Etching revival  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

The Etching Revival is the name given by at the time, and by art historians, to the renaissance of etching as an original form of printmaking during a period of time stretching approximately from 1850 to 1930.

Historical outline

During the century after Rembrandt's death the techniques of etching and drypoint brought to their highest point by him gradually declined. By the late eighteenth century, with brilliant exceptions like Piranesi and Tiepolo , most etchings were reproductive or illustrative.

However, in the 1840's and 50's in France, a number of artists did produce some landscape etchings which seemed to recapture some of the spirit of the old master print. Daubigny, Millet and especially Charles Jacque produced etchings that were different from those heavily worked reproductive plates of the previous century. Three people were of special importance to the French Etching Revival - the publisher Cadart, the printer Auguste Delatre and Maxime Lalanne, an etcher who wrote a popular textbook of etching in 1866.

"A Treatise on Etching" by Lalanne was translated by S.R. Koehler and published in the United States in 1880. It played a significant role in the Etching Revival in America.

However, before the translation of Lalanne's book, Philip Gilbert Hamerton had become an enthiusiastic promoter of etching in Britain. His "Etching and Etchers" (1868) was more an art history than a technical text but it did much to popularize the art and some of its modern practitioners. The book went through many editions till the 20th century. By the 1870's Hamerton was also publishing an influential periodical, titled "The Portfolio", that published etchings in editions of 1000 copies.

For Hamerton and others, the father of the British Etching Revival was Francis Seymour Haden, the surgeon etcher, who, with his brother-in-law, the American, James Whistler, produced a body of work starting around 1860 that still stands as one the highpoints of etching history. Haden was a collector and authority on the etchings of Rembrandt and it comes as no surprise that as Whistler, the younger man, began to show signs of veering far from the 17th century model, Haden and he parted company.

It was Whistler who convinced the artist Alphonse Legros, one of the members of the French Revival, to come to England as a teacher. This linking of the art of the two countries, though short-lived, did much to validate etching as an art form. Very soon, French etching would show the same modernist signs that French art showed generally, while English and American etching remained true to the kind of technical proficiency and subject matter artists revered in Rembrandt.

Notable etchers

There are literally hundreds of artists, whose names are now more-or-less unknown, who became proficient etchers and whose works were avidly collected from the 1890's till 1930.

In Britain the first wave included:

In the United States :

might be considered the important figures at the turn of the century, and the New York Etching Club was formed as the primary professional etching organization. The next generation of etchers are too numerous to name here but they might include such names as William Walcot, Frederick Griggs, Malcolm Osborne, James McBey and Edmund Blampied in Britain, John Sloan, Martin Lewis and John Taylor Arms in the United States.

Fall in popularity

Etching as a collected and therefore as a practised art appears to have died with the Great Depression. Without a large group of collectors many artists returned to their canvases. Etchings fell hugely in value until the 1980s when a new market (albeit a small one) began to develop for what is now seen as a small but important tributary of the stream of 19th and 20th century art.

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Etching revival" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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