Environmental determinism  

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"On a map of the world in terms of product or income per head, the rich countries lie in the temperate zone, particularly in the northern hemisphere; the poor countries, in the tropics and semi-tropics" (p. 5). --The Wealth and Poverty of Nations (1998), David Landes


"It was Henry Thomas Buckle who was the first to realise the value of a critical study of the influence of nature upon individuals and peoples. One glance at the map of Europe shows most clearly how the peculiar position of England must have influenced the character of the English." --Sex Life in England

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Environmental determinism (also known as climatic determinism or geographical determinism) is the study of how the physical environment predisposes societies and states towards particular development trajectories. Nineteenth century approaches held that climate and terrain largely determined human activity and psychology, and it was associated with institutionalized racism and eugenics. Jared Diamond, Jeffrey Herbst, and other social scientists sparked a revival of the theory during the late twentieth century. This "neo-environmental determinism" school of thought examines how geographic and ecological forces influence state-building, economic development, and institutions.

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Environmental determinism" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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