Islamic fundamentalism  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Islamic fundamentalism (Arabic: usul, the "fundamentals") is based on Islamic ideology and is a group of religious ideologies seen as advocating a return to the fundamentals of Islam: the Quran and the Sunnah. It originated in the Middle East, and was spread with the help of several western powers to further political agendas. Definitions of Islamic fundamentalism vary. It is deemed problematic by those who suggest that Islamic belief requires all Muslims to be fundamentalists, and by others as a term used by outsiders to describe perceived trends within Islam. Exemplary figures of Islamic fundamentalism who are also termed Islamists are Sayyid Qutb, Ruhollah Khomeini, Abul Ala Mawdudi, and Israr Ahmad. The 1979 Islamic Revolution in Iran is seen by some scholars as a political success of Islamic fundamentalism.

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