Freud family  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

The family of Sigmund Freud, the pioneer of psychoanalysis, lived in Austria and Germany until the 1930s before emigrating to England, Canada and the United States. Several of Professor Freud's descendants have become well-known in different fields.

Freud's parents and siblings

Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), the famous psychoanalyst, was born to Jewish Galician parents in the Moravian town of Freiburg (which was then in the Austrian Empire, is now in the Czech Republic and called Příbor), a wool merchant, and his second wife Amalia Freud, née Nathansohn (1835-1930). Jacob Freud had two children from his previous marriage; with Amalia he had 8 children:

  • Sigmund (6 May 1856 – 23 September 1939)
  • Julius (April 1857 - December 1857)
  • Anna (31 December 1858 - 11 March 1955)
  • Regine Debora (nickname Rosa; born 21 March 1860, deported 23 September 1942)
  • Maria (nickname Mitzi; born 22 March 1861, deported 23 September 1942)
  • Esther Adolfine (nickname Dolfi; 23 July 1862, - 5 February 1943)
  • Pauline Regine (nickname Pauli; born 3 May 1864, deported 23 September 1942)
  • Alexander Gotthold Ephraim (19 April 1866 - 23 April 1943)

Anna married Ely Bernays, the brother of Sigmund's wife Martha. They moved to the United States in 1892 where their son Edward Bernays later became a major influence in modern public relations. Julius Freud died in infancy. Their four sisters Regine, Maria, Pauline and Esther became victims of the Nazi holocaust.

Persecution and emigration

The systematic persecution of Jews by Nazi Germany had a profound effect on the family. Sigmund Freud's sisters Regine, Maria and Pauline were killed in the Treblinka extermination camp, Esther in the Theresienstadt concentration camp. Freud's sons Oliver and Ernst Ludwig, who had lived in Berlin, fled to France and London respectively in 1933 after Hitler took power in Germany. Professor Freud himself left Vienna in 1938 and fled to Britain. He was accompanied by his wife Martha, his sister-in-law Minna Bernays, his daughter Mathilde and her husband Robert Hollitscher, his daughter Anna, as well as his son Jean-Martin with his wife Esti and their children. Their escape became possible after immigration permits to Britain had been secured for them by Ernest Jones, then President of the International Psychoanalytic Association. Sigmund Freud's brother, Alexander, escaped to Switzerland shortly before the Anschluss and subsequently emigrated to Canada.

Freud's children and descendants

Sigmund Freud married Martha Bernays (1861-1951) in 1886. Martha was the granddaughter of Isaac Bernays, a Chief Rabbi in Hamburg. They had 6 children:

  • Mathilde Freud (1887-1978) married Robert Hollitscher; no children
  • Jean-Martin Freud (1889-1967) married Esti Drucker (1896-1980); 2 children
  • Andrew Freud, Emily Freud, Juliet Freud
  • Ida Fairbairn (born 1952)
  • Caroline Penney (born 1955)
  • Sophie Freud (born 1924) married Paul Loewenstein; 3 children
  • Oliver Freud (1891-1969) married Henny Fuchs; 1 child
  • Eva Freud (1924-1944)
  • Stephen Freud (born 1921)
  • Dorothy Freud
  • Clement Freud (1924-2009, later Sir Clement Freud) married June Flewett (stage name Jill Raymond)
  • Nicola Freud
  • Tom Freud (born 1973)
  • Jack Freud, married to Kate Melhuish
  • Martha Freud
  • Sophie Freud (1893-1920) married Max Halberstadt;
  • Ernst Halberstadt (1914-2008) (also known as Ernest Freud)
  • Heinz Halberstadt (1918-1923)

Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Freud family" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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