling slightly, her face pale and corpse-like through fright ; and she embraced her infant child and held her breast to its lips, letting the nurturing drops fall on the nursling. The figure of Ino was hastening towards the pro- montory of Sceiron and the sea at the foot of the mountain, and the breakers that were wont to surge in billows were spreading out in a hollow to receive her, and something of Zephyrus pervaded the waters ^ as he with shrill blast lulled the sea to rest. For in truth the wax ^ beguiled the senses into thinking that it could fashion a breeze and cause the sea winds to rise and could apply the art of imitation to nature's works. And sea-dolphins were sporting near by, coursing through the waves in the painting, and the wax seemed to be tossed by the wind and to become wet in imitation of the sea, assuming the sea's own qualities. Moreover, at the outer edges of the painting an Amphitrite rose from the depths, a creature of savage and terrifying aspect who flashed from her eyes a bright radiance. And round about her stood Nereids ; these were dainty and bright to look upon, distilling love's desire from their eyes ; and circling in their dance over crests of the sea's waves, they amazed the spectator. About them flowed Oceanus, the motion of his stream being well-nigh like the billows of the sea.^

^ See critical note.

2 The medium for colour in the painting was wax. ^ The text of the last sentence is so imperfect that onl}' the general meaning can be given.

® Kayser fiadvhiurjs : Schenkl ^aduppous. The 76 after wxero is corrupt.



Abderus, 239

Abradates, 69, 165

Achelous, 89, 97, 303

Achilles, 7, 133, 155, 287, 293

Act aeon, 61

Adrastus, 105

Adriatic, 195

Aeacus, 189, 293

Aeetes, 315, 319, 343

Aegean, 185, 195

Aegisthus, 173

Aesop's Fables, 13

Agamemnon, 157, 173

Agave, 75

Aiax, 157, 183

Alcmene, 307

alder, 311

Alpheius, 71, 121, 151

amaranth, 39

Amazons, 147

amber, 49

Amphiaraus, 15, 105

Amphion, 41

Amphitrite, 423

Amphitryon, 309

Amymone, 33

Ancaeus, 357

Andrians, 97

Andromeda, 115

Antaeus, 223, 229

Anthedon, 189

Antigone, 253

Antilochus, 155

Aphareus, 189

Aphrodite, 27, 29, 65, 129, 131

Apollo, 41, 86, 95, 99, 103, 217, 297,

353 apples, 21, 29, 123 Apsyrtus, 347 Araspas, 165 Arcadia, 265, 305 Archilochus, 13 Ares 323 Argo', 187, 319, 343, 411

Argos, 233, 257

Ariadne, 61, 341

Arion, 81

Aristodemus, 5

Armenians, 145

Arrichion, 149

Artemis, 143

Artemis Agrotera, 113, 301

Asclepius, 353, 411

Assyrian, 167

Astrape, 59

Atalanta, 357 ^-»

Athamas, 421

Athena, 201, 245, 317, 333, 411

Athens, Athenians, 65, 117, 163, 247,

253 Atlas, 115, 219 Axius, 165

Babylon, 261

Bacchante, 73, 77, 79, 203, 381

Bacchic rites, 169, 339, 381

Balios, 137

bears, 119, 213

bees, 89, 135, 179, 353

boar, 107, 205, 299, 357

Boreas, 189

Bosphoros, 49, 187, 319

Briseis, 133

Bronte, 59

brvony, 73, 97, 203, 297

bull, 193, 293, 305, 339, 403

Cadmeia, 257

Cadmus, 75

Calliope, 343, 353, 401

Capaneus, 15, 105, 169, 253, 257

Cassandra, 171

Cayster, 47

cedar, 205

Celaenae, 81

centaur, 137 f., 361, 417

Cephisus, 163, 215

chariot, 69, 105, 141, 167, 321, 323


Cheiron, 135

cherry, 125

Chrvse, 365

Cithaeron, Mt., 61, 73

Clotho, 121

Clvteranestra, 173

Colchis, 189, 201, 313, 345, 361, 365

colour, 3, 95, 111, 117, 135, 161 f., 167,

179, 185, 191, 211, 215, 235, 287,

291, 295, 307, 321, 337, 355, 361,

389, 401, 407 Comus, 9

constellations, 223, 329, 331, 401 Corinth, 191 Coronus, 237 Crete, 63 Critheis. 159 crocus, 161 Croesus, 167, 169 cupids {see also Eros, Erotes), 21, 37

65, 67, 257 Cyclops, 211

cymbals, 21, 79, 179, 203 cypress, 205, 311 Cyrus, 165

Daedalus, 65, 341, 372, 387, 403, 409

DaTphantes, 179

Danaiis, 33

dance, 177. 341

Day, 47, 379

deer, 205, 299

Deianeira, 305, 363

Deiodameia, 293

Demosthenes, 383

Diomedes, 69, 289, 298

Diomedes, mares of, 239

Dionysus, 59, 61, 63, 73, 77, 79, 97, 99,

125, 189, 203, 405 Dioscuri, 189 Dodona, 189, 267 dogs, hunting, 113, 205, 211, 399 dolphins, 79, 193, 215 dove, 267 dreams, 107, 161 drums, 203 dryads, 265 ducks, 37, 243 dwarfs, 19

eagle, 311

Echo, 179, 207, 269, 379, 409

Egypt, 185

Elis, 153

Enceladus, 201

Enipeus, 159, 165

Enyo, 253

Eos, 31

Eridanus, 45, 47

Erinnyes {see also Furies), 255

Eros. Erotes {see also Cupids), 51, 115,

131, 241, 255, 315, 317, 319, 323,

357, 385, 391 Etcocles, 255 Ethiopians, 115, 409 Eumelus, 5

Euripides, 60, 233, 405, 421 Euripvlus, 325, 341 Eurystheus, 231, 333, 347 Euxine, 55, 187 Evadne, 255 Evenus, 361 Evian, 339, 383 Evios, 61

Fables, 13

Fates, 325

fawn, 113, 133, 213

feast, 173

fennel, 243

fig, 123

fir, 37, 205

fish, fishing (see also dolphins), 55, 191,

389 fox, 15 Furies {see also Erinnyes), 421

Galatea, 211

Ganymede, 317

garments, 63, 111, 123, 131, 145, 239,

291, 315,341 geese, 37, 243 giant, 199

Glaucus Pontius, 187 Gorgon, 117 Graces, 43 gulls, 207 Gyraean Rocks, 181, 193

Hades. 177

hare, 27, 113, 133, 243 311

Harmonia, 75

Hebe, 223

Hector, 133, 183

Helicon, 401

Helius, 45, 47, 265, 315

Helle, 189

Hellespont, 325

Helius, 267

Hephaestus, 9, 23, 247, 277, 327, 361



Hera, 247, 307

Heracles, 189, 219, 229, 237, 239, 347, 361, 363, 365

among the Pygmies, 229

in swaddling clothes, 307

or Achelous, 309

the madness of, 231 Hermes, 41, 45, 99 f., 101 f., 229, 263 Hesiod, 13 Hesione, 347, 351 Hesperides, 201 Hierapolis, 50 hippocamps, 33 Hippodameia, 69, 71, 119, 323 Hippolytus, 141 Hippomedon, 253, 257 Homer. 7, 33, 133, 159, 163, 249, 267,

269, 319, 325, 329, 417 Horae, 47, 101, 269 horses, 47, 105, 109, 119, 133, 137, 141,

145, 187, 347, 403 hospitality, 243 hunters, 107, 297 hyacinth, 93, 161, 269 Hyacinthus, 93, 353 Hyades, 329 Hvllus, 363 Hymettus, 181 hymn, 331, 345

Hium, 183, 293, 325

Imbros, 195

Inachus, 33

Indian, statue of, 389

Ino, 193, 423

Ionia, 163

Iphitus, 241

Islands, 195

Ister, 47, 97

Isthmus, 193, 195

lyy, 59, 63, 79, 89, 97, 203, 299, 379

Ixion, 139

Jason, 189, 315, 343, 361, 365

kingfisher, 191

labyrinth, 63

Lacedaemonians, 95, 117, 153 landscape, 35 Laomedon, 351 laurel, 179 Lechaeum, 195 Lemnos, 195 leopard, 63, 79

Lesbos, 133, 195

Leto, 295, 353, 355

Leucothea, 193

Lindians, 231, 237

lion, 73, 119, 213, 311, 339, 403

Locrian, 181, 183

looms, 249

lotus, 161

Lucian, 19

Lybia, 229

Lycambes, 13

Lvcomedes, 289, 293

Lydia, Lydians, 69, 71, 77, 117, 119,

123, 165, 321 Lynceus, 189

lyre, 41, 137, 297, 401, 403 Lysippus, 395

ilacedonians, 419 magpie, 211 Maia, 101 f . Maron, 77 marsh, 35

Marsvas, 81, 235

Medea, 313, 319, 343, 419

Medusa, 115

Megaera, 61 ^

Megara, 233

Meleager, 357

Meles, 159, 163

Meliboea, 365

Melicertes, 193

Melpomene, 351

Memnon, 29, 31, 155, 379, 407

Menelaiis, 155, 365

Menoeceus, 15

Midas, 85

minotaur, 65

monster, 347

moral of a painting, 11

mountains, personified, 101, 143

mulberry, 255

Muses, 41, 59, 163, 215, 353, 395, 401

Myron's discobolus, 95

Myrtilus, 69, 323

myrtle, 179

naiads, 163, 179 Naples, 5

Narcissus, 83, 89, 391 narthex, 76 Nature, 297, 417 Naxos, 61 Neoptolemus, 325 nereids, 163, 193, 197, 423



Nereus, 289

Nessus, 361

Night, 9, 47, 309

nightingale, 299

Nile, 19, 31, 97, 185

nymphs, 21, 87, 107, 177, 225, 245, 389

oak, 205, 267

Oak's Heads, 219

Oceanus, 109, 165, 331, 341, 423

Odysseus, 177, 289 f., 327

Oebalus, 355

Oeneus, 305, 361

Oenomaiis, 69, 119, 321

offerings, 27, 29, 167, 193, 257, 267

olive, 15, 71, 151

Olmeius, 163, 401

Olympia, 263

Olympic games, 149, 217

Olympus, 81, 83

Olympus, Mt., 101

Opportunity, statue of, 395

oracle, 293

Orion, 329

Oropus, 107, 343

Orpheus, 187, 191, 309, 343, 401

Orthian strain, 39

owl, 203 f .

Pactolus, 97 Paean, 217, 353, 411 painting

atmosphere in, 5

chiaroscuro, 222, 265

clever points of, 11, 17, 39, 41, 53, 63, 103, 119, 165

delineation of character, 157, 159, 171, 288, 295, 305, 313, 317

drawing, 67

foreshortening in, 45

pigments, 109

technical terms, 45, 67, 109

theory of, 3, 279, 299

truth of representation, 3, 11, 109, 155, 179, 181, 261, 265, 277, 339 Palaemon, 81, 191, 193 Palaestra, 263 palm, 41

Pan, 61, 63, 77, 177, 181, 379 pancratium, 241 Pantheia, 165 Paphos, 131 Parrot, 211 parsley, 37, 243 Parthenopaeus, 253


Pasiphae, 65

Patroclus, 7, 133, 155

Pausanius, 41

pears, 123

Pegasus, 401

Peleus, 291, 359

Pelion, 139

Pelops, 69, 71, 119, 321, 325

Peneius, 97, 165, 185

Penelope, 249

Pentheus, 61, 73

Perseus, 115

Persians, 145, 165

personilication of

day, 379, 407, 409

doom, 335

earth, 227

meadows, 143

mountains, 101, 143

night, 9, 47, 309

rivers, 99, 187, 297, 319

sleep, 229

strife, 335

truth, 107

tumult, 335 perspective, 17 Phaedra, 141 Phaethon, 45 Phasis, 315, 319, 343 Phlegyans, 215 Phocis, 217 Phoenicians, 111 Phoenix, 293 Pholoe, 363 Phorbas, 215 Phrixus, 189 Phrvgian, 51, 85, 295 Pindar, 179, 237 pine, 85, 193, 205, 213, 311 pipe, shepherd's, 213, 335, 377 plastic art, 3 Pleiades, 329, 401 Plutarch. 17 n. Plutus, 247 Poeas, 365

Polyneices, 15, 105, 253, 255 Polyphemus, 213 Pontus, 319 poplar, 311 Poseidon, 21, 33, 71, 119, 159, 183,

185, 193, 197, 213, 321 potter's wheel, 341 Praxiteles, 385, 403, 413 praver, 113, 117, 119, 267 Priam, 133, 173


prophetess, 171 Protesilaiis, 169 Proteus, 209 Pyrrbus, 289, 291, 325, 341

razors, 179

Ehea, 179, 181

Rhodes, Rhodians, 237, 247

Ehodogouue, 145

rivers, personified, 99, 187, 297, 319

roses, 11, 63, 269

sacrifice, 233, 239, 247, 255, 257, 267

Salamis, 261

Sappho, 129

satyrs, 79, 81, 85, 99, 297, 377

Scamander, 7, 130, 133. 175

Sceiron, 423

Scopas, 381

sculpture, 3

Scyros, 289

Scythian, 421

Seilenus, 86, 99, 203

Semele, 59

Seres, 249

serpents, 203, 303, 307

ships, 63, 77, 181, 189, 197, 207

singers, 129

Sipylus, Mt., 71

sirens, 211

Sisyphus, 193

Sophocles, 287, 351

spiderwebs, 249

statues, 31, 181

swan, 37, 47

symbolism, 51, 63

symbols, use of, 21

Symplegadae, 187, 319

syrinx, 395

Teiresias, 17 Temps, 97 tern, 207

Thebans, 15, 41. 59, 73, 257, 309

Theiodamas, 237

Themistocles, 259

Theseus, 61, 141

Thessalv, 185, 189

Thetis, 289

Thrace, 313

thyrsus. 39, 73, 87, 99, 203, 383, 407

Tiphys, 189

Titaresius, 165, 187

Tmolus, Mt., 79

tortoise shell, 43

trees, 35, 85, 193, 197, 205, 311

tripod, 133

Tritons, 99, 215

Trojans, 183

Troy {see also Ilium), 293, 365

Tydeus, 253, 257, 291

Typho, 201

Tyro, 159

Tyrrhenian pirates, 75

Uranus, 131

Tine, 79, 125, 203, 211, 271, 297, 339

wagon, 199

water-clock, 83

wolves, 113, 311

wrestling, 151, 153, 225, 263

Xanthus, 137, 165, 325 Xenia, 123, 243 Xenophon, 165 Xerxes, 261

Youth, statue of a, 413

Zephvrus, 39, 47, 81, 92, 97, 135, 195,

357, 423 Zeus, 59, 165, 189, 201, 247, 257, 267,

269 Zeus Herkeios, 233


Printed in Great Britain by

Richard Clay & Sons, Limited,

bungay, suffolk.

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Imagines (work by Philostratus)" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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