Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism  

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The Titan's Goblet (1833) by Thomas Cole
The Titan's Goblet (1833) by Thomas Cole
All is Vanity (1892) by Charles Allan Gilbert
All is Vanity (1892) by Charles Allan Gilbert

"The four floors of the Museum will be devoted to the exhibition, which will include more than 700 objects [...] ranging from such extremes as Giovanni di Paolo and Leonardo da Vinci of the fifteenth century to Walt Disney, Rube Goldberg and Thurber of the twentieth century, and including such famous names both old and modern as Hieronymus Bosch, Duerer, Arcimboldo, Hogarth, William Blake, Cruickshank, Lewis Carrol, Daumier, Delacroix, Edward Lear, Redon, Chagall, de Chirico, Duchamp, Picasso, Arp, Dali, Ernst, Grosz, Magritte, Miro, Klee, Man Ray, Tanguy, Peter Blume, Georgia O'Keeffe, and Alexander Calder."--Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism (1936)

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Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism (1936) was an exhibition at New York's Museum of Modern Art curated by Alfred H. Barr Jr. founding Director of The Museum of Modern Art. It ran from December 7, 1936 until January 17, 1937. The catalog was written by Alfred Barr and Georges Hugnet.

In the so-called fantastic art category, works such as The Titan's Goblet by Thomas Cole were included. The catalog included many more of these paintings, which were not in display.

Of note among the new work was Le Déjeuner en fourrure.

The exhibition had a section on proto-surrealism and proto-dada dedicated to surrealism and dada avant-la-lettre.

It included work by Arcimboldo, Hieronymous Bosch, Albrecht Dürer, Peter Huys, Leonardo Da Vinci, Giovanni Battista Bracelli, William Hogarth, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, William Blake, Lewis Carroll, Thomas Cole, Eugène Delacroix, James Ensor, Henry Fuseli, Francisco Goya, Victor Marie Hugo, Edward Lear, Odilon Redon, Henri Rousseau, Marc Chagall, Giorgio de Chirico, Marcel Duchamp, Vasily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Pablo Picasso, Hans Arp, Johannes Baader, J. T. Baargeld, Max Ernst, Hans Bellmer, Edward Burra, Joseph Cornell, Salvador Dali, Oscar Dominguez, Leonor Fini, Alberto Giacometti, George Grosz, Raoul Haussmann, Hannah Höch, Valentine Hugo, Marcel Jean, René Magritte, André Masson, Edouard Mesens, Joan Miro, Henry Moore, Richard Oelze, Meret Oppenheim, Wolfgang Paalen, Dr. Grace Pailthorpe, Francis Picabia, Man Ray, Christian Schad, Kurt Schwitters, Yves Tanguy, Sophie Henriette Täuber-Arp, Peter Blume, Alexander Calder, Federico Castellón, Arthur Dove, Walker Evans, Wyndham Lewis, Georgia O’Keefe, Wallace Putnam, David Alfaro Siqueiros, James Thurber, Antonio Gaudi, and Kurt Schwitters.


Press release

Press release for Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism, source [1]

Full text[2]

The Museum of Modern Art, 11 West 53 Street, announces that its Exhibition of Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism will open to the public Wednesday morning, December 9. The public opening will be preceded by a private preview and reception given by the Trustees to members of the Museum and their guests on Tuesday evening, December 8. The Exliibition will remain on viev/ through Sunday, January 17, except on Christmas and New Year's Days, when the Museum is to be closed.

The four floors of the Museum will be devoted to the exhibition, which will include more than 700 objects. The earliest date of any object shown will be about 1450; the latest, 1936. More than 157 American and European artists will be represented, ranging from such extremes as Giovanni di Paolo and Leonardo da Vinci of the fifteenth century to Walt Disney, Rube Goldberg and Thurber of the twentieth century, and including such famous names both old and modern as Hieronymus Bosch, Duerer, Arcimboldo, Hogarth, William Blake, Cruickshank, Lewis Carrol, Daumier, Delacroix, Edward Lear, Redon, Chagall, de Chirico, Duchamp, Picasso, Arp, Dali, Ernst, Grosz, Magritte,Miro, Klee, Man Ray, Tanguy, Peter Blume, Georgia O'Keeffe, and Alexander Calder.

The exhibition is under the direction of Alfred H. Barr, Jr., Director of the Museum, who states in his Preface to the catalog: "Fantastic art, Dada and Surrealism is the second of a series of exhibitions planned to present in an objective and historical manner the principal movements of modern art. The first of these, Cubism and Abstract Art, was held at the Museum in the spring of this year.

The fantastic and marvellous in European and American art of the past five centuries is represented by about one hundred and fifty items. The main body of the exhibition is devoted to the Dada and Surrealist movements of the past twenty years together with certain pioneers.

A number of artists, both American and European, who have worked along related but independent lines, are brought together in a separate division. There are also special sections on fantastic architecture and on comparative material, including the art of children, and the insane.

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In giving a brief outline of Dada and Surrealism, ;ir. Barr states: "In Zurich in 1916, well before the end of the war, Dada was born, the child of disillusion and spiritual exhaustion. The Dadaists scoffed at all conventional values and all pretensions. They rejected everything (including modern art) and accepted anything.

They made pictures of flotsam, odds and ends, paper, string, snapshots, clockworks, popular illustrations, lace and bus tickets. They made pictures with their eyes shut or their backs turned. After the Armistice Dadaism grow in Paris and Germany. Dada was a bitter gesture made by artists for whom the war, Versailles and inflation had made civilization and art, temporarily at least, a bad joke.

"Surrealism, which developed in Paris around 1924, was the direct descendent of the Dadaist interest in the bizarre, the spontaneous, and the anti-rational. But while the Surrealist program carried on the iconoclasm of Dada it added serious researches into subconscious images, dreams, visions, automatic and psychoanalytic drawings.

"Surrealism, so far as its serious adherents are concerned, is more than a literary or an art movement: it is a philosophy, a way of life, a cause which has involved some of the most brilliant painters and poets of our age.

Since the formation of its nucleus in Paris fifteen years ago Surrealism has spread throughout the world with active groups in London, Brussels, Warsaw, Copenhagen, Prague, Barcelona, Belgrade, Stockholm, Teneriffe, Japan and New York."

It was in 1922 that Andre* Breton, French poet, writer and editor who had been a practicing psychiatrist during the war, gathered most of the ex-Dadaists into a new group which assumed the name "Surrealist)' in 1924, when Breton published the First Manifesto of Surrealism.

Breton defined Surrealism as follows:


Pure psychic automatism, by which it is intended to express, verbally, in writing, or by other means, the real process of thought. Thought1s dictation, in the absence of all control exercised by the reason and outside all aesthetic or moral preoccupations. Surrealism rests in the belief in the superior reality of certain forms of association neglected heretofore; in the omnipotence of the dream and in the disinterested play of thought. It tends definitely to do away with all other psychic mechanisms and to substitute itself for thorn in the solution of the principal problems of life.

Breton also has declared: I am resolved to render powerless that hatred of the marvellous which is so rampant among certain people, that

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ridicule to which they are no eager to expo DO it. Briefly: The marvellous ic always beautiful, anything that is marvellouD in beautiful; indeed, nothing but the marvellous in beautiful."

European artists represented in the Exhibition may be grouped an follows: Fantastic Art of the Past: 15th and 16th centurion: Arcimboldo, Baldung, Hieronymus Bosch, Brueghel, Duerer, Finé, Floris, Giovanni de Paolo, Goujon, Huys, Jamnitzer, Leonardo da Vinci, Agostino de Musi, Penni, Richier, Schongauer, Schoen, Vogtherr.

17th and 18th centuries; Paul de la Barre, Stefano della Bella, Boemmel, Bracelli, Callot, Eeckhout, Hogarth, Larmessin, Morghen, Piranesi.

From the French Revolution to the Great War:

Jean Victor Adam, William Blake, Bresdin, Busch, Lewis Carroll, Cruickshank, Daumier, Delacroix, Ensor, Fuessli, Gaillot, Gill, Gillray, Goya, Grandville, Heath, Victor Hugo, Kubin, Edward Lear, Lenormand, Lucas, Meryon, Naegele, Le Poitevin, Ramelet, Redon, Rousseau; classified in this group are two American artists, Joseph Boggs Beale and Thomas Cole.

20th Century Pioneers:

Chagall, De Chirico, Duchamp, Kandinsky, Klee, Picasso.

Dada and Surrealism:

Agar, Aragon, Arp, Baader, Baargeld, Banting, Bellmer, Brauner, Dominguez, Eluard, Ernst, Fini, Giacometti, Grosz, Haussmann, Hayter, Hoech, Hugo, Hugnet, Janco, Jean, Maar, Magritte, Masson, Mednikoff, Mesens, Miro , Moore, Nash, Oelze, Oppenheim, Paalen, Pailthorpe, Penrose, Picabia, Man Ray, Ribemont-Dessaignes, Schad, Schwitters, Seligmann, Tanguy, Tauber-Arp, Tzara.

Artists Independent of the Dada-Surrealist movements:

Bayer, Domela-Nieuwenhuis, Fernandez, Gonzales, Kukryniksy (composite name of three Russian illustrators: Kupriyanov, Krylov, Sokolov), Wyndham Lewis, Malevich, Moholy-Nagy, Pierre Roy, Tonny, Ganz, Benquet, Cheval, Gaudi, Guimard, Terry; classified in this group is the greatest number of American artists in the exhibition: Russell Barnett Aitken, Julien Alberts, C.C. Beall, Fred G. Becker, Meyer Bernstein, Peter Blume, Alexander Calder, Federico Castellon, Walter E. Disney, Arthur B. Dove, Katherine S. Dreier, Walker Evans, Lorser Feitelson, Hugo Gellert, Allan C. Gilbert, Reuben Lucius Goldberg, O. Louis Guglielmi, Waldo Glover Kaufer, Benjamin Kopman, Helen Lundeberg, George Platt Lynes, Loren MacIver, George J. Marinko, Knud Merrild, Isamu Noguchi, Georgia O'Keeffe, Wallace Putnam, David Alfaro Siqueiros, André Smith, Harry Sternberg, James Thurber, George A. Wotherspoon, Jeane Hoisington, Elizabeth King Hawley.


Fantastic art, dada, surrealism Edited by Alfred H. Barr, Jr., essays by Georges Hugnet Date 1936 Publisher The Museum of Modern Art Exhibition URL The Museum of Modern Art's exhibition history— from our founding in 1929 to the present—is available online. It includes exhibition catalogues, primary documents, installation views, and an index of participating artists. MoMA © 2017 The Museum of Modern Art


Fantastic Art Dada Surrealism edited by Alfred H. Barr, Jr. essays by Georges Hugnet The Museum of Modem Art, New York, 1936 r ' fc bju-t f%MA 5 5 mi

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Copyright, December 1936, The Museum of Modern Art, 11 West 53 Street, New York Second edition, revised and enlarged, copyright, July 1937 1 ^ 14- Contents age Acknowledgments P 4 Preface to the first edition by Alfred H. Barr, Jr. 7 Introduction by A. H. B., Jr. 9 Dada by Georges Hugnet 15 In the light of Surrealism by Georges Hugnet 35 M. Hugnet's essays have been translated by Margaret Scolari Brief chronology by Elodie Courter and A. H. B., Jr. 53 The Dada and Surrealist movements with certain pioneers and antecedents A list of devices, techniques, media 65 Plates 67 Fantastic art: 15th and 16th centuries plate nos. 5 -49 Fantastic art: 17th and 18th centuries plate nos. 50 -90 Fantastic art: the French Revolution to the Great War plate nos. 93- -180 20th century pioneers plate nos. 184- -261 Dada and Surrealism plate nos. 262- -512 Artists independent of the Dada and Surrealist movements plate nos. 523--584 Comparative material plate nos. 586- -629 Fantastic architecture plate nos. 645- -688 Catalog of the exhibition 245 Fantastic and Surrealist films in the Museum of Modern Art Film Library 287 Brief bibliography 289 Index 293 The design on title page and cover is taken from a drawing by Hans Arp, lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris. A "myograph." by Man Ray is reproduced on the jacket.**- Acknowledgments The exhibition has been selected from the following collections : Mr. and Mrs. John E. Abbott, New York Abstraction-Creation, Paris W. G. Russell Allen, Boston Frank Arp, Paris Hans Arp, Meudon, France John Banting, London Herbert Bayer, Berlin Denise Bellon, Paris Meyer Bernstein, New York Cornelius N. Bliss, New York Andre Breton, Paris Mario Broglio, Cuneo, Italy J. B. Brunius, Paris Edward Burra, London Alexander Calder, New York Marc Chagall, Paris Mr. and Mrs. Henry Clifford, Philadelphia Joseph Cornell, Flushing, New York Mrs. W. Murray Crane, New York Miss Marion L. Creaser, Grand Rapids, Michigan Walt and Roy Disney, Hollywood, California Cesar Domela-Nieuwenhuis, Paris Oscar Dominguez, Paris Miss Katherine S. Dreier, New York Andre Ducrot, Paris Paul Eluard, Paris Max Ernst, Paris Walker Evans, New York The Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration Lorser Feitelson, Hollywood, California Rene Gaffe, Brussels Professor Paul Ganz, Basle Alberto Giacometti, Paris Reuben Lucius Goldberg, New York A. Conger Goodyear, New York Miss Adelaide M. de Groot, New York Mr. and Mrs. Solomon R. Guggenheim, New York The Guidance Laboratory, Teachers Col lege, Columbia University, New York Hector Guimard, Paris Stanley William Hayter, Paris Ernest Hemingway, Key West, Florida Philip Hofer, New York Georges Hugnet, Paris Mme. Valentine Hugo, Paris William M. Ivins, Jr., New York Edward James, London Sidney Janis, New York Pierre Janlet, Brussels Marcel Jean, Paris Philip Johnson, New London, Ohio Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris Leon Kochnitzky, Paris Julien Levy, New York Jay Leyda, New York Mme. Yvonne Liguieres, Paris Jacques Lipchitz, Paris Miss Janice Loeb, Paris E. V. Lucas, London Mrs. Victor Herbert Lukens, South Orange, New Jersey George Piatt Lynes, New York Henry P. Mcllhenny, Philadelphia Miss Loren Maclver, New York Rene Magritte, Brussels Andre de Mandiargues, Paris A. Hyatt Mayor, New York Reuben Mednikoff, London Edouard L. T. Mesens, Brussels Ladislaus Moholy-Nagy, London Henry Moore, London Mr. and Mrs. George L. K. Morris, New York Paul Nash, London The Vicomte Charles de Noailles, Paris Isamu Noguchi, New York Meret Oppenheim, Paris Wolfgang Paalen, Paris Dr. Grace Pailthorpe, London Roland A. Penrose, London Mme. Francis Picabia, Paris Bernard Poissonnier, Paris Allen Porter, New York Joseph Pulitzer, Jr., St. Louis, Missouri Wallace Putnam, New York Charles Ratton, Paris Man Ray, Paris Mrs. Bernard Raymond, New York Marcel Rochas, Paris Pierre Roche, Paris Miss Elsa Schmid, New York Ernst Schwitters Miss Margaret Scolari, New York Victor Servranckx, Brussels Mrs. Kenneth F. Simpson, New York Andre Smith, Stony Creek, Connecticut James Thrall Soby, Farmington, Connecticut Ladislas Szecsi, Paris Yves Tanguy, Paris Emilio Terry, Paris James Thurber, Litchfield, Connecticut Mr. and Mrs. Philip Trotter, The Muti lated House, Maida Vale, London Tristan Tzara, Paris Georges Vantongerloo, Paris Mme. Tilly Visser, Paris Vordemberge-Gildewart, Berlin Waldes Koh-i-noor, Inc., Long Island City Edward Wasserman, New York Basil Wright, London M. and Mme. Christian Zervos, Paris The American Folk Art Gallery, New Vork An American Place, New York The Bignou Gallery, New York Galerie Bonaparte, Paris Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris The Downtown Gallery, New York Marie Harriman Gallery, New York M. Knoedler and Company, Inc., New York Lucien Lefebvre-Foinet, Paris Julien Levy Gallery, New York Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York J. B. Neumann, New York Galerie Simon, Paris The Marie Sterner Gallery, New York Ambroise Vollard, Paris Weyhe Gallery, New York Royal Antwerp Gallery, Antwerp Museum of Fine Arts, Boston William Hayes Fogg Art Museum, Cambridge, Massachusetts Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford The Honolulu Academy of Arts, Honolulu William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City, Missouri The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Societe Anonyme, Museum of Modern Art, New York Whitney Museum of American Art, New York The Louvre Museum, Paris The Trustee of the Johnson Collection, Philadelphia In addition to those who have lent to the Exhibition, the President and Trus tees wish to thank the following for their assistance: Mr. W. G. Russell Allen, Boston; M. Andre Breton, Paris; M. J. B. Brunius, Paris'; Mme. Jeanne Bucher, Paris; Mr. Fitzroy Carrington, New York; Miss Doris Clark, Forest Hills; Mr. Erich Cohn, New York; Miss Katherine S. Dreier, New York; M. Marcel Duchamp, Paris; Mr. H. S. Ede, London; M. Paul Eluard, Paris; M. Max 5 Ernst, Paris; Mile. Leonor Fini, Paris; M. Lucien Lefebvre-Foinet, Paris; Prof. Adolph Goldschmidt, Berlin; Mr. George Grosz, New York; Mr. Philip Hofer, New York; M. Georges Hugnet, Paris; Mine. Valentine Hugo, Paris; M. Pierre Janlet, Brussels; Mr. William M. Ivins, Jr., New York; M. D. H. Kahnweiler, Paris; Mr. Julien Levy, New York; Mr. Jay Leyda, New York; Miss Janice Loeb, Paris; M. Eustache de Lorey, Paris; Mr. Henri Marceau, Philadelphia; Miss Nicky Mariano, Settignano; Mr. Pierre Matisse, New York; Mr. A. Hyatt Mayor, New York; Mr. Henry P. Mcllhenny, Phila delphia; Mr. and Mrs. Millard Meiss, New York; M. Edouard L. T. Mesens, Brussels; Miss Agnes Mongan, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Mrs. Harriet K. Morse, New York; Mr. J. B. Neumann, New York; Prof. Erwin Panofsky, Princeton; Mr. Roland A. Penrose, London; Mr. Vilh. Bjerke-Petersen, Copenhagen; Director Leo van Puyvelde, Brussels; Mr. Man Ray, Paris; The Baroness Hilla von Rebay, New York; Mrs. Kurt Schwitters; Miss Margaret Scolari, New York; Mr. Laurence Sickman, Kansas City, Missouri; Mr. Alfred Stieglitz, New York; Mr. James Johnson Sweeney, New York; Mme. Sophie Tauber-Arp, Meudon, France; Mr. Edward M. M. Warburg, New York; Mr. Harry B. Wehle, New York; M. et Mme. Christian Zervos, Paris; M. Marius de Zayas, Le Monestier de Clermont, Isere; Mr. Carl Zigrosser, New York; Dr. Gregory Zilboorg, New York. T rustees A. Conger Goodyear, President ; Nelson A. Rockefeller, 1st Vice-President; Mrs. John S. Sheppard, 2nd Vice-President; Samuel A. Lewisohn, Treasurer. Cornelius N. Bliss, Mrs. Robert Voods Bliss, Stephen C. Clark, Mrs. 'W. Murray Crane, The Lord Duveen of Millbank, Marshall Field, Edsel B. Ford, Philip Goodwin, Mrs. Charles S. Payson, Mrs. Stanley Resor, Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr., Beardsley Ruml. Paul J. Sachs, Edward M. M. Warburg, John Hay Whitney. Honorary Trustees: Fred eric Clay Bartlett, Frank Crowninshield, Duncan Phillips, Mrs. Cornelius J. Sullivan. Staff Alfred H. Barr, Jr., Director; Thomas Dabney Mabry, Jr., Executive Director; Ernes tine M. Fantl, Curator of Architecture and Industrial Art; Dorothy C. Miller, Assistant Curator of Painting and Sculpture; Beaumont Newhall, Librarian; Frances Collins, Manager of Publications; Elodie Courter, Secretary of Circulating Exhibitions; Sarah Newmeyer, Director of Publicity; lone Ulrich, Assistant to Executive Director; Dor othy Dudley, Registrar; John Ekstrom, Superintendent of Building; Ernest Tremp, Assistant at Information Desk. Museum of Modern Art Film Library; John E. Abbott, Director; Iris Barry, Curator. 6 Preface to the first edition Fantastic Art , Dada and Surrealism is the second of a series of exhibitions planned to present in an objective and historical manner the principal move ments of modern art. The first of these, Cubism and Abstract Art , was held at the Museum in the spring of this year. The divisions of the exhibition are self-explanatory. The fantastic and the marvelous in European and American art of the past five centuries is repre sented in a rather cursory way. The main body of the exhibition is represented by the Dada— Surrealist movement of the past twenty years together with cer tain of its pioneers. A number of artists who have worked along related but independent lines are brought together in a separate division. Then follow sections on comparative material and on fantastic architecture. Even the most casual observer will notice certain obvious resemblances between some of the works in the historical division and certain Dada and Surrealist works: for example the use of the biaxial composite double image in the two paintings, no. 2 and no. 320, or the animation of the inanimate in the work of Bracelli, no. 53, Larmessin, no. 71, Beale, no. 93, Williams, no. 169, Busch, no. 103, Ernst, no. 343, Dali, no. 323. These resemblances, however startling, may prove to be superficial or merely technical in character rather than psychological. The study of the art of the past in the light of Sur realist esthetic is only just beginning. Genuine analogies may exist but they must be kept tentative until our knowledge of the states of mind of, say, Bosch or Bracelli has been increased by systematic research and comparison. One may suppose, however, that many of the fantastic and apparently Surrealist works of the Baroque or Renaissance are to be explained on rational grounds rather than on a Surrealist basis of subconscious and irrational expression. The section devoted to the art of the past has been strictly limited. Only European art since the end of the middle ages is represented. Oriental art and the extremely relevant art of primitive and prehistoric man have not been touched. The section on comparative material is also arbitrarily limited. No natural objects of a Surrealist character, or photographs of them, are included (save only the bearded grapes of Albersweiler, no. 44a) and no documents from such rich fields as spiritualism, astrology, magic, alchemy and other occult sciences. No attempt will be made in this preface to add to the already very large body of writing about Dada and Surrealism.* The bibliography lists several 7 instructive works both of explanation by participants in these movements and of criticism by outside observers. The chronology may serve to refresh the memory of those interested in historical sequences. In any case the works of art, or their reproductions, are eloquent. It should however be stated that Surrealism as an art movement is a serious affair and that for many it is more than an art movement: it is a philosophy, a way of life, a cause to which some of the most brilliant painters and poets of our age are giving themselves with consuming devotion. A. H. B., Jr. 8 Introduction In presenting this exhibition of Fantastic Art, Dada, Surrealism, the Museum does not intend to sponsor a particular aspect of modern art, but rather to make a report to the public by offering material for study and comparison. This is, in fact, the fifty-fifth exhibition held by the Museum and the second in the series of general retrospective exhibitions of modern movements. The first of the retrospective series, Cubism and Abstract Art, was, as it happens, diametrically opposed in both spirit and esthetic principles to the present exhibition. The explanation of the kind of art shown in this exhibition may be sought in the deep-seated and persistent interest which human beings have in the fan tastic, the irrational, the spontaneous, the marvelous, the enigmatic, and the dreamlike. These qualities have always been present in the metaphors and similes of poetry but they have been less frequent in painting, which in the past was largely concerned with reproducing external reality, with decoration, or, as in some of the more advanced movements of recent years, with the com position of color and line into formal design. Fantastic art of the past Fantastic subject matter has been found in European art of all periods. The art of the middle ages, with its scenes of Hell (no. 15) and the Apocalypse, its circumstantial illustrations of holy miracles (25) and supernatural marvels (7), seems from a rational point of view to have been predominantly fantastic. Most of this subject matter was of a traditional or collective character, hut the Dutch artist Bosch (10, 14, 15, 32), working at the end of the Gothic period, transformed traditional fantasy into a highly personal and original vision which links his art with that of the modern Surrealists. During the Renaissance and the 17th century, fantastic art is to be seen principally in the art of minor men or in obscure works of great masters. Such technical devices (now used by the Surrealists) as the double-image (6), the composite image (5), distorted perspective (49), and the isolation of anatomi cal fragments (27) were practised at this time. It should, however, he pointed out that many of the fantastic works of the past, such as the engravings of Larmessin (70, 71), Hogarth (56-60), and memento mori compositions such This introduction was originally published under the title, A Brief Guide to the Exhibition of Fan tastic Art, Dada, Surrealism, January, 1937. 9 as no. 90, have a rational basis, magical, satirical or scientific, which distin guishes them from the art of the recent Dadaists and Surrealists. The beginning of Romanticism in the mid-18th century brought with it a more serious kind of fantastic art in the terrifying prison perspectives of Piranesi (81a) and the nightmares of Fiissli (112). By the year 1800, two of the greatest artists of the period, Blake (94) and Goya (124), were using in their most significant work fantastic, enigmatic images. In the 19th century fantastic satire or humor was often used by European and American caricaturists. A purer vein of fantasy is to be found in the drawings of Gaillot (119), Victor Hugo (133), and Grandville (129-131) in France; Carroll (104) and Lear (142-144) in England; Busch (103) in Germany; Cole (105) and Beale (93) in America. By the end of the century a poetic tradition which passed in literature from Poe and Baudelaire through the French symbolists found its pictorial counterpart in certain works of Redon (163-167) Fantastic and anti-rational art of the present It is probable that at no time in the past four hundred years has the art of the marvelous and anti-rational been more conspicuous than at the present time. The two principal movements, Surrealism and its precursor, Dadaism, together with certain related artists, are discussed at length in the following articles by Georges Hugnet. Dada began in New York and Zurich about 1916 and flourished after the Great War in Cologne, Berlin, Hanover and Paris. The Dadaist painters and poets were moved by indignation and despair at the catastrophe of the Great War and the ensuing Peace (just as Blake and Goya had cried out against war and the hollow conventions of religion and society during the period of the Napolenoic Wars). As a result, there is much about Dada and its successor, Surrealism, that may seem wantonly outrageous and iconoclastic; in fact, these movements in advocatihg anti-rational values seem almost to have declared war on the con ventions and standards of respectable society. But it should be remembered that the Dadaists and Surrealists hold respectable society responsible for the War, the Treaty of Versailles, post-War inflation, rearmament and a variety of social, political and economic follies which have made the realities of mod ern Christendom in their eyes a spectacle of madness just as shocking as their most outrageous super-realities seem to the ordinary world which believes itself sane and normal. 10 With robust iconoclastic humor the Dadaists mocked what they considered the sorry shams of European culture. They even attacked art — especially "modern" art— but while they made fun of the pre-War Cubists, Expressionists and Futurists, they borrowed and transformed many of the principles and techniques of these earlier movements. In so doing the Dadaists, while attempting to free themselves from con ventional ideas of art, developed certain conventions of their own —for ex ample, automatism or absolute spontaneity of form (Arp, 264), extreme fan tasy of subject matter (Ernst, 349; Baargeld, 292; Hoch, 395), employment of accident or the laws of chance (Arp, 267 ; Man Ray, jacket of the catalog), fantastic use of mechanical and biological forms (Picabia, 462; Man Ray, 470; Ernst, 343, 346).

In many of their ideas the Dadaists had been anticipated by Kandinsky (226), Klee (231), Chagall (184, 185), de Chirico (193, 212), Duchamp (216, 220), Picasso (251). Surrealism Dada died in Paris about 1922 but from its ashes sprang Surrealism, under the leadership of the poet Andre Breton. The Surrealists preserved the antirational character of Dada but developed a far more systematic and serious experimental attitude toward the subconscious as the essential source of art. They practiced "automatic" drawing and writing, studied dreams and visions, the art of children and the insane, the theory and technique of psychoanalysis, the poetry of Lautreamont and Rimbaud. Among the original Surrealist artists were the ex-Dadaists Ernst, Arp, and Man Ray. About 1925, Masson and Miro joined the ranks for a few years, then Tanguy, Magritte and Giacometti, and, about 1930, Dali. The Surrealists also admired and claimed independent artists such as de Chirico, Klee, Duchamp, and Picasso. Technically, Surrealist painting falls roughly into two groups. The first group makes what can be called (to use Dali's phrase) hand-painted dream photographs— pictures of fantastic objects and scenes done with a technique as meticulously realistic as a Flemish primitive. Dali, Tanguy, Magritte are the chief masters of "dream photographs" but they owe a great deal to the early work of both de Chirico (190-215) and Ernst (349-353). The subject matter, the images, of Dali and Magritte are, supposedly, of extreme uncensored spontaneity; but their precise realistic technique is the opposite of spontaneous. The second kind of Surrealist painting suggests by 11 contrast complete spontaneity of technique as well as of subject matter. The free and almost casual technique of Masson (414, 416) and Miro (430, 439) belongs somewhat to the tradition of "automatic" drawing and painting pre viously carried on by Kandinsky (226), Klee (231, 234), and Arp (265). Picasso (257, 260, 261) and Ernst (349, 360, 373), the most versatile of the artists associated with Surrealism, are masters of many methods. Ernst is the foremost master of Surrealist collage (362) and of the semi-automatic technique of frottage (360; cf list of techniques on page 65). The Surrealist object Shortly before the War the Cubists incorporated in their painting and sculp ture fragments of ordinary materials such as matches, playing cards, bits of newspaper, calling cards, etc., thereby undermining the tradition that "art" must necessarily be in conventional media such as oil painting or bronze or marble. Cubist objects appealed to a sense of design or form but Dada and Surrealist objects have primarily a psychological interest— bizarre, dreamlike, absurd, uncanny, enigmatic. They are objects of "concrete irrationality". In 1914 Duehamp signed as a work of art an ordinary bottle drier (221), the first of a long series of "ready-mades" or ordinary manufactured objects which were to appear in Dada and Surrealist exhibitions. Some were shown unaltered, others were elaborately "assisted". The most famous Dada "readymade assisted" is Duehamp's Why not sneeze? (224), a bird cage, filled with marble cubes made to look like lumps of sugar, out of which sticks a ihermometer. Why not sneeze? is an object remarkable for the subtlety, complexity and humor of its multiple incongruities; Oppenheim's Fur-covered cup, plate and spoon (452) is simple by contrast but seems to exert an extraordinary and disquieting fascination: it is probably the most famous tea set in the world. Many other kinds of objects have a Surrealist character: for instance, the Oval wheel (624), the Object made from a Sears-Roebuck catalog (626), mathematical objects (36, 37, 629-643), botanical models (644), etc. Art of children and the insane Why should the art of children and the insane be exhibited together with works by mature and normal artists? But, of course, nothing could be more appropriate as comparative material in an exhibition of fantastic art, for many children and psychopaths exist, at least part of the time, in a world of their own unattainable to the rest of us save in art or in dreams in which the 12 imagination lives an unfettered life. Surrealist artists try to achieve a compar able freedom of the creative imagination, but they differ in one fundamental way from children and the insane: they are perfectly conscious of the differ ence between the world of fantasy and the world of reality, whereas children and the insane are often unable to make this distinction. Conclusion We can describe the contemporary movement toward an art of the marvelous and irrational but we are still too close to it to evaluate it. Apparently the movement is growing: under the name of Surrealism it is now active in a dozen countries of Europe, in North and South America, in Japan; it is influ encing artists outside the movement as well as designers of decorative and commercial art; it is serving as a link between psychology on one hand and poetry on the other ; it is frankly concerned with symbolic, "literary" or poetic subject matter and so finds itself in opposition to pure abstract art, realistic pictures of the social scene and ordinary studio painting of nudes or still life ; its esthetic of the fantastic, hypnogogic and anti-rational is affecting art criti cism and leading to discoveries and revaluations in art history. When the movement is no longer a cause or a cockpit of controversy, it will doubtless be seen to have produced a mass of mediocre and capricious pictures and objects, a fair number of excellent and enduring works of art and even a few master pieces. But already many things in this exhibition can be enjoyed in themselves as works of art outside and beyond their value as documents of a movement or a period. A. H. B., Jr. 13 Georges Hugnet, author of the following essays , is, among all the Surrealist writers, the one most interested in an historical approach to the movement. He was not old enough to take part in Dadaism so that his account of its activities and ideas, now some twenty years old, is comparatively detached and retrospec tive. Of Surrealism he writes more as an active participant and apologist. Both Dada and In the Light of Surrealism were originally published in the Bulletin of the Museum of Modern Art, Vol 4, No. 2-3, November-December, 1936. Georges Hugnet was born in Paris, July 11, 1906. He is represented in the Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., Surrealist Collection, recently presented to the Museum's Library, by the following volumes of poetry and drama: Le droit de Yarech. precede par Le muet, ou Les secrets de la vie, Paris, Editions de la Montagne, 1930; Omhres portees, Paris, Editions de la Montagne, 1932; Enfances, Paris, Editions Cahiers d' Art, 1933; La belle en dormant, Paris, Editions des Cahiers Libres, 1933. He also edited and wrote a long introduction to Petite Anthologie poetique du Surrealisme, Paris, Editions Jeanne Bucher, 1934. His "L'Esprit dada dans la peinture an important series of essays, appeared in Cahiers d'Art, 1932, Nos. 1-2, 6-7, 8-10, and 1934, No. 1-4. M. Hugnet' s most recent work is an album of " cut-out poems, " La septieme face du de, Paris, Editions Jeanne Bucher, 1936. The following essays by M. Hugnet have been translated by Margaret Scolari. 14 Dada Just two years before the War there appeared symptoms of a certain disregard of those rules which automatically accompany all forms of art no matter how novel. Cubism, marvelous in certain aspects, and yet already so inartistic and unpoetic, was, under the leadership of certain wastrels, drifting towards an odious estheticism. Futurism, noisy and attractive in some of its aims, added to the confusion. With the advent of the War and in its atmosphere of breakdown, Dada was born. It subverted all values and made a clean sweep of everything. It was in a given place and at a precise date that Dada acquired a name and legal status, but its attitude of revolt, its desire for escape, its thirst for destruction existed already in various men and in various places : first in New York, then in Zurich, Berlin, Cologne, Paris, Hanover. Dada is ageless, it has no parents, but stands alone, making no distinction between what is and what is not. It approves while denying, it contradicts itself, and acquires new force by this very contradiction. Its frontal attack is that of a traitor stealing up from behind. It undermines established authority. It turns against itself, it indulges in self-destruction, it sees red, its despair is its genius. There is no hope, all values are leveled to a universal monotony, there is no longer a difference between good and evil— there is only an awareness. Dada is a taking-stock, and as such it is as irreparable as it is ridiculous. It knows only itself. Dada has a history only because we are willing to believe it, because it has clapped on a hat and a celluloid collar and has sat down beside us unknown, misunderstood and yet greeted by us from the beginning of the world as an inseparable companion. No one has a right to ignore DADA. It happened: just as if one day the Bebe Cadum had come down from its poster to sit beside you in the 'bus. Tristan Tzara gave a name to this delicious malaise: DADA. Dada was born from what it hated. At first it was commonly thought to be an artistic and literary movement or a mal du siecle. But Dada was the sickness of the world. Books and periodicals marked by a dagger t are to be found in the Museum's Library. Films marked with a double dagger $ are in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art Film Library. 15 ' 'A ' Ml I Zurich In Zurich in 1916 Hugo Ball founded a literary nightclub : the Cabaret Voltaire. Here Dada manifests itself in such confusion that it's hard to tell it apart from its enemy, Art, and, indeed, it embarks on an evolution not unlike that of Cubism and Futurism. But Dada draws advantage from the confusion and profits from the fermentation of the neutral city, which harbors refugees, anarchists and revolutionaries. Those who seek safety in Zurich are not con scious of what's going on in their midst, they are ignorant of the force that right among them is gaining consistency and is about to explode. Arp, van Rees and Mme. van Rees, who had exhibited together in 1915, hung their works on the walls of the Cabaret Voltaire together with those of Picasso, Eggeling, Segal, Janco, Marinetti. On February 8th, 1916, with the help of a paper-knife slipped at random into a dictionary a name was found for the new state of mind— DADA. Thanks to Richard Huelsenbeck, a German just in from Berlin, a celebration was organized. Dada, from then on, has but one aim, to he subversive and, like Cubism, Futurism, negro music, exasper ating to the public. But Dada is neither modern nor modernistic, it is immediate. The first Dada publication is printed by the Heuberger press and is given the name Cabaret Voltaire. It brings together Apollinaire, Picasso, Modigliani, Arp, Tzara, van Hoddis, Huelsenbeck, Kandinsky, Marinetti, Cangiullo, van Rees, Slodky, Ball, Hennings, Janco, Cendrars. The series of Dada publica tions continues with two books: La premiere aventure celeste die M. Antipyrine [ The first heavenly adventure of Mr. Fire-extinguisher ] by Tristan Tzara, illustrated by Janco— and phantastische gebete [ fantastic prayers ] by Richard Huelsenbeck with woodcuts by Hans Arp. Two numbers of a periodical directed by Tristan Tzara, Dada If and Dada 2f appear in 1917. Despite cer tain symptoms of incipient orderliness they persist in a confusion which serves to make Dada increasingly conscious of itself as the only absolute in a world where values, feelings and sincerity are relative. Dada utilizes for its own ends what has been done already and then turns against it threateningly. Although when Dada first began in Zurich, the manifestations organized by poets were the most characteristic and the most effective, we are here con cerned with Dada painting. Dada painting fought Cubism, Futurism and Expressionism alike ; it demanded total abstraction or, at least, absolute purity of construction. Eggeling wanted to utilize moving pictures, but in the service of abstraction. Yet, it was not until after the appearance of Duchamp's works, after the coming of Picabia, after the exhibitions in Cologne and Hanover 16 of Arp, Max Ernst, Baargeld and Kurt Schwitters, that Dada painting, inde pendent at last, was ready to reinforce and abet Tzara's work of destruction and systematic demoralization. (For Eggeling see Cubism and Abstract Art, plate 182.) The Dada activities in Zurich from 1916 to 1918 shook off their literary character and directly attacked the conventions and stale sensibility of a public which in the face of such effrontery wavered between rage and amazement. On the stage of the cabaret keys were jangled till the audience protested and went crazy. Serner instead of reciting his poems placed a bunch of flowers at the feet of a dressmaker's mannequin. Some marionettes and some masks of Sophie Tauber-Arp, curious objects in painted cardboard, recited the poems of Arp. Huelsenbeck screamed his verses louder and louder while Tzara fol lowed the same crescendo on a kettle drum. For hours on end they went through gymnastic exercises which they called noir cacadou. Tzara invented chemical and static poems. Static poems were made by rearranging chairs upon which posters, each with a word, had been placed. For these performances Janco designed paper costumes of every color, put together with pins and above all spontaneous. Perishable, purposely ugly and absurd, these materials, chosen by the hazard of eye and mind, symbolized in showy rags the perpetual revolt, the despair which refuses to let itself despair. (Cf Janco, no. 400; Tauber-Arp, nos. 511, *512.) Dada spread like a spot of oil. New names kept cropping up— Picabia, Reverdy, Birot, Dermee, Soupault, Huidobro, Savinio. For the Anthologie dadaf (Dada, nos. 4 and 5) Arp devised a singular cover, important because it marks a sharp separation between Dada and modernism. This cleavage, accentuated soon by Picabia, was ultimately made total by the Dada spirit of Berlin, Hanover, Cologne, represented by Grosz, Heartfield, Schwitters, Baargeld, Max Ernst, and Arp. One might nearly say, despite the spirit of dis order which distinguishes it, that the cover of Dada 4-5f was to Cubism what the words drawn from a hat by Tristan Tzara were to the poetry of the early 20th century. In Picasso's papiers colles and his cardboard objects, in the extraneous textures introduced into his paintings as early as 1912 (newspaper, imitation wood and marble) the materials used are still lyrical elements not detached from reality. With Arp, on the other hand, and even more with Ernst, newspaper, wallpaper, photographs, and vignettes, picked up at random, taken ready-made and unaltered from their normal context and redistributed easily and blindly, integrate what was borrowed in a recreation of the object and transpose its superficial reality into a superior reality. In 1920 in Cologne 17 1 Ernst's own collages as well as those resulting from his collaboration with Arp will achieve their intensity under the cover-all name of Fatagaga (fabrication de tableaux garantis gazometriques) . (Cf. Ernst, no. 330.) If one excepts certain collages, Arp's most significant works of this time, inasmuch as they embark upon an active destruction in the Dada spirit, are his illustrations for two works of Tzara: 25 poemesf and Calendrier cinema du coeur abstrait. f These illustrations are much freer than those for Richard Huelsenbeck's book, which were rigid, formal, aiming at purity of form. For Arp abstract art was the main preoccupation as evidenced by his persistent intent not to imitate nature. He was thus separated to an extent from Tzara and Huelsenbeck, partisans of systematic disorder and of that total confusion of the arts by which they were finally to be annihilated. Nevertheless, we must note here certain experiments undertaken by Arp, all the more important inasmuch as they harmonize with experiments which were later to play an important role in the exploration of the unconscious. Arp traced on paper every morning the same drawing and thus obtained, whether inspired or not, a series of drawings, the variations of which were practically automatic. He also trusted to the laws of chance when he cut out with deliberate absentmindedness pieces of paper colored on one side, placed them, colored face down, on a piece of cardboard, shook them, shuffled them, strewed them around, and finally turned them over and pasted them on a cardboard, preserving the pattern of shapes and the arrangement of colors which he had obtained by chance. (Cf. Arp, nos. *264, *265, *267.) In 1919 in Zurich a nucleus of painters of disparate tendencies united under the name of Association des artistes revolutionnaires upon the instigation of Hans Richter, a former member of the German expressionist group DieAktion, which already during the War had established the principle that the artist must take an active part in politics (at that time they were to oppose the War and support the Revolution). When revolution broke out in Munich and Budapest the Association, fearing that the artists would be ignored, tried to involve in the revolution the more esthetically revolutionary painters. Certain of the Dadaists saw fit to take part in this movement, which lasted only a few weeks, hut enlisted the participation of Richter, Eggeling, Segal, Janco, Arp, Helbig and Baumeister. It was taken up shortly afterwards by the Russian painters 1"Collage," the French word meaning a "pasting," has now become a generally accepted international term for pictures composed partially or entirely of pasted pieces of paper, etc., often with a bizarre or incongruous effect. The term papier colle is usually confined to Cubist works of 1912-14 and similar compositions in which a formal rather than a Dada or Surrealist interest predominates. Ed. 18 under the name of Constructivism 1 and resulted in a decorative art of limited interest (Lissitzky, Tatlin, Malevich, Gabo, Pevsner). Doubtless the Zurich Association realized soon enough that the radical methods of Dada, represented by Serner and Tzara, were more efficacious even from a revolutionary point of view. Be that as it may, it should be remarked that abstract art proved inac tive and sterile. It was one of the weaknesses of Dada's beginning. New York In New \ork at the same time and even somewhat earlier Marcel Duchamp, Francis Picabia and Man Ray were accomplishing a revolution of the same type. They gave no name to the movement they were creating and of which they were half unaware. They didn't care much really. For various reasons, mainly their proud detachment, they figure as pre-Dadaists, as authentic Dadaists. When they discover Dada it is really Dada that discovers them. Marcel Duchamp, a painter first influenced by Cezanne, then by Cubism, began as early as 1913 to feel bored with the new estheticism, the new attitude of pictorial formalism which already had been swallowed whole as an artistic dogma. Even in 1911 and 1912 Marcel Duchamp, turning from Cubism, painted the Nude descending the stairs and the Sad young man in the train , both of which show interests other than those of stylization and beauty of forms. The bride, The king and queen traversed by swift nudes and the Chocolate grinder were painted in Munich and Paris in 1912-1913; the syn chronized movements contrast with the static elements, and the machine style, instead of adorning itself with Futiirist estheticism, serves to transform nudes or figures. (Cf. Duchamp, nos. *216, *217, *218; also Cubism and Abstract Art, plate 40. ) It is at this epoch that Duchamp, doubtless exasperated by the turn that painting was taking, selected a series of objects which he called "ready-made, amongst them a rotating bottle drier, 1914, and a bicycle wheel, both of which he signed. In the first New York Independents' exhibition, 1917, he entered a porcelain urinal with the title Fontaine and signed it R. Mutt to test the im partiality of the executive committee of which he was himself a member. By this symbol Duchamp wished to signify his disgust for art and his complete admiration for ready-made objects. But R. Mutt's entry was thrown out of the

The Russian movement, called Constructivism in 1920, began about 1914 and was, like Dada, under 1

the joint influence of Futurism and Cubism. Malevich, the Suprematist, passed through a proto-Dada phase in 1914 as is proven by the Private of the Figst Division, No. 564, a collage with postage stamp, thermometer, etc. (see also Cubism and Abstract Art, plates 111—139). Ed. 19 show after a few hours' debate and Duchamp, making the issue a question of principle, tendered his resignation. Later he sent a snow shovel, a typewriter cover and a hatrack to an exhibition at the Bourgeois galleries, where Matisse and Picasso were being shown. Ready-made objects were thus consecrated and put on the same footing as masterpieces. (Cf Duchamp, no. *221.) Around 1920 Duchamp was making objects of painted glass, starred with cracks, and sumptuous toys endowed with movement. One of these, spun by a motor, nearly decapitated Man Ray. Duchamp was also working on an immense glass pane, The bride, which can be said to recapitulate his work, limited in quantity but concentrated, compact, of capital importance. Out of disdain and a kind of haughty detachment he stopped producing works of art about 1923 and devoted himself to chess. In New York Duchamp published two periodicals which had three issues in all: The blind man and Wrongivrong, 1917. These reviews together with 291, Picabia s New York publica tion, give the measure of the peculiar negativistic spirit, detached and humor ous, which was to leave a deep mark on the period. ( Cf. Duchamp, nos. *220, 222; also Cubism and Abstract Art, plate 193.) Before speaking of Picabia's departure in 1917, it is important to consider the work of Man Ray in New York, for Man Ray became the principal Ameri can participant in the Dada movement and belongs today to the Surrealist group. In 1916 and '17 Man Ray constructed objects containing elements extraneous to painting, objects of everyday use. This effort was parallel to that of Duchamp. Man Ray paints the elements of a world that really belongs to him, of a world where reality has the ineluctability of a dream. Interested in photography, he exploits its every possibility and follows the lead of acci dents and chance discoveries. (He experiments, but Man Ray objects to any of his work being called experimental, everything is a completed achieve ment.) Without the aid of a camera he devises strange photographic images which he calls "rayographs," 1921. (Cf Ray, nos. 467-469, *470, 471- 474.) Thanks to Duchamp and Man Ray the mechanically made and everyday object enters the realm of painting and sculpture with all the honors due to its rank. Monstrous toys are constructed, amusing and murderous, no longer made to hang on a wall but to penetrate everyday life. In Duchamp's house, when impelled by boredom or despair, one could push with one s thumb the wheel of a bicycle, throw into action the antennae of an object which described the curves of a spiral —a game for the eye, strictly and insanely mathematical. One could also catch one's foot and kill oneself on a clothes hanger nailed to the floor. Duchamp opens the era of poetic experience where casual, concrete 20 frn 'e+v o H.AFP 0 p£ WtollC. The Dada Movement, by Francis Picabia, published in Anthologie Dada (Dada 4-5) and lent by the editor, Tristan Tzara, to the exhibition of Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism. (Catalog no. 464.) 0 i things are the poetry you take in your hand. In 1913, in Paris he had painted three pictures entitled Trois stoppages etalon (three standard stops) which attempted to give a new appearance to the measure of a meter. This is how they were done: Duchamp took three threads, each a meter long, which he dropped from the height of a meter one after the other on to three blank canvases. Scrupulously he traced the contours of the threads with a thin trickle of var nish—a purely accidental design. (Cf. Duchamp, nos. 222, 223, *224; Ray, no. *476.) In different ways Duchamp, Picabia, Man Ray, were haunted by the laws of chance while elsewhere at the same time, though in mutual ignorance, other men were similarly haunted. The latter found a name for the state of mind which was to blaze a new trail and take possession of the world to give it a new basis and a new conscience. Dada puts the world with its back to the wall. In 1917, after having left New York, Picabia published in Barcelona several issues of a review entitled 391 f in memory of his 291 in New York. His illustrations are sensational. His drawing, Novia, for the cover of the first number represents parts of an engine. Later he contributes to Dadaf a drawing made by dipping cogwheels in ink and applying them to paper. It was out of a kind of anarchical sense of humor that Picabia undertook his work of demoralization both in his publications and in his exhibitions. His mechanical drawings mingled with inscriptions are meant to revolt the art-lover. Bored no less by Cubist stylization than by Futurism (that peculiar brand of Impres sionism produced by the cult of the machine) Picabia sublimates the machinemade object and recreates it outside its original purpose according to the laws of chance very much as had Duchamp, who constantly insisted upon not cre ating works of art and who towers in his magnificent detachment over the entire epoch. (Cf. Picabia, nos. 460, *461.) As early as 1913 Picabia had abandoned the new forms assumed by painting orphic as is proven by his work of the u4 period such as Udnie jeune file americaine. This painting is conceived according to an anti-static pictorial theory whereby the movement of time and memory is transposed into color. (Cf. Picabia, no. *459.) In Zurich Picabia, feeling himself at ease and appreciated by those around him, contributed a great deal to the moral importance of the Dada movement; he helped to exteriorize it, to establish its power and its dictatorship. His pic torial and poetic activity, his very personal spirit of negation made him at this period a figure of primary importance to the development of Dada. 22 ' Berlin Wherever it spreads Dada takes on a different color. In Berlin it is above all political. Richard Huelsenbeck, who had been made Commissioner for Fine Arts during the German Revolution, gathers a group of intellectuals under the banner of Dada. In the wake of some preparatory articles, a lecture, a mani festo signed by the Berlin group and by the Zurich Dadaists, the periodicals Club Dada, Der dada (1918) make their appearance. We find in them the names of Raoul Haussmann, Richard Huelsenbeck, George Grosz, F. Jung, Johannes Baader, Heartfield, Walter Mehring, Gerhard Preiss, Tristan Tzara, Francis Picabia and others. The works of Duchamp, Charlie Chaplin, Erik Satie are discussed. The typography, by Raoul Haussmann, as untidy and arbitrary as it was in Zurich, is enriched with dishevelled layouts in which vignettes, Hebrew characters and ink-blots are scattered at random. The illus trations consist of collages of newspapers, photographs, photomontages com posed without much seriousness by Haussmann and Heartfield. One senses an effort to be daring, outrageous, and at the same time entertaining and funny in the humorous exploitation of current anecdote. The drawings and deformed photographs of Grosz contribute an aspect of caricature, sometimes ferocious, nevertheless curious rather than new. The field of the plastic arts is not restricted to the painters: handmade poetry belongs to all. (Cf Haussmann, no. 383; Grosz, nos. 380, *381, *382; Baader, no. *289.) This confusion of genres, of techniques and media, and the systematic exploration of every possibility for purposes of plastic representation are two of the characteristics of Dada. In Berlin as elsewhere we notice the persistent desire to destroy art, the de liberate intent to wipe out existing notions of beauty, the insistence upon the greatest possible obliteration of individuality. Heartfield works under the direc tion of Grosz while Max Ernst and Arp sign each other's paintings at random. Dada rejects narrow individualism, it is a communal activity. Der dada gives publicity to the other Dada magazines: Dada and Der Zeltiveg of Zurich; Die Schammade f of Cologne; DADAphone, f Proverbe, f 391, f and Cannibale f of Paris, all of which are active at approximately the same time. Berlin Dada takes on an increasingly revolutionary character. It inclines more sharply towards Communism. A continuous preoccupation with actuality, an instantaneous and ruthless revolutionary expression, a negation of artistic values together with caricatures of a popular nature combine to make the Berlin Dada movement sterile when compared to the exhilarating aspects of the movements of Zurich, Cologne, and Paris, all of which functioned more 23 completely under the sign of the marvelous, under the lyrical fnlguration of Dada. After various activities, some individual, some communal, after the spread ing of propaganda, the disseminating of prospectuses, the organizing of lecture tours, the opening of a Dada nightclub, Dada in 1920 reached its zenith in Berlin and in the same year its decline and fall. The most important pictorial manifestation of Dada in Berlin took place in that year and consisted of an exhibition of 174 items. The catalogf establishes and clarifies the position of Dada by many prefaces and statements and confirms the aims of the struggle already undertaken. It is repeated that 4Dada is political and all should be sacrificed to the present and the immediate; contemporary allusions, now out dated. escape the reader and some of the works now seem incomprehensible. The Berlin Dadaists invited to their great 1920 exhibition almost all those who, to their knowledge, participated in Dada both in Germany and abroad: Baargeld and Max Ernst (Cologne), Rudolph Schlichte (Karlsruhe), W. Stuckenschmitz (Magdeburg), Hans Citroen (Amsterdam), Otto Schmalhausen (Antwerp), Hans Arp, Francis Picabia and many others. Max Ernst called himself Dadamax Ernst and exhibited Dadafex maximus and Codex national et index de la delicatesse du Dada Baargeld; Otto Schmalhausen, who called himself Dada-oz, exhibited the head of Beethoven with moustache and squint ing eyes, which calls to memory Duchamp's mustachioed Mona Lisa. With the exception of Haussmann (called Dadasophe) and Hannah Hoch, who contrib uted collages, objects and drawings not unlike those of Arp and Picabia, the exhibits of the Berlin Dadaists all reveal the same intentions. Grosz, Heartfield and Baader were particularly subversive, though the latter's revolutionary inclinations were sharpened by his personality and insanity. Practically all Grosz' drawings and collages dealt with politics and propaganda ; Heartfield, under the direction of Grosz, at that time marshal of Dada, had constructed various mannequins, one of which, to be hung from the ceiling, represented a German officer with a pig's head. (Cf. Hoch, no. 395. ) One of Johannes Baader s exhibits was labeled: rhe baggage of Surdada upon his first flight from the madhouse, 17 September 1899, Dada relic. His torical. This entry draws attention to a singular aspect of Dada-unbridled insanity, an anarchical force describing a trajectory toward extinction. The following are the titles with which Baader chose to design himself: "Surdada, president of the Justice of the world, secret president of intertellurgical superdadaist nations, agent for headmaster Hagendorf' s school desks, ex-architect and writer." In November 1918 he had managed to climb, unobserved, into 24 the pulpit of the Berlin Cathedral, from which he proclaimed that Dada would save the world. At the congress of the Weimar Constitution he launched a tractf signed by "The Central Council of Dada for the World Revolution," in which appeared such phrases as: "the President of the terrestrial globe sits on the saddle of Dada. The Dadaists against Weimar." To finish off the day he had processions of children sing and dance around the statues of Goethe and Schiller. All Baader's activities bear the imprint of that particular lyric insan ity which is typical of Dada in its expansive moods, when it comes out into the open, absurd and profound, grave and grotesque, but always human in the most direct manner possible. (Cf. Baader, no. *289.) Cologne Since 1910 Hans Arp and Max Ernst had exhibited off and on with painters whose work differed widely from theirs. They met in Cologne in 1913 and became friends. Extraordinary as it may seem, Arp was at this time under the combined influence of Cubism and of the earliest experimenters in abstract painting, or, to be more precise, he was under the influence of Kandinsky. Arp became a collaborater of the Munich Der Blaue Reiter,' j* an artistic anthol ogy edited by Kandinsky. He also joined the more advanced group Moderner Bund, also Expressionist in tendency. Finally we should mention that Paul Klee exerted a certain influence upon Arp. (Cf. Arp, nos. *264, *265, *267 ; also Kandinsky, nos. *226, 228, and Klee, nos. *231, 232.) As for Max Ernst, connected for a time with the Expressionist Sturm group in Berlin (directed by Herwarth Walden) he painted with no particularly defined intention. He must, however, have admired Picasso's pa piers colles, and pictures with extraneous objects pasted or nailed upon them. Ernst sensed in these technical innovations the sign of a new freedom: at the same time he had a foreboding that in the game they played the stake was really the creation of a spiritual world whose existence was then only potential. Later, in 1919. at the height of the Dada period in Cologne, other influences are noticeable in Ernst: one, somewhat removed, of Archipenko in his seulpto-paintings, another, more obvious, of de Chirico visible for instance in Fiat modes, an album of lithographs by Ernst (Cologne, 1920). (Cf. Ernst, nos. 327, 328; also Picasso, no. *251, and de Chirico, nos. *190, *196, *211.) Immediately after the War Ernst met Baargeld, who also lived in Cologne. Baargeld was a painter and a poet. The history of Dada in Cologne may be summed up in their two names with the addition of Arp's. The Ventilator, a Dada paper, mainly political, distinctly subversive, threatening and Connnu25 0 nist, met with a great success. Sold at the gates of factories, it reached a circu lation of 20,000. Its life was brief only because it was forbidden by the British Army of Occupation in the Rhineland. Baargeld soon found himself heading both the Communists and the Dadaists of Cologne. It was he who established the Communist party in the Rhineland and allied it with the German Communist party. Nevertheless, together with Max Ernst he energetically opposed the Berlin Dada movement because he disapproved of its exclusively propaganda spirit. Baargeld and Ernst refused a priori to extinguish their poetic light and to tie up all their energy in political agitation. Their dissent posed a problem which is still unsolved. Having clarified their stand, Baargeld and Ernst published in 1919 Bulletin D, f which also served as a catalog to an exhibition, and, in February 1920, Die Schammade ,"j" subtitled Wahe up dilettantes. In these two bulletins we find besides the names of Ernst and Baargeld those of Arp, Picabia and Tzara with some new names, the names of the contributors to Litterature,' j* the Parisian Dada periodical : Aragon, Breton, Eluard, Ribemont-Dessaignes, Soupault. The unity of Bulletin Df and of Die Schammade f — rare indeed in Dada publications —should be admired no less than the excellent selection of contributors when there were so many to choose from. It is interesting to observe the influence exerted upon the Cologne group by Parisian Dada, which was by this time in full action. (A cursory mention should be made at this point of the movement called Stupid, born of Dada in Cologne, and which included the painters H. Hoerle, Angelina Hoerle, A. Raderscheidt and the sculptor F. W. Seiwert. ) In 1919, Baargeld and Ernst, increasingly absorbed in spontaneous or auto matic painting, embarked together with Arp upon a new experiment, pecu liarly Dada in spirit and extremely important (quite how important, the authors don't realize to this day). In this experiment it was not so much the re sult that counted as the intention and the intention was to destroy individuality. I have already spoken of the pictorial collaborations of Arp and Ernst called Fatagaga ; now Baargeld and Ernst start collaborating on paintings in mutual ignorance. They begin to discover in a drawing another drawing the contours of which appear slowly out of the tangled lines like an apparition, like a prophecy, like the messages in table tapping. We are confronted here with a process not quite comparable to that of perceiving an image in a spot on the wall as Leonardo da Vinci did; nor yet does it consist of lifting an object out of its natural environment. Other forces are at work: accident and surprise at their most inscrutable and intense, the discovery of second sight in the spirit 26 1 itself. The process is somewhat analogus to Dali's theory of the paranoiac image. (Cf Baargeld, nos. *292, *294, and Baargeld and Ernst, no. *297.) Ernst, led by his restless fancy, began at this time to cut out engravings and vignettes used for illustrations, and to put them together again arbitrarily in order to create the unexpected. This led to the astonishing series of collages flung by Max Ernst in the path of po etry. On the same principle he com bined a set of stencil drawings consist ing of tracings of fragments of ma chinery, of sections of architectural and scientific drawings cut up and put together again. In 1920 he sent one of these to the Paris Section d'Or, an exhibition of dissident Cubists, who refused it because it was not hand made. (Cf. Ernst, nos. *330, *332,

  • 341, *343, *346; Trophy, hypertrophied, no. *336, was sent to the Sec

tion d'Or.) But to return to Cologne. A sensation- Trophy, hypertrophied, by Max Ernst, Cologne al exhibition was held in 1920 which 1920; rejected by the Cubist Section d'Or ex- > - included only Arp, Baargeld and Ernst. hibition Paris Given to the Museum by TrisIn all the history of Dada I know of ,anlW 36s > no single event that seems to me more weighty or compelling. It marks the heroic period of the movement. The exhibition hall was selected with careful foresight. The location was both accessible, in the center of the city, and out rageous, for it was in a little glass-enclosed court to which access could be gained through the lavatory of a cafe. This was wise; visitors were assuredvisitors or victims, it didn't matter. The blue posters, arranged by Ernst with doves and charming cows cut out of books of object lessons, hardly led one to foresee what this show of young painters would be. I can just imagine those first brave, gullible visitors in search of artistic sensations. In the center of the room stands a little girl in a 27 religious costume reciting shocking poems. In a corner rises Baargeld's Fluidoskeptrik, an aquarium full of fuchsia-red fluid at the bottom of which lies an alarm clock; a marvelous lock of hair floats negligently in the water like the milky way, and from the surface there emerges a handsome arm of turned wood. Near the Fluidoskeptrik stands an object by Ernst in hard wood to which a hatchet is chained; visitors are invited to chop at the object if they wish, like cutting down a tree. Naturally, as the beer drinking customers of the cafe came drifting in, the exhibition received some severe treatment — the objects were broken, the aquarium destroyed and the red fluid spilt— and all to the complete triumph of Dada. A protest for obscenity was lodged with the police. The police came and had to admit that what had excited most indigna tion was an etching by Diirer. The exhibition was reopened. Here again, Dada s action was both demoralizing and destructive, revolutionary and anti-religious. Dada died in the same year in Berlin and in Cologne. In 1922 Max Ernst left for Paris; Arp had merely passed through Cologne on his way from Zurich to Paris; as for Baargeld, he soon gave up painting and all public activity. He died in 1927 in an avalanche. \ Hanover Dada came to the surface again about this time in Hanover. A publisher, Paul Stegeman, started a Dada almanac, Der Marstall , and also published books or albums by Arp, Huelsenbeck, Serner, Vagst (a Czechoslovak Dadaist) and by Kurt Schwitters. It was Schwitters who said the last word for Dada. Poet and painter, Schwitters occupies a particular place in the history of Dada. Avoided by the Berlin group, which was interested only in political action and which distrusted his uncertain and merely poetic attitude, he found himself isolated in Hanover. With regard to political matters, Schwitters main tained a prudence which was judged bourgeois ; he was not invited to contrib ute to the great Berlin exhibition of 1920, which had included almost all the other German Dadaists. As a matter of fact, Haussmann and Huelsenbeck openly declared their opposition to him. Schwitters labelled all that he painted or constructed, all his statements and books and poems with the new word Merz, a term with no meaning, just the fragment of a word which was to become a symbol. Like Ball and Tzara. Schwitters wrote long poems consisting only of sounds which he recited, sing ing and whistling, in a most extraordinary way. His genuine and exciting per nor Tzara, Schwitters organized a lecture tour to Jena, Weimar and Hanover. In this city, after the lecture, there was dancing around a mannequin in one of the galleries. 28 ï sonality reveals itself more fully in his life and works than in the role he attempted to play with his magazine. He managed to create around himself an atmosphere of evasion and in this, too, he was truly Dada. His strange house evoked the impossible. When he walked on the street, he would pick up threads,,. papers, pieces of glass—the discarded royalties of vacant lots— so that in his house there were piles of little sticks and pieces of wood, tufts of hair, old rags, disused unrecognizable objects, all of which were like fragments of life itself. With these witnesses stolen from the ground he constructed sculptures and objects which are by far the most disquieting things produced at the time. To the principle of the object he added a feeling of respect for everyday life in the form of dirt and deterioration. Under his influ ence Arp composed some objects of the same kind. But when compared to the ordinarily meticulous, mechanical neatness of Arp's objects, so baffling by their immaculateness, and to the fantastic quality of Ernst's creations, Schwitters* work seems to he endowed with the unreasonableness of dreams, with total spontaneity, with an ineluctable acceptance of hazard. Schwitters made a model for a full scale monument to humanity composed of many materials used pell-mell— wood, plaster, women's corsets, musical toys, Swiss chalets. Certain parts of the monuments were to move and emit sounds. Schwitters' extremely individual collages were made of scraps of paper picked out of the mud, of trolley car tickets, of stamps and of paper money withdrawn from circulation. (Cf. Schwitters, nos. *494, *670, *671.) Paris Breton, Soupault, Eluard, Aragon, Ribemont-Dessaignes and the other con tributors to the Paris periodical Litterature f (founded in 1918) were imme diately attracted by the program of Dada. This seems only natural if we con sider their sympathies. Their poetic and critical tradition lay between Lautreamont (Ducasse) and Rimbaud on the one hand, Jarry and Apollinaire on the other. They continued the spiritual liberation first systematically undertaken in the middle of the 19th century; consequently they were by principle reso lutely modern insofar as the spirit can rise above contemporary and already compromised thought and pass judgment upon it. Finally they were partisans of evasion and of revolt at any price. Already Jacques Vache, a friend of Breton's, out of a personal, dangerous, disintegrating and lucid humor had managed to induce in the group a habit of disorganization of thought, logic and life. Arthur Cravan, in his periodical Maintenant , 1913-15, Marcel Duchamp and Francis Picahia had attacked the serious-mindedness and the 29 estheticism of modern art; this appealed, of course, to the contributors to Litterature, whose habit of mind was a negation of reality. On the other hand, the revolutionary aspects of Rimbaud and Lautreamont swung them towards less anarchical and facile methods in the struggle they were planning. In truth, their poetic temperaments inclined them towards the marvelous, towards the fathomless depths of the subconscious recently probed by Freud, rather than to a total disorder. They needed, however, some way of making a clean slate and of getting rid of what was in their way. Dada, a phenomenon of the post war crisis, they welcomed as a way of salvation. Here was a monster who would create the necessary void. Here was a first class offensive arm. And so, although the word Surrealism was already currently used between Breton and Soupault (authors of automatic texts, published in 1921 with the title Les champs magnetiques"\ ) , the group of Litterature, deeming no other action possible for the moment, surrendered to Dada, glittering scarecrow which stood at the cross roads of the epoch. The Premier vendredi de Litterature was a confused meeting. This Friday, the 23rd of January, 1920, gathered a large audience which came to watch Dada put at liberty. First, modern poems were recited. Then masks declaimed disarticulated poetry by Breton. Under the title Poeme Tzara read a news paper article accompanied by bells and rattles. The audience grew angry and hissed. To wind up the hullabaloo, some paintings were shown, amongst them a very shocking one by Picabia entitled, like some of his writings of the time, LHOOQ. After this meeting, which was meant merely to start the ball rolling, activities and publications became more abundant and outrageous. In February, 1920, Bulletin Dadaf is published, the sixth number of the periodical Dada, now permanently established in Paris. The same names figure in it: Picabia, Tzara, Breton, joined by Duchamp, Dermee, Cravan. The Bul letin takes an anti-pictorial and anti-literary position. Printed over drawings by Picabia were declarations, alarming proclamations, gratuitous and wan tonly contradictory definitions. There is a list of Dada presidents. In large type we read: "The real Dadaists are against Dada. Every one is director of Dada . . The Bulletin Dadaf serves as a program to the second manifestation which took place on the 5th of February at the Salon des Independants. Thirty-eight lecturers were in line. Newspapers had announced in all seriousness the pres ence of Charlie Chaplin. Various tracts and manifestos were chanted in such a mad confusion that the lights had to be extinguished to bring the meeting to an end. The audience flung coins at the lecturers. 30 Shortly afterwards Paul Eluard launches a monthly sheet called Proverbe. f Its tone is different from that of all the other publications and it is concerned with a revision of language. About this time Dada is excluded from the Section d'Or at a riotous meeting held at the Closerie des Lilas. We have spoken of this group of artists, which included Archipenko, Gleizes, Survage, and other Cubists. They had already refused a drawing by Ernst because it had been mechanical in execution. The Section d'Or, embarrassed by the subversiveness of the Dadaists, wanted to make a clean break with them. The Closerie des Lilas incident marks the prac tical rupture of Dada with art movements. Dada reaches its highest degree of intensity in Paris. It causes much talk and agitation. Poetry, painting and life march together on one front. Dada is ALL —and makes itself as conspicuous as possible, no matter how. Various isues of the magazines DADAphone, f Cannibale, f 391, f Zf define the state of mind of Dada. We find in them reproductions of works that have a great succes de scandale; the Mona Lisa with a mustache by Duchamp; the famous inkspot that Picabia entitled Sainte Vierge. and the toy monkey which he calls Portrait of Cezanne. Litteraturef prints twenty-three Dada manifestos. Because this brief history of Dada has to do primarily with painting, I shall omit many extremely interesting events of this period. The Dada spirit was most conspicuously proclaimed in theatrical and public performances which were more shocking verbally than visually. Two of these Dada public soirees must, however, be mentioned, one at the Theatre de Voeuvre and one at the Salle Gaveau, for as a result of these, Dada was first characterized as German and as Bolshevistic. But, returning to painting, we must describe some of the most important Dada exhibitions of the years 1920 to 1922, after which Dada came to an end. Tristan Tzara organized at the Sans Pareil a show of the recent works of Picabia, mechanical drawings and pictures in which real objects are incorpo rated. This was followed by a Max Ernst exhibition with a catalogf introduc tion by Breton. The invitation to the show welcomes "Ze petit et la petite . . ." and announces: "at 10 p.m. the Kangaroo; at 10.30 high frequency; at 11 dis tribution of prizes; from 11.30 on intimacies." Max Ernst's collages and his imaginative paintings based on mechanical inventions, utilize, in the pictorial field, automatic processes not unlike those of Breton and Soupault in Les champs magnetiques. f They contributed to Dada painting a new and particu lar vision which foreshadows Surrealism. (Cf Picabia, nos. *462, 463, 465; Ernst, nos. *343, etc., *349, 350, 351.) 31 From the point of view of setting and arrangement the Ernst exhibition was a grand success. This is what a contemporary journalist wrote about it. With characteristic bad taste the Dadaists make their appeal this time to the human instinct of fear. The scene is in a cellar with all the lights in the shop extin guished. Moanings are heard through a trap door. Another wag, hidden behind a cupboard, insults the more important visitors. . . . The Dadaists, with no neck ties and wearing white gloves, walk around the place. Breton crunches matches. G. Ribemont-Dessaignes keeps on remarking at the top of his voice, Tt's rain ing on a skull.' Aragon mews like a cat, Ph. Soupault plays hide and seek with Tzara, Benjamin Peret and Charchoune never stop shaking hands. On the threshold, Jacques Rigaut counts out loud the cars and the pearls of the lady visitors." The ensuing week the Ribemont-Dessaignes exhibition was announced as a Breeding course of microcardiacal cigarettes and of electrical mountain climb ing , preface by Tristan Tzara. Ribemont-Dessaignes, whose name I find for the first time in 39 1 f in 1917, had written the Dumb Canary and the Emperor of Chinaf (1916), two astonishing plays that prove him to be a very pure Dadaist. His work represented geometrical and mechanical forms in motion and were somewhat influenced by Picabia. (Cf. Ribemont-Dessaignes, nos. 481-484.) A Man Ray exhibition reveals to Paris his pictorial and photographic re searches. At this time, a series of his rayographs are published in an album entitled Les champs delicieux. In these amazing pictures, reality assumes a face which is at the same time actual and mysterious. (Cf. Ray, nos. 471-*474. ) Breton writes a preface to a retrospective show of de Chirico. In this, as in most of his other writings, Breton seems to depend very little on Dada : "During our time a few wise men, Lautreamont, Apollinaire, have held up for uni\ ersal admiration the umbrella, the sewing machine, the top hat. ' Breton points out that a new modern mythology is coming into being. Haunted by Surrealism, liberated by the anarchy of Dada, Breton builds something new and finds in de Chirico, who is more Surrealist than Dada, a world to be explored. (Cf. de Chirico, nos. *190-*215.) At the Galerie Montaigne other activities are staged to bring the Dada season to a close, among them an important permanent exhibition. The works of painters and poets are shown together. A very fine catalog"!" lists works by Arp, Baargeld, Duchamp, Max Ernst, Man Ray, Ribemont-Dessaignes, and publishes poems of Tzara, Eluard, Peret, Arp and Aragon. Dada was meeting opposition within its own ranks, for Breton, who was opposed to activities of 32 erie Mon taigne G al GBBtt.av^ntaigncf

10 a 6" j-utn a 8* 5o. n'estcense IGNORED mL *<L ks IS i3o yu-»»» iTSo. est- ee qui ntutirnpoire dt dutqws^ ON CHERCHB ATHLETES $0 Cover of the catalog of the "Salon Dada," Galerie Montaigne, Paris, 1922. From the Library of the Museum of Modern Art. S® L> DAda EXPOSITION INTERNATIONALE this kind on the part of an anti-literary and anti-artistic group, had refused to participate. Among the most remarkable entries sent by the poets was a mirror of Soupault's entitled Portrait of an unknown, and a piece of asphalt which hore the title Cite du Retiro. Certain paintings by Duchamp supposed to be in this exhibition were replaced by sheets of paper marked with numbers which corresponded to the Duchamp entries in the catalog. Duchamp, who had been asked to take part in the exhibition, had just cabled from New Tork: "Nuts.'* In order to maintain itself, Dada tried to invade life more directly and intimately. Dada visits and walks were organized in Paris. But a new affair, "Le Congres de Paris," precipitated events which were to bring about the end of Dada. Tired of the organized pranks of Dada, Breton consented to take part 33 in this Congress, of which the aim was to determine the direction and the defense of the modern spirit. In the midst of uncertainty Breton was intent upon taking stock and seized this occasion against the opposition of his friends who were still attached to Dada. Dissensions, rivalries, personal quarrels, con- . ^ tradictory tendencies accelerated disintegration. A play by Tzara, Le coeur a ai gaz, brought confusion to its zenith, arbitrarily uniting and separating poets q! i and painters. Finally, Breton managed to bring together again around Littera- G r ture,f now definitely taking its leave of Dada, a nucleus of ex-Dadaists joined f by some new poets. Reproductions of Picasso, Max Ernst, Duchamp, de Chirico, Rj whose works appear in a new light, mingle with texts which indicate a system- vc n atic research in the realm of poetry and criticism, and in the world of the i \ subconscious and of hypnotic sleep. A new period begins. Picabia, still faithful e to Dada, but in an increasingly light and humorous manner, leaves this circle, ex which grows in size and which will constitute by 1924 the initial group of the it Surrealists in the true sense of the word, who are gathered around Breton m when he issues the Premier manifeste du Surrealisme. f pt GEORGES HUGNET at m m lo T] in ki re M st< ar th sn in re M w< b) w< CO 34 In the Light of Surrealism When the word Surrealism no longer appeared in quotation marks in critical and theoretical writings, the meaning of the term was established: it had ac quired a direction and a will of its own. Surrealism springs from the marvel ous, and it has always existed. As the earth dreams its dreams of stone, so man from the very first has taken refuge in dreams as in a magic rock around which life, the elements and the stars revolve. Now and again in the course of time voices have spoken in accents which we do not hesitate to call Surrealist, giv ing unexpected expression to a reality only vaguely understood yet as dizzily evident as a blazing meteor. Perpetually, beyond the limits of time, a force exists which pervades the realm of the rational and of the irrational; at times it consents to put in a ghostly appearance. Of these haunting flashes I cannot make an inventory nor yet can I trap them into the cramped cage of the possible. In this brief essay on Surrealist painting I shall mention dates, places, facts, attitudes and works in an effort to determine historically within our peculiarly marvelous and desolate epoch, the times and circumstances in which certain men, dissatisfied with life and reality, watched for the crack in the wall, for the loose bar in the prison window, and so made Surrealism conscious of itself. Thanks to its persistent exploration of the mind, of the sources of thought, of inspiration and of the inexpressible, it became a working system for acquiring knowledge, it undertook the rediscovery and the recreation of the world of reality. The first theoretical foundations were laid in 1924 by the First Surrealist Manifesto .f After describing the confusion and crises which followed in the steps of the War, the author, Andre Breton, recounts his personal experiences and the predicaments of those in whose name he speaks; then, after tracing the initial stages of the Surrealist activity, he sums up its aims in definitions suitable for an encyclopedia; he uses this device in order to be precise and impressive; he does not mean, however, to lay down ironbound formulae, recipes for poetry for practical operations in the manner of U Archidoxe Magique of Paracelsus. Breton then investigates the origins of poetry in the works and in the lives of those who sought to escape reality by adventure or by the creation of a special setting. He explains in what and why certain men were or are Surrealist. But, as the Surrealist quality or attitude is not always complete, he qualifies: "I insist, they were not always Surrealist for I can dis35 tinguish in them a certain number of preconceived ideas to which— naively enough —they were attached. They were attached to them because they had not heard the Surrealist voice, the voice that goes on preaching till the very eve of death and above the howl of the storm, because they did not want to be used in the orchestration of the marvelous score. They were too proud and that is why they have not always given forth a harmonious sound.*' Breton, after the leveling action of anarchical Dada, proposes to declare allegiance to folly, to dreams, to the absurd, to the incoherent, to the hyper bolic—in a word —to all that is contrary to the general appearance of reality. Is not Surrealism within everyone's reach? The vast maps of dreams and of desires still hang on every wall. Who has not suddenly heard— perhaps just for a second— the imperious voice calling from behind the threshold of mem ory? Convinced from the start that "literature is a sad road that leads any where (a tout),'* Breton wishes only to let himself go to unbridled imagination. The more this contradicts all known trends of thought, the better. He attacks "t/ie hatred of the marvelous wherever it rages." He declares that the " mar velous is always beautiful, in fact only the marvelous is beautiful ." He puts at the disposal of those who would venture into the realm of the marvelous not only poetic arguments, but the means to investigate modern thought and, above all, the new and decisive interpretation of psychoanalysis. During the course of Surrealist development, outside all forms of idealism, outside the opiates of religion, the marvelous comes to light within reality. It comes to light in dreams, obsessions, preoccupations, in sleep, fear, love, chance; in hallucinations, pretended disorders, follies, ghostly apparitions, escape mech anisms and evasions ; in fancies, idle wanderings, poetry, the supernatural and the unusual; in empiricism, in super -reality. This element of the marvelous, relegated for so long to legends and children's fairy tales, reveals now in a true light, in a Surrealist light, the immanent reality and our relations to it. Surrealism has never doubted its power to "resolve the heretofore contradic tory conditions of dream and of reality into an absolute reality, a super-real ity.* Surrealism will persist in forwarding and consolidating the identification of contraries which every modern discovery proves to be possible and true. The graph which would trace through the course of time the attraction of irreconcilables would be the history of Surrealism. Surrealism lowers its bar riers against those who consider it impossible to verify reality. In the case of Surrealism even more than in the case of Dada it is difficult to separate the experiments and the activities of the painters from those of the 36 writers, for Surrealism is a mental attitude and a method of investigation; its action runs parallel in every field; time has proved valid the behavior that it has established for itself. Surrealism raises its voice in the name of man, in the name of poetry, in the name of an entire system of creation. In every field of endeavor the preoccupations are the same, be they formal or moral. Their exterior manifestations are analogous in character, their spirit sheds the same light and the same shadow. Exhibitions, experiments, works of theory and poetry merge, justify each other and are mutually exalting. To Surrealism, its relations with itself and its time are more important than its relations with individuals. Dada gave back to current ideas their original vigor: Surrealism, under the impulse of Andre Breton, is dedicated to a revision of values. It picks up the lost thread from the immediate past. Painting, considered from a new angle, undergoes a metamorphosis. Certain painters known heretofore only because sensational or original are esteemed by Surrealism not for these qualities but because they seem to unveil wished for worlds, to propose exciting questions. Subversiveness itself is charged now with a deeper meaning. Seurat seems Surrealist to Breton in his choice of motifs and Picasso in his Cubism. Cubist estheticism is condemned but its denial of reality, in favor of a superior reality, is counted in its favor. Certain objects composed by Picasso in 1913 and 1914 take on considerable importance ; seen in a Surrealist light, they shed a strange radiance. Some intentions, experiments, methods and achievements are regis tered, others are deliberately rejected. Some names fall, others spring up, and still others are born again. (Cf. Cubism and Abstract Art , plates 98, 99.) In 1933 Max Ernst writes: "The investigations into the mechanism of in spiration which have been ardently pursued by the Surrealists, lead them to the discovery of certain techniques, poetic in essence, and devised to remove the work of art from the sway of the so-called conscious faculties. These tech niques, which cast a spell over reason, over taste and the conscious will, have made possible a vigorous application of Surrealist principles to drawing, to painting and even, to an extent, to photography. These processes, some of which, especially collage, were employed before the advent of Surrealism, are now modified and systematized by Surrealism, making it possible for certain men to represent on paper or on canvas the dumbfounding photograph of their thoughts and of their desires.*" And Paul Eluard in 1936 says: "It is only when objects become complicated that they become possible to describe. Picasso contrived to paint the simplest objects in such a way that everyone again be came not only able but eager to describe them. For the artist as for the most 37 uncultivated man, there are neither concrete forms nor abstract forms. There is only a communication between what sees and what is seen— an effort to understand, an establishment of relationship, almost a determination, a crea tion. To see is to understand, to judge, to deform, to imagine, to forget or forget oneself, to be or to disappear." Together with the well known names of Picasso, de Chirico and Max Ernst, we find in the first number of La Revolution Surrealiste f a new name: Andre Masson. This painter who had not belonged to any movement comes to Sur realism with a series of paintings and drawings which he had exhibited some months earlier at the Galerie Simon, 1924. Devoid of any investigation of materials, having no plastic preoccupation except that of a sort of chemistry of lines, the work of Masson at this time outlines the new frontiers of a poetic world of very pure similes: landscapes take on strange human forms, ghosts peep behind transparent vaults, doves live like little girls, daggers like men, under broken capitals which miraculously take flight. Hands enliven still-lifes, objects take on a special life beyond the control of the fascinated eye. (Cf. Masson, nos. 413, *414, 415, *416, 417-*421, *423.) Nearly at the same time another aspect of the human universe, of the Sur realist universe, is revealed by a painter from Catalonia: Joan Miro. At first Miro had been satisfied with reproducing as well as possible a world enlivened by his fancy. Then, faces, houses, gardens, objects— the superfluous, in a word —gave way to a fantastic, naive, vibrant reality, to passion, to humor, to a luxurious vegetation issuing from the most unbridled dreams and from the most absolute manual spontaneity. These irrevocable paintings, composed without metaphor, were exhibited in 1925, under the aegis of the Surrealist group and with a preface by Benjamin Peret. (Cf. Miro, nos. *430, 431-33,

  • 434.)

The second number of La Revolution Surrealiste f described French art as a scarecrow, and arbitrarily separated painting from art in order to tie it up with automatism, with dreams, and revelations. Along with the reproductions of paintings, we find strange photographs, curious documents, mediums' draw ings, and drawings by poets accompanied by transcriptions of dreams and auto matic texts. The Surrealist atmosphere becomes so explicit that it needs no explanation. Andre Breton and Robert Desnos collaborate on the prefacef to the first Surrealist exhibition in November 1925. It includes Arp, de Chirico, Ernst, Klee, Masson, Miro, Picasso, Man Ray, Pierre Roy. Poems by Eluard, Desnos 38 and Peret serve as an accompaniment to Ernst's one man show of recent can vases which depict admirable forests enlivened by the most beautiful Surreal ist images. The Surrealist gallery is opened and shows works of Arp, Braque, de Chirico, Duchamp, Ernst, Klee, Malkine, Masson, Miro, Picabia, Picasso, Man Ray, Tanguy. (Cf. Arp, nos. 274, *276; Ernst, nos. 354, *355, 356-359; Masson, no. *416; Miro, no. 434; Picabia, no. 466; Ray, no. *474; Tanguy, no. *490; Klee, nos. *234-242.) Let us repeat that Surrealism makes its own certain attempts, certain be haviors, certain attitudes while it rejects others. It exalts what strengthens it, it keeps what helps it, it eliminates what diminishes it. It claims the marvelous liberating power of Picasso, Duchamp, Picabia, Arp, Ernst, Man Ray. Its re searches and interpretations establish their stand on a foundation of humor, subversiveness and dreams; in the evasion of all that is conventional. Surrealism lives in de Chirico's cities and in his superb dislocations, but his more recent works, academic in style, dishonor the author of the Disquieting muses. A pamphlet in the form of a preface peremptorily puts an end to the whole question and one of his pictures appears crossed out in La Revolution Surrealiste. (Cf. de Chirico, nos. *190-*215.) The Surrealist Gallery keeps abreast of all the Surrealist activities: it shows not only pictures but books, illustrated publications, manuscripts, documents and objects. Together with an exhibition of primitive objects, amongst them some admirable masks from New Mecklenburg, is held an exhibition of paint ings by Man Ray. Their very particular poetry consists in technical inventions and in unprecedented images of reality and unreality mysteriously precise like mathematical magic. Shortly afterward, Yves Tanguy presents his first paintings, which are Sur realist daylight itself. For the past ten years, Tanguy, lyrically inspired, has described in one picture after another an immense and troubling panorama, a unique universe, complete, resembling only itself, where nothing can be recognized in anything, where one can see everything and nothing, dead cities and cities coming into being, marble ruins, dream ant-hills, where the laws of gravity are but a game and the horizon only an ultimate concession. Between the technical discoveries of a Max Ernst and the extreme manual freedom of a Miro whose automatism is in both cases peremptory, Tanguy paints without makeup and without premeditation but with the meticulousness of a coral. In the course of a questionnaire concerning painting, Tanguy declares: "I expect nothing from reflection but I am sure of my reflexes." The painting of Tanguy withstands all tests. Before the blank canvas, dream and instinct direct his Hector and Andromache, about 1916, by Giorgio de Chirico. hand. A spot is horn, an object appears, it propagates, it evolves. A strange landscape fills the desert to which a splendid clarity gives depth. For his first exhibition Breton wrote the preface. (Cf. Tanguy, nos. *498-*509. ) During the same period, Pierre Roy was showing, with a prefacef by Aragon, his paintings whose elements were hardly less removed from their natural sphere than those of de Chirico. (Cf Roy, nos. *474, *475.) Among the Sur realist publications of this year, the most important after the astonishing Repetitions f of Eluard, decorated with collages by Max Ernst, was the Dormir, dormir dans les pierres, f by Peret, illustrated by Tanguy, and Eluard's Defense de savoirf with a frontispiece by de Chirico. The Surrealist Gallery was exhib iting pictures by Malkine. Several shows by Ernst were held. Breton presented Surrealist pictorial activity in his Le Surrealisme et la peinture.f In this he went back to essentials, he tracked down intentions. He expressed admiration for the works of certain painters who, working under various labels and using various technical means, had liberated painting from its previously puny role. Reopening the question of what is real, he singled out those who had touched true reality, those who had gone to the heart of the subject, to the core of the great trees of the forest of the marvelous. In empha sizing what touched him and exalted him in the work of these painters, he expressed a renewed hope for painting. "The narrow concept of imitation as the goal of art is at the source of the serious misunderstanding which we see perpetuated even in our own time. Basing their work on the belief that man is capable only of reproducing more or less happily the superficial image of that which moves him, painters have shown themselves much too conventional in the choice of their subjects. Tlieir mistake was to suppose that the subject could be taken only from the external world, whereas it should not he taken from the external world at all. It is true that human sensibility can give to the most ordinary object an unexpected distinction; but the magic power of the imagination is put to very feeble use indeed if it serves merely to preserve or reinforce that which already exists. That is an inexcusable abdication. It is impossible, in the present state of modern thought, when the exterior world appears more and more suspect, to agree any longer to such a sacrifice. The work of art, if it is to assist in that absolute revision of values, upon which we all agree, must base itself upon a purely subjective inspiration or it will cease to exist." At the same time in which he states the current situation of Surrealism in its plastic activities, Andre Breton, with that clairvoyance and extraordinary 41 Landscape, a Surrealist composite drawing or "exquisite corpse" by Andre Breton, Tristan Tzara, Valentine Hugo, Greta Knutsen. Lent by Tristan Tzara to the Museum's exhibition of Fantastic Art, Dada and Surrealism. lucidity which distinguishes him, defines Surrealist painting by indicating its goal, by revealing its magic power, by discovering the problems which face it. In this connection Le Surrealisme et la peinture f is a book of capital importance. As in the case of all Surrealist activities, painting becomes a document in which man is revealed to himself, in which he sets up a hypothesis which serves as a basis for all possible inductions. In painting, as in the poem and the image, man ought to offer the key of the secret door in order to find again the peace which is lacking in the perpetual clock. Certain technical processes: the use of elements foreign to painting, mechan ical drawings, collages, and other experiments were, as we have seen, intended only to get painting out of its rut or, under the impulsion of Dada, to destroy ideas of beauty, of quality, of purity, to exalt disorder, to deny at all costs. Systematized, directed, exploited by Surrealism, these processes no longer lead to destruction but become methods of investigation. The written Surrealist games: questions and answers, sentences written by a group transposed into drawings lead to the creation of curious figures: "exquisite corpses." The process of collage, introduced or in any case used in a special fashion for the first time by Max Ernst, is in this connection very instructive. To this process Max Ernst has added another, frottage or rubbing, by which he reveals with infinite variety the otherwise invisible secrets of objects. When Surreal ism interrogates chance, it is to obtain oracular replies. (Cf. Ernst, nos. 358,

  • 360, 372.)

To the Cubist papier s colles , where a plastic preoccupation prevails, the Sur realist collages add the supernatural spark of that anonymous and mechanical liberty which transports painting outside its own limits. The ready-made ele ments taken from life, still living— wallpaper, newspaper, poster, cloth, marblelzing, graining, sand, string— delivered painting from its conventional ideal, and renewed the problem of reality, the miserable understanding of truth. The public's reaction, " this is not painting by itself proves the intense reality of the papier colle, the super-reality of collage. The transmutation of materials, a guitar made of iron, of cloth . . . emphasizes the reality of the object. (Cf. Picasso, no. *251; Ernst, nos. *330, *341, *343; also Cubism and Abstract Art: Picasso, plates 65, 67 ; Braque, plate 64; Gris, plate 66.) Tristan Tzara has written very justly: "A form plucked from a newspaper and introduced in a drawing or picture incorporates a morsel of everyday reality into another reality constructed by the spirit. The contrast between materials which the eye is capable of transposing almost into a tactile sensa43 lion, gives a new dimension to the picture in which the object's weight, set down with mathematical precision by symbols, volume and density, its very taste on the tongue, its consistency brings before us a unique reality in a world created by the force of the spirit and the dream." The Surrealist collage and particularly the admirably captioned collages of Max Ernst (La Femme 100 tetes,~\ 1929; Reve cFune petite fille qui voulut entrer au Carmel, f 1930; I ne semaine de bonte ,f 1934) are the fruit of imagination, of inspiration freed from caution, transforming the spirit into matter and putting itself within the reach of all. The incorporation in a picture of an element foreign to painting reconciles the irreconcilable. It is from this resolved contradiction that art dies: just as it dies in the works of lunatics when they tyrannically identify objective appearances and oneiric delirium. To this identification Surrealism contributes a freedom of experiment and of rationalization, a transition from the unconscious to the conscious, a will to analysis, which creates a marvelous world at once poetic and critical. "The painter," says Louis Aragon in La peinture au defi ,f "if he should still be called painter, is no longer tied to his picture by a mysterious physical relationship as if he had given birth to it. With the breakdown of this conception the individuality of choice comes into play. A manufactured object can be set into a picture, in fact it can even he the whole picture. Picabia may decide that an electric light is a young girl. Painters are now using objects as if they were words. Incantation has been invented again by the new magicians." This individuality of choice is as per sonal and distinctive in each painter as the selection of words and the reappear ance of certain images is in each poet; chance, unconsciousness and automatism do not destroy these personal predilections. In hallucination, reiterated cliches, reiterated expressions, betray the man and it is this betrayal that Surrealism requires. (Cf. Ernst, no. *362, nos. *330, *341.) As the Surrealist universe becomes visible, as the Surrealist spirit and be havior become more sharply defined, a kind of Surrealist beauty comes into being. Andre Breton in 1928 concludes his book Nadja~\ with this decisive phrase: "Beauty will be convulsive or will not be." Convulsive beauty can he horn only from the Surrealist image, from the automatic image by which the imagination itself is stunned. Lautreamont, who announced: "The new shivers in the intellectual atmosphere,** prophesied this implacable beauty in his simile: "beautiful as the trembling of hands in inebriation,** and in this other simile in which the excitement of dislocation is wonderfully rendered : "Beau tiful as the chance encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella on a dis44 secting table."" This unexpected, arbitrary beauty, these dumbfounding juxta positions are the very voice of Surrealism. From such images, tyrannically unforgettable, springs all that is unhoped for, all that is admirable in its jagged, lightning-torn contours. I am thinking of some of Breton's and Eluard's incomparable images, identifications which remain indelible. In the visual field it is de Chirico who revealed such juxtapositions to us and introduced into Surrealist painting a whole range of possibilities. De Chirico created a tradi tion in which many imaginations developed. I allude especially to a painter who first makes his appearance in Surrealism in 1929— Rene Magritte. He contributes poetic images quite personal to himself, painted most tangibly and emanating a strange fascination. His paintings are an unbroken series of con crete object lessons which require no technical commentary. Their astonished reality seems more convincing than the reality of a photograph. (Cf Magritte, nos. *409-*412.) At the same moment as Breton in his Second Surrealist Manifesto f proceeds towards an evaluation of the Surrealist spirit, a new painter assumes a role of capital importance. The poetic, pictorial and critical contributions of Salvador Dali turned Surrealist research in a particular direction and gave a strong impulse to experiments which had been approached till then only in the most tentative fashion. His work is like an immense carnivorous flower blooming in the Surrealist sun. Moved by the lyrical expression of certain works of Ernst and Tanguy rather than won over by their plastic processes, and carrying to its extreme conclusions certain statements of the First Manifesto, f he gives full rein to dreams and hallucinations which he represents in the most faithful and meticulous way. He asserts his taste for chromolithographs, the most colored, the most complete, and the least accidental imitation of nature. He disdains all experiment with surfaces and all the familiar cliches of the painter's craft. He puts his "manner,'" his pictorial talent directly at the service of delirium. The trompe-V oeil is his way out. He creates a feverish world in which roles are played by simulations, physical illnesses, nervous conditions, sexual phenomena, inhibitions. Without inconsistency his range extends from collage to chromo, from ready-made objects to perfect illusions, from de Chirico and Picasso to Millet and Meissonier— and all by the method of para noiac obsession. His experiments, though remarkably fruitful, could not he successfully vulgarized. His conception of the purpose of painting accounts for his anti-artistic tendency, his delight in double images, and his desire to make his paintings like "handmade snapshots.*" His method of subjective criticism, his interpretation of the most familiar works of art as recurrent 45 obsessions, his acceptance of every aberration both in his paintings and in his writings, and his respect for dreams in their integrity no matter how contra dictory, are all essential contributions to Surrealist documentation. (Cf. Dali, nos. *310, *311, 312-*315, *320, *322.) Dali is deeply interested in insanity, hysteria, trance phenomena, every symptom of mania; it is not surprising therefore that in the field of art he should find that debilitated and debilitating style known in America as Art Nouveau particularly fascinating. Its architecture of dank and petrified hair, its somnambulistic furniture of unmeasured flowers, are rich in irrational con fusion like the fruit of a collective hallucination— and excellent material for Surrealist interpretation. All that is neurotic is worthy of investigation. As Eluard says of certain fantastic postcards so popular in pre-war times: "Com missioned by the exploiters to amuse the exploited, they should not, however, be counted a popular art. They are, rather, the small change of art and of poetry: and this small change sometimes reveals ideas of gold.' These various discoveries are in no way contradictory, in fact they accumulate to form the contemporary domain of the marvelous. Seen from the Surrealist viewpoint this is all perfectly consistent: the bizarre and the anti-artistic, accident and dream, automatic writing and delirium, critical interpretation and hallucina tory symbols, paintings and ordinary objects, poetry and everyday life. Here is a history of men's wishes, Jbere are the grandiose dreams of the world traversed by invisible rays and magnetic lightnings. Little by little in these fathomless depths, penetrated by the/light of Surrealism, new strata of reality come into being. (Cf. Dali, no. *311; Guimard, nos. *661-*663; Gaudi, nos. *649, *653,

  • 654, *657.)

A new periodical is founded: Le Surrealisme au Service de la Revolution .f It continues to reproduce the work of artists and to give information as to their activities. Like Baargeld and Ernst in Cologne during the Dada period, the Surrealist painters refuse to bow to the exigencies of politics and to work for purposes of propaganda. Painting, like poetry, persists in its role of investi gator into the immense undetermined region over which reason does not extend its protectorate. The principles of dialectical materialism are endorsed unconditionally by Surrealism, its attitude is revolutionary, but it wishes to cooperate in transforming the conditions of human life by its own methods. There are however some obviously subversive works that may be mentioned here. For instance the paintings of Clovis Trouille accepted by the Surrealist group, and Uage d'or, a film by Dali and Bunuel which after a violent scandal 46 was forbidden by the French censors in 1930. Essentially Surrealist in image and plot, Uage d"or was purposely savage in content, anti-religious, shocking and aggressive. This was in line with the program of Surrealism as continually proven by Surrealist manifestos and protests as well as by the kind of poetry of which Peret is the most brilliant master. The film, better than any other medium, can give life to the Surrealist image. Let us mention the extraordinary metamorphoses of Man Ray's Etoile de mer% and that admirable fragment of Surrealist life, Le chien andalou.% Already in 1922 Duchamp and Man Ray had attempted to translate into the language of the cinema their poetic and plastic preoccupations. Other films to be counted as Surrealist because of their technique or because they conjure up exciting situations not unlike Surrealist collages are Man Ray's Emak Bakia% and La perle by H. d'Arches and G. Hugnet. The publication of Surrealist books makes it possible for painters to accom pany poetic texts with drawings and etchings that do not need to follow any of the usual limitations of illustration. Max Ernst illustrates works of Eluard, Tzara, Peret; Tanguy, works of Eluard, Peret; Dali, works of Breton, Eluard, Hugnet; Miro, works of Tzara, Peret, Hugnet; Picasso, works of Peret and Eluard; Giacometti, works of Breton and Crevel. Crevel writes Salvador Dali ou V anti-ob scurantisme. f And, more recently, AlberJ Skira publishes forty-two etchings which Dali has made to illustrate Lautteamont's Les Chants de Maldoro. Surrealism was already beginning to spread to other countries and important Surrealist movements had come into being in Jugoslavia and Czechoslovakia. With the publication of Le Surrealisme au Service de la Revolution f in 1930, the movement becomes more widespread. In Belgium a group formed by Mesens, Nouge and Magritte keeps in close contact with Paris. Other groups form under the direction of painters or poets: In Japan, Tiru Jamanaka, Shuzo Takiguchi, Toshio Doi, Junzaburo Nishiwaki; in Scandinavia, Bjerke-Petersen, Stellan Morner, Freddie, Erik Olson; in the Canary Islands, Oscar Dominguez, Domingo Lopes Torres, Pedro Garcia Cabrera, Eduardo Westlierdhal; and recently in England, David Gascoyne, Herbert Read, Hugh Sykes Davis. In the United States an American periodical, transition ,f has given space to Sur realist activity. Breton has given lectures in Prague, Brussels, Tenerife and London; Eluard in Prague, Barcelona, Madrid, Seville, London; Dali in Paris, Peret in Tenerife. General exhibitions have been held in Prague, Brussels, 47 I e Tenerife, London. In Paris there have been many exhibitions in which most p of the Surrealist members were represented. (For England: cf. Agar, no. 262; wo ej Banting, no. *299; Burra, no. *303; Hayter, no. *392; Mednikoff, no. 426; J i0 Moore, no. *445; Nash, no. 449; Pailthorpe, no. *457; Penrose, no. 458. For t nf Belgium: cf. Mesens, no. *427; Magritte, nos. *409-*412. For Canary Islands: i cf Dominguez, nos. *324, *326. For Scandinavia: no. 514.) ma bj The public has been kept in contact with the plastic activity of the move- 0 f ment. But I must make it clear that Surrealist painting should not be judged 0 from an artistic or plastic point of view; it may be conceded that a paintei 30 should be able to paint but nevertheless Surrealist painting must not be judged Ha by artistic quality. No work can be, no work may be considered from this Jgj point of view. Surrealist objects which we are about to discuss are very im ro portant but they are in no sense the result of an esthetic interest in represen - f tation. det In 1931 the role of Le Surrealisme au Service de la Revolution f is comple- sco a] mented by Minotaure f and Cahiers d'Artf which publish special numbers on p Surrealism. tl0] Beside the new paintings of Tanguy, Dali, Ernst, Magritte, there appear the ma marvelous sculpture-objects of Giacometti in wood, stone and plaster, settings of poetic precision, palaces of sleep where mysterious dramas are enacted at daggers drawn, games whose bizarre and lucid rules are derived from dreams. car s The mobile objects of Giacometti functioning like dream-machines from the i r landscapes of Ernst or Tanguy give a new impulse to the creation of Surrealist mo objects. (Cf. Giacometti, nos. *377-*379.) No Valentine Hugo awakens in the ghosts of the past the legends of the day. The obj baffling paintings and drawings of Victor Brauner illustrate impossible ad- ma ventures where imperturbable figures obey only the laws of obsession. Hans per Bellmer succeeds in endowing his articulated doll with a fresh and amorous tioi life steeped in an atmosphere of wonder; his photographs of her reflect the stu complexities of his spirit, she undergoes metamorphoses, she dies, she grasps cha again the burning spark of love. His objects, his drawings reveal an unexpected vol anatomy haunted by an amorous life which identifies itself with poetry. In of contrast with Man Ray's recent photographs where the human element and pro 0e poetic anecdote are apt to prevail, Dora Maar's photographs are full of an p unexpected eroticism combined with dislocations borrowed from collage. The as i works of Meret Oppenheim lie on the margin between paintings and objects. pri Paalen and the Czechish painters Toyen and Styrsky reveal a research regu- Oh; lated by automatism and find in it a new realism. S. W. Hayter, Roland On 48 Penrose, Eileen Agar, Paul Nash organize amazing constructions where the world of dreams condemns the world of reality. The stories told by Marcel Jean's etchings (Mourir pour la patrie, 1935) distract reason into hallucina tion. Oscar Dominguez by trompe-V oeil and Surrealist deformation evokes infinitely varied flora and fauna. A truly magic process used by Dominguez and many Surrealists is called by Breton "decalcomania with no preconceived object, decalcomania of chance" and puts within everyone's reach the makings of the most exciting poetry. (Cf Valentine Hugo, nos. *396-398; Brauner, no. 301; Maar, nos. 404, 405; Paalen, nos. 453-*455; Oppenheim, no. *452; Hayter, nos. 384-*392 ; Penrose, no. 458; Agar, no. *262; Nash, no. 449; Jean, no. *401; Dominguez, nos. *324, *326.) We have mentioned various technical processes such as Ernst's collages and frottages (rubbings), Man Ray's experiments in photography, Dominguez's decalcomanias in which the work of chance can be observed under a micro scope and automatism reveals the tangible trace of the marvelous hand. Parallel to these but in the field of writing are the automatic texts, the narra tions of dreams, the "simulations" assembled by Breton and Eluard in L'/mmaculee Conception ,f one of the most exciting Surrealist books. We still have to touch upon Surrealist objects, the importance of which cannot be sufficiently emphasized. Nothing that the movement has produced is more authentic, more varied, more personal and at the same time so anony mous. They have realized LautreamonEs saying "poetry must be made by all. Not by one." Related in appearance to Dada sculpto-paintings Surrealist objects are essentially different for they are the automatic, reasonless and yet material expression of inhibited wishes, anthropomorphic vegetations of the permanently unpredictable in man. Made in secret, symbolical in their func tion, images for the hand, they are among the most singular subjects for the study of psychoanalysis. "These objects, endowed with a minimum of me chanical function, are based on ghostly fancies and are representations pro voked by unconscious acts The incarnation of these desires, the manner of their embodiment by metaphor, their symbolical realization constitute a process of erotic substitution which resembles at every point the process of poetry. Objects whose function is symbolical followed upon silent objects such as Giacometti's hanging sphere, an object which established all the essential principles of our definition but was still restricted to the medium of sculpture. Objects with symbolical function leave no loophole for formal preoccupations. Only amorous imagination is responsible for them and they are extra-plastic." 49 It is in these terms that Salvador Dali indicates the immense possibilities of the object as the most sincere and disinterested outlet of interior activity. The absence in their creation of all plastic endeavour must be borne in mind. Sur realist objects played a conspicuous part in an exhibition as early as 1933. Especially important were the object-sculptures of Arp and Giacometti, Man Ray's objects made of everyday things, invented objects by Tanguy, poetic objects by Breton and Eluard. In June 1936 an exhibition of exclusively Sur realist objects was held in Paris in the gallery of Charles Ratton. (Cf. Giaco metti, nos. *377-*379; Arp, nos. *277, *283, *287; Ray, no. 476.) The life and function of the Surrealist object is infinitely disquieting. One gets used to usual objects, one ceases to notice them, they become idle decora tion. What a difference between the objects of our deaf and dumb civilization and the real objects, the primitive object for instance. Objects are beautiful when and because they express something. Duchamp gave back to everyday objects their power of expression by his ready-mades and quite recently by his roto-reliefs. Arp in 1924 devised the planche a oeufs (egg-board) and how to use it. As Tanguy perfects the creatures who live in the translucid air of his canvases, as Arp polishes his "objects to be lost adorned with mus taches and mandolins, as new objects are put into circulation for new purposes, a new and increasingly complete mythology of desire comes into existence. But neither the paintings nor the objects have any intended connection with art; they are only an attempt to establish super-reality. (Cf Duchamp, nos. 221, 224.) An admirable realm is conjured up by the first objects of Picasso and Du champ, the ghost object of Breton, the aphrodisiac dinner jacket of Dali, disquieting panoplies of Tanguy, the tortured realities of Miro, Ernst s totem poles struck by lightning, and by the everyday objects in fur by Meret Oppenheim. The special number of Cahiers d'Art f on Surrealist objects also in cluded: mathematical objects, found objects, ready-mades and ready-mades assisted, the cover itself an object, Les coeurs volants by Duchamp. They all reflect the universe that Surrealism has brought back to life. (Cf Ernst, nos.

  • 369, 371; Oppenheim, no. *452; Miro, no. *444; Tanguy, no. *510; mathe

matical objects, nos. *629-643; found object, no. *624; ready-made, no. *221; ready-made assisted, no. 224.) Over the mathematical object and the found object, on the practical utility of which one can speculate indefinitely, there reigns the same certitude, the same enigma; the rational and the irrational meet. Breton writes: "Applying Hegel's adage 'All that is real is rational, all that is rational is real' the rational 50 can be expected to coincide in every point with the course of the real and in truth contemporary reason wants nothing more than to assimilate the ir rational. The rational is therefore forced to reorganize itself incessantly both to consolidate itself and to enrich itself. In this sense one must admit that Surrealism is accompanied by a surrationalism that doubles and acts as a standard for it. The fact that M. Gaston Bachelard has recently inserted in the scientific dictionary the word surrationalism, which is supposed to indicate an entire method of thought, lends increased actuality and strictness to the word "Surrealism" which had hitherto been accepted only in a purely artistic sense. One term verifies the other, both are evidence of the common, basic state of mind which motivates man's contemporary research, be he poet, painter or scholar." Breton goes on to say that in the "decisive words" of Paul Eluard the physics of poetry is being created. Borrowed from life the object comes back to life adorned with a formidable meaning. Instrument of experimentation, it inhabits the sumptuous laboratories of desire. The object's exceptional function in releasing impulsions by reconstituting the accessories of dreams, makes it desirable that it should be systematically exploited. Surrealist painting, Surrealist poetry blend together and some may find it amusing to characterize Surrealist painting as literary. Let them also amuse themselves characterizing poetry by the same method as that of a man who finds that butter has the same taste as hazelnuts. Andre Breton attempted to blend intimately writing and visual representation, poetry and chance in his poem-objects. In La septieme face du de (the 7th face of the die), I myself, by means of poemes-decoupages (cut-out poems), made like experiments by suppressing metaphor for the sole advantage of the image. (Collages and objects by Surrealist poets: Breton, no. 302; Eluard, no. 326a; Jean, no. *401; Hugnet, no. 399.) The history of Surrealism offers subjects for meditation rather than pictur esque incidents, it refuses to be classified among other "genres." What others attempted in order to avoid what has already been seen, Surrealism has under taken in order to reach a conclusion. "Surrealism has been the only force which until now has been able to extract from the darkroom the truly luminous and imposing forms. Surrealism has never feared that it was going too far, it has never betrayed true impulses, it has never acted with tact, with circum spection. We know to what falsehoods all esthetic preoccupation can lead: 'beauty' and 'morals' and even to the point where the length of the beard 51 would indicate the degree of intellect and of virility/' When Man Ray wrote this sentence he was expressing with insufficient emphasis to what degree our epoch is indebted to Surrealist creations, both poetic and pictorial. Max Ernst speaks of Surrealist activity in these terms: "Surrealism, in turn ing topsy-turvy the appearances and relationships of 'realities' has been able to hasten, with a smile on its lips, the general crisis of consciousness which must perforce take place in our time. ' I have attempted to give the feeling of this general crisis of consciousness throughout this historical and critical essay on Surrealist painting. In Surrealism the work and the man are in separable. Politically and poetically Surrealism seeks man s liberation. What a work of art expresses formally is of no importance— only its hidden content counts. Surrealism appeals to the imagination and fancy; it aims to take man out of himself ; it proposes automatism in order to draw out of man the neces sary light for his total emancipation. Surrealism restores to art its true meaning. Surrealism, not as an esthete, hut as an investigator and experimenter has extended its research into every field in an attempt to get to the bottom of things. There is no Surrealist art, there are only proposed means— and these proposed means may be only temporary. Surrealism wishes to reconcile what has been until now irreconcilable, to utilize what has been unreasonably de spised. Man is surrounded by invisible forces— they must be captured. To plumb the mystery of man too many roads have been neglected. Man is what he has been made. It is important to reveal to him that which hides him from himself. With Surrealism all poetic and pictorial manifestations are situated on the level of life and life on the level of dreams. In the night in which we live, in the carefully preserved obscurity which prevents man from rebelling, a beam from a lighthouse sweeps in a circular path over the human and extrahuman horizon: it is the light of Surrealism. GEORGES HUGNET 52 Brief chronology The Dada and Surrealist movements with certain pioneers and antecedents 1910 Paris: Cubism reaches a period of fantastically arbitrary dislocation and dis integration of natural forms. Braque and Picasso introduce into Cubist pictures "un-artistic" elements such as imitation wood, sand and letters. Milan: Manifesto of Futurist painting: "Exalt every kind of originality, of boldness, of extreme violence." "Rebel against the tyranny of the words 'Harmony' and 'Good taste'." Italy ( or Munich?) : De Chirico paints Enigma of an autumn afternoon , the first of his mysterious and disquieting views of silent city squares. 1911 Munich (1911-14): Kandinsky paints improvisations, e.g. no. *226, "rather subconsciously in a state of strong inner tension." These mark a degree of extreme irrational spontaneity approached but scarcely surpassed by Arp (1916) or later by Masson and Miro. Paris: December: Duchamp begins to undermine Cubist formal purity with such pictures as the Coffee mill, no. *216, with its proto-Dada mechanomorphic character. Chagall's pictures such as Dedicated to my fiancee, no. *184, and Paris through the window, no. *185, recklessly fantastic and outre subject mat ter of man-headed cats, lovers soaring over roof-tops, hull-headed men; paintings later (1916) called by Apollinaire Sur-naturalisme (derived from Gerard de Nerval, 1805-55), and anticipating by a year his inven tion of the word Surrealiste. Paris (1911-14) : De Chirico paints The nostalgia of the infinite, no. *190, The enigma of a day, no. 192, The melancholy and mystery of a street, no.

  • 194; admired by Apollinaire, Paul Guillaume, Pierre Roy and others.

53 1912 Paris: Picasso and Braque make papiers colles, compositions with bits of pasted newspaper, calling cards, etc., a further radical violation of tradi tional ways of painting, no. 250. Futurist exhibition. Publicity methods and typography adopted by the Dadaists four years later. Milan: Boccioni in Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture recommends the use of glass, wood, cardboard, cement, horsehair, mirrors, electric signs, etc., anticipating Dada objects. Paris: Archipenko's Medrano, a figure constructed of glass, wood, and metal with a strong Dadaist flavor. Paris or Munich: Duchamp's Nude descending the staircase, King and queen traversed by swift nudes, no. *218, The bride, no. 217. Paris-New York (1912-13) : Picabia begins to call his "orphic" abstractions by proto-Dada names such as Catch as catch can, no. *459. 1913 New York: In the June Camera Work (Alfred Stieglitz) Picabia announces Amorphism, a proto-Dada satire on abstract art illustrating pictures con taining nothing at all but the signature "Popaul Picador. Paris: Picasso's relief constructions of odds and ends of woods, paper, curtain tassels anticipate Dada objects. 1914 The War begins in August Paris: Duchamp's Bachelors, no. *220, his first total departure from Cubist traditions. Duchamp's Pharmacy, no. 219, a proto-Dada '"improvement' of a cheap lithograph of a woodland dell, made by adding two small red and green druggist's signs to the trees. Duchamp's first "ready-made," an ordinary bottle rack, no. *221, which he signed as a work of art— a completely proto-Dada gesture. 54 De Chirico begins to introduce bizarre pine-cones, plaster busts and geo metrical objects, no. *196, and finally egg-headed mannequin-like figures, nos. *211, *214, into his pictures. Munich: Klee's Little world, etching, no. *231, and similar drawings suggest an uncensored spontaneity of imagery far beyond that of his earlier fan tasies, no. *229. 1915 The War: Italy enters Italy (1915-18): De Chirico and Carra work in the manner subsequently called pittura metafisica, nos. 197 to *215. New York: Stieglitz Gallery, 291 Fifth Ave., publishes a review, 291, illus trating proto-Dada work by Picabia, de Zayas, Picasso, Apollinaire, Kath arine Rhoades, Agnes Ernst Meyer, etc. Duchamp arrives from Paris. Zurich: The future Dadaists, Tzara, Arp, Janco, Hugo Ball, Huelsenbeck, assemble. 1916 The War: Verdun Zurich : F ebruary : word DADA discovered by chance in dictionary. Richard Huelsenbeck organizes celebration at Cabaret Voltaire, founded by Hugo Ball. March: Galerie Dada opens under direction of Tzara and Ball. Concert given at Cabaret Voltaire— Tzara, Huelsenbeck and Janco read their poems simultaneously. May: first number of Dada publication, Cabaret Voltaire, includes: Apol linaire, Picasso, Modigliani, Arp, van Hoddis, Tzara, Huelsenbeck, Kandmsky, Marinetti, Cargiullo, van Rees, Slodky, Ball, Hennings, Janco, Cendrars. July: Tzara's first Dada manifesto read at a soiree. Publication of two manifestos: La premiere aventure celeste de M. Antipyrine by Tristan Tzara, illustrated by Janco, and phantastische gebete by Huelsenbeck, with woodcuts by Arp. 55 Zurich Dadaist art, 1916-18, abstract in character but for the most part highly spontaneous in technique: Arp's "automatic" drawings, collages, and wooden reliefs, nos. *264-*283, Schad's woodcuts and schadographs," no. *485, under varying influence of Kandinsky, nos. *226- 228, Klee, nos. *229- *244, and Cubism. Paris : Dada spirit exists in Paris publications such as Sic, founded by AlbertBirot ; Apollinaire, Dermee, Soupault contributors. New York: 291 continues. Man Ray's Theatre, no. 467, and other works in Dada spirit. 1917 The Russian revolutions ; the United States enters the War New York: Duchamp publishes reviews: The blind man and Wrong-wrong. Picabia and Walter Arensberg publish first number 391. Picabia to Bar celona; then to Zurich to join Tzara. Duchamp sends a "ready-made" to the Independents, a porcelain urinal which he called "Fontaine" and signed R. Mutt: rejected by the executive committee from which he then resigned. Man Ray's Suicide, no. 468, and Boardwalk, no. 469. Zurich: July: Dada I and Dada II published under direction of Tzara; con tain poems, articles and reproductions of works by those in Zurich group, and of Kandinsky, etc. Picabia arrives in Zurich and introduces Dada "machine" designs, nos.

  • 461, *462.

Paris : Nord-Sud, a review in Dada temper, contains writings by Apollinaire, Reverdy, Max Jacob, Breton, Soupault and Aragon. Berlin: Huelsenbeck returns from Zurich. Grosz's Dada drawings, no. *381. 1918 The War: the Armistice Zurich: Picabia collaborates on third number of Dada. Members of Paris group also contribute: Dermee, Reverdy, Albert-Birot. 56 Berlin: Huelsenbeck leads Dada movement, stages demonstrations and lec tures, publishes periodicals: Club Dada , der Dada. Members include: Haussmann, no. *383, Grosz, no. *382, Jung, Baader, no. *289, Heartfield, Hoch, no. *395 and others. Paris group sends contributions to Almanack Dada. Cologne: Ernst meets Baargeld. They, joined later by Arp, lead Cologne Dadaists. Opposed to exclusively political character of Berlin Dada. (Arp and Ernst had met in 1914.) Ernst under influence of de Chirico. 1919 The Treaty of Versailles; civil war in Germany Zurich: Tzara publishes 25 Poemes with woodcuts by Arp. Picabia continues 391. April: scandalous soiree (five people dressed in stovepipes perform dance entitled "noir cacadou," Serner lays flowers at feet of dummy, Tzara reads Dada proclamation— crowd in uproar). May: Nos. 4 and 5 of Dada published under title Anthologie Dada. Con tains work by almost all Dadaists then known. End of year: Tzara leaves for Paris. Paris: Dada spirit dominates Litteralure, founded in March and directed by Andre Breton, Philippe Soupault, Louis Aragon with the collaboration of Paul Eluard. Tzara collaborates on second number of Litterature. Members of Litterature group contribute to Anthologie Dada published in Zurich. Tzara s arrival in Paris greeted with enthusiasm. Berlin : Movement more involved with revolutionary politics and propaganda. Various manifestations, lecture tours, opening of Dada nightclub, etc. Sense of solidarity with Dada movement in other cities grows. Satirical and anti-rational collages characteristic of Berlin group, nos. *289, *382. ï Cologne: Ventilator , Dada newspaper founded by Baargeld, meets with great success, but forbidden by British Army of Occupation in Rhineland. Baargeld leader of Communists as well as Dadaists but maintains integ rity and independence of art. Arp and Ernst collaborate in Fatagaga series of collages. 57 Hanover: Schwitters and the publisher Stegeman found local movement. Schwitters calls all his collages, nos. *494-496, constructions, nos. *670-678, statements, books and poems "Merz"— term with no meaning, analagous to "Dada." 1920 Civil war in Germany; inflation Paris: January: First public demonstration of Dada at Palais des Fetes. Poems read, music, paintings and sculpture exhibited (notably Duchamp's LHOOQ, Mona Lisa with a mustache, which aroused indignation). February: Manifestation at Salon des Independants, Grand Palais. Bulle tin Dada published. First number of Proverbe published by Paul Eluard. Ernst excluded from Section d'Or (group of Cubist artists which included Archipenko, Survage and Gleizes). Dadaists expelled at a meeting held at Closerie des Lilas; marks complete rupture of Dada from artistic tra dition. March: last number of Dada published, entitled DADAphone. April: Picabia's review, Cannibale, begins. One man exhibitions during next few months at Sans Pared: Picabia, Max Ernst, Ribemont-Dessaignes, Man Ray, de Chirico. Arp to Paris from Cologne. May: Litterature publishes twenty-three Dada manifestos. Climax of movement— Dada Festival at Salle Gaveau. Dermee, Eluard, Picabia, Tzara, Breton, Soupault, Ribemont-Dessaignes and Aragon take part. Berlin: June: International Dada Exhibition of 174 items, including con tributions from Cologne, Karlsruhe, Magdeburg, Amsterdam, Antwerp, Zurich, Paris. Dada reaches peak of activity in Berlin and dies in same year. Cologne: February: periodical Die Schammade published. Contains work of Paris Dadaists. 58 Ernst and Baargeld collaborate in semi-automatic drawings, no. *297. Ernst "improves" technical, no. *332, biological, no. *346, and commer cial engravings, nos. *341, *343. April: sensational exhibition in Winter's Brauhaus including only Arp, Baargeld and Ernst. Closed by police. Event marks peak of Dada activity. Arp leaves for Paris, followed by Ernst in 1922. Dada dies in the Rhineland. 1921 Paris: By middle of year disintegration of Dada begins. Picabia and Breton secede. Breton and Soupault publish The Magnetic Fields, a collection of automatic writings. Ernst exhibits at Sans Pareil and Van Leer galleries. Man Ray's first "rayograph," no. *474, Duchamp's object: Why not sneeze? no. *224. New York: Duchamp and Man Ray publish one issue of New York Dada. 1922 Paris: June: Large international exhibition organized by the orthodox Dadaists, Galerie Montaigne; catalog contains reproductions of work by Arp, Duchamp, Ernst, Ribemont-Dessaignes, poems by Eluard, Tzara, Peret, Arp and Aragon. Man Ray exhibition, Libraire Six. Ernst arrives from Cologne. Le Congres de Paris precipitates break-up of Dadaists; Tzara and Breton oppose each other. Tzara publishes play, The Bearded Heart, but Breton succeeds in round ing up most of the ex-Dadaists in the new series of Litterature; this group was to asume the name "Surrealist" in 1924. 1923 Paris: Publication of Litterature continues. Surrealist books appear, includ ing Les Malheurs des Immortels and Repetitions by Paul Eluard and Max Ernst in collaboration. 59 1924 Paris: First manifesto of Surrealism published by Andre Breton. In 1917 Apollinaire had given the subtitle drame surrealiste to his play Les Mamelles de Tiresias. Breton appropriated and defined the term, applying it to the movement of which he was now the leader : " Surrealism , subst. : Pure psychic automatism, by which it is intended to express, verbally, in writing or by other means, the real process of thought. It is thought's dictation, all exercise of reason and every esthetic or moral preoccupation being absent." October: First public demonstration, on the occasion of the death of Anatole France. December: First number of review, La Revolution Surrealiste, published under direction of Pierre Naville and Benjamin Peret. Masson exhibition, Galerie Simon. 1925 Paris : Naville, in third number of La Revolution Surrealiste, declares impos sibility of creating a genuine Surrealist visual art. Breton takes over the direction of the periodical with the next number and publishes first in stallment of Le Surrealisme et la Peinture in reply to Naville's statement. Fifth number of La Revolution Surrealiste marks formal adherence of Surrealists to Communism. November: Galerie Pierre, first collective exhibition of the Surrealist group includes work by Ray, Picasso, Arp, Klee, Masson, Ernst, Miro, Pierre Roy, de Chirico. June: Miro exhibition, Galerie Pierre. 1926 Paris: March 10: La Galerie Surrealiste opens with an exhibition of the same artists who took part in the Galerie Pierre show the year before. Also included are Marcel Duchamp (under the pseudonym of Rrose Selavy) and Francis Picabia. Ernst exhibition, Galerie van Leer. Man Ray exhibition, Galerie Surrealiste. 60 1927 Paris: Periodical, La Revolution Surrealiste, continues to appear. Exhibitions: Arp, Galerie Surrealiste; Ernst, Galerie van Leer; Man Ray, Galerie Surrealiste; Tanguy, Galerie Surrealiste. Brussels: Ernst, Le Centaure gallery. New York: de Chirico, Valentine gallery. 1928 Paris: Breton s book Le Surrealisme et la Peinture published. Group exhibi tion, Au Sacre du Printemps , includes: Arp, de Chirico, Ernst, Malkine, Masson, Miro, Picabia, Roy, Tanguy. One man exhibitions: Ernst, Galerie Georges Bernheim; Miro, Galerie Georges Bernheim; de Chirico, Galerie Surrealiste. Brussels: Arp, Le Centaure gallery. New York: Miro, Valentine gallery. 1929 Paris: Breton's Second Manifesto of Surrealism, published in the final num ber of La Revolution Surrealiste, restates the Surrealist program in the light of the previous five years of activity. Breton repudiates former col laborators, among them Masson, Soupault, Ribemont-Dessaignes. Tzara rejoins movement for a brief period. Surrealist film, Le chien andalou, by Dali and Bunuel given at Studio 28. Exhibitions: Arp, Galerie Goemans; Dali, Galerie Goemans (November) ; Masson, Galerie Simon; Ray, Galerie van Leer. Brussels: Miro exhibition, Le Centaure gallery. Berlin: Ernst, Flechtheim gallery. 1930 Paris: First number of Le Surrealisme au Service de la Revolution, edited by Breton. Contains declaration of solidarity with Breton by Maxime Alex61 andre, Aragon, Joe Bousquet, Bunuel, Rene Char, Crevel, Dali, Eluard, Ernst, Mariel Fourrier, Camille Goemans, Georges Malkine, Paul Nouge, Benjamin Peret, Francis Ponge, Marco Ristitch, Georges Sadoul, Tanguy, Andre Thirion, Tzara and Albert Valentin. Dali brings new and important contribution to Surrealist theory and tech nique—his paranoiac method of criticism subsequently published in his book, La Femme Visible. Exhibitions: Dali, Galerie Pierre Colle; Ernst, Galerie Vignon and Galerie Jeanne Bucher; Miro, Galerie Pierre. Important exhibition of col lages at Galerie Goemans includes Arp, Braque, Dali, Duchamp, Ernst, Gris, Miro, Magritte, Man Ray, Picabia, Picasso, Tanguy; Aragon writes preface to catalog entitled La Peinture au Defi. Breton and Eluard publish automatic texts in U Immaculee Conception. New York : Klee exhibition, Museum of Modern Art ; Roy, Brummer Gallery. Painting in Paris exhibition, Museum of Modern Art, includes FantasticSurrealist group: Picasso, Miro, de Chirico, Lurgat, Chagall, Survage. 1931 Paris: December number of Le Surrealisme au Service de la Revolution con tains Dali s important exposition of the Surrealist object, generally de fined as "objects functioning symbolically." (Duchamp's Why not sneeze? of 1921, sculptures by Giacometti, etc. are objects of "concrete irrationality.") UAge d'Or, second Surrealist film made by Dali and Bunuel, shown at Studio 28, creates scandal. Performance forbidden by police. Hartford: First exclusively Surrealist exhibition in America at Wadsworth Atheneum: Dali, de Chirico, Ernst, Miro, Picasso, Roy, Survage, Masson. 1932 Paris: This Quarter publishes Surrealist number. Breton publishes Les Vases Communiquants. Exhibitions: Dali, Galerie Pierre Colle; Ernst, Galerie Pierre; Masson, Paul Rosenberg; Miro, Galerie Pierre. 62 New York: Surrealist exhibition, Julien Levy Gallery, includes Dali, Ernst, Picasso, Ray, Roy, Viollier; Miro, Pierre Matisse Gallery; Ray, Julien Levy Gallery. Basle: Arp exhibition, Kunsthalle. 1933 Paris: Surrealists collaborate on periodical Minotaure. General exhibitions: Galerie Pierre Colle, includes Arp, Breton, Dali, Duchamp, Eluard, Ernst, Giacometti, Marcel Henry, Georges Hugnet, Valentine Hugo, Magritte, Miro, Picasso, Man Ray; Salon des Surindependants includes Arp, Victor Brauner, Dali, Ernst, Giacometti, Valentine Hugo, Magritte, Miro, Meret Oppenheim, Ray, Tanguy, Clovis Trouille. New York: Exhibitions: Dali, Julien Levy Gallery; Miro, Masson, Pierre Matisse Gallery. London: Ernst, Miro, the Mayor Gallery. 1934 Brussels: Paris Surrealists collaborate in special number of Documents. Brus sels group, Mesens, Magritte and others, increases activity. Paris: Exhibitions: Ernst, Cahiers d'Art; Brauner, Galerie Pierre. Zurich: General exhibition: Arp, Ernst, Giacometti, Gonzales, Miro. New York: Giacometti, Dali, Julien Levy Gallery; Arp, John Becker Gallery. London: Dali, Zwemmer Gallery. Barcelona: Dali exhibition excites growing Surrealist group. 1935 Prague: Breton and Eluard lecture and encourage Surrealist group, includ ing painters Toyen and Styrsky. Bulletins published. Copenhagen : Large exhibition reveals many Scandinavian Surrealist painters. 63 Tenerife (Canary Islands): Important Surrealist exhibition; Breton and Peret lecture; publications. Belgrade: Surrealist group, several years old, increases activity. Paris: General exhibition, Galerie Quatre Chemins. Tanguy, Ernst, Miro have exhibitions. New York: Miro, Masson, Pierre Matisse Gallery; Dali, Julien Levy Gallery. Japan: Surrealist publications and exhibitions. 1936 Paris: Important exhibition of Surrealist objects, Charles Ratton gallery, in cludes: Polynesian, African and Pre-Columbian art; "found objects" both natural and man-made; "found objects assisted" (i.e. slightly trans formed) ; psychopathic objects; objects by Surrealist artists, etc. London: International Surrealist Exhibition, New Burlington Galleries, June 11 to July 4, includes 392 items by 58 artists, with objects contributed by 11 other participants; 14 countries represented. Organizing commit tee includes, for England: H. S. Davies; David Gascoyne, Humphrey Jennings, McKnight Kauffer, Rupert Lee, chairman , Henry Moore, Paul Nash, Roland Penrose, hon. treasurer , Herbert Read, Diana Brinton Lee; for France: Breton, Eluard, Hugnet, Ray; for Belgium: E. L. T. Mesens; for Scandinavia: Vilhelm Bjerke-Petersen; for Spain: Dali. Breton, Eluard, Dali and others lecture; many publications, including transla tions. New York: Dali, Tanguy, Magritte, Ernst, Julien Levy Gallery; de Chirico, 1910-18, Miro, Pierre Matisse Gallery. E. C. and A. H. B., Jr. 64 A list of devices , techniques, media 1. Simple composite image {e.g.: a hu man figure composed of garden imple ments) : 5, 33, 169, 172, 383, 523, 622 2. Double image (one of them con cealed) : a. monaxial (to be seen with out turning picture) : 44, 53 (last two illustrations) ; b. biaxial (to be seen by looking at picture both horizon tally and vertically) : 6, 320, 378 3. Collaborative composition (that is, made by two or more artists working in sequence) : 297, 304, 305, 306, 308 (illustrated on cover of Museum Bul letin, 1936, Vol. 4, No. 2-3) 4. Fantastic perspective (flattened or reversed) : 44, 48, 49, 59 (also 549, not illustrated) ^ 5. Animation of the inanimate {e.g.: a sofa dancing with an armchair) : 14, 53, 57, 60, 70, 71, 93, 103, 146, 169, 211, 214, 305, 323 y 6. Metamorphoses: 45,53 (tree figures) , 55, 90, 129, 130 ( !) , 131 ( !) , 172, 184, 217, 220, 230, 257, 262, 323, 330, 346, 349, 423, 565, 584, 609 7. Isolation of anatomical fragments: 27, 130, 163, 292, 410, 477 8. Confrontation of incongruities: 20, 56, 60, 123, 168, 180, 185, 193, 196, 215, 224, 292, 305, 306, 309, 310, 395, 444, 527, 528, 534, 574, 575, 623, 688 This list was published originally as part of A Bi Surrealism, January, 1937. 9. Miracles and anomalies: 7, 10, 25, 27, 46 (plate incorrectly numbered 45), 50, 53, 60, 76, 103, 105, 110, 119, 124, 142, 144, 163, 180, 185, 214, 244, 261, 315, 322, 323, 355, 362, 401, 409, 412, 452, 527, 578, 581, 586, 618 10. Organic abstractions (semi-abstract forms derived from or resembling or ganic forms) : 55, 217, 218, 243, 257, 264, 276, 283, 288, 436, 504, 509, 654, 657, 661, 662, 663 11. Fantastic machinery: 76, 77, 234, 332, 346, 461, 462, 470, 476, 536, 555 (illus trated on same page as 581) 12. Dream pictures: 40, 94, 96, 112, 168, 374, 396 (also 145, not illustrated) < r, 13. Creation of evocative chaos: 231,326, 1/ v 498, 577, 645, 670, 671 ("I have seen in the clouds and in spots on a wall what has aroused me to fine inventions . . ." —Leonardo da Vinci) 14. Automatic and quasi-automatic draw ing and painting: 133, 226, 231, 258, 265, 297, 414, 457, 598, 609 15. Composition by artificial accident: 267, 287, 326, 471 (illustrated on jacket of catalog, also 223, not illustrated but important as probably the earliest ) <f Guide to the Exhibition of Fantastic Art, Dada, 65 16. Frottage (semi-automatic process for obtaining patterns or designs by rub bing canvas or paper which has been placed over a rough surface such as planking, embossing, a brick wall, etc.) : 360 (also 356, 358, 360a, 372, not illustrated) 17. Collage ("the cutting up of various flat reproductions of objects or parts of objects and the pasting them to gether to form a picture of something new and strange" — Max Ernst) : 251, 267, 289, 292, 305, 330, 341, 343, 362, 382, 383, 395, 427, 494 .V 18. Combination of real and painted ob jects (similar to collage but the ob jects are actual realities rather than flat reproductions) : 361, 439, 541 19. Found objects of Surrealist character ("Ready -mades," i.e. manufactured commercial objects ; mathematical and other scientific models; natural ob jects, etc.) : 221, 623, 624, 626, 627, 629 20. Found objects " assisted 99 (i.e. al tered, transformed, or combined by the artist) : 224, 309, 324, 369, 401, 444, 476, 572, 608 21. Dada and Surrealist objects (objects made by artists as distinguished from objects "found" or merely "assisted") : 287, 377, 435, 452, 455, 478, 510, 512 66 Plates Fantastic art : 15th and 16th centuries WMBM W paBft pj l! W mrnmm Mfcnte t#SMKw iigBB li raHK MUliag E iEIH™IE i II O 5 Arcimboldo: Summer, 1563 ' 6 Arcimboldo, Tradition of: Landscape— head (double image) mm 7 Baldung: Bewitched groom 20 Diirer: Man in despair, 1516 14 Bosch, Attributed to: The Temptation of St. Anthony 15 Bosch, School of: Descent into hell

32 Huys: Temptation of St. Anthony Ti iEii²

  • 25 Giovanni di Paolo: Shipwreck— Miracle of St. Nicholas of Bari, c. 1450
  • 27 Goujon, Attributed to: Woodcuts from Orus Apollo de Aegypte de la Signification des Notes Hieroglyphiques des Aegyptiens , 1543
  • 33 Jamnitzer, Christopher: Tournament, 1610
  • 36 Jamnitzer, Wenzel: Etching from Perspectiva Corporum Regularium, 1568
  • 37 Leonardo da Vinci: Design from Divina Proportione of Luca Pacioli, 1509
  • 39 Musi (Agostino Veneziano) : The carcass
  • 40 Penni: The dream of Raphael or The melancholy of Michelangelo

44 Schon: Puzzle picture with four portraits, c. 1534 48 German School [?] : Charles V, 1533 49 Unknown Master, 16th Century: St. Anthony of Padua 46 North Italian School, 15th century: Fall of Phaeton Fantastic art: 17th and 18th centuries

50 de la Barre : Design for jewelers 55 van den Eeckhout: Ornament, from Veelderhand Nieuwe Compartimente 60 Hogarth: Frontispiece for Hogarth's Tour, 1781

70 Larmessin: Miller's costume 71 Larmessin: Box-maker's costume 81a Piranesi: Prison interior, c. 1745 76 Morghen: Etching from Raccolta delle Cose, 1764 79 Morghen: Etching from Raccolta delle Cose, 1764 90 French School, 18th Century: Memento Mori Fantastic art: the French Revolution to the Great War mmmMm §m wsi 94 Blake: "O! How I dreamt of Things Impossible," 1796 y»\meintJtc c &#- & me tmunplui.P of (lie wicked v is snort , the joy of the but for d moment r»i»Uvn.s»wfs Satan himyeffts twmAhrmeJ mto an Any el of Lt^Kl dc1»sMi».Ut«s mtnWfmistriv? of iV

  • -

V/i tk Dreams Upon my ted tliou scares! me A:ajfrielites t mo vvi tk Vj SJOiiS Why d ovoh persecute me as God &. are not salBfied a itl, «»»y flesh , t)h that my words wcw printed in a Book that thev were graven with an iron pen & lead in the rod; l'or I know mat my Redeemer Jivctk <£that. he shall stand in eke latter tLwsn ji j the Earth. after mv destroy. tU-oMThis h.>dy- yet m my lirslndial'isef sy If /and whom I shall ïï)*£ fur k ! y. juuic eyes .vlijl| beiniti A (tot . \nut n . > " \ ^ ^ p-^ kimsrfj'ab.a r all lM u; eoirsuuvet H>t/ s)iipl *£fyrJ>iah«(t. as thejlct direct* March X. J82S i-. \\.:i l3t«I<~A ; / < 'itienul j . y % Blake: "With dreams upon my bed thou scarest me and affrightest me with visions," 1825

! I

  • tf ' ; r.>

- * - r 105 Cole: The Titan's goblet t Civrrj ^S&r- r-.._ ~'imu

    • »ï*

110 Ensor: Skeletons disputing before a hanged man, 1891 112 Fiissli: Nightmare, c. 1782 119 Gaillot: Fight to the finish ï: '# 124 Goya: The chinchillas, 1795-97 123 Goya: They have already retained their seats, 1795-97 <t /// U/ff/ 129 Grandville: Omnibus Royal des Pays-Bas, 1829 130 Grandville: First dream — crime and 131 Grandville: A promenade in the sky expiation 133 Hugo: Satanic head, 1860-70 144 Lear: The Dong with a luminous nose 142 Lear: Manypeeplia Upsidownia Manypeeplia Upsidownia. i.E'-fcAMKCR*'"* CRY? TO GAME 147 Mery on: The sickly cryptogam A lenient ami generous teacher, the 1 )oetor took us often to the Crystal Palace 146 Lucas and Morrow: What a Life , 1911 I was at this time a handsome boy of fourteen. Our favourite game was leapfrog. 163 Redon: "The eye like a strange balloon 167 Redon: Silence

180 Spanish School, 19th Century: The world topsy-turvy, 1861 2Oth century pioneers The relation of each of these "pioneers" to the Dada and Surrealist movements may be indicated briefly: Chagall has had almost no relations with either the Dadaists or the Surrealists. De Chirico's art of the period 1910-18 was studied by the Dadaists and has been perhaps the most important single influence upon Sur realist painting. Duchamp, an aloof and intensely independent spirit, has been an im portant influence upon both Dada and Surrealism but he does not seem to have committed himself in any formal sense. Kandinsky has not participated in either movement but some of his work of 1911-17 interested the Zurich Dadaists and remains among the first and purest expressions of automatic painting. Klee was admired by the Dadaists and is "claimed" by the Sur realists but he seems never to have participated in either movement beyond permitting the inclusion of his work in group exhibitions. Picasso took no part in Dada although his papiers colles greatly in fluenced Dada collage. During the past decade and especially in the past year Picasso has become more and more involved with the Sur realists, taking an active part in their publications and exhibitions. 184 Chagall: Dedicated to my fiancee, 1911 A A /- hMH -% Si t » il *"3 SI ï*1 mk * *,« * 185 Chagall: Paris through the window, 1912 190 de Chirico: Nostalgia of the infinite, 1911 193 de Chirico: The child's brain, 1914 S i " ï 194 de Chirico: Melancholy and mystery of a street, 1914 '


' " c 195 de Chirico: The enigma of the hour, 1914 196 de Chirico: The sailors' barracks, 1914 215 de Chirico: Toys of a philosopher, 1917 211 de Chirico: Troubadour, 1917 212 de Chirico: Grand metaphysical interior, 1917 hHH 214 de Chirico: The disquieting muses 216 Duchamp: Coffee mill, 191] 218 Duchamp: The king and queen traversed by swift nudes, 1912 217 Duchamp: The bride, 1912 Mill 220 Duchamp : The bachelors, 1914

226 Kandinsky: Light picture, 1913 230 Klee: Musical dinner party, 1907 229 Klee: Perseus— the triumph of brain over body, 1904 231 Klee: Little world, 1914 234 Klee: Little experimental machine, 1921 K 243 Klee: Protectress, 1932 s-* . v*'- ,?:ï " ; (o)\ 244 Klee: Mask of fear, 1932 251 Picasso: Head, 1913 252 Picasso: Green still life, 1914 Si 253 Picasso: Harlequin, 1918 254 Picasso: Seated woman, 1927 257 Picasso: Metamorphosis (Bather), 1929 256 Picasso: Figures on the seashore, 1928 258 Picasso: Illustration for Balzac's Le Chef-cTOeuvre Inconnu, 1931 260 Picasso: Bull fight, 1934 261 Picasso: Minotauromachy, 1935

Dada and Surrealism Dada: 1916 to about 1922 Surrealism: 1924 to the present

276 Arp: Mountain, table, anchors, navel, 1925 277 Arp : Two heads, 1927 287 Arp : Objects arranged according to the law of chance or Navels, 1930 283 Arp: Two heads, 1929 288 Arp : Human concretion, 1935

300 Bellmer: Drawing, 1936 303 Burra: Hostesses, 1932 304 Exquisite corpse: Figure, 1926-27 305 Exquisite corpse: Figure, 1928 [?] 306 Exquisite corpse: Landscape, c. 1933 309 Cornell: Soap bubble set, 1936 nwp 310 Dali: Illumined pleasures, 1929 315 Dali: The persistence of memory, 1931 311 Dali: The font, 1930 320 Dali: Paranoiac face, double image, 1935 323 Dali: City of drawers, 1936 322 Dali: Puzzle of autumn, 1935

330 Ernst: Here everything is floating, c. 1919 343 Ernst: 1 copper plate 1 zinc 332 Ernst: Farewell my beautiful plate 1 rubber towel 2 calipers 1 land of Marie Laurencin, c. 1919 drain telescope 1 roaring man, 1920 I ' 4«rt f >t(a r.trvfn 341 Ernst: The hat makes the man, 1920


346 Ernst: The gramineous bicycle garnished with bells the pilfered grey beards and the echinoderms bending the spine to look for caresses, c. 1920 349 Ernst: The elephant Celebes, 1921 mnvxt«s ur\ rowgrol /M. *?nv 355 Ernst: 2 children are menaced by a nightingale, 1924 ' 360 Ernst: The horde, c. 1927 361 Ernst: Loplop introduces a young girl, 1930 362 Ernst: Majestueuse, original collage for the collage novel, Re ve d'une Petite Fille Qui Vouhil Entrer au Carmel, 1930 373 Ernst: The nymph Echo, 1936 369 Ernst: Round head, 1935 374 Fini: Games of legs in a key of dreams, 1935 377 Giacometti: Disagreeable object, 1931 378 Giacometti: Head-landscape, 1932 I 379 Giacometti: The palace at 4 a.m., 1933

n. 8® >h] . h«n auf Ufc W5s«* t riie Kirche hat hierr-^ -jgbrd wvlchw SchJ . S-* i 4 P

WM> 396 Hugo: Dream of January 17, 1934 410 Magritte: The eye 412 Magritte: The human condition, 1935

. - .


' 409 Magritte: Mental calculus, 1931

414 Masson: Birth of birds, c. 1925 416 Masson: Battle of fishes, 1927 421 Masson: Animals devouring themselves, 1928 ' i 430 Miro: Catalan landscape, 1923-24 434 Miro : Personage throwing a stone at a bird, c. 1926 mmmm !V' 'Asm * ,/ ' * . ï:: - ï : -

  • <4 > A\-^mrn

HhHBNHI 436 Miro : Composition, 1933 439 Miro: Rope and personages, 1935

445 Moore: Reclining figure. 1931 450 Oelze : Daily torments, 1934 451 Oelze: Frieda, 1936

457 Pailthorpe : Ancestors II, 1935

4 f* tlu 474 Ray: "Rayograph," 1923

— — —

Artists independent of the Dada-Surrealist movements 527 Blume: Parade, 1930 528 Blume: Elemosina, 1933 531 Calder: Mantis, 1936 534 Castellon: The artist w OLF PACIFIER [ 536 Disney: Wolf pacifier, 1936 i' gBgggppp mmmmmSSSS jJLliki ililiiililitili liiiiiiliULk iiilink'iiiii 541 Dove: Portrait of Ralph Dusenberry, 1924 1' NHflM.M '""I « wmm m w«" 545 Evans : Outdoor advertising, Florida, 1936 548 Feitelson: Genesis, first version, 1934 565 Merrild: Hermaphrodite, 1935 556 Gonzales: Head 560a Lewis: Roman actors, 1934 570 O'Keeffe: Black abstraction, 1925 571 O'Keeffe: Cow's skull, 1929 574 Roy: The electrification of the country 575 Roy: Daylight saving

JTROFESSCR. BUTTS STROLLS BETWEEMTWd sets ofcsaksgsters Hamimg a machimeQUM EATTLE ANb Is STRUCfc BY AM ItsEA FORKEEPIMG A SUTTOM-HOLE FLOUSER. FRESR. Breeze CA) ReviolvIes pimajheelCb' AMtb UIIMBS CORE. ®) WHICH FULLS "TRIGGER. CDOjRELEA s IMGSTR IMG CE) AWE 1) SHoerriMG ARROW CE AGAIMST BOtto/O®) OF CIGAR-UIGHTER.OH). HEAT FROM FLAME Cl),RlaMG-THROOGH FLOE G3-), causes iceCbOto MELT IMTO PAMCIi) /\Mtb BRIF IWTO SMALL fcERBY" HATCM). BCTRA WEIGHT PULLS CORfc.CN) u)H IcH MOVIES ARROUO (fO), blREcnXlG ATTEMTIO/G of BABT seal Qp) To &ASIM OF WIATERCQ) ï SEAL fc.NES /M, SpLAsHIAiG WIATER IMI&TRDOGH CR) „ IT ROMs OM FL0WER-C6) REEPIMG It FRESHIFTHEREIS MO BREEZE "TO STARr THE RIMOOHEEL, SMEAR OP BEHlMts A BRIBE AMB STEAL AFRESH FLOUJER . 555 Goldberg: Idea for keeping a buttonhole flower fresh 581 Thurber: "Look out, here they come again!" 584 Tonny: Drawing, c. 1930 523 Beall: Find What Roosevelt Means to the U.S.A. in this Picture, 1933 Legend: Elimination of child labor (see nose and mouth) ; Opportunity of farmer (see his right eyebrow ) ; Bigger navy and reforestation (see hair on right side of head) ; The New Dawn (see his forehead ) ; Renewed prosperity (see horn of plenty ) ; The Forgotten Man (see his right shoulder ) ; etc., etc. Comparative material Art of children Art of the insane Folk art Commercial and journalistic art Miscellaneous objects and pictures with a Surrealist character Scientific objects

586 Hoisington (aged 11) : A god of war shooting arrows to protect the people 587 Ganz (aged 6) : Spirits

WW—WW—WW—WW 620 Window plan, from Koester School Book of Draping, 1913 619 Draping on forms, from Koester School Book of Draping, 1913 " it * * a § * OT&&S E M PI. O YE E S NOON DAY PARTY FACTORY GROUNDS 618 Lawn party of the Royal Worcester Corset Company, 1906 , . . ' \SM-. , 622 Advertisement in Women's Wear Daily , 1936

629 Mathematical object 627 Spoon found in a condemned man's cell Fantastic architecture . Mnmi JUUMOU

688 Terry: Fireplace with a waterfall, 1933 679 Terry: The snail 679 Terry: Plan for The snail

Catalog of the exhibition Fantastic art: 15th and 16th centuries ARCIMBOLDO, Giuseppe. Italian pain ter and theatrical designer. Born Milan, c. 1530. Court painter to the Austrian Em perors, Ferdinand I, Maximilian II, Ru dolf II. Specialized in composite heads and allegorical figures made up of flowers, fruits, and animals: Four Elements; Four Seasons. Ennobled, 1591. Died Milan, 1593. Photographs 1. Bust composed of animals 2. Fire 3. Water 4. Winter

  • 5. Summer, 1563

Original paintings in the Picture Gal lery, Vienna ARCIMBOLDO, tradition of 6. Landscape— head (double image) Oil on panel, 12% x 16% inches Note: probably either a North Ital ian or an Austrian painting of the 16th century Lent anonymously BALDUNG, Hans, called GRIEN. Ger man painter and graphic artist. Born Weyersheim (Alsace) , c. 1480. Influenced by Diirer. Court painter to Bishop of Strassburg, and worked at Freiburg under pat ronage of Margrave Christoph von Baden. Many allegorical subjects and portraits, principally in woodcuts. Died Strassburg, 1545.

  • 7. Bewitched groom, woodcut

Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston Reproduced from a facsimile 8. Seven horses fighting in a wood, woodcut, 1534 Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston 9. Witches' sabbath, woodcut Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston BOSCH (van AEKEN), Hieronymus. Dutch painter and designer for engravings. Born c. 1460 [ ? ] ; active at 's Hertogenbosch in Holland, 1488-1512. Influenced by Geertgen tot Sint Jans and by the Mas ter of the Virgo inter Virgines. Painter of diabolical visions and hell. Influenced Brueghel who took over many of his sub jects. Many drawings of fantastic figures attributed to him are engravings after his work but probably not by his own hand. Died 's Hertogenbosch, 1516.

  • 10. Study for a Temptation of St. An

thony. , ink, 8 x 10% inches Lent by the Louvre Museum, Paris 11. Small fishes are bait for large fishes ( Grandibus exigui sunt pisces pis - cibus esca ), engraved by Peter Brue ghel the elder, 1557 Lent anonymously Photograph 12. The Temptation of St. Anthony Original painting in the Lisbon Mu seum Photograph 13. The Capital Sins Original painting in the Gallery of the Escorial, Spain

  • 14. The Temptation of Saint Anthony,

attributed to Bosch Oil on panel, 15% x 9% inches Lent by the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery of Art, Kansas City, Missouri BOSCH, School of

  • 15. Descent into hell

Oil on panel, 21 x 46 inches Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York BRUEGHEL, Peter, the elder. Flemish painter and graphic artist. Born Brueghel c. 1525-1530. Pupil of Peter Koeck van 246 Aalst and Hieronymus Cock. Influenced in subject matter by Bosch. Although chiefly a painter of scenes from peasant life, he produced all manner of fantastic and dia bolical etchings and drawings. Died Brus sels, c. 1570. 16. Avarice, engraving Lent anonymously 17. Mascarade d'Ourson et de Valen tin, woodcut Taken from Brueghel's painting, Combat of Carnival and Lent Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston DURER, Albrecht. German p ainter, graph ic artist, illustrator and writer on art theory. Born Nuremberg, 1471. Occupied chiefly as painter until 1510, after that de voted himself to graphic arts, of which he was probably the greatest master of his age. Died Nuremberg, 1528. 18. The Beast with Seven Heads and the Beast with Lamb's Horns, wood cut from The Apocalypse, 1498 Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston 19. The Whore of Babylon, woodcut from The Apocalypse, 1498 Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston

  • 20. Man in despair, etching on iron,

1516 Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston FINE, Oronce. French mathematician and astronomer. Born 1494. Professor of math ematics and architecture, Royal College, Paris. Designed woodcuts for his own and others' books on these subjects. Died, 1555. 21. Woodcut from Raison d' Architecture Antique Extraicte de Victruve, et aultres Architectures, by Diego de Sagredo, Paris, Simon de Colines, c. 1530 Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York FLORIS, Cornelis II (de VRIENDT), Flemish sculptor, architect and designer of ornamental engravings. Born Antwerp, 1514. Traveled in Italy and introduced Roman grotesque style into The Nether lands. Active as architect and sculptor from 1549 on. Died Antwerp, 1579. 22-24. Three ornamental designs, en graved by Corneille Lent by Miss Janice Loeb, Paris GIOVANNI DI PAOLO DI GRAZIA. Italian painter and illuminator. Born Siena, 1403 [?]. Assimilated wide variety of styles, including elements of Byzantine art, Duccio, Simone Martini, Barna, and Gentile da Fabriano. Signed and dated Crucifixion, 1440, now in Siena Academy. Executed, probably for the church of San Domenico in 1445, a Last Judgment ; a fragment of another painting of the same subject, representing Paradise, is in The Metropolitan Museum, New York. Culmi nation of lyrical and romantic tendencies in six scenes from life of John the Baptist, The Art Institute of Chicago. Died Siena, 1482.

  • 25. Shipwreck— Miracle of St. Nicholas

of Bari, c. 1450 Tempera on panel, 20% x 16% inches Lent through the courtesy of the Trustee of the Johnson Collection, Philadelphia GIOVANNI DA UDINE. Umbrian mural and easel painter. Born, 1487. Pupil of Giorgione and Raphael. Designer of all types of ornamental decoration. Died Rome, 1564. 26. Dragon, pen drawing attributed to Giovanni da Udine. Lent by the Fogg Art Museum, Cam bridge, Loeser Collection GOUJON, Jean. French sculptor and arch itect. Born, 1515. Chief of the group of artists who designed and executed the dec247 orations of the palace of Fontainebleao. Died, 1572.

  • 27-30. Four woodcuts, attributed to Goujon, from Orus Apollo de Aegypte de

la Signification des Notes Hieroglyphiques des Aegyptiens, Paris, Kerver, 1543. Lent by William M. Ivins, Jr., New York HOLBEIN, Hans, the younger. Foremost German portrait painter of the 16th cen tury. Born Augsburg, 1497. Worked prin cipally in Switzerland and England, where he became painter to Henry VIII. Died, 1543. Photograph 31. Two Ambassadors Note: the bizarrely foreshortened skull hanging in mid-air between the two figures is the most famous ex ample of extremely distorted per spective. The skull has sometimes been considered an emblematic sig nature derived from Holbein's name '"hollow bone". Original painting in the National Gallery, London HUYS, Peter. Flemish painter and en graver. Active in Antwerp, 1545-77. Signed and dated paintings reveal him as follower of Hieronvmus Bosch and Jan Massys: Temptation of St. Anthony, 1547; Hell, Prado, Madrid, 1570.

  • 32. Temptation of St. Anthony

Oil on panel, 43 x 49 inches Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York JAMNITZER, Christopher. Flemish gold smith and engraver. Born Nuremberg, 1563. In 1600 published a set of grotesque subjects. Died, 1618. Etchings from Neuw Grottesshen Buch, Nuremberg, 1610

  • 33. Tournament

34. Grotesque design 248 35. The encounter Originals in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York JAMNITZER, Wenzel. Austrian goldsmith and engraver. Born Vienna, 1508. Worked in Nuremberg for Emperor Charles V and others. Died, 1585.

  • 36. Etching from Perspectiva Corporum

Regularium, Nuremberg, 1568 Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York LEONARDO DA VINCI. Italian artist, musician, engineer, mathematician and scientist. Born near Florence, 1452. Died Chateau de Cloux, France, 1519.

  • 37-38. Woodcuts after designs by Leo

nardo da Vinci from Divina Proportione, by Luca Pacioli (da Borgo S. Sepolcro), Venice, Paganinus de Paganinis, June 1, 1509 Lent by Philip Hofer, New York MUSI, Agostino dei, called Agostino VENEZIANO. Italian engraver. Born Venice, c. 1490; worked there under in fluence of Giulio Campagnola, Jacopo de' Barbari and Diirer. Rome, 1516, as one of chief pupils of Marcantonio. Dated works, 1509-36. Engravings after Raphael, Giulio Romano, Baccio Bandinelli. Famous for grotesques mingling original antique mo tives with those of Raphael's school.

  • 39. The carcass, engraving

Note: sometimes falsely attributed to Marcantonio. This engraving has been considered an allegory of ma laria. Lent anonymously. PENNI, Luca. Italian follower of Raphael. Born Florence, end of 15th century. Died, 1556.

  • 40. The dream of Raphael or The mel

ancholy of Michelangelo, after a design attributed to Luca Penni, en graved by Giorgio Ghisi Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston RICHIER, Ligier. French sculptor. Born St. Mihiel, 1506. Studied with Michel angelo. Died, 1572. Photographs 41. Figure from the tomb of Rene de Chalons, Bar-le-Duc SCHONGAUER, Martin. Foremost Ger man engraver of the 15tli century. Born Colmar, c. 1445. Influenced by Roger van der Weyden. Died Colmar, c. 1489. 42. The Temptation of St. Anthony. engraving Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston SCHON, Erhard. Ge rman painter, draughtsman and engraver. Born, c. 1500. Earliest dated work, 1515. Pupil or imita tor of Diirer. Worked at Nuremberg. Died after 1550. 43. The devil with bagpipes, woodcut Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York 43a. Woodcut from Unterweisung der Proportion und Stellung der Possen, Nuremberg, Christoif Zell, 1542 Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York

  • 44. Puzzle picture with four portraits

( Vexierbild mit vier Bildnissen) , woodcut, c. 1534 Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York VOGTHERR, Heinrich. German wood engraver. Born at Strassburg, c. 1490. Imi tator of Diirer. Executed cuts for a drawing book called A Book of Extraordinary and Marvelous Art, very Useful to all Painters, Sculptors and Goldsmiths, printed 1540. Died, 1556. 44a . The wonder-grapes of Alhers weiler (Die W undertraube von Albersiveiler), woodcut, 1542 Note: These grapes grew a red beard. Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York Lombard School, 15th century 45. Emblematic symbols, ink on parch ment, partly pricked for transfer Note: probably studies for Imprese ( personal heraldic devices j for Duke Guglielmo II of Monferrato Lent by the Fogg Art Museum. Cam bridge, Loeser Collection North Italian School, 15th century

  • 46. Fall of Phaeton

Oil on panel, 17% x 20% inches Lent by the Wadsworth Atheneum. Flartford French School [?], 16tli century 47. Mary, Queen of Scots and Death's head (double image) Oil on corrugated wooden panel Lent by A. Hvatt Mayor, New York German School [?], 16th century 48. Charles Y, 1533 Oil on panel, 8% x 24% inches Note: compare the woodcut of about the same date by Schon, no. 44 Lent by Jacques Lipchitz. Paris Unknown master, 16th century

  • 49. Saint Anthony of Padua

Oil on panel. 10% x 33% inches Lent by Jacques Lipchitz. Paris Through a misunderstanding, items 43, 43a, 44, 44a, 50, 52, 55. 76-79. 82, 83, 88. 130. 131, 154, and 175 were catalogued as lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Netv York. All these items were repre sented in the exhibition by photostats. 249 17th and 18th centuries de la BARRE, Paul. French goldsmith and designer of ornament engravings. Worked in Paris in the 17th century.

  • 50. Design for jewelers, engraving

Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York della BELLA, Stefano. Italian graphic artist. Born Florence, 1610. Influenced by Remigio Cantagallina and Jacques Callot. Studied in Rome, 1633-39. To Paris with Tuscan ambassador, 1639; active there un til 1650. Amsterdam, 1647. Returned to Florence; under patronage of Grand Duke of Tuscany. Died Florence, 1664. 51. Rebus, engraving Lent anonymously von BOMMEL, W. H. German, 17th [?] century. 52. Horse rampant, engraving Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York BRACELLI, Giovanni Battista. Italian engraver. Active in Florence and Rome, 1624-49. Series of 45 leaves, Bizarie di varie figure di Giov. Battista Bracelli pittore fiorentino. alV ill. mo S. Don Pietro Medici 1624. Engraving of a procession at S. Gio vanni dei Fiorentini, Rome, 1629; Silenus with satyrs and nymphs; pictorial etching after relief by Algardi, Attila in Rome, 1649. Also attributed to him are tiny figures in style of Callot, Figure con istrumenti musicali e hoscarecci. [Baldinucci mentions a Genoese artist of the same name, 1584-1609, as a student of G. B. Paggi. A Giovanni Pietro di Niccolo' de' Bracelli, born in Liguria in 1592, was men tioned in 1612 also as a student of Gio vanni Battista Paggi.]

  • 53. Photographs from the Capricci or

Bizarie, 1624 Original etchings in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris CALLOT, Jacques. French graphic artist. Born Nancy, 1592. Traveled in Italy; studied in Rome and Florence. Influenced by Mannerists. Worked at the court of the Grand Duke of Tuscany. Returned to Nancy, active at court of Charles IV of Lorraine. Summoned by Louis XIII to Paris, 1629. First great creative artist to devote himself exclusively to the graphic arts. Died Nancy, 1635. 54. Temptation of St. Anthony, etching Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston van den EECKHOUT, Gerbrand. Dutch portrait and historical painter and etcher. Born Amsterdam, 1621. A pupil in Rembrandt's school from about 1635 until 1640. Died, 1674.

  • 55. Ornament, engraving from Veelderhande Nieuwe Compartimente, Am

sterdam, Clement de Jonge Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York HOGARTH, William. English painter, engraver and illustrator. Born London, 1697. Illustrator of Fielding, Moliere, etc. Series of moral pictures: Harlot's Prog ress, engraved 1732; Rake's Progress, 1736; Marriage a la Mode, 1742. Wrote and illus trated The Analysis of Beauty, 1753. Ap pointed court painter, 1757. Last engrav ing, The Bathos or Finis. Died London, 1764.

  • 56. Frontispiece: The Analysis of Beauty,

plate 1, engraving, 1753 Lent by Jay Leyda, New York

  • 57. Some of the Principal Inhabitants

of the Moon as they Were Perfectly Discovered by a Telescope brought eto y Greatest Perfection since y last Eclipse Exactly Engraved from e the Objects, whereby y Curious may Guess at their Religion Man ner &c. Engraved by James Ireland. Lent by Jay Leyda, New York 250 58. On an Act of Parliament regarding the arts, engraving, 1754 Lent by Jay Leyda, New York

  • 59. Whoever makes a DESIGN without

the Knowledge of PERSPECTIVE will be liable to such absurdities as are shown in this FRONTISPIECE. Engraved by L. Sullivan Lent by Jay Leyda, New York

  • 60. Frontispiece: Hogarth's Tour, aqua

tint by Richard Livesey, 1781. "A short tour by land and water, back wards and forwards, without head or tail" Lent by J ay Leyda, New York 61. The Bathos or Manner of sinking, in Sublime Paintings, inscribed to the Dealers in Dark Pictures, en graving, 1764 Lent by Jay Leyda, New York LARMESSIN (L'ARMESSIN), Nicolas I de. French engraver. Active in Paris in the second half of the 17th century. Died Paris, 1694. Costumes of the trades and crafts (Habits de metiers ) engraved by G. Valck [Valkenburg?] 62. Beltmaker's costume (Habit de ceinturier) 63. Brushmaker's costume (Habit de hrossier) 64. Upholsterer's costume (Habit de tapissier) 65. Cooper's costume (Habit de tonnelier) 66. Painter's costume ( Habit de peintre) 67. Basketmaker's costume (Habit de vannier) 68. Coppersmith's costume (Habit de chaudronnier ) 69. Costume of a mirror and spectacle seller (Habit de marchand miroitier lunettier) Lent by Andre Ducrot, Paris Costumes of the trades and crafts (Habits de metiers), later edition, probably pi rated, without backgrounds

  • 70. Miller's costume (Habit de meusnier)
  • 71. Box-maker's costume (Habit de layettier)

72. Laborer's costume (Habit de la bour eur) 73. Marshal's costume (Habit de marechal) 74. Butcher's costume (Habit de boucher) 75. Baker's costume (Habit de boulanger) Lent anonymously MORGHEN, Filippo. Italian etcher, en graver, and print publisher. Born Flor ence, 1730. Worked in Rome and Naples. Made Engraver to the King of the Two Sicilies.

  • 76-*79. Etchings from Raccolta delle

Cose, 1764 Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York PIRANESI, Giovanni Battista. Italian en graver, architect and archeologist. Born Mogliano (near Mestre), 1720. May have been trained as designer of theatre arts. To Rome, 1740; studied new archeological excavations there, at Pompeii and at Herculaneum. In atelier of Tiepolo in Venice, 1743. Returned to Rome, 1745; began series of Roman views. Died Rome, 1778. 80. Prison interior, etching from the Carceri series, c. 1745 Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston 81. Prison interior, etching from the Carceri series, c. 1745 Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston 251

  • 81a. Prison, etching from the Carceri

series Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York van VIANEN, Adam. Dutch goldsmith and designer. Born Utrecht, 1599. 82. Vessel, engraved by Theodorus van Kessel 83. Vase, engraved by Theodorus van Kessel Originals in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York French School, 17th century Engravings from a series 84. Mischievous heart (Coeur de tri - pot) 85. Deep heart (Coeur pro fond) 86. Bitter heart ( Coeur amer ) 87. Feminine heart (Coeur feminin) Lent anonymously French School, 17th century 88. Bon Mot d'une Ambassadrice , etch ing Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York French School, 18th century 89. Memento Homo, 1769

  • 90. Memento Mori

Both, oil on canvas, 21% x 16% inches Lent by the Marie Sterner Gallery, New York Venetian School, 18th century, attributed to Alessandro MAGNASCO 91. Figures Oil on canvas, 12% x 14 inches Lent by the Vicomte Charles de Noailles, Paris The French Revolution to the Great War ADAM, Jean Victor. French military and genre painter. Born Paris, 1801. After 1840, chiefly a lithographer. Died Viroflay, 1867. 92. The letter "Y", colored lithograph Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York BEALE, Joseph Boggs. American illus trator and painter. Born Philadelphia, 1841. Influenced by Dore. Illustrator for Frank Leslie's magazines, Harper Broth ers and The Daily Graphic. Died, 1926.

  • 93. Mr. Shurtz and Miss Robe are mar

ried, gouache Lent by the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York BLAKE, William. English engraver, watercolorist, poet, seer and mystic. Born London, 1757. Studied under James Basire, engraver for Society of Antiquaries; 252 Royal Academy School, 1778. Influenced by Gothic sculpture, Michelangelo and Heinrich Fiissli. Originated method for printing by relief-etching the words and designs of his Songs of Innocence, 1789, etc. Illustrations for Young's Night Thoughts, 1797. Commissioned by John Linnell to do engravings for The Book of Job, 1818; published 1825. Died London, 1827. Frontispiece: Burger's Leonora, London, 1796, engraved by Perry

  • 94. "O! How I dreamt of Things Im

possible" Lent by Philip Hofer, New York 95. Engravings from Night Thoughts by Edward Young, printed by R. Noble for R. Edwards, first edition, Lon don, 1797 Lent by Mrs. W. Murray Crane, New York Engravings from The Book of Job, 1825

  • 96. "With dreams upon my bed, thou

scarest me and affrightest me with visions" (Job VII, 14) 97. "Behold now Behemoth which I made thee" (Job XL, 15) Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston Engraving for The Divine Comedy, plate 4 98. ". . . lo! a serpent with six feet Springs forth on me." {Hell, Canto XXV, 45) Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston Photograph 99. Ghost of a flea, tempera on panel Original painting in the collection of W. Graham Robertson, London 100. Drawing for Europe, attributed to Blake Lent by the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston BRESDIN, Rodolphe, called CHIENCAILLOU (pseudonym deriving from Leaf her stocking Tales) . French engraver, designer and lithographer. Born Ingrande (Ile-et-Vilaine) , 1825. Fantastic and ro mantic subjects. Bresdin was one of the masters of Odilon Redon. Died Sevres, 1885. 101. La Comedie de la Mort , lithograph, 1854 Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York 102. The good Samaritan, lithograph, 1863 [?] Note: the trees abound in double images Lent anonymously BUSCH, Wilhelm. German illustrator, painter, and poet. Born Wiedensahl, near Hanover, 1832. Studied at Diisseldorf and Antwerp. To Munich, 1854. Early and con tinuous interest in caricatures, contribut ing satirical cartoons to Fliegenden Blat ter from 1871 on. Satires on middle class in Max and Moritz, 1865, and Herr und Frau Knopp; on superstition in St. An thony of Padua, 1870; and on Jesuits in Pater Filucius, 1872. Retired to Wieden sahl, 1878, becoming bee-keeper; died there, 1908. Illustration for Krischan mit der Piepe — Eine Rauchphantasie, Dresden, n.d. 103. "The dressing-gown dances with the chair, hooray !/And the table with the old couch" {De Slaprock tanzt mit den Stohl, Juheh/Un de Disch mit den olen Kanepeh ) Lent by Philip Hofer, New York CARROLL, Lewis (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson). English mathematician and writer. Born Daresbury, Cheshire, 1832. Rugby, Oxford; lecturer in mathematics, Christ Church College, until 1881. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, published in 1865, written for daughter of Dean Liddell. Died Guildford, 1898. Illustration from Alice's Adventures Un derground, a facsimile copy of the original ms. book afterwards developed into Alice in Wonderland, London, 1886

  • 104. " 'Change lobsters and retire in

same order'— interrupted the Grif fon" Lent by Philip Hofer, New York COLE, Thomas. American landscape painter of the Hudson River School. Born Bolton-le-Moor, England, 1801. To Ohio, 1819; New York, 1825. Died near Catskill, New York, 1848.

  • 105. The Titan's goblet

Oil on canvas, 19% x 16% inches Lent by The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York CRUIKSHANK, George. English carica turist, illustrator and painter. Born Lon don, 1792. Principally self-taught. Began caricatures satirising social and political conditions in England, 1810. Book illustra tions: Grimm's Fairy Tales, 1824-26; Dick ens' Sketches by Boz, 1836, Oliver Tivist, 253 1837-38. Album of 66 plates, Cruikshankiana, etc., 1835. Continued moralistic man ner of Hogarth. Died London, 1878. 106. The blue devils, colored etching, 1823 Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York 107. ""London going out of Town or The March of Bricks and Mor tar!" lithograph, 1829 Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York DAUMIER, Honore-Victorin. French painter and caricaturist. Born Marseilles, 1808. Though chiefly interested in paint ing produced 5,000 caricatures and illus trations. Died, 1879. Lithograph from Actualites: I 108. "Je ne te dirai pas vas te faire . . . sucre! je te dirai vas te faire cuire /" Lent by Elsa Schmid, New York r. 108a. M Chose , premier saltimbanque d'Europe, lithograph from Chari vari, Aug. 31, 1833 Note: a caricature of King Louis Philippe Lent by W. G. Russell Allen, Boston DELACROIX, Ferdinand Victor Eugene. French painter and graphic artist. Born Charenton-Saint-Maurice, 1798. Influenced by Rubens, Veronese, Goya and by his con temporary, Gericault; later also by Baron Gros. Did a few caricatures, under English influence, iorMiroir in 1820. Entered Salon in 1822 with the Barque of Dante, precipi tating crisis and feud between Romanti cists and Classicists. Trip to London, 1825; influenced by Constable and by English literature. Died Paris, 1863.

  • 109. Moving day (of censorship) (Le

demenagement [de la censure]), lithograph, 1820 Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York ENSOR, Baron James. Belgian painter, etcher, writer and composer. Born Ostend, 254 Belgium, of English parents, 1860. Studied Brussels Academy, 1877-80. Member of Brussels Kunstverein, 1881. Influenced by Felicien Rops. One of initiators of "Les XX," 1884. Lives in Ostend.

  • 110. Skeletons disputing before a

hanged man (Squelettes se dispu tant devant un pendu), 1891 Oil on canvas, 237s x 29% inches Lent by the Royal Antwerp Gallery 111. Etching Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York FUSSLI, Johann Heinrich, the younger (in England, known as Henry FUSELI) . Swiss painter, philosopher, theologian, writer, graphic artist, and teacher of art theory and practice. Born Zurich, 1741. Studied under his father, the painter Johann Cas par Fiissli II. Studied philosophy, Berlin, 1763; ordained in theology. To England, 1764; friend of Sir Joshua Reynolds and William Blake; translated Winckelmann and Rousseau into English. Traveled ex tensively in Italy, 1769-75. Series of his torical paintings and literary illustrations, with subjects from Shakespeare, Homer, Aeschylus, Plutarch, Virgil, Dante, Boc caccio, the Bible, Norse Sagas. Elected to Royal Academy, 1790, where he became professor of painting in 1799. Numerous pen drawings of costumes, manners, and fantasies. Died Putney Hill, near London, 1825.

  • 112. Nightmare, c. 1782

Oil on canvas, 30 x 25 inches Lent by Professor Paul Ganz, Basle 113. Costume study A Watercolor, 12l x 7% inches Lent by Professor Paul Ganz, Basle GAILLOT, Bernard. French painter and lithographer. Born Versailles, 1780. Ex hibited Salon, 1817. Biblical paintings ex ecuted for Paris churches and for Sens Cathedral. Lithographs, mainly carica tures. Died Paris, 1847. Costumes of the trades and crafts (Arts et metiers), lithographed by Senef elder. 114. The tailor (Le tailleur) 115. The musician (Le musicien) 116. The sausage-seller (La charcutiere) 117. The carpenter (Le charpentier) 118. The lemonade-seller (La limonadiere) Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York

  • 119. Fight to the finish, lithographed

by Senefelder Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York GILL, Andre (Louis Alexandre Gosset de Guines). Caricaturist, etcher, lithograph er, painter and writer. Born Paris, 1840. Studied painting with Courbet. Political and topical cartoons in weekly La Lune, 1866, and U Eclipse, 1868-76. Founded and edited humorous Republican periodical La Lune Rousse, 1876; contributed also to Charivari, Journal Amusant, Chronique Illustree, etc. Book illustrations for Daudet's Contes et Recits ; Zola's U Assommoir, Ventre de Paris, Nana; Murger's Vie de Boheme. Committed to asylum at Charenton, 1881, where he died, 1885. 120. Beyond the mountains . . . Span ish fantasy (Tra los montes . . . fantaisie espagnole), lithograph from U Eclipse, Paris, October 4, 1868 Lent by Jay Leyda, New York GILLRAY, James (used various pseudo nyms) . English graphic artist, caricaturist, illustrator. Born Chelsea, 1757. Satirical burlesques of fables, historical and literary episodes, but chiefly renowned for politi cal satires espousing Tory cause against Liberals. Ridiculed social life of his day. Died London, 1815. 121. Parasols for 1795, colored etching Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York 122. "Nature display'd, shewing the Effect of the change of the Sea sons on the Ladies' Garden," en graving, initialed: T.B H; at tributed to Gillray Lent by Jay Leyda, New York GOYA Y LUCIENTES, Francisco Jose de. Spanish painter, designer of tapestries, graphic artist. Born Fuendetodos (Aragon), 1746. Saragossa, 1760-66. Worked in Madrid and Rome; won prize at Parma Academy, 1771. Frescoes in Saragossa, Salamanca, Madrid and elsewhere. Court painter, 1779; president of Academy, 1785. Painted portraits, religious works, genre scenes. Graphic works include series of 72 Caprichos, 1795-97; 8 more in 1803; Desastres de la Guerra, 1810-13; Bullfights, 1816; Disparates, incorrectly known as Proverbs, 1819. Died Bordeaux, 1828. Etchings from Los Caprichos, 1795-97

  • 123. They have already retained their

seats (Ya tienen asiento), plate 26

  • 124. The chinchillas (Los chinchillas),

plate 50 125. They are completing their toilet (Se repulen), plate 51 126. And they are not going yet ! (Y aun no se van!), plate 59 127. A pretty teacher (Linda maestra) , plate 63 Lent by Philip Hofer, New York 128. Disparate volante , aquatint from Los Proverbios (Disparates), plate 5, engraved 1819 Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York GRANDYILLE, J. J. (Jean Ignace Isidore Gerard) . French graphic artist, illustrator, watercolorist. Born Nancy, 1803. Worked in atelier of Hipp, Paris. Colored litho graphs in series of satires of social life, parodies of mythology, proverbs, frequent ly drawing animals as human beings. Po255 litical cartoons in Caricature, 1830, Chari vari, 1832. Woodcut illustrations for Gulli ver s Travels, La Fontaine's Fables. Died Vanves, near Paris, 1847.

  • 129. The royal coach of The Nether

lands ( Omnibus royal des PaysBas), colored lithograph by Langlume, no. 71 from Les Metamor phoses du Jour, 1829 Lent anonymously Wood engravings from Le Magazin Pittoresque

  • 130. First dream — crime and expia

tion (Premier reve —crime et ex piation)

  • 131. A promenade in the sky (Une

promenade dans le del) Originals in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York HEATH, William. English, early 19th century 132. Demonology and witchcraft, no. 1, wood engraving, published by Charles Tilt Lent anonymously HUGO, Victor Marie. French novelist, dramatist and graphic artist. Born Besangon, 1802. Largely self-taught as carica turist; learned rudiments of etching from Max Lalanne, 1863. Traveled in Switzer land and Burgundy, 1825; later in Nor mandy, Belgium, the Rhineland, Spain. Interest in landscape and architectural sketches; archeological interest combined with romantic; mystic symbolism. Called "the Piranesi of the Gothic." Died Paris, 1885.

  • 133. Satanic head, wash drawing,

1860-70 Lent by Mme. Valentine Hugo, Paris KUBIN, Alfred. Czech painter, graphic artist, writer and illustrator. Born in Leitmeritz, North Bohemia, 1877. Landscape photographer in Klagenfurt. Influenced by philosophy of Schopenhauer. Studied painting, Munich, 1898. Style formed by influence of Klinger, Rops, Redon, Ensor, Munch, Goya. To Paris, 1905. Romantic writer, influenced by Poe, Balzac, Dostoyevsky. Master of the bizarre and demo niac. Published albums of his own work, including Meine Traumwelt, 1923. 134. Monster, lithograph Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York LEAR, Edward. English artist, humorist and traveler. Born London, 1812. Ornitho logical and landscape painter. Friend of Tennyson. A Book of Nonsense, 1846, the first of a series, written for the 13th Earl of Derby, as a child. Died San Remo, Italy, 1888. Original ink drawings 135. "There was an old Lady whose Bonnet" 136. "There was an old Man of Dunluce" 137. "There was an old Man on whose Nose" Lent by Philip Hofer, New York 138. "There was an Old Man who said 'Hush!' " from A Book of Non sense, with colored illustrations, London Lent by Philip Hofer, New York 139. "There was a Young Lady whose bonnet," from A Book of Nonsense, with colored illustrations, London, 1861 Lent by Philip Hofer, New York 140. There was an old Man of Abruzzi," from A Book of Nonsense, third edition, 1861 Lent by Philip Hofer, New York 141. "There was an old Man with a Beard," from A Book of Nonsense, eighteenth edition, London, 1866 Lent by Philip Hofer, New York 256

  • 142. Manypeeplia Upsidownia, from

Nonsense Songs, Stories, Botany and Alphabets, volume 2, London, 1871 Lent by Philip Hofer, New York 143. "There was a Young Lady whose Nose," from More N onsense, seventh edition, London Lent by Philip Hofer, New York

  • 144. The Dong with a Luminous Nose,

from "Laughable Lyrics," Fourth Book of Nonsense Poems, Songs, Botany, Music, etc., London, 1877 Lent by Philip Hofer, New York LENORMAND, Mile., early 19th century French prophetess. 145. A dream of Mile. Lenormand pre dicting the fire in the Tuileries, photograph of lithographic plate from Manifeste des Dieux sur les Affaires de France by Mile. Lenor mand, Paris, 1832. Original in the Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris. LUCAS, Edward Verrall. English essayist and art critic. Born Brighton, 1865. An editor of Punch. Lives in London.

  • 146. What a Life, by E. V. L. and G. M.

[George Morrow], London, Methuen, 1911 Note: the illustrations, forming a kind of fantastic rebus, are taken from Whiteley 's General Catalogue, a mail order catalog. A mail order catalog was put to a different use in the object, no. 626 One copy lent by E. V. Lucas, Lon don; one lent anonymously

MERYON, Charles. French engraver, and etcher. Born Paris, 1821. Studied first to be a painter but an affliction of the eyes made this impossible so he took up engraving. Made many etchings of the streets of Paris. Died in an asylum at Charenton, 1868.

  • 147. The sickly cryptogam, etching, 1860. Lent by M. Knoedler & Company, Inc., New York
  • 148. Rebus, etching, 1863 Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York
  • 149. The Ministry of Marine, etching, undescribed state between the fifth and sixth Lent by M. Knoedler & Company, Inc., New York
  • 150. College Henri IV, etching, fifth state, 1864 Lent by M. Knoedler & Company, Inc., New York lt>l. Lunar law, etching, second plate, 1866 Lent by M. Knoedler & Company, Inc., New York

NAEGELE, Reinhold. German painter and etcher. Born Murrhardt, 1884. Studied at Stuttgart Kunstgewerbeschule and in Munich. Paris, 1914; Italy, 1924. Active in Stuttgart as caricaturist. 152-153. Etchings, 1911 Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York LE POITEVIN, Eugene (Modeste Edmond) . French landscape and genre paint er. Born Paris, 1806. Pupil of Ecole des Beaux-Arts and of Louis Hersent. Traveled widely both on the Continent and in Eng land. Member of the Antwerp and Berlin Academies. Died Paris, 1870. 154. Diableries, lithograph Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York RAMELET. French graphic artist, early 19th century. 155. Reverie diabolique, colored litho graph, printed by Villain Lent anonymously 257 REDON, Odilon. French painter, graphic artist, illustrator. Born Bordeaux, 1840. Influenced by Delacroix and Corot. Studied etching with Bresdin; lithography with Fantin-Latour. Associated with the Symboliste poets. Died, 1916. 156-160. Lithographs from In Dreams (Dans le Reve, 10 lithographies) , Paris, 1879 Lent by Philip Hofer, New York Lithographs from a Edgar Poe, 6 lithog raphies, Paris, 1882 161. "At the horizon, the angel of cer titudes, and in the lowering sky a questioning glance" (A Vhorizon, VAnge des CERTITUDES, et dans le del sombre un regard interroga ted') 162. "A mask tolls the funeral knell" ("Un masque sonne le GLAS FUNEBRE")

  • 163. "The eye like a strange balloon

wafts itself toward the infinite" ("L'oeil comme un ballon bizarre se dirige vers L'INFINI ") Lent by Philip Hofer, New York 164-166. Lithographs from Flaubert's La Tentation de Saint- Antoine, Brus sels, 1888. Another edition in prep aration, Yollard, Paris Lent by Ambroise Vollard, Paris

  • 167. Silence

Oil on linen-finish paper, 21% x 20% inches The Museum of Modern Art, The Lillie P. Bliss Collection ROUSSEAU, Henri- Julien. French paint er. Born Laval, 1844. Served as a military musician in the Mexican campaign, 1862-67. Later had a post in the Paris tollgate ser vice, from which he drew his name Le Douanier. Self-taught as a painter. Known to Gauguin and Toulouse-Lautrec, and, in his latter years, recognized by Apollinaire, Picasso and others as a great artist. Jungle fantasies, of which The Dream is perhaps 258 the most important, painted 1904-10. Died Paris, 1910.

  • 168. The dream (Le reve), 1910

Oil on canvas, 80 x 118% inches Lent by Sidney J anis, New York English School, late 18th century [ ? ] Colored engravings by Williams

  • 169. Implements animated, plate I:

"Dedicated to the Carpenters and Gardeners of Great Britain" 170. Implements animated, plate II: "Dedicated to the Housemaids and Cooks of the United Kingdom" Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York French School, late 18th century 171. Trait de VHistoire de France du 21 au 25, Juin 1791 , ou La Meta morphose, colored etching Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York

  • 172. Disguise for aristocrats (Deguise -

ment aristocrale) , engraving "The Nation has put limits to your power/Beautiful mask, we know you, hide your horns"/ ("A ton pouvoir la Nation a mis des bornes/ Beau Masque on te connoit cache tes cornes") Lent anonymously Dutch School [ ? ] , 19th century 173. It is the most useful animal (Is het nuttigste dier), engraving Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York English School, early 19th century 174. The gout, etching with aquatint, 1835 Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York French School, early 19th century 175. The marvelous potato (Pomme de terre merveilleuse) , a caricature of King Louis Philippe Original in The Metropolitan Mu seum of Art, New York 176. Behold, gentlemen, that which we have the honor of displaying every day (Void, Messieurs, ce que nous avons Vhonneur d' ex poser journellement) lithographed by Benard, c. 1835 Note: King Louis Philippe was cus tomarily caricatured as a pear or other vegetable, but here he ap pears as a house, a bunch of grapes, a mountain peak, a public monu ment, etc., etc.—possibly a record for variations on the double image. Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York French School, 19th century 177. The world topsy-turvy (Le monde renverse ), woodcut Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York CHAGALL, Marc. Russian-Jewish painter and graphic artist. Born Vitebsk, Russia, 1887. Studied under Bakst. Influenced by Russian-Jewish folk culture. Paris, 1910, then Berlin and Moscow. Paris since 1922.

  • 184. Dedicated to my fiancee, 1911

Oil on canvas, 77% x 45% inches Lent by the artist

  • 185. Paris through the window, 1912

Oil on canvas, 52/4 x 54% inches Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Solomon R. Guggenheim, New York 186. Jewish wedding Gouache and pastel, 21 x 25% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Gift of A. Conger Goodyear 187. Lovers, etching Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York German School, 19th century 178. The world topsy-turvy (Verkehrte Welt), engraving Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York Italian School, early 19th century 179. New machine for cutting too long tongues at a fixed price and Ma chine for perfecting the body free of charge, lithograph, Turin, 1832 Lent anonymously Spanish School, 19th century

  • 180. The world topsy-turvy (El mundo

al reves), woodcut, 1861 Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York Nineteenth century 181-183. Perspective distortions, litho graphs, possibly after Japanese orig inals Lent by Jay Leyda, New York 20th century pioneers 188. Man and automobile, etching Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York 189. Figure, etching Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York de CHIRICO, Giorgio. Italian painter and writer. Born Volo, Greece, of Italian par ents, 1888. Studied art in Athens; Munich Academy; and in museums in Italy. Paris, 1911-15; knew Picasso, Apollinaire, Paul Guillaume. Rome and Florence, 1915-24; period of so-called "metaphysical paint ing," 1914-20. Early work 1910-1918, greatly admired by Apollinaire, and later by Dadaists and Surrealists. Designs for ballet, Le Bal, 1929. Lives in Paris.

  • 190. Nostalgia of the infinite, 1911

Oil on canvas, 53% x 25% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New Tork. Given anonymously 259 191. Delights of the poet, c. 1913 Oil on canvas, 26% x 33 inches Lent by Cornelius N. Bliss, New York 192. The enigma of a clay, 1914 Oil on canvas, 72% x 55/4 inches Lent by James Thrall Soby, Farmington, Connecticut 193. The child's brain, 1914 Oil on canvas, 32 x 25% inches Lent by Andre Breton, Paris

  • 194. Melancholy and mystery of a

street, 1914 Oil on canvas, 33% x 27% inches Lent anonymously

  • 195. The enigma of the hour, 1914

Oil on canvas, 21% x 277s inches Lent by Mario Broglio, Cuneo, Italy

  • 196. The sailors' barracks, 1914

Oil on canvas, 32 x 25% inches Lent by Mario Broglio, Cuneo, Italy 197. Duo or the mannequins of the rose tower, 1915 Oil on canvas, 31 x 22% inches Lent by James Thrall Soby, Farmington, Connecticut 198. Still life "Torino 1828" Oil on canvas, 23% x 18% inches Lent by Rene Gaffe, Brussels 199. Self-portrait, c. 1913 Oil on canvas, 32 x 21% inches Lent by Paul Eluard, Paris Pencil drawings, lent by Mario Broglio 200. The philosopher and the poet, 1916 201. Metaphysical interior, 1917 202. The faithful wife, 1917 203. The apparition, 1917 204. Return of the prodigal son, 1917 205. Autumnal geometry, 1917 206. The duet, 1917 207. Drawing, 1918 208. The house of the poet, 1918 209. Hector and Andromache, 1917 Oil on canvas, 35% x 23% inches Lent by Mario Broglio, Cuneo, Italy 210. Evangelical still life, 1917 Oil on canvas, 35% x 23% inches Lent by Mario Broglio, Cuneo, Italy

  • 211. Troubadour, 1917

Oil on canvas, 34% x 20% inches Lent by Mario Broglio, Cuneo, Italy

  • 212. Grand metaphysical interior, 1917

Oil on canvas, 37 x 27 inches Lent by James Thrall Soby, Farmington, Connecticut 213. The calculators, pencil, 1917 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously

  • 214. The disquieting muses

Oil on canvas, 39% x 26 inches Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Henry Clif ford, Philadelphia

  • 215. Toys of a philosopher, 1917

Oil on canvas, 35% x 20% inches Lent anonymously DUCHAMP, Marcel. French artist and anti-artist. Born Blainville (Seine Inferieure), France, 1887. Brother of Jacques Villon and Raymond Duchamp-Villon. Joined Cubist group, 1910. Nude descend ing a staircase, 1912, caused great excite ment at New York Armory Show, 1913. First "ready-made" objects, 1914. Great composition in painted glass, Bride strip ped bare by her bachelors, 1912-23. In fluenced Dada movement, 1916-1920. New York, 1917. Abandoned painting for chess, 1921. Founder with Katherine Dreier of Societe Anonyme, New York, 1920. Lives in Paris where he has been associated with the Surrealists.

  • 216. Coffee mill, 1911

Oil on wood, 12% x 4% inches Lent by Mme. Yvonne Liguieres, Paris 260 217. The bride, 1912 (Study for La mariee mise a nu par ses celibataires, meme, 1915-23) Oil on canvas, 35 x 21% inches Lent by the Julien Levy Gallery, New York 218. The king and queen traversed by r swift nudes, 1912 Watercolor, 19% x 23 inches Note: study for the painting in the Walter Arensberg Collection, Holly wood. Lent by Man Ray, Paris 219. Pharmacy, 1914 "Ready-made, assisted": popular lithograph of a woodland scene, with green and red drugstore lamps added by the artist Lent by Man Ray, Paris 220. The bachelors (Neuf moules mal ic), 1914. (Study for La mariee mise a nu par ses celibataires, meme, 1915-23) Pencil and watercolor, 25% x 39 inches. Lent by Miss Katherine S. Dreier, New York 221. "Ready-made," 1914 Photograph by Man Ray of a bottledrying rack signed by the artist and sent to an exhibition Lent by Christian Zervos, Paris 222. Rotating apparatus (Optique de precision ), glass and metal, 1920 Lent by Miss Katherine S. Dreier, New York 223. 3 stoppages-etalon , wooden silhou ettes and plate glass panels with glued strings, 1913-14 Note: Following his interest in the laws of chance as opposed to de liberate artistic composition, the artist dropped three threads a meter long upon the floor. The outlines of the dropped threads are preserved in the three strips of wood Lent by Miss Katherine S. Dreier, New York

  • 224. Why not sneeze? 1921

"Ready-made, assisted": cage with marble lumps of sugar and a ther mometer Lent by Pierre Roche, Paris 225. Monte Carlo share, collage, 1925 Note: Duchamp invented a system for roulette and issued shares to his friends to finance an expedition to Monte Carlo Lent by Andre Breton, Paris 225a-e. Roto-reliefs, paper, 1934 Lent anonymously KANDINSKY, Vasily. Painter and theor ist. Born Moscow, 1866. Childhood in Italy ; educated in Odessa; Moscow, 1884. Studied painting in Munich. Paris, 1906; influenced by Gauguin. Berlin, 1907. Munich, 1908. First abstract painting, 1911. With Marc founded Der Blaue Reiter, 1912. Russia, 1914. Taught, Moscow Academy, 1919. Di rector, Museum of Pictorial Culture, Mos cow, and helped form other museums throughout the U. S. S. R. Professor, Uni versity of Moscow, 1920. Founded Russian Academy of Artistic Sciences, 1921. Ber lin, 1921. Professor, Bauhaus, Weimar and Dessau, 1922-32. Vice-president, Societe Anonyme, New York, 1923. Has lived in Paris since 1934.

  • 226. Light picture (Helles Bild), 1913

Oil on canvas, 30% x 39% inches Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Solomon R. Guggenheim, New York 227. Watercolor 228. Ink drawing, 1916 Nos. 227-228 lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York KLEE, Paul. Swiss painter and graphic artist. Born near Berne, Switzerland, 1879. Studied, Munich, 1898-1900. Italy, 1901. Berne, 1903-06. Paris, 1905. Munich, 1906- 20; original member Der Blaue Reiter, 1912. Visit to Paris, 1912; met Picasso. 261 Professor, Bauhaus, 1920-29. Claimed by both Dadaists and Surrealists but kept aloof from both. Resigned professorship, Diisseldorf Academy, after National So cialist revolution, 1933. Lives in Switzer land.

  • 229. Perseus— the triumph of brain

over body, etching, 1904 Lent anonymously

  • 230. Musical dinner party (Musikalische Tischgesellschaft ), 1907

Oil on glass, 6% x 10 inches Lent by Bernard Poissonnier, Paris

  • 231. Little world (Kleinwelt ), etching,

1914 Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York 232. Drawing, ink, 1916 Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York 233. Kairuan (Scene aus Kairuan) , 1920 Watercolor, 7 x 11 inches Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris

  • 234. Little experimental machine

(Kleine experimentier Maschine) , 1921. Ink and watercolor, 10% x 12% inches Lent by Leon Kochnitzky, Paris 235. The lover (Der Verliebte), litho graph, 1923 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gift of Cary Ross 236. Exit the lovers (Aus gang der Liebespaare), 1924 Ink and watercolor, 9 V2 x 12% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 237. Disgust (Ekel ), 1924 Ink and watercolor, 8 x 9% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 238. Actor's mask (Schauspielermaske) , 1924 Oil on canvas, 13% x 12% inches Note: illustrated in catalog of Klee exhibition, The Museum of Modern Art, New York, 1930, plate 12. Lent by Sidney Janis, New York. 262 239. Slavery (Sklaverei), 1925 Ink and gouache, 10 x 13% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 240. Sacred islands (Heilige Inseln), 1926 Ink and watercolor, 18% x 12% inches Lent by Philip Johnson, New Lon don, Ohio 241. Scorned beast (Verachtetes Tier), 1926 Ink and watercolor, 19 x 12% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 242. Construction of a monument, 1929. Watercolor and ink Lent by Ernest Hemingway, Key West, Florida

  • 243. Protectress (Schiitzerin) , 1932

Watercolor, 187s x 12% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris

  • 244. Mask of fear (Maske der Furcht),

1932 Oil on burlap, 39% x 22% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 245. Namens "Elternspiegel" , 1933 Gouache on linen, 18 x 15 inches Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York 246. Bewitched in the zoo (Verhexter im Zoo), 1933 Watercolor, 11% x 14% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 247. When the night begins (Wenn die Nacht anbricht) , 1934 Gouache, 9% x 12% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 248. Novel in a cryptogram (Novelle in Geheimschrift) , 1935 Watercolor, 19 x 12% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris PICASSO, Pablo Ruiz. Spanish painter, draughtsman, sculptor, designer for thea ter. Born Malaga, Spain, 1881. Studied, Barcelona, 1895, and Madrid, 1896. Realis tic portraits and still life, 1895-1901. Paris, 1901. Influence of Toulouse-Lautrec, El Greco. Pathetic-sentimental Period, 1901- 05. ("Blue" Period, 1902-04; "Rose" Per iod, 1905-06.) Influence of Negro sculp ture, 1907, leading, with influence of Ce zanne and collaboration of Braque, to be ginnings of Cubism, 1907-08. Analytical Cubism, 1908-13 (Facet Cubism, 1908-10) . First Cubist sculpture, 1909. Collage (pa per-pasting) , 1912-14, greatly influenced Dadaists. Synthetic Cubism, after 1913. Neo-classic portraits and figures begin 1915, predominate 1918-23 ("Colossal" phase, 1919-22). Italy, 1917. Settings for Diaghileff Rus sian Ballets: Parade, 1917; Le Tricorne, 1919; Pulcinella, 1920; Quadro Flamenco, 1921; Mercure, 1927. Surrealist period begins c. 1925 ("Dinard," 1928; "Metamorphoses," 1929). "Sleeping women," 1932. Since 1928 has also worked on constructions and sculp ture. Lives in Paris. 249. Head, 1912 Charcoal, 24 x 18% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 250. Still life, 1912-13 Papier colle, charcoal and pencil, 24(4 x 18(4 inches Lent by Georges Hugnet, Paris

  • 251. Head, 1913

Papier colle, ink and charcoal, 24(4 x 18(4 inches Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris

  • 252. Green still life, 1914

Oil on canvas, 23(4 x 31(4 inches The Museum of Modern Art, New York The Lillie P. Bliss Collection

  • 253. Harlequin, 1918

Oil on canvas, 58 x 26(4 inches Lent by Joseph Pulitzer, Jr., St. Louis, Missouri

  • 254. Seated woman, 1927

Oil on wood, 52 x 39 inches Lent by James Thrall Soby, Farmington, Connecticut 255. Woman asleep in an armchair, 1927 Oil on canvas, 36% x 28% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris

  • 256. Figures on the seashore, 1928

Oil on canvas, 7(4 x 12% inches Lent by George L. K. Morris, New York

  • 257. Metamorphosis (Bather), 1929

Oil on canvas, 51(4 x 38(4 inches Lent by The Bignou Gallery, New York

  • 258. Illustration for Balzac's Le Chefd'Oeuvre Inconnu, Paris, Vollard,

1931 Lent by Ambroise Vollard, Paris 259. Composition with heads, 1933 Watercolor, 16 x 20 inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris

  • 260. Bull fight, 1934

Oil on canvas, 12 x 14% inches Lent by Henry P. Mcllhenny, Phila delphia

  • 261. Minotauromachy, 1935

Etching, 19(4 x 27(4 inches Lent by Mme. Christian Zervos, Paris 263 Dada and Surrealism AGAR, Eileen. English [ ? ] painter, living in London. Participated in International Surrealist Exhibition, 1936.

  • 262. Quadriga, 1935

Oil on canvas, 20% x 24 inches Lent by Roland A. Penrose, London ARAGON, Louis. French poet, novelist, essayist and critic. Co-editor of Litterature, 1919-21. Participated in Paris Dada move ment, 1917-22, and in Surrealist movement until 1932. 263. Collage of paper and pressed leaves, c. 1920 [?] Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris ARP, Hans. French sculptor, painter and poet. Born Strassburg, 1887. Studied paint ing, Weimar, 1906-09. Visits to Paris; Lu cerne, Zurich, 1911-12; Munich, 1912, asso ciated with Kandinsky and Der Blaue Reiter. One of founders of Dada, Zurich, 1916; Cologne, Dada, 1920. Member of Sur realist group, Paris, 1925. Lives at Meudon near Paris.

  • 264. Miller, Zurich, 1916

Painted wood relief, 24% x 19% inches Lent by the artist

  • 265. Automatic drawing, ink, 1916

Lent by the artist 266. Automatic drawing, ink, 1916 Lent by the artist

  • 267. Collage with squares arranged ac

cording to the law of chance, 1916 Lent by the artist 268. Collage with squares arranged ac cording to the law of chance, 1916-17 Lent by the artist 269. Collage with squares arranged ac cording to the law of chance, 1916-17 Lent by the artist 264 270. Collage, 1916-20 Lent by Frank Arp, Paris 271. Arpaden: folio of seven reproduc tions of drawings (c. 1918) publish ed by Merzverlag (Kurt Schwitters) , Hanover, c. 1922 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 272. Bird in an aquarium, c. 1920 Painted wood relief, 9% x 8 inches Lent by Andre Breton, Paris 273. Watercolor, 1920-25 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 274a-e. Drawings, Chinese ink, 1920-25 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 275. Castaways' bundle, 1921 Object, wood, 15% x 10% inches Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris

  • 276. Mountain, table, anchors, navel,

1925 Oil on cardboard with cut-outs, 29% x 23% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously

  • 277. Two heads, 1927

String and oil paint on canvas, 13% x 10% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 278. Shirt and tie, 1928 Painted wood relief, 31% x 39% inches Lent by Galerie Bonaparte, Paris 279. Objects placed on 3 levels like writing, 1928 Wood relief, 37 x 45 inches Lent by Galerie Bonaparte, Paris 280. Leaves and navels, c. 1928 String and oil paint on canvas Lent by Mr. and Mrs. John E. Ab bott, New York 281. Dancer, c. 1928 String and oil paint on canvas, 20 x 15% inches Lent by Pierre Janlet, Brussels 282. Head, 1929 Painted wood, 9 x 13% inches, oval Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Given anonymously

  • 283. Two heads, 1929

Painted wood relief, 47% x 39% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 284. Woman and mustache, 1930 Painted wood relief, 18% x 15% inches, oval Lent by Galerie Bonaparte, Paris 285. Leaves and navels I, 1930 Painted wood relief, 31% x 39% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 286. Leaves II, 1930 Painted wood relief, 24% x 19% inches, oval Lent by Galerie Bonaparte, Paris

  • 287 . Objects arranged according to the

law of chance or Navels, 1930 Varnished wood relief, 11 x 11% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously

  • 288. Human concretion, 1935

Sculpture in plaster, 19% inches high Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Gift of the Advisory Committee BAADER, Johannes. German, active in Berlin Dada movement, 1918-20.

  • 289. The author in his home, collage,

c. 1920 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris BAARGELD, J. T. (Alfred Griinewald). German painter and poet. With Max Ernst founded Cologne Dada movement, 1918-20. Gave up painting, 1921. Died in avalanche, 1927. 290. Typical vertical scrawling as dis guise of the Dada Baargeld, col lage, 1920 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 291. A woman, women, fragments of a woman, and Phidias, ink, 1920 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris

  • 292. The human eye and a fish, the

latter petrified, collage and ink, 1920. Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 293. Drawing, ink, c. 1920 Lent by Max Ernst, Paris

  • 294. Drawing, ink, 1920

Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 295. Drawing, ink, 1920 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 296. Drawing, ink, c. 1920 Lent by Max Ernst, Paris BAARGELD, J. T. and ERNST, Max

  • 297. Drawing on wallpaper, ink, 1920

Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 298. Dada text: resolution read at Dada exhibition, Cologne, 1920 Typescript with collage illustra tions, three pages Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris BANTING, John. English painter. Born Chelsea, London, 1902. Studied, London and Paris, 1920-25. Exhibited: London group, 1926-29; Surinde pendants, Paris, 1924-30; International Surrealist Exhibi tion, London, 1936. Represented in Tate Gallery. Lives in London.

  • 299. His Royal Highness

Oil on canvas, 37% x 17% inches Lent by the artist BELLMER, Hans. German graphic artist and photographer. Participates in Paris Surrealist movement. 265

  • 300. Drawing, white ink, 1936

Lent by Andre Breton, Paris BRAUNER, Victor. Painter, active in Paris Surrealist group. 301. Kabyline in movement, 1933 Oil on canvas, 36% x 28% inches Lent by Yves Tanguy, Paris BRETON, Andre. French poet, essayist, novelist, theorist, editor, critic; principal founder and leader of the Surrealist move ment. Born Tinchebray (Orne), 1896. During the war a practising psychiatrist. Participated in Paris Dada movement, 1917-21. Co-editor of Litterature, Paris, 1919-21; sole editor 1922-24. Manifeste du Surrealisme, Poisson Soluble, 1924. Editor, La Revolution Surrealiste, 1925-30; Le Sur realisme au Service de la Revolution, 1930- 33. Published Le Surrealisme et la Peinture, 1928, the most important work on Surrealist painting. Second Manifeste du Surrealisme, 1930. (C/. Bibliography.) Lives in Paris. 302. Collage, 1935 Lent by Georges Hugnet, Paris BURRA, Edward. English painter. Par ticipated in the Surrealist Exhibition, Lon don, 1936. Lives in London.

  • 303. Hostesses, 1932

Watercolor, 24 x 19% inches Lent by the artist "CADAVRES EXQUIS" "Exquisite corpse" is the name given by Surrealists to experiments in collective drawing done in sections, the paper being covered or folded after each drawing and passed to the next artist so that he does not see what has already been drawn.

  • 304. Figure, crayon and ink, 1926-27

By Yves Tanguy, Joan Miro, Max Morise and Man Ray Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 266

  • 305. Figure, collage, 1928 [ ? ]

By Max Ernst, Andre Breton, Max Morise, Jeannette, Pierre Naville, Benjamin Peret, Yves Tanguy Lent by Max Ernst, Paris

  • 306-308. Landscapes, two crayon on

black paper; one, ink on white (copy after a lost original) , c. 1933 By Andre Breton, Tristan Tzara, Valentine Hugo and Greta Knutson Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris No. 307 illustrated page 44 CORNELL, Joseph. American constructivist. Born in New York, 1904. Self-taught. Author of two Surrealist scenarios. Lives in Flushing, Long Island.

  • 309. Soap bubble set, 1936

Photograph with additional effects by George Piatt Lynes Lent by the artist DALI, Salvador. Catalan painter. Born Figueras, Catalonia, 1904. Expelled from Madrid Academy. Influenced by de Chirico, Tanguy, Miro, art nouveau, etc. Inter ested in psychoanalysis. Most influential younger painter in Surrealist group, which he joined about 1929. Lives in Paris.

  • 310. Illumined pleasures (Les plaisirs

illumines), 1929 Oil on canvas, 9 x 13% inches Lent by Sidney Janis, New York

  • 311. The font, 1930

Oil on canvas, 25% x 16 inches Lent by Edward Wassertnan, New York 312. The feeling of becoming, 1930 Oil on canvas, 13% x 10% inches Lent by Mrs. W. Murray Crane, New York 313. Andromeda, ink, 1930 Lent anonymously 314. Sun and sand, ink, 1930 Lent anonymously

  • 315. The persistence of memory, 1931

Oil on canvas, 10 x 14 inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 316. Retrospective bust of a woman, 1933 Photograph by Man Ray Lent by Paul Eluard, Paris 317. The convalescence of a klepto maniac, pencil and ink, 1933 Lent by Mrs. W. Murray Crane, New York 318. The ghost of Vermeer of Delft, which can be used as a table, 1934 Oil on wood, 7 x 5% inches Lent by James Thrall Soby, Farmington, Connecticut 319. Etching Lent by Paul Eluard, Paris

  • 320. Paranoiac face, 1935

Oil on wood, 7% x 9 inches Note: double image of an African village which the painter found on a postcard and a head by Picasso Lent by Edward James, London 321. Paranoiac-critical solitude, 1935 Oil on wood, 7% x 9/4 inches Lent by Edward James, London

  • 322. Puzzle of autumn, 1935

Oil on canvas, 38 x 38 inches Lent by the Julien Levy Gallery

  • 323. City of drawers, ink, 1936

Lent by Edward James, London DOMINGUEZ, Oscar. Spanish artist. Ac tive in Paris and Tenerife Surrealist groups. Known especially for his Surreal ist objects and decalcomanias. Lives in Paris and Tenerife.

  • 324. Peregrinations of Georges Hugnet, 1935

Object: painted wood with manu factured toys, 15% x 12% inches Note: M. Hugnet, the Surrealist poet, earned his living for a time ' by delivering (on a bicycle) the prizes used in slot machines. Lent by Georges Hugnet, Paris 325. Freed by mistake, 1935 Oil on canvas, 24 x 19% inches Lent by the artist

  • 326. Decalcomania, 1936

Made by spreading ink between two sheets of paper which are then pulled apart. Lent by the artist ELUARD, Paul. French poet and one of the founders of the Surrealist movement. Born, 1895. Author: Les Malheurs des Immortels (with Ernst), Capitate de la Douleur, U Amour la Poesie, L'Immaculee Conception (with Breton), La Rose Publique , Facile (with Ray), and many other books of poetry and prose. Lives in Paris. 326a. Victor Hugo, collage Lent by Mme. Valentine Hugo, Paris ERNST, Max. German painter, collagist, illustrator. Born Briihl, near Cologne, 1891. Studied philosophy, University of Bonn, 1909-14. No formal artistic training, but influenced by meetings with August Macke (of Munich Der Blaue Reiter group) in 1910, and with Arp, 1914, and also by work of Picasso and de Chirico. Artillery officer in the War. With Baargeld founded the Cologne Dada group, 1918-20. Friendship with Eluard and Breton since 1921 led to participation in Surrealist movement. To Paris, 1922. Inventor of "frottage" or rubbing technique in paint ing and drawing. Numerous collage novels and illustrations. Paintings in museums of Cologne, Diisseldorf, and The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Lives in Paris. 327. Etching, c. 1918 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 328. Fiat modes, 1919 Portfolio of eight lithographs, 17% x 12% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Given anonymously 267 329. Self -constructed little machine ( von minimax dadamax selbst konstruiertes maschinchen) , pencil, c. 1919 Lent by the artist

  • 330. Here everything is floating (Hier

ist noch alles in der schwebe. Fatagaga: Le troisieme tableau gasometrique), collage, c. 1919 Note: in the Fatagaga series (cf. col lages, Cologne, 1919-20) Arp and Ernst collaborated; in this example Arp provided the name. Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 331. Le chien . . . , collage, c. 1919-20 Lent by Andre Breton, Paris

  • 332. Farewell my beautiful land of

Marie Laurencin (Adieu mon beau pays de Marie Laurencin) , c. 1919 Altered technical engraving Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 333. Altered technical engraving with collage, c. 1919 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 334. Plans for attack of the threads of assimilation on the solid Dada discovered in time (Rechtzeitig erkannte An griffs plane der Assimilanzfdden auf die feste Dada), c. 1919 Altered technical engraving Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 335. Sitting Buddha, ask for your doc tor (Sitzender Buddha, demandez votre medecin), 1920 Altered anatomical engraving Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris

  • 336. Trophy, hypertrophied, c. 1919

Altered technical engraving Note: this work was rejected by the Section d'Or exhibition, Paris, 1920, because it was not hand made. Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Gift of Tristan Tzara Illustrated page 27 268 337. Trophy, hypertrophied (hypertrofie-trofde), c. 1919 Altered technical engraving Lent by Georges Hugnet, Paris 338. Fair weather (La belle saison), col lage, pencil and ink, 1920 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 339. The little tear gland that says tic tac (La petite fistule lacrymale qui dit tic tac), 1920 Collage and watercolor, 14/4 x 10 inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Given anonymously 340. Above the clouds the midnight passes. Above the midnight hov ers the invisible bird of the day. A little higher than the bird the ether expands and the walls and the roofs float (Au dessus des nuages marche la minuit. Au dessus de la minuit plane Voiseau invisible du jour. Un peu plus haut que Voiseau Vether pousse et les murs et les toits flottent). Collage, 1920 Lent anonymously

  • 341. The hat makes the man (C'est le

chapeau qui fait Vhomme), Cologne, 1920 Collage and watercolor, 14 x 18 inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 342. Sculpture: the Chinese nightin gale, collage, 1920 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris

  • 343. 1 copper plate 1 zinc plate 1 rub

ber towel 2 calipers 1 telescope 1 roaring man (1 Kupferblech 1 zinkblech 1 gummituch 2 tastzirkel 1 abflussfernrohr 1 rohrender mensch), colored collage, 1920 Lent by Hans Arp, Meudon, France 344. Stratified rocks, nature's gift of gneiss lava Iceland moss 2 kinds of lungwort two kinds of ruptures of the perinaeum growths of the heart b. the same thing in a wellpolished little box somewhat more expensive (Schichtgestein Naturgabe aus Gneis Lava isldndisch Moos 2 SortenLungenkraut2SortenDammriss Herzgewachse b. Dasselbe in fein poliertem Kdstchen etwas teurer). Collage with color, c. 1920 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 345. Dadamax with caesar buonarroti, c. 1920 Collage photograph of Ernst Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris

  • 346. The gramineous bicycle garnish

ed with bells the pilfered grey beards and the echinoderms bend ing the spine to look for caresses (La biciclette graminee garnie de grelots les grisons griveles et les echinodermes courbants Vechine pour queter des caresses ), c. 1920 Botanical chart altered with gou ache, 29/4 x 39/4 inches Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 347. Winter landscape, colored collage, 1921 Lent by Hans Arp, Meudon, France 348. Massacre of the innocents, colored collage, 1921 Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris

  • 349. The elephant Celebes, Cologne,

1921 Oil on canvas, 49% x 42 inches Lent by Paul Eluard, Paris 350. Sambesiland, photograph of a col lage, 1921 Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris 351. Leaning woman, 1923 Oil on canvas, 51% x 38% inches Lent by the artist 352. 353. 354.

  • 355.

356. 357. 358. 359. Woman, old man and flower, 1923 Oil on canvas, 38 x 51% inches Lent by Victor Servranckx, Brussels Vive la France, c. 1923 Oil on canvas, 23% x 28% inches Lent by Rene Gaffe, Brussels Pieta or the revolution at night, 1923 Oil on canvas, 46 x 35% inches Lent by Paul Eluard, Paris 2 children are menaced by a night ingale (2 enfants sont menaces par un rossignol), 1924 Oil on wood, 18 x 13%, frame 27% x 22% inches Lent by Paul Eluard, Paris The forest, 1926 Oil on canvas, 29 x 36% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Given anonymously The woman in the wall, 1926 Oil on canvas, 32% x 24% inches Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris Histoire naturelle , 1926 Folio of thirty-four collotypes after drawings of 1925 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Given anonymously Marine, c. 1926 Painted plaster on canvas, 22 x 18% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New Lork. Given anonymously

  • 360. The horde, c. 1927

Oil on canvas, 44% x 57% inches Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris 360a. The sea, c. 1928 Oil on canvas, 18 x 15 inches Lent by Pierre Janlet, Brussels Loplop introduces a young girl, 1930 Painted plaster on wood with dan gling objects, 77 x 35% inches Lent by the artist

  • 361.


  • 362-364. Original collages for the collage

novel, Reve d'une Petite Fille Qui Voulut Entrer au Carmel, 1930 Lent by the Julien Levy Gallery, New York 365. Chimeras, c. 1931 Oil on canvas, 21% x 25% inches Lent by the artist 366. Portrait of the postman Cheval, 1932 Collage and pencil, 25% x 19% inches Note: le facteur Cheval built the Dream Palace illustrated in the sec tion on fantastic architecture Lent by the artist 367. Butterflies, 1933 Collage and pencil, 19% x 25% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 368. Landscape with tactile effects (Pay sage — effet d'attouchement) , 1934-35 Oil on canvas, 39% x 32 inches Lent by the artist

  • 369. Round head (La belle allemande) ,

1935 Plaster with objects incorporated, 24% inches high Lent by the artist 370. Portrait, 1935 Oil on canvas, 9% x 7% inches Lent by the artist 371. Lunar asparagus (Les asperges de la lune ), 1936 Plaster, 65% inches high Lent by the artist 372. Catastrophe, 1936 "Frottage," made by rubbing over an embossed lithograph, 13% x 9% inches Lent by the artist

  • 373. The nymph Echo (La nymphe

Echo), 1936 Oil on canvas, 18% x 21% inches Lent by the artist FINI, Leonor. Born Buenos Aires, 1908, of Argentine and Triestine parents. Selftaught. Trieste, Milan; Paris since 1933. Represented in Milan and Trieste mu seums. Lives in Paris.

  • 374. Games of legs in a key of dreams

(Jeux de jambes dans la clef du reve), 1935 Oil on canvas, 32 x 22% inches Lent by Andre de Mandiargues, Paris 375. Personage, ink, c. 1935 Lent by Max Ernst, Paris 376. Argonaut, 1936 Oil on canvas, 25% x 16% inches Lent by Marcel Rochas, Paris GIACOMETTI, Alberto. Swiss sculptor. Born Stampa, Switzerland, 1901. Painted, 1913-21. First sculpture, 1915. Studied, Geneva School of Arts and Sciences, 1920. Italy, 1921-22; Paris, 1922. Joined Surreal ists about 1930. Lives in Paris.

  • 377. Disagreeable object, 1931

Wood, 18% inches long Lent anonymously

  • 378. Head-landscape, 1932

Plaster (design for stone), 9% inches high, 27% inches long Lent by the artist

  • 379. The palace at 4 a. m., 1933

Wood, glass, wire, string, 28% x 15% inches, 25 inches high Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously GROSZ, George. German - American painter, draughtsman, social satirist. Born Berlin, 1893. Dresden Academy, 1909. Ber lin Dadaist group, 1917-20. New York, 1932, to become American citizen. 270 380. The gold-digger, lithograph, 1917 Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York

  • 381. Dada drawing, ink, 1917

Lent by Weyhe Gallery, New York

  • 382. The engineer Heartfield, collage

and watercolor, 1920 Lent anonymously HAUSSMANN, Raoul. German painter and photo-montagist. One of the leaders of the Berlin Dada movement, 1918-20. Lives in Majorca [?].

  • 383. Head, collage (photograph), 1919

Lent by Cesar Domela - Nieuwenhuis, Paris 383a. The art critic, collage, c. 1919 Lent by Vordemberge - Gildewart, Berlin HAYTER, Stanley William. English etch er and painter. Born London, 1901. Studied in father's studio; Persia; Kings College, London; Academie Julien, Paris. Oil chemist, Persia, 1922-25. Paris, 1926. Di rected 'Atelier 17." School of etching tech nique since 1926. Represented in Brook lyn and Stockholm museums and Bibliotheque Doucet, Paris. Lives in Paris where he participates in Surrealist movement. 384-389. Engravings for U Apocalypse, 1932. Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris 390. Rape of Lucrece, 1934 Oil on wood, 32 x 39(4 inches Lent by the artist 391. Eroticism compensated (Erotisme compense), etching, 1934 Lent by the artist

  • 392. Chiromancy, etching, 1935

Lent by the artist 393. Maculate conception, etching, 1936 Lent by the artist 394. Handshake, 1936 [?] Plaster and copper wire; made by squeezing wet plaster between the hands —an "automatic" technique Lent by the artist HOCH, Hannah. German photo-monta gist. Member of the Berlin Dada move ment, 1918-20. Lives in Berlin.

  • 395. Collage, 1920

Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris HUGO, Valentine. French painter and il lustrator. Born Boulogne-sur-mer, 1897. Studied in Paris. In 1919 married Jean Hugo, great-grandson of Victor Hugo. Ac tive in Surrealist movement, 1931-35. Lives in Paris.

  • 396. Dream of January 17, 1934

Oil on wood, 23% x 15% inches Lent by the artist 39 7. Gules with four mouths or, two, one and one (de gueules a quatre bouches d'or deux une et une), 1934 Oil on wood, 10% x 8% inches Lent by the artist 398. The Surrealist poets, Paul EIuard, Andre Breton, Tristan Tzara, Rene Crevel, Benjamin Peret, Rene Char, 1935 Oil on wood, 47% x 39% inches Lent by the artist HUGNET, Georges. French poet and critic. Born Paris, 1906. Member of Paris Surrealist group. 399. Collage Lent by the artist JANCO, Marcel. Rumanian poet and art ist. Active in Zurich Dada movement, 1916-19; reliefs and woodcuts. Lives in Paris. 400. Colored woodcut, 1916 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris JEAN, Marcel. French Surrealist poet.

  • 401. Spectre of the gardenia, 1936

Plaster covered with black cloth, zipper eyes, 10% inches high Lent by the artist 271 402. Decalcomania Note: made by spreading ink be tween two sheets of paper which are then pulled apart Lent by the artist MAAR, Dora. J ugoslav photographer. Ac tive in Paris Surrealist group. Lives in Paris. 404. Dawn, photograph, 1935 Lent by the artist 405. The pretender, photograph, 1936 Lent by the artist MAGRITTE, Rene. Belgian painter. Lead ing artist of the Brussels Surrealist group. Has participated in Paris Surrealist move ment since 1926 [?]. 406. The river-dwellers (Les habitants du fleuve), 1926 Oil on canvas Lent by the artist, courtesy of Edouard Mesens, Brussels 407. The path of the air (La voie des airs ) Oil on canvas, 25% x 19% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 408. The celestial shadow (U ombre celeste) Oil on canvas, 21% x 28% inches Lent by Pierre Janlet, Brussels

  • 409. Mental calculus (Le calcul men

tal), 1931 Oil on canvas, 26 x 45% inches Lent by Leon Kochnitzky, Paris

  • 410. The eye

Oil on canvas, 21% x 31% inches Lent by Man Ray, Paris 411. The ladder of fire (Uechelle de feu), gouache, 1934 [?] Lent by Paul Eluard, Paris

  • 412. The human condition, 1935

Oil on canvas, 21% x 28% inches Lent by Basil Wright, London MASSON, Andre. French painter and graphic artist. Born Balagny (Oise), France, 1896. Influenced at first by Derain, then by Gris. Closely allied with Surreal ists, 1925-28. Designs for ballet, Les Pre sages, 1933. Lives in Paris. 413. Women, 1925 Oil on canvas, 28% x 23% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris

  • 414. Birth of birds, ink, c. 1925

Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris 415. Metamorphosis of lovers, ink. c. 1925 Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris

  • 416. Battle of fishes, 1927

Pencil, oil and sandpaper on can vas, 14% x 28% inches Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris 417. Figure, 1927 Sand and oil on canvas, 18 x 10% inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 418. Leaf, feather and drop of blood, 1927 Oil on canvas, 25% x 32 inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 419. Furious suns, ink, 1927 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 420. Birth of horses, etching Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris

  • 421. Animals devouring themselves,

1928 Pastel, 28% x 45% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 422. Encounter, pastel, 1928 Lent anonymously 272

  • 423. Metamorphosis, 1928

Plaster, 9 inches long Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 424. The lovers, 1933 Watercolor, 12% x 10 inches Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris 425. Massacre, ink, 1933 Lent by Galerie Simon, Paris MEDNIKOFF, Reuben. English artist and psychologist. Born London. Interested in Surrealist painting through experiments in psychological research. Participated in International Surrealist Exhibition, Lon don, 1936. Lives in London. 426. Stairway to Paradise Watercolor, 10% x 13% inches Lent by the artist MESENS, Edouard L. T. Belgian poet, composer and collagist. Born in Brussels, 1903. Leader of Brussels Surrealist group. Lives in Brussels.

  • 427. Mask for insulting esthetes, col

lage, 1929 Lent by the artist 428. Compulsory instruction, collage, 1929 Lent by the artist 429. Disconcerting light, collage Lent by the artist MIRO, Joan. Catalan painter. Born Montroig, near Barcelona, 1893. Studied Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Barcelona, 1907; Gali Academy, Barcelona, 1915. First exhibi tion, Barcelona, 1918. Paris, 1919. Closely allied with Surrealists, 1925-30. Designs for ballet, Jeux d'Enfants, 1932. Lives at Montroig.

  • 430. Catalan landscape, 1923-24

Oil on canvas, 25% x 39% inches Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris 431. a-e-i-o-u, crayon and watercolor, 1924 Lent by Pierre Janlet, Brussels 432. Collage with a leaf, 1924 Watercolor on grey paper with leaf, 18% x 24% inches Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris 433. Statue, 1926 Charcoal, 24% x 18% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Given anonymously

  • 434. Personage throwing a stone at a

bird, c. 1926 Oil on canvas, 29 x 36% inches Lent by Rene Gaffe, Brussels

  • 435. Relief, 1930

Wood, 35% x 27% inches Lent by Andre Breton, Paris

  • 436. Composition, 1933

Oil on canvas, 57% x 45% inches Lent anonymously 437. Personage, pastel, 1934 Lent anonymously 438. Gouache on red paper, 1934 Lent anonymously

  • 439. Rope and personages, 1935

Gouache on cardboard with coil of rope, 41% x 29% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 440-442. Three gouaches, 1935-36 Lent by the Pierre Matisse Gallery, New York 443. Personage, ink, 1935-36 Lent by Mrs. George L. K. Morris, New York

  • 444. Object

Wood, stuffed parrot, etc., 1936 Lent by Mrs. Kenneth F. Simpson, New York MOORE, Henry. English sculptor. Born Castleford, Yorkshire, England, 1898. Art School, Leeds, 1919. London, 1921, learn ing much from primitive art. France and Italy, 1924-25. First exhibition, London, 1928. Influenced by Arp and Picasso. Mem273 ber of Axis group. Participated in Inter national Surrealist Exhibition, London, 1936. Lives in London.

  • 445. Reclining figure, 1931

Lead, 9 inches high, 18(4 inches long. Lent by the artist 446. Drawing, wash and pencil, 1933 Lent by the artist 447. Drawing, wash, 1933 Lent by the artist 447a. Two forms, 1934 Wood, 11 inches high. Lent by the artist 448. Drawing for sculpture, charcoal and ink, 1936. Lent by the artist NASH, Paul. English painter and graphic artist. Born London, 1889. Studied, Slade Art School, London. Member : Unit 1 ; N. E. A. C. (London Group). Taught design, Royal College of Art, 1924-25; President, Society of Industrial Artists. Represented in Tate Gallery, Victoria and Albert Mus eum and Imperial War Museum. Partici pated in International Surrealist Exhibi tion, London, 1936. 449. Harbour and room Oil on canvas, 36 x 28 inches Lent by the artist OELZE, Richard. German painter. Born Magdeburg, 1900. Studied, Bauhaus, Wei mar, 1921 under Itten; Weimar, 1921-26; Dresden, 1926-29; Ascona, 1930; Berlin, 1930-32; Paris since 1933. Participates in Surrealist exhibitions, including the In ternational Surrealist Exhibition, London, 1936.

  • 450. Daily torments, 1934

Oil on canvas, 51(4 x 38/4 inches Lent by Mme. Tilly Visser, Paris

  • 451. Frieda, charcoal, 1936

Note: Frieda is a character in Kavka's novel, The Castle Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Given anonymously 274 OPPENHEIM, Meret. South German [?]. Lives in Basle and Paris. Member of Paris Surrealist group.

  • 452. Object, 1936

Fur-covered cup, plate and spoon Lent by the artist PAALEN, Wolfgang. Austrian painter. Born Vienna, 1905. Studied painting with Leo von Konig; Italy, 1921; with Adolph Meyer, Berlin, 1923; Academy Hoffmann, Munich, 1925. Participated in Surrealist exhibitions, Paris and London. Represent ed in Japanese Museums and Gallery of Living Art, New York University. Lives in Paris. 453. The strange destiny of line, ink, 1935 Lent by the artist 454. Antarctic landscape, gouache, 1935 Lent by the artist

  • 455. The exact hour, construction in

wood, 1935 [?] Lent by the artist 456. Antifunctionalistic table sur rounded by hermaphrodites, crayon, 1936 Lent by the artist PAILTHORPE, Dr. Grace. English psy chologist. Participated in International Surrealist Exhibition, London, 1936.

  • 457. Ancestors II, 1935

Ink, 11% x 15/4 inches Lent by the artist PENROSE, Roland A. English poet and painter. Member English Surrealist group. Active in organizing International Surreal ist Exhibition, London, 1936. 458. Portrait of a leaf Oil on wood, 13 x 8 inches Lent by the artist PICABIA, Francis. French painter, illus trator, editor. Born Paris, 1878. Impres sionist at first, then, 1910, Cubist. Exhibit ed Section d'Or, 1912. With Duchamp, de Zayas, and Man Ray, formed quasi-Dadaist group in New York, 1917. Active as Dadaist, Barcelona, Zurich, Paris. Settings for Swedish Rallet, R elache, 1924. Lives in Paris.

  • 459. Catch as catch can, 1913

Oil on canvas, 40 x 32% inches Lent by Andre Breton, Paris 460. Object which does not praise times past . . . ( Ob jet qui ne fait pas Veloge des temps passes ou c est clair comme le jour [cette chose est faite pour perpetuer mon sou venir] ), 1916 Oil on wood, 39% x 39% inches Lent by Mme. Francis Picabia

  • 461. Amorous procession (Parade amoureuse), 1917

Oil on cardboard, 38% x 29% inches Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris

  • 462. Infant carburetor (U enfant carburateur), 1918

Oil , crayon, silver and gold on wood, 50 x 40 inches. Lent by Lucien Lefebvre-Foinet, Paris 463. Wet paint ! (Prenez garde a la pein - ture), 1919 Oil on canvas, 36% x 29 inches Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris

  • 464. Dada movement, chart, ink, 1919

Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris Illustrated page 21 465. Totalizator (Totalisateur ) Watercolor, 21% x 29% inches Lent by Pierre Roche, Paris 466. Kiss, 1925 Ripolin on cardboard, 34 x 26 inches Lent by Lucien Lefebvre - Foinet, Paris RAY, MAN. Painter, photographer, film maker and graphic artist. Born Philadel phia, 1890. New York, 1897. Exhibited paintings, New York, 1912. With Duchamp, de Zayas and others participated in quasiDadaist group, New York, 1917. Paris, 1921, member of Dadaist group, and later, 1924, of Surrealist. Took up photography, 1921, using "rayograph" technique and explor ing other possibilities of photography, especially in making Dada and Surrealist compositions. Films: Le retour de la raison, 1923; Emak Bakia, 1926; L'Etoile de Mer, 1928; Les Mysteres du Chateau de De, 1929. Lives in Paris. 467. Theater, collage, crayon and var nish on newspaper, New York, 1916 Lent by the artist 468. Suicide, 1917 Airbrush, oil and ink on cardboard, 23% x 17 inches Lent by the artist 469. Boardwalk, 1917 Wood with paint, furniture knobs and electric wire, 25% x 28 inches Lent by the artist

  • 47 0. Admiration of the orchestrelle for

the cinematograph, 1919 Airbrush, 26 x 21% inches Lent by the artist 471-473. "Rayographs," c. 1922 Note: "rayographs" were made by placing objects directly on photo graphic paper or between paper and source of light without camera or negative. Each print is unique Lent by the artist

  • 474. "Rayograph," 1923

Lent anonymously 475. "Rayograph," 1923 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris

  • 476. Object of destruction, ink, 1932

Inscribed on back: Cut out the eye from a photograph of one who has been loved but is not seen any more. Attach the eye to the pendulum of a metronome and regulate the weight to suit the tempo desired. Keep going to the limit of endurance. With a hammer well-aimed, try to destroy the whole with a single blow. Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 275

  • 477. Observatory time— the lovers (A

Vheure de Vobservatoire—les amoureux), 1932-34 Oil on canvas, 39 x 99 inches Lent by the artist

  • 478. Orator, 1935

Object in wood and mirror glass, 39% x 59% inches Lent by the artist 479. Portrait, ink, 1936 Lent by the artist 480. Portable woman, ink, 1936 Lent by the artist RIBEMONT - DESSAIGNES, Georges. French writer and painter. Active in Paris Dada and early Surrealist movements. 481. Silence (Szegedin) Oil on canvas, 36% x 28% inches Lent by Miss Katherine S. Dreier, New York 482. Young woman Oil on canvas, 28% x 23% inches Lent by Societe Anonyme, Museum of Modern Art, 1920 483. Strange suns, 1920 Watercolor and ink, 24% x 18% inches Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 484. Tree with violin (Uarbre a violon), ink, 1920 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris SCHAD, Christian. German or Swiss. Ac tive in Zurich Dada group, 1916-1918. Many woodcuts and "schadographs" (1918) re produced in Zurich Dada publications. Probably the first artist of the movement to use the technique subsequently called "rayograph" (Man Ray) or "photogram" (Moholy-Nagy) , a process by which a pho tographic print is made by placing objects before a sensitive plate without use of neg ative or camera. "Schadograph" is a term invented by Tzara, 1936.

  • 485-491. "Schadographs," 1918

Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 492. Babylonian apocalypse, woodcut, 1918 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris 493. Woodcut, 1918 Lent by Tristan Tzara, Paris SCHWITTERS, Kurt. German painter and writer. Born Hanover, 1887. Realistic figures of Dresden school, 1913. Influence of Munich abstract painters, 1917-18; Pic asso, 1918. Founded Merzism, a variety of Dadaism, Hanover, 1919; paper collages, Merz pictures, Merz constructions, Merz interiors, Merz poems.

  • 494. Radiating world : Merz 31B (Strahlende Welt: Merz 31B), 1920

Collage and oil, 36% x 26% inches Lent by Miss Katherine S. Dreier, New York 495. Merz: Santa Claus (Merz: Der Weihnachtsmann) , collage, 1922 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 496. Merz 379: Potsdamer, collage. 1922 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 497. Merz 1920, collage Lent anonymously TANGUY, Yves. French painter. Born Paris, 1900. Member of Surrealist group since 1926. Influenced by de Chirico. Lives in Paris.

  • 498. Black landscape, 1926

Oil on canvas, 32 x 25% inches Lent by Mme. Valentine Hugo, Paris 499-503. Drawings, ink, 1926 Lent by Mme. Simone Kahn, Paris

  • 504. Mama, Papa is wounded! (Maman.

papa est blesse!), 1927 Oil on canvas, 36% x 28% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 276 505. Extinction of unnecessary lights, 1927 Oil on canvas, 3614 x 25% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously 506. Lurid sky, 1928 Oil on canvas, 32 x 25% inches Lent by Galerie Bonaparte, Paris 507. January, 1930 Oil on canvas, 32 x 25% inches Lent by Galerie Bonaparte, Paris 508. Drawing, ink, 1932 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously

  • 509. Heredity of acquired characteris

tics, 1936 Oil on canvas board, 16% x 13 inches Lent by the artist

  • 510. From the other side of the bridge

(De Vautre cote du pont), 1936 Object of painted wood and stuffed cloth, 19 x 8% inches. Lent by Charles Ratton, Paris TAUBER-ARP, Sophie Henriette. Born Davos, Switzerland. Studied at St. Gall, Switzerland, 1908-10; Munich, 1911-13; Hamburg, 1912. Professor, Ecole des Beaux-Arts, Zurich, 1916-28. Member of Zurich Dada group, 1916-20. Did murals and decorations in Strassburg, 1927, and in Paris and Berlin, 1935. Represented in museums of Zurich, Wiesbaden, Lodz. Wife of Hans Arp. Lives at Meudon, near Paris. 511. Head, 1918 Painted turned wood, 13 inches high. Lent by Frank Arp, Paris

  • 512. Dada head, 1920

Painted turned wood, 11% inches high. Lent by Frank Arp, Paris TZARA, Tristan. Franco-Rumanian poet, editor, essayist. Born Moineste, Rumania, 1896. Studied philosophy. Principal found er of Dada movement, Zurich, 1916. Paris, 1919-22. Editor of Dada, 1916-20, and other periodicals. For a time, c. 1930, associated with Surrealists. Lives in Paris. 513. Drawing, ink on filing folder, 1936 Lent anonymously SCANDINAVIAN SURREALISTS 514. Photographs of work by Sven Jonson, Wald Lorentzon, Vilh. BjerkePetersen, Stellan Morner, Harry Carlsson, Axel Olson, Freddie, Erik Olson, Rita Kerner-Larsen, Esaias Thoren Gift of Vilh. Bjerke-Petersen Artists independent of the AITKEN, Russell Barnett. American cer amist. Born Cleveland, Ohio, 1904. Stud ied, Cleveland School of Art; with Michael Povolny and J osef Hofman ; Kunstgewerbeschule, Vienna; Staatlicheporzellan, Ber lin. Instructor, Pottery Workshop, Cleve land, Ohio. Lives in Cleveland. 514a. Futility of a well-ordered life, ceramic sculpture, 1935 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Given anonymously Dada-Surrealist movements ALBERTS, Julien. American lithogra pher. Born New York, 1916. Studied with Peppino Mangravite and at Art Students League, New York. Lives in Yonkers, New York. 515. Voices of spring, lithograph Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York BAYER, Herbert. Austrian typographer. Student and master at the Bauhaus, Wei mar and Dessau. Lives in Berlin. 277 516. Impossible men (Menschen unmbglich), photograph, 1932 Lent by Allen Porter, New York 517-522. Original designs for W under des Lebens, photo-montage, collage, watercolor, etc., 1934 Lent hy the artist BEALL, C. C. American artist, 20th cen tury.

  • 523. Composite head of President F. D.

Roosevelt, made up of figures and objects symbolizing various mea sures of the New Deal. New York, 1933 Lent anonymously BECKER, Fred G. American graphic ar tist. Born Oakland, California, 1913. Stud ied, Otis Art Institute, Los Angeles; with Stanislaw Szukalski, Hollywood; Eugene Steinhoff, New York. Lives in New \ork. 524. John Henry's hand, wood engrav ing, 1936 525. The monster, wood engraving, 1936 Lent by the WPA Federal Art Proj ect, New York BERNSTEIN, Meyer. American painter. Born Philadelphia, 1904. Studied indepen dently. Lives in New York. 526. Epitaph, chalk, 1931 Lent by the artist BLUME, Peter. American painter. Born Russia, 1906. Studied, Educational Alli ance and Art Students' League, New York. Italy, 1932-33. Lives in Gaylordsville, Con necticut.

  • 527. Parade, 1930

Oil on canvas, 48% x 55% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr.

  • 528. Elemosina, pencil, 1933

Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. 529. Elemosina, no. 2, pencil, 1933 Lent anonymously CALDER, Alexander. American sculptor and constructivist. Born Philadelphia, 1898. Graduated as mechanical engineer from Stevens Institute of Technology, 1919; engineer for four years. Studied painting, Art Students' League, New York, 1923. To Paris, 1926. First mobiles, 1931. First exhibition, Paris, 1932. Lives in New York. 530. Object with yellow background, wood and metal, 1936 Lent by the Honolulu Academy of Arts, Honolulu

  • 531. Mantis, wood and metal, 1936

Lent by the artist CASTELLON, Federico. American lith ographer, mural and easel painter. Born Alhabia, Almeria, Spain, 1914. Came to America, 1921. Only formal instruction a high school art course. Awarded year and one half traveling fellowship by Spanish government, 1934. Lives in Brooklyn, New York. 531a. Blind leading blind and five land marks, 1936 Oil on canvas, 29% x 23% inches Lent bv the Weyhe Gallery, New York 532. La Maison de la volupte, pencil, 1936 533. Four figures, dry brush drawing, 1936

  • 534. The artist, pencil

535. The ventures of a night, watercolor, 1936 Lent bv the Weyhe Gallery, New York 278 DISNEY, Walter E. American designer of animated cartoon films. Born 1901, Chi cago. Self-taught. Worked as mail carrier in Chicago. In Europe with Red Cross dur ing War (too young to enlist). First film, Local Happenings, done for a Kansas City theatre. Did a few fairy tale reels, never shown. First Mickey Mouse film , Plane Crazy, 1928; first Silly Symphony, 1929. Lives in Hollywood.

  • 536-539. Wolf pacifier, four frames from

the animated cartoon, Three little wolves, 1936. Made by Walt Disney Productions, Ltd. Lent by Walt and Roy Disney, Hol lywood, California DOMELA-NIEUWENHUIS, Cesar. Dutch constructivist, painter, photo -montagist. Born Amsterdam, 1900. Berlin, 1921. Switzerland, 1922-24. Paris, 1925, influ enced by Mondrian; member of de Stijl group. Amsterdam, 1926-27. Berlin, 1927- 33. Paris since 1933. 540. Photo-montage, 1933 Lent by the artist DOVE, Arthur B. American painter. Born Canandaigua, New York, 1880. Worked first as illustrator. Lives at Geneva, New York.

  • 541. Portrait of Ralph Dusenberry,

1924 Oil on canvas with applied objects Lent by An American Place, New York 542. Grandmother, 1925 Panel with applied objects Lent by An American Place, New York DREIER, Katherine S. American painter. Born New York, 1877. Studied with Walter Shirlaw, New York; Paris; Munich; Italy. Organized with Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray the Societe Anonyme, 1920. Member of Abstraction-Creation, Paris. Lives in West Redding, Conn., and in New York. 543. Cruel prying, 1932 Oil on canvas, 48% x 23% inches Lent by the artist 544. The cat, 1933 Oil on canvas, 23% x 28% inches Lent by the artist EVANS, Walker. American photographer. Born St. Louis, 1903. Lives in New York.

  • 545. Outdoor advertising, Florida, 1934

546. Moving truck and bureau mirror, 1929 547. Roadside billboard, Cape Cod, 1931 Photographs lent by the artist FEITELSON, Lorser. American painter, leader of the California Post-Surrealists. Lives in Hollywood.

  • 548. Genesis, first version, oil on celotex, 1934

Lent by the San Francisco Museum of Art FERNANDEZ, Louis. Spanish painter Born Asturias, 1900. Studied Beaux-Arts, Barcelona, 1912-22. Paris since 1924. 549. Still life, 1936 [?] Oil on wood, 4% x 58% inches Lent by Christian Zervos, Paris GELLERT, Hugo. American cartoonist, lithographer and painter. Born Budapest, Hungary, 1892. Studied at National Acad emy of Design, New York. Lives in Metuchen, New Jersey. 550-551. Illustrations for Capital by Karl Marx, New York, Ray Long and Richard R. Smith, 1934 Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York GILBERT, C. Allan. American artist, early 20th century. 552. All is vanity, published by House of Art, New York Lent anonymously 279 GOLDBERG, Reuben Lucius. American cartoonist. Born San Francisco, 1883. Mem ber of Society of Illustrators since 1916. Lives in New York. Inventions of Professor Lucifer Gorgonzola Butts, A.K., ink drawings 553. Invention for digging up bait for fishing 554. An automatic lather brush for barbers

  • 555. Idea for keeping a buttonhole

flower fresh Lent by the artist GONZALES, Julio. Catalan sculptor. Born Barcelona, 18-. Self-taught; influenced by Picasso, Brancusi. Began as a painter, then worked in wrought iron, copper and silver. Taught Picasso technique of metal con struction. Lives in Paris.

  • 556. Head

Wrought iron, 17% inches high Lent by Christian Zervos, Paris GUGLIELMI, O. Louis. American pain ter. Born Milan, Italy, 1906. New York, since 1914. Studied, National Academy of Design, New York. Worked as factory hand, store clerk, commercial artist, and assistant to mural painter. 557. Memory of the Charles River, 1936 Oil on gesso panel, I3V2X.ISV2 inches Lent by The Downtown Gallery, New York KAUFER, Waldo Glover. American etcher and painter. Born Providence, Rhode Is land, 1906. Pupil of John R. Frazier, Charles Hawthorne and Stuart Davis. At tended Rhode Island School of Design. Lives in Providence. 558. Paranoia, etching Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York KOPMAN, Benjamin. American painter. Born Russia, 1887. Studied under Jones, Maynard and Ward at National Academy of Design, New York. Lives in New York. 559. The jungle, 1929 Oil on canvas, 28 x 21% inches Lent by J. B. Neumann, New York KUKRYNIKSY. Composite name of three Russian illustrators working on the Mos cow Pravda: Kupriyanov, born 1903; Krylov, born 1902; Sokolov, born 1903. 560. Illustrations for Hot Penpoints, a collection of satires, 1933 Lent by Jay Leyda, New York LEWIS, Wyndham. English painter, draughtsman, novelist, polemicist. Born, 1884. Studied, Slade School, London. Founded Vorticism, London, 1914. Influ enced by Cubism and Futurism, 1914. Pub lished Blast, 1914-15. Lives in London.

  • 560a. Roman actors, 1934

Gouache, 15 x 21% inches Lent anonymously LUNDEBERG, Helen. American pain ter. Member of California Post-Surrealist group. Lives in Hollywood. 561. Cosmicide, oil, 1935 Lent through the courtesy of Lorser Feitelson, Hollywood, California LYNES, George Piatt. American photog rapher. Born East Orange, New Jersey, 1907. Left Yale University to learn photog raphy in Paris. Entirely self-taught. Lives in New York. 562. Sleepwalker, photograph, 1936 Lent by the artist MacIYER, Loren. American painter. Born New York, 1909. Studied, Art Students' League and National Academy of Design. Lives in New York and Provincetown, Mas sachusetts. 563. My house, 1936 Oil on canvas, 25 x 34 inches Lent by the artist MALEYICH, Kasimir. Painter and theo rist. Born Kiev, 1878. Painted in Fauve manner, Moscow, 1908-10. Influenced by 280 Cubism, c. 1910-13. Founder, Suprematist movement, Moscow, 1913. First semi-archi tectural drawings, 1917. White on white, 1918. Professor, Moscow Academy after the Revolution. Leningrad Academy, c. 1921, until death in Leningrad, 1935. 564. Private of the first division, 1914 Oil on canvas with collage of ther mometer, postage stamps, etc., 21 x 17% inches Lent anonymously MARINKO, George J. American painter. Born Derby, Connecticut, 1908. Studied, Yale School of Fine Arts and Waterbury Art School. Lives in Waterbury, Connecti cut. 564a. Inevitable recollection Oil on wood, 8% x 11% inches Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York MERRILD, Knud. American painter, sculptor, block printer, and designer. Born in Jutland, Denmark, 1894. Pupil of the Royal Academy, Copenhagen. His designs have been executed in various crafts. Lives in Los Angeles.

  • 565. Hermaphrodite, watercolor on ges

so, 1935 Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York MOHOLY-NAGY, Ladislaus. Hungarian painter, constructivist, photographer, ty pographer, theorist. Born Borsod, Hun gary, 1895. Turned from study of law to painting, 1915. Member Activist and MA groups, Budapest, 1920. Influenced by Russian Suprematism and Constructivism, Berlin, 1921-22. Professor at Bauhaus, Wei mar and Dessau, 1923-28. Co-editor with Gropius of the Bauhaus books. Lives in London. 566. Once a chicken— always a chicken, collage with watercolor, 1925 Lent by the artist 567. Portrait, "photogram" 1925 Lent by the artist 568. The world foundation (Das Welt. gebdude), collage with pencil, 1927 Lent by the artist NOGUCHI, Isamu. Born Los Angeles, 1904. Studied with Ruotolo at Leonardo da Vinci Art School, New York, and worked as stone cutter under Brancusi, Paris. Lives in New York. 569. Miss expanding universe, 1931 Aluminum, 42 inches high Lent by the artist O'KEEFFE, Georgia. American painter. Born Sun Prairie, Wisconsin, 1887. Stud ied, Chicago Art Institute under Vanderpoel; Art Students' League, New York, un der Chase; Teachers College under Bement and Dow. Lives in New York.

  • 570. Black abstraction, 1925

Oil on canvas, 30 x 40 inches Lent by An American Place, New York

  • 571. Cow's skull, 1929

Oil on canvas, 40 x 35% inches Lent by An American Place, New York PUTNAM, Wallace. American. Born West Newton, Massachusetts, 1899. Studied, Mu seum School, Boston. Has lived in New York since 1925.

  • 572. Agog, object, 1935

Lent by the artist 573. Mask, object, 1936 Lent by the artist ROY, Pierre. French painter. Born Nantes, 1880. Paris, 1900. Studied architecture, decorative art under Grasset; painting with Laurens. Influenced by de Chirico. Associated with Surrealists about 1925. Lives in Paris. 281

  • 574. The electrification of the country

Oil on canvas, 29 x 20 inches Lent by the Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Connecticut

  • 575. Daylight saving

Oil on canvas, 21% x 15 inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Gift of Mrs. James B. Murphy 576. Danger on the stairs Oil on canvas, 36% x 23% inches Collection The Museum of Modern Art, New York Gift of Mrs. John D. Rockefeller, Jr. SELIGMANN, Kurt. Swiss painter and engraver. Born Basle, 1900. Studied in Basle and Geneva. Exhibited in Paris since 1931, Brussels, Warsaw, etc. 576a. Etchings for Les vagabondages heraldiques, Paris, Editions des Chroniques du Jour, 1934 Lent by Galerie Jeanne Bucher, Paris SIQUEIROS, David Alfaro. Born Mex ico, 1894. Fought in Carranza revolution. Studied in Paris. Returned to Mexico, 1921. Frescoes, University of Guadalajara. Lives at Guadalajara.

  • 577. Collective suicide, 1935-36

Duco on wood with applied panels Lent anonymously SMITH, Andre. American painter, etcher, architect, teacher and writer. Born Hong Kong, 1880. Graduate of the College of Architecture, Cornell University. Lives in Stony Creek, Connecticut.

  • 578. Even a long rope has two ends,

watercolor 579. The things you never want are never out of reach, watercolor 579a. You can't stop things from hap pening, watercolor 579b. Is this the street that runs around the world? watercolor Lent by the artist STERNBERG, Harry. American etcher. Born in New York, 1904. Pupil of Harry Wickey. Lives in New York. 580. Principle no. 9, aquatint Lent by the Weyhe Gallery, New York THURBER, James. American writer, car toonist and graphic artist. Born Columbus, Ohio, 1894. Lives in Litchfield, Connecti cut.

  • 581. Look out, here they come again!

Ink drawing, 1935 Note: Illustrated on same page as Goldberg, no. 555 Lent by the artist TONNY, Kristians. Dutch painter and draughtsman. Born Amsterdam, 1906. Perfected the transfer drawing technique. Lives in Paris. 582. Drawing on transfer paper, c. 1927 Lent anonymously 583. Drawing on transfer paper, c. 1930 Lent by the Marie Harriman Gal lery, New York

  • 584. Drawing on transfer paper, white

on black, c. 1930 Lent by the Marie Harriman Gal lery, New York WOTHERSPOON, George A. American artist, early 20th century. 585. Gossip, and Satan came also, pub lished by House of Art, New York Lent anonymously 282 Comparative material: art of children HOISINGTON, Jeane, aged 11 years, Grand Rapids, Michigan.

  • 586. A god of war shooting arrows to

protect the people, colored chalk Courtesy of Miss Marion L. Creaser, Board of Education, Grand Rapids, Michigan GANZ, Paul, Jr., Basle 586a. Book with drawings, done at the age of five years Lent anonymously

  • 587. Spirits, drawing done at the age of

six years Lent anonymously Unknown artist 588. Landscape [?], watercolor by a child about six years of age, KingCoit School, New York Lent anonymously Art of the insane

  • 589-595. Psychopathic watercolors, for

merly in the Prinzhorn collection Lent by Ladislas Szecsi, Paris 596-597. Embroideries by psychopathic patients Lent by Paul Eluard, Paris

  • 598-607. Psychopathic drawings

Lent by Ladislas Szecsi, Paris

  • 608. Object assembled and mounted by

a psychopathic patient on a wooden panel in five small vitrines Lent by Andre Breton, Paris

  • 609-615. Watercolors and a crayon draw

ing done by Czechoslovakian peas ants in a state of ecstasy Lent by Mr. and Mrs. Philip Trot ter, The Mutilated House, Maida Vale, London 616. "Dear Sister, this drawing is to give you a faint view of our beau tiful spirit home ..." Drawn by Mrs. Mary Webster, August 11, 1874 (78 years old) Lent by The American Folk Art Gallery, New York Folk art

  • 617. Pennsylvania German jractur draw

ing in ink, early 19th century Lent by The American Folk Art Gallery, New York 617a. Bust, used as a phrenologist's sign, Rhode Island. Probably formerly a portrait. Polychrome wood, 16!4 inches high Lent by The American Folk Art Gallery, New York 283 Commercial and journalistic art

  • 618. Lawn party of the Royal Worces- *620. Window plan, no. 16, page 201

ter Corset Company, advertisement Lent by Julien Levy, New York from the Delineator, June, 1906 .working , Lent by A. Hyatt Mayor, New York 621 A 8mooth sheik photoIllustrations from Koester School Book of montage based on the Browning Draping by Geo. J. Cowan and Will H. case, New York Evening Graphic, Bates, Chicago, 1913 February 1, 1927

  • 619. Draping on forms: realistic effect: Lent by Julien Levy, New York

". . . the trimmer can drape them so beautifully that the goods will *622. Advertisement in Women's Wear look really much more beautiful Daily, January 21, 1936 than they can possibly look on the Courtesy Waldes Koh-i-noor, Inc., majority of the people;" page 159 Long Island City Miscellaneous objects and pictures of Surrealist character

  • 623. Cat clothed in roses, Wemyss china,

Scotland, 19th century Lent by Mrs. Bernard Raymond, New York BENQUET, A. French wheelwright, blacksmith and self-taught painter. Born 1861. Lived at Tartas, Landes, France.

  • 624. Oval wheel

8% x 11 inches, dated 1878 Note: the wheel was made as proof of completing apprenticeship as a wheelwright. Ordinarily such wheels are round. The wheel was found by Man Ray and Paul Eluard Lent by Andre Breton, Paris HAWLEY, Elizabeth King (Mrs. William dc Groot). Pupil at Cooper Union, 1860- 65. Mother of the New York artist, Ade laide M. de Groot. 625. Hanging ball, crayon, done as an exercise in drawing Lent by Miss Adelaide M. de Groot, New York Anonymous artists

  • 626. Object made from a Sears-Roebuck

catalog, northern Vermont, 1936 Lent by Mrs. Victor Herbert Lukens, South Orange, New Jersey

  • 627. Spoon found in a condemned man's

cell, reproduction from The New York Times Lent anonymously 628. Plates from the Rorschach Test Note: these patterns are used by psychologists and psychoanalysts to test visually free association of ideas Lent by the Guidance Laboratory, Teachers College, Columbia Uni versity, New York 284 Scientific objects

  • 629-643. Photographs by Man Ray of

mathematical objects from the Poincare Institute, Paris Note: compare the 16th century en gravings of similar objects, nos. 36 and 37 Lent by Man Ray, Paris 644. Model of an enlarged cross-section of a lichen Lent by A. Conger Goodyear, New York CHEYAL, Ferdinand. Born Charmes (Drome) , 1836. Originally a baker, in 1860 he became a postman at Hauterives in which position he remained until his death. He enlivened the dullness of his daily rounds by constructing in his dreams a fairy palace. One day on his route he discovered a cache of oddly shaped stones which so fascinated him that he determined to build his dream house. Thus in 1879 he began collecting the stones in his post-bag. In the evenings he cemented them into shape and, despite the ridicule of his neighbors, continued his toil, which he re garded as a mission, for 33 years. In 1912 the uninhabitable mansion was completed. He then devoted another eight years to the construction of his own tomb in which he was never buried. Died Hauterives, 1924. Photographs by Denise Bellon

  • 645. Dream Palace, Hauterives, 1879-

1912. Panoramic view (engraving from a photograph) 646. Detail view. Shrine 647. Detail view. Facade

  • 648. Cheval's tomb, Hauterives, 1912-

24. Lent by J. B. Brunius, Paris GAUDI, Antonio. Born Reus, 1852. In 1870 entered the Barcelona Escuela SuFantastic architecture perior de Arquitectura and received the title of architect in 1878. The major part of his work was done between 1880 and 1900. Among these are the Park Giiell and the still unfinished church of the Holy Family. Killed by an electric tramcar, Bar celona, 1926. Photographs

  • 649. Church of the Holy Family, Barce

lona, begun 1884. General view 650. Church of the Holy Family, Barce lona, begun 1884. Interior 651. Park Giiell, Barcelona, 1885-89. Arcades 652. Park Giiell, Barcelona, 1885-89. Lodge

  • 653. Casa Batllo, Barcelona, 1905-07.


  • 654. Casa Mila, Barcelona, 1905-10.

Fagade 655. Casa Mila, Barcelona, 1905-10. De tail 656. Casa Mila, Barcelona, 1905-10. In terior

  • 657. Casa Mila, Barcelona, 1905-10.

Chimney 658. Casa Mila, Barcelona, 1905-10. Gen eral view 285 GUIMARD, Hector. Born Paris, 1867. Studied at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts where, appointed professor in 1894, he also taught for four years. He has designed a great many buildings, the best known of which are the Castel Beranger and the stations for the Metropolitain, the subway system of Paris. So individual was his interpreta tion of the Art Nouveau that it became known among his followers as "le style Guimard." Castel Beranger, Paris, 1894-98. Color plates 658. Entrance detail 659. Fagade 660. Decorative motifs Stations for the Metropolitan, 1900

  • 661-*663 General type: photographs of

details; entrance and detail sketches Photographs by Brassai and Marga ret Scolari 664-667. Etoile Station: facade sketches and plan House of the architect, Paris, 1910 668. Rendering of facade 669. Plans Original drawings and plates lent by the architect, Paris SCH WITTERS, Kurt (for biography see Dada-Surrealist section). Photographs of the Merzbau, a series of fantastic grottos constructed in the rear of Schwitters' house.

  • 670. The gold grotto, 1925
  • 671. Blue window, 1933

Courtesy Abstraction-Creation and Georges Vantongerloo, Paris Photographs of the interior of the Merz bau by Ernst Schwitters 672. Grotto with cow's horn, 1925 673. Barbarossa grotto, 1925 674. Columns with boy's head, 1925-32 675. The gold grotto, 1932 676. Part of the Grande Corniehe, 1933 677. The grotto with doll's head, 1933 678. The slender sculpture, 1935 Lent by Ernst Schwitters TERRY, Emilio. Born of Cuban ancestry Paris, 1890. In opposition to the concept of the house as a '"machine a habiter," Terry feels that a building should be "a dream come true." He is best known for his projects but among his completed works are decors for the ballets, Apollon et Daphne and Temps Difficiles and two houses. A monument dedicated to the Comtesse de Noailles is now in construction. Models

  • 679. The snail

Plans of the snail 680. The grotto Wash drawings 681. Interior, 1932 682. Imaginary building, 1932 683. Pavilions, 1932 684. Stairs, 1932 685. Castle in the air, 1932 686. Drawing room, 1933 687. Stairs, 1933

  • 688. Fireplace with a waterfall, 1933

689. Pavilion, 1933 690. Facade, 1935 691. Drawing room 692. Staircase in a tree 693. Grotto 694. Fountain Lent by the architect, Paris 286 Films F antastic or Surrealist films in the Museum of Modern Art Film Library Georges Melies Edwin Porter Emile Cohl (unknown) Robert Wiene Rene Clair Man Ray Hydrotherapie Fantastique (1900) Included in the Film Library's Series II, Program 2, as The Doctor's Secret. Le Voyage a la Lune (1902) Included in the Film Library's Series I, Program 1, as A Trip to the Moon. The Dream of a Rarebit Fiend (1906) An Edison production. Drame chez les Fantoches (1908) Les Joyeux Microbes (1909) Animated cartoons. A Thrilling Tale (1910?) A Cricks and Martin Production, London. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919) Included in the Film Library's Series III, Program 1. Cinema (1924) Generally known as Entr'acte. Le Retour a la Raison (1923) Made for a Dada meeting. Emak Bakia (1927) L'Etoile de Mer (1928) Included in the Film Library's Series III, Program 5, as Star of the Sea. Les Mysteres du Chateau de De (1929) 287 Germaine Dulac Marcel Duchamp Walt Disney Luis Bunuel & Salvador Dali La Coquille et le Clergyman (1928) Included in the Film Library's Series III, Program 5a, as The Seashell and the Clergyman. Anaemic Cinema (1928?) The Skeleton Dance (1929) Included in the Film Library's Series II, Program. 2. Le Chien Andalou (1929) 288 y -/ a Lt brdr y ~7/4-L Brief bibliography This bibliography is by no means comprehensive. It is confined principally to works of a general nature in English and the major European languages. The bibliography of the Walter P. Chrysler, Jr., collection of Dada and Surrealist material, recently given to the Museum library, is now in preparation and will contain a detailed list of documentary material, especially catalogs, periodicals, manifestos, invitations, mono graphs, illustrated books, etc. Books , pamphlets , articles Agha, M. F. -t "Surrealism, or The Purple Cow," Vogue, Nov. 1, 1936, pp. 60-61, et seq. New York, 1936 ir Anthologie Dada (no. 4-5 of the periodical Dada, director Tristan Tzara). Zurich, Heuberger, 1919 Aragon, Louis

Traite du style. Paris, N.R.F., 1928 1

+ La peinture au defi. Paris, Galerie Goemans, 1930 Ball, Hugo Die Flucht aus der Zeit. Munich and Leipzig, Verlag Von Duncker & Hum boldt, n.d. "Fragments from a Dada Diary," Transition, no. 25. New York, 1936 Breton, Andre Manifeste du surrealisme. Poisson Soluble. Paris, Simon Kra, 1924 y Manifeste du surrealisme. Poisson Soluble. New edition augmented by a preface and by the Lettre aux voyantes, Paris, Simon Kra, 1929 + Le surrealisme et la peinture. Paris, N.R.F., 1928 + Second manifeste du surrealisme. Paris, Simon Kra, 1930 Quest-ce que le surrealisme? Brussels, R. Henriquez, 1934 + "Preface aux expositions surrealistes de Copenhague et de Tenerife," Cahiers d'Art, no. 5-6, p. 97. Paris, 1935 y Position politique du surrealisme. Paris, Sagittaire, 1935 y "What is Surrealism?" translated by David Gascoyne, Criterion Miscellany, no. 43. London, Faber & Faber, 1936 Bo, C. "Nota sul surrealismo," Circoli, v. 2, pp. 217-223. Milan [?], 1935, anno V 289 f Catalogue of the International Surrealist Exhibition, with a preface by Andre Breton and an introduction by Herbert Read. London, 1936 Cowley, Malcolm "The Religion of Art; a Discourse over the Grave of Dada," The New Republic, Jan. 10, 1934, pp. 246-249. New York, 1934 "The Religion of Art; Death of a Religion," The New Republic, Jan. 17, 1934, pp. 272-275. New York, 1934 Dali, Salvador -p Conquest of the Irrational. New York, Julien Levy, 1935 Frois-Wittman, Jean "Preliminary Psychoanalytical Considerations of Modern Art," Archives of Psy choanalysis, v. 1, part 4. New York, July, 1927 Gascoyne, David + A Short Survey of Surrealism, London, Cobden-Sanderson, 1935 4 "Manifeste Anglais du Surrealisme" (fragment) , Cahiers cT Art, no. 5-6, p. 106. Paris, 1936 Huelsenbeck, Richard 4- "Dada Lives," Transition, no. 25. New York, 1936 Hugnet, Georges 1- "L'esprit dada dans la peinture." Cahiers d' Art, v. 7, no. 1-2, pp. 57-65; no. 6-7, pp. 281-285; no. 8-10, pp. 358-364. Paris, 1932. V. 9, no. 1-4, pp. 109-114. Paris, 1934 Levy, Julien f Surrealism. New York, The Black Sun Press, 1936 Lewis, Wyndham The Diabolical Principle. London [?], 1931 Loeb, Janice "Surrealism," Vassar Review, February, 1935. Poughkeepsie, Vassar College, 1935 Mangeot, Guy Histoire du surrealisme. Brussels, R. Henriquez, 1934 Massot, P. De Mallarme a 391. S. Raphael, 1922 Maublanc, J. D. Surrealisme romantique. Paris, Pipe d'Ecume, 1934 Neagoe, Peter "What is Surrealism?" The New Review. Paris, 1932 290 Orazi, Vittorio "Posizione del surrealismo," Stile Futurista, v. 1, no. 3, p. 38 Peret, Benjamin "Le surrealisme international," Cahiers d'Art, no. 5-6, p. 138. Paris, 1935 -t~ Petite anthologie poetique du surrealisme, with an introduction by Georges Hugnet. Paris, J. Bucher, 1934 Praz, Mario The Romantic Agony, translated from the Italian by Angus Davidson. Chaps. 7-8; pp. 163, 185; nn. 190, 191. London, Oxford University Press-Humphrey Milford, 1933 Raymond, Marcel De Baudelaire au surrealisme. Paris, Correa, 1933 Read, Herbert Art Now. New York, Harcourt Brace, 1934, pp. 121-140 Rhodes, S. A. '"Candles for Iris," The Sewanee Review. New York, 1933 Ribemont-Dessaignes, G. "Histoire de Dada," La Nouvelle Revue Franqaise, no. 36, pp. 867, seq., and no. 307, pp. 39, seq. Paris, 1931 Schinz, Albert "Dadaisme; poignee de documents sur un mouvement d'egareinent de l'esprit humain apres la Grande Guerre," Smith College Studies in Modern Languages, v. 5, no. 1, pp. 51-79. Northampton, Mass., 1923. Servadio, E. Due Studi sul surrealismo. Rome, 1931 Soby, James Thrall + After Picasso. Hartford, E. Y. Mitchell; New York, Dodd, Mead, 1935, pp. 57-112. + "The Light Fantastic Show," Town & Country, Dec., 1936, pp. 68-71. New York, 1936 -f- Surrealism , edited and with a long introduction by Herbert Read. London, Faber & Faber, 1936 Sweeney, James J. Plastic Redirections in 20th Century Painting. Chicago. The University of Chicago Press, 1934, pp. 67-97 ï "A Note on Super-realist painting, "The Arts, XVI, p. 611-13, 1929-30. 291 Tzara, Tristan -+ Sept manifestes dada. Paris, J. Budry, 1925 [?]. (A reprint of material originally published between 1916 and 1920) Periodicals -f Cahiers d'Art, editor Christian Zervos. Paris, 1926 to date. 1935, no. 5-6, all Surrealist number. 1936, no. 1-2, Surrealist objects A Documents , nouvelle serie, no. 34. Brussels, June, 1934. Special number: Interven tion surrealiste International Surrealist Bulletin , No. 4. London, Zwemmer, 1936 (Continuation of Bulletin Internationale du Surrealisme, No. 1, Prague, 1935; No. 2, Tenerife, 1935; No. 3, Brussels, 1935.) V Amour de VArt , director Rene Huyghe. Paris. N.b. issue for March, 1934 + La Revolution Surrealiste , editors (1925) Pierre Naville and Benjamin Peret; (1925-29) Andre Breton. Paris, 1924-29. Continued as Le Surrealisme au service de la revolution , editor Andre Breton. Paris, 1930-33. Nos. 1-6 -f- Minotaure, editor E. Teriade. Paris, A. Skira, 1933-36. Number devoted to Surrealism, June 15, 1936 -h Mizue. Special number, May 20, 1937: Album surrealiste, edited by Shuzo Takiguchi and Tiroux Yamanaka. Tokio, 1937. This Quarter. Special Surrealist number edited by Andre Breton, Paris, September, 1932 4 Varietes. Special number: Le surrealisme en 1929, June, 1929, including articles by Sigmund Freud and others 292 Index of artists in the exhibition Note: Figures following artists' names refer to numbers in the catalog section. Adam: 92 Agar: 262 Aitken: 514a Alberts: 515 Aragon: 263 Architecture, Surrealist: 645-694 Arcimboldo: 1-5 Arcimboldo, tradition of: 6 Arp : 264-288 Baader: 289 Baargeld: 290-298 Baldung: 7-9 Banting: 299 de la Barre: 50 Bayer: 516-522 Beale: 93 Beall: 523 Becker: 524-525 della Bella: 51 Bellmer :300 Bernstein: 526 Blake: 94-100 Blume: 527-529 von Bommel: 52 Bosch: 10-14 Bosch, school of: 15 Bracelli: 53 Brauner: 301 Bresdin: 101-102 Breton: 302 Brueghel, the elder: 16-17 Burra: 303 Busch: 103 Cadavres exquis : 304-308 Calder: 530-531 Callot: 54 Carroll: 104 Castellon: 531a-535 Chagall: 184-189 Cheval: 645-648 Children, art of : 586-588 de Chirico: 190-215 Cole: 105 Commercial and journalis tic art : 618-622 Cornell: 309 Cruikshank: 106-107 Dali: 310-323 Daumier: 108-108a Delacroix: 109 Disney: 536-539 Domela-Nieuwenhuis : 540 Dominguez: 324-326 Dove: 541-542 Dreier: 543-544 Duchamp: 216-225a Diirer: 18-20 Dutch School, 19th century : 173 van den Eeckhout: 55 Eluard: 326a English School, 18th cen tury: 169-170 English School, 19th cen tury: 174 Ensor: 110 Ernst: 297-298, 327-373 Evans, 545-547 Exquisite corpse: see Cadavres exquis Feitelson: 548 Fernandez: 549 Fine: 21 Fini: 374-376 Floris: 22-24 Folk art: 609-617a French School, 17th century: 84-88 French School, 18th century: 89-90, 171-172 French School, 19th century: 175-177 Fiissli: 112-113 Fuseli: see Fiissli Gaillot : 114-119 Gaudi: 649-658 Gellert : 550-551 German School, 19th century: 178 Giacometti: 377-379 Gilbert: 552 Gill: 120 Gillray: 121-122 Giovanni di Paolo: 25 Giovanni da Udine: 26 Goldberg: 553-555 Gonzales: 556 Goujon: 27-30 Goya: 123-128 Grandville: 129-131 Grien : see Baldung Grosz: 380-382 Guglielmi: 557 Guimard: 658-669 Haussmann: 383-383a Hayter: 384-394 Heath: 132 Hoch: 395 Hogarth: 56-61 Holbein: 31 Hugnet: 399 Hugo, Valentine: 396-398 Hugo, Victor: 133 Huys: 32 Insane, art of : 589-608 Italian School, 19th century: 179 Jamnitzer, Christopher: 33-35 Jamnitzer, Wenzel: 36 Janco: 400 Jean: 401-402 293 Kandinsky: 226-228 Kaufcr: 558 Klee: 229-248 Kopman: 559 Kubin: 134 Kukryniksy: 560 Larmessin, Nicolas I de: 62-75 Lear: 135-144 Lenormand: 145 Leonardo da Vinci: 37-38 Lewis: 560a Lucas: 146 Lundebcrg: 561 Lynes: 562 Maar: 404-405 Maclver: 563 Magnasco : see Venetian School, 18th century Magritte: 406-412 Malevich: 564 Marinko: 564a Masson: 413-425 Mednikoff: 426 Merrild: 565 Meryon: 147-151 Mesens: 427-429 Miro: 430-444 Miscellaneous objects: 623-628 Moholy-Nagy: 566-568 Moore: 445-448 Morghen: 76-79 Musi: 39 Naegele: 152-153 Nash: 449 Noguchi: 569 Oelze : 450-451 O'Keeffe: 570-571 Oppenheim: 452 Paalen: 453-456 Pailthorpe: 457 Penni: 40 Penrose: 458 Picabia: 459-466 Picasso: 249-261 Piranesi: 80-81a Le Poitevin: 154 Putnam: 572-573 Ramelet: 155 Ray: 467-480 Redon: 156-167 Ribemont— Dessaignes : 481-484 Richier: 41 Rousseau: 168 Roy: 574-576 Scandinavian Surrealists : 514 Schad: 485-493 Schon: 43-44 Schongauer: 42 Schwitters: 494-496, 670-678 Scientific objects : 629- Seligmann: 576a Siqueiros: 577 Smith: 578-579 Spanish School, 19th century: 180 Sternberg: 580 Tauber— Arp: 511-512 Tanguy: 498-510 Terry: 679-694 Thurber: 581 Tonny: 582-584 Tzara: 513-514 Unknown artist: 16th century: 49 Unknown artist, 19th century: 181-183 Venetian School, 18th century: 91 Veneziano, Agostino: see Musi van Vianen: 82-83 Vogtherr: 44a-49 Wotherspoon: 585 294

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