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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Les Enragés (literally "the Enraged Ones") were a radical group active during the French Revolution of 1789 opposed to the Jacobins. Initiated by Jacques Roux, Théophile Leclerc, Jean Varlet and others, they believed that liberty for all meant more than mere constitutional rights. Roux once said that "liberty is no more than an empty shell when one class is allowed to condemn another to starvation and no measures taken against them".

The demands of the enragés included:

  • Price controls on grain
  • The assignat as the only legal tender
  • Repression of counterrevolutionary activity
  • A progressive income tax

They were supported by the sans-culottes. To the left of the Montagnards, the enragés were fought against by Maximilien de Robespierre and reëmerged as the group of Hébertistes. Their ideas were taken up and developed by Babeuf and his associates.

Another group styling itself les enragés emerged in France in 1968 among students at Nanterre University. They were heavily influenced by the Situationists and would go on to be one of the leading groups in the May 1968 French insurrection.

They also were considered the highest radicals of the French Revolution. At one point, they rounded up a group of suspected counter-revolutionaries onto a boat, then took the boat out to sea and sank it.


Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Enragés" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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