La casa de Bernarda Alba  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

La casa de Bernarda Alba ('The House of Bernarda Alba') is a play by the Spanish playwright Federico García Lorca. Along with Bodas de sangre and Yerma it forms Lorca's Rural Trilogy. Lorca's last play, it was written in 1936, several months before Lorca's execution, and first performed in 1945. The play centers on the events of an Andalusian house during a period of mourning, in which the title character (age 60) wields total control over her five daughters Angustias (39 years old), Magdalena (30), Amelia (27), Martirio, (24), and Adela (20). The housekeeper (La Poncia) and Bernarda's mother (María Josefa) also live there. The deliberate exclusion of any male character from the action is highly significant as it helps to build up the high level of sexual tension that is present throughout the play. Pepe "el Romano", the love interest of Bernarda's daughters and suitor of Angustias, never actually appears on stage.

The play explores themes of repression, passion, and conformity, and inspects the effects of men upon women. Bernarda's cruel tyranny over her daughters foreshadows the stifling nature of Franco's fascist regime, which was to arrive just a few weeks after Lorca finished writing his play. Lorca's association with a number of intellectuals who belonged to the Communist Party of Spain such as Rafael Alberti was to result in his assassination shortly after the outbreak of Civil War in July 1936.

Two adaptations to film are worth mentioning: "La casa de Bernarda Alba" (1987) and its English made-for-TV movie counterpart, "The House of Bernarda Alba" (1991).

Contents

"Hot coals in the place where she sinned!"

The vicious Bernarda Alba, in the play with her name, shout out to the mob dragging away the adulteress, "Hot coals in the place where she sinned!", not aware she was condemning to death her very own daughter.

Summary

After the death of her second husband, Bernarda Alba becomes very strict with her five daughters who have hardly ever had any contact with the opposite sex. She imposes an eight-year mourning that will keep them enclosed since they are not allowed to mix with the villagers. When the eldest daughter (Angustias) inherits her father's fortune, she attracts a suitor (Pepe el Romano). Passion and jealousy between the daughters unravels and ends in tragedy. Adela, the youngest daughter, does not want to submit to her mother's will and secretly maintains a purely sexual relationship with Pepe. There is a big fight between the sisters concerning Pepe's "late night visits" to the girls bedroom windows. Adela commits suicide in the end of the story causing everyone to submit to Bernarda's demand for an eight year mourning period.

Characters in the play

  • Bernarda - Bernarda is a widowed mother who represents everything negative within the play. She is portrayed as a dictator within the house, her walking cane a reoccurring symbol that reinforces the power she holds over the household.
  • Angustias - She is planning on getting married because of her inheritance. She does not care, though; all she wishes is to be free of her oppressive mother. However, at 39 years old, she has already been worn down by Bernarda and has no hope for happiness. It is evident that Pepe el Romano only wishes to marry her for money. At 39 her looks have diminished.
  • Magdalena and Amelia - These two are the most sexually submissive daughters of the lot. They are the ones who willingly accept the power of their mother.
  • Martirio - The most complex character in the play. Her mother thwarted her wedding, and she is very jealous of Adela.
  • Adela - The youngest daughter and the rebel. She never gives in to her mother's tyranny. In a world of bitterness, she finds happiness. She challenges the moral standards, even though it leads to her tragic end.
  • Poncia - The maid. She gives advice to Bernarda when Bernarda is not bringing up their difference in social class.
  • La criada (The servant) - Another servant, lower rank than Poncia. Serves as someone for Poncia and the daughters to talk to.
  • María Josefa - The crazy mother of Bernarda who Bernarda keeps locked up. She functions as the comic relief of the play; her words are crazy, but true. She expresses what the other daughters won't dare express: her desire for freedom, love, and motherhood.
  • Pepe el Romano - He doesn't actually appear in the play although his actions create most of the drama within the play. He is the lover of almost all of the daughters (Adela particularly), although he is officially engaged to Angustias.

Themes

  • Tragic destiny - Adela rebels against the tyranny of her mother and pays with her life.
  • Oppression of women - Lorca feels compassion for less-fortunate individuals (those oppressed by society), and identifies with them.
  • Conservative society - Obsession with virginity, religion, observance of class...
  • Classism - We see the disrespect and ignorance associated with classism through the way in which Bernarda treats everyone who enters her house, especially towards her daughters and Poncia.
  • Appearance - appearance is all that really matters. Bernarda is obsessed with how her family appears to the outside world. She is not actually concerned with their actions. Appearance is also related to beauty which is a theme that comes up throughout the work. Adela's beauty, in particular, is one which becomes a constant theme. Ultimately her beauty becomes corrupted in the eyes of Lorca.
  • Authoritarianism - The cruel and irrational treatment of Bernarda's household. This is also symbolized by Bernarda's cane. She uses it to command respect in the house.
  • The Closet - As a homosexual, Lorca signifies through his writing the importance of the repression of the Closet. In La Casa de Bernarda Alba the closet is represented by the house, and Bernarda is an agent of the closet reinforcing its strength. Adela is a free girl who fights for freedom of expression, like Lorca himself.

Symbols

  • Water/Thirst - is normally a reference to sexual desire. At one point, Adela rushes downstairs to meet her lover when she is spotted by Poncia. She explains by saying that she is thirsty and needs a drink of water. The horse (pinned up) kicks when it is thirsty. The town doesn't have rivers, only wells. The wells are a symbol of death since their water is still while river water and the sea are seen as pure.
  • Black and white - The common Western connotations. Black represents everything bad (death, mourn, oppression, being closed in...) while white represents all things good (the truth, life, freedom). Black is mainly associated with Bernarda and all the daughters who wear black throughout the play, except Adela. White is mainly shown through María Josefa who appears dressed in a wedding gown. As is already said above, in her craziness she says what all the girls won't dare to say.
  • Green - The symbol of future death, it is worn by Adela when she confesses her love for Pepe el Romano. Also represents the jealousy between the sisters as they find Adela is the lover of Pepe el Romano, and over Angustias' engagement with Pepe. The passionate personality of Adela as well.
  • The cane - Symbolizes the power and sovereignty of Bernarda over her daughters. Adela finally breaks it near the end of the play.
  • The characters' names -
    • Amelia - derived from "amargo," bitterness
    • Martirio - Means 'martyr'
    • Angustias - Means 'anguish' or 'torment'
    • Alba - Perhaps a criticism of the family of the Duke of Alba. Lorca's political viewpoint was totally opposed to the elitist views of the Duke, and indeed, the Duke was to play a large role in Franco's Spain. In Spanish, "Alba" means also "Sunrise" and "White", who may link to the purity theme.
    • Magdalena - It is another name of anguish, because it has the connotations given by the Spanish saying "llorar como una Magdalena" ("to weep like Magdalene").


Aspects of ‘The House of Bernarda Alba’ that appear in Act One

Bernarda Alba (what we learn from other people)

• “A very white inner room” suggests Bernarda’s cleanliness.

• “Thick walls” suggests her security within her home. Keeps the gap between the village and her home.

• Poncia- “now that she’s not eating, she’d like to see us all die of hunger. Bossy domineering creature! She can go to hell!”

It is clear that Bernarda isn’t liked by her servants.

• Poncia- “She’s coming! Clean everything properly.

If Bernarda doesn’t see things shining here, she’ll pull out what little hair I’ve still got left”. Bernarda is clearly quite strict with her servants. It seems Poncia has a right to ‘hate’ Bernarda.

• Poncia- “she’s the cleanest, the most respectable, the most high and mighty”.

Reinforcing that Bernarda is very clean.

• Poncia-“Her poor husband’s earned his rest!” Implying here that maybe Bernarda has given him a hard time while he was alive.

• Servant- “Did all his relatives come?” Poncia- “Only hers. His people hate her” suggests that Bernarda’s family-in-law don’t like her, maybe through something she did to her husband?

• Poncia- “…no-one has ever set foot in this house. She doesn’t want them to see her on her own ground. Damn her.”

Shows Bernarda’s insecurity when around others of her village.

• Poncia- “But I still say ‘Damn her!’

I’d like to stick a red-hot nail in her eyes!” Again shows Poncia’s dislike for Bernarda.

• Poncia- “On that day I’ll lock myself in a room with her and I’ll spit on her for a whole year: ‘Bernarda, for this, for that, for that other thing’, til she looks like a lizard squashed by the kids, which is what she is, and all of her family too.”

Again shows Poncia’s anger at Bernarda.

• Poncia- “Since she’s the first husband’s child” Shows Bernarda has been married twice. (Or at least had two main partners).

• Poncia- “this glass has still got marks on it” symbolises the imperfections in Bernarda’s life that she will never be able to get rid of- “They won’t come off, not even with soap or a rag”.

• Poncia- “There’s no talking to you! Are we old friends or not?” It is clear she wants to be friends with Bernarda, but when Bernarda says “We are not! You serve me and I pay you. Nothing more!”

we realise that Bernarda really is selfish and doesn’t care about the feelings of others, especially not her servants. (this would probably have been common in the time in which the text is set)

• Martirio- “They’re terrified of our mother. She’s the only one who knows the truth about her father and how he got his land”

An element of mystery is bought into the play, as it seems Bernarda knows some valuable information about a man we learn is quite dangerous and a law-breaker.

• Magdalena- “but we waste away for fear of what people might say” reference to her mother (Bernarda) we definitely cares about what others think, and for that reason keeps the “thick wall” to stop people finding things out.

• Amelia- “If mother sees you, she’ll drag you by your hair!”

Amelia is reflecting upon the fact that Bernarda is very strict and is often strict in the way she enforces what she thinks.


Bernarda Alba (what we learn from what she says)

• Her stick is very important. It is mentioned frequently and is used to hit her daughter “(advancing with her stick) you soft, smarmy creature! (She strikes her)” and used as a rest. “She goes out slowly, leaning on the stick” She uses it to show her anger by bashing it on the floor “(banging the floor with her stick”)

• “Silence”, “Less howling and more work”

The authority figure in her house. Very unfriendly towards her servants. (Probably typical in the time in which the book is set)

• “I never let anyone lecture me. Be seated”

Again showing her authority and assertiveness to show the 200 mourners of her power.

• “Magdalena, stop crying. If you want to cry, get under your bed. Do you hear me?”

This lack of sympathy suggests that Bernarda herself isn’t upset about her husband’s death, and it is clear that she isn’t very sympathetic.

• “Women in church should look at no other man but the priest – and only at him because he wears skirts”

Bernarda is very forceful, wanting others to do as she says.

• Bernarda (to Magdalena, who is starting to cry) - “Sh-h-h!”

Shows Bernarda’s lack of sympathy towards others, even in a situation that she should also be finding distressing.

• Bernarda- (She bangs with her stick. The women go out.) (To those who are leaving) - “Get back to your caves and criticise all that you’ve seen! Let it be years before you cross my threshold again!”

Bernarda is being very defensive about her property and this re-enforces the idea that she is very private and likes her house to be separate form the village with the “Thick walls”.

• Poncia- “You can’t complain, Bernarda. The whole village came.” Bernarda- “Yes, to fill my house with the sweat of their underskirts and their poisonous tongues”

Bernarda feels that she is much better than the rest of the village.

• Bernarda- “what else can you say of this terrible village without a river”.

Bernarda feels that she is above the village in that she understands the importance of running water. She thinks she and her house are ‘the rose in the thorns’ (only rich in the poor town).

• “Is this a fan to give a widow? Give me a black one and lean to respect the mourning for your father”.

She has suddenly changed from being annoyed at the mourning of her husband by her daughter, to mourning herself when her children don’t seem to be giving her the right reaction.

• Martirio- “Take mine” Bernarda- “What about you?”

Martirio- “I don’t feel hot”

Bernarda- “Then find another one”

Bernarda doesn’t seem to be very grateful to her daughter with her offering, and instead is quite rude to her.

• “In the eight years this mourning will last the wind from the street shan’t enter this house. Imagine we’d sealed the doors and the windows with bricks”.

This emphasises Bernarda’s feeling of security within her own house.

• “In the meantime you can start to embroider your trousseaus. I have twenty pieces if linen in the chest for cutting out sheets. Magdalena can embroider them”

Changing back to being forceful with her children, getting them to work and out of her way.

• “Here you’ll do what I say”

Being very forceful again.

• Bernarda- “go with her. Make sure she doesn’t go near the well”. Servant- “Don’t worry, she won’t throw herself in”.

Bernarda- “it’s not that – from there the neighbours can see her from their windows”

Bernarda is conscious of what her neighbours can see of her and her family. She doesn’t want to raise attention, or let them see anything abnormal is taking place. It would have to be presumed that she is also doing this due to the fact Bernarda is hiding her deranged mother away from the village.

• Bernarda- “Is it proper for a woman of your class to be throwing a man the bait on the day of her father’s funeral? Answer me! Who were you looking at?”

It is Bernarda’s choice what her girls do, and in whom they are interested. (she seems to rule every part of her daughters lives)

• “And they come to funerals for that! (with curiosity) What were they talking about?”

She is quick to deny the right for her daughter to listen in on the men’s conversation, however feels it appropriate that she can hear it. (One rule for one, another rule for the others).

• Bernarda-“How dare you powder your face! How dare you wash your face on the day of your father’s funeral!"

Angustias- “He wasn’t my father. Mine died along time ago, don’t you remember?”

Bernarda- “You owe this man, your sisters’ father, more than you owe your own! Thank this man you have a fortune.”

Bernarda is persisting Angustias to do as she says, even though she must realise what she’s asking is unreasonable. It is also clear that Bernarda despises Angustias’s father.

• “Go out? After I’ve scrubbed all that powder from your face!”

Bernarda thinks that she can still control her 39 year old daughter who is soon to be married. This seems almost absurd to the reader. However, one expects that this was custom in the time in which the text is set.

• “My mother may be mad, but I’ve still got all my faculties. I know exactly what I’m doing.”

Bernarda states her reason for locking up her mother, and also reasons arguments about Angustias. (It is quite ironic as what she is actually arguing is not reasonable).

• “Until I leave this house feet first, I shall control my own affairs and yours”.

Bernarda still believes that she can control her daughters, something quite ridiculous to the reader.

• “Be quiet mother” Bernarda eve orders her mother around who is 80 years old and very frail. The harshness of this is worsened when Bernarda says “Lock her up”.

It makes it worse that she has someone do it for her. Bernarda’s worry about the will power of the Grandmother to escape leads Bernarda to say “Help her, all of you!”


Class Systems (rich v poor)

•Beggar woman- “I’ve come for the scraps”

Servant- “That’s the way out. Today’s scraps are for me”

Beggar woman- “Woman, you’ve got someone to look after you. My girl and me, we’re on our own”

Servant- “So are the dogs and they survive”

Beggar Woman- “They always give me them”

Servant- “Get out of here! Who said you could come in? Look at the mess you’ve caused”.

This shows the distinct contrast of the poor and rich in the village, and as would be expected, the poor are generally weaker, being told what to do by the richer. (Even though both women are poor in this confrontation)

• Servant- “Bring the wooden box with its fine gold trim and the silk straps to carry it! We’ll both end up the same. You can rot, Antonio…”

This is the underlying fact between the rich and the poor, that once dead; they will be the same- rotting in the ground.

• Bernarda- “The poor are like animals. It’s as if they are made of different stuff”.

First woman- “The poor feel their sorrows too”

Bernarda showing her ignorance, while the first woman tries to defend the poor in the situation of the death. In this way, it also seems that because Bernarda is being spiteful towards her servants and not mentioning the husband’s death that she doesn’t seem to be mourning the death of her husband. This is highlighted when the first woman does remind Bernarda of the death.

• Poncia- “You can’t complain, Bernarda. The whole village came.”

Bernarda- “Yes, to fill my house with the sweat of their underskirts and their poisonous tongues”

Bernarda feels that she is much better than the rest of the village. She clearly thinks they are ‘poor’ by the use of “caves” as a reference to their homes.

• Bernarda- “what else can you say of this terrible village without a river”.

Bernarda feels that she is above the village in that she understands the importance of running water. She generally feels that the town is ‘poor’.

• Bernarda- “Is it proper for a woman of your class to be throwing a man the bait on the day of her father’s funeral? Answer me! Who were you looking at?”

Bernarda thinks it is something that a lower class might do, but should not be done by someone in her family.


Societies views on Men and Women

• Bernarda- “Is the lemonade ready?”

Poncia- “Yes, Bernarda”

Bernarda- “Give some to the men”

Poncia- “They’ve got some in the courtyard”

Bernarda certainly has no intention of socialising with the men suggesting this is customary in this society. Also it is interesting that the men and women are split up; men outside in the courtyard and the women inside. This idea is backed up when Bernarda says “Make sure they leave the way they came in. I don’t want them coming through here”.

• Bernarda- “Women in church should look at no other man but the priest – and only at him because he wears skirts”

Bernarda is very forceful, and clear rules are set out within the society of what not to do. (focus on the negatives)

• Poncia- “From the men. This bag of money for prayers”

Bernarda- “Thank them and pour them a glass of brandy”

This again shows that men and women don’t mix, only through the servants who must do as their masters’ order. It is also interesting to note that the men have to pay for the prayers and not the women. Why is this?

• Magdalena- “I’d rather not embroider any. I know I’ll never get married. I’d rather carry sacks to the mill. Anything but sit here day after day in this dark room”

• Bernarda- “That’s what it means to be a women”

Magdalena- “A curse on Women!”

Bernarda- “Here you’ll do what I say. You can’t carry tales to your father now. A needle and thread for women. A whip and a mule for men. That’s how it is for people with a means”.

This is very a very stereotypical and old fashioned way to think, however, it was probably normal in the time period in which this text is set.

• Bernarda- “Is it proper for a woman of your class to be throwing a man the bait on the day of her father’s funeral? Answer me! Who were you looking at?”

Bernarda disagrees with her daughter having an interest in men. Unlike herself, who has had at least two main partners.

• Bernarda- “And they come to funerals for that”

(This is referring to the “disgusting conversations” that the men were engaging in) Bernarda stereotypes men, and thinks that one conversation that took place was commonplace throughout the meeting after the funeral.

• “No, but they like to see it and talk about it and suck their fingers when it happens”

(referring to the “loose woman” with her breasts exposed at the olive-grove) Again, Bernarda is stereotyping that what men want to see/do is opposite to what she wants to do. Still she is keen to hear the story.


The 5 Sisters (Adela v Angustias)

• Poncia- “Mind you, I don’t feel any envy. Five girls still on her hands, five ugly daughters, and only the eldest, Angustias, has any money, since she’s the first husband’s child. As for the rest, lots of fine lace and lots of linen petticoats, but nothing to inherit but bread and grapes.”

Shows Poncia’s prejudice against Bernarda’s daughters too.

• Bernarda- “Child give me a fan”

Adela- “Take this one”

Bernarda (hurling the fan to the floor) - “Is this the fan to give a widow? Give me a black one and learn to respect the mourning of your father.” Adela doesn’t seem to be popular with her mother.

• Magdalena- “It’s all the same to me”

Adela (sharply) - If you don’t want to embroider ours, leave them plain! Then yours will look much better”.

Adela tries to persuade Magdalena to do as she has been told, either because she actually doesn’t want Magdalena to embroider hers, or she doesn’t want conflict should Magdalena decide not to do as she is told.

• Bernarda- “Where is Angustias?”

Adela (pointedly) – “I saw her peeping through a crack in the main door. The men had just left.

Bernarda- “Any why were you at the door?”

Adela- “I went to see if the hens had laid”

Bernarda- “But the men must have left already”

Adela (pointedly) – “There was still a group standing outside”

Bernarda (furiously) – “Angustias, Angustias!”

Angustias (entering) – “What is it?”

Bernarda- “What were you looking at? And Who?”

Angustias- “no-one”

Bernarda- “Is it proper for a woman of your class to be throwing a man the bait on the day of her father’s funeral? Answer me! Who were you looking at?”

Adela seems to enjoy getting Angustias in trouble as this episode shows.

• “Thirty-nine, to be exact”

We learn that Angustias is 39, yet her mother still rules her life.

• Magdalena- “Ah! It’s already the talk of the town. Pepe el Romano is to marry Angustias.”

(Maybe makes her feel worse, as she doesn’t have a partner like Angustias).

• Magdalena- “were all family here and we know that she’s old, sickly, and has always been the one with less to offer than the rest of us”

I feel this is Magdalena’s jealousy that she doesn’t have a partner like Angustias.

• Amelia- “But she’s right! Angustias has her father’s money, she’s the only rich one in the house, and so, now that our father’s dead and his estate is being shared out, they’re after her”.

Again I think this is jealousy, but from Amelia this time. She is trying to make excuses, but it is clear that she is jealous of Angustias’s money and partner.

• Adela- “No, I shan’t get used to it! I don’t want to be shut away! I don’t want my skin to become like yours. I don’t want to lose my whiteness in these rooms! Tomorrow I’ll put on my green dress and I’ll go for a walk down the street! I want to go out!”

Motif of white (from walls right at the start of the play), symbolising how Adela wants to keep her purity in whatever form she values. Also, the way she wants to go out, against her mother’s wishes(demands) shows her rebellion maybe suggesting a turning point in the play for her?

• (response to the news that Pepe el Ramona is at the top of the street)

Magdalena- “Let’s go and see him!” (They run out)

Servant- “ Aren’t you going?”

Adela- “I’m not bothered”

It seems as if Adela is sulking at the fact Angustias has a better life than she does, in the sense that she has a partner who she is soon to marry, and she has money. Servant- “When he turns the corner, you can see his better from the window of your room” (Adela hesitates. After a moment she also rushes out to her room)” It seems Adela’s curiosity has got the better of her. Maybe so she can see what she might have in the future, or in the hope that he isn’t so special, making her feel that little less envious.

The 5 sisters (Magdalena, Amelia and Martirio)

• Magdalena faints at the start of the play- “The church looks lovely. During the first response Magdalena fainted”.

We also hear that she will be “most alone” presumably after the death of her father.

• Magdalena was apparently “the only one her father loved”.

• Poncia- “Mind you, I don’t feel any envy. Five girls still on her hands, five ugly daughters, and only the eldest, Angustias, has any money, since she’s the first husband’s child. As for the rest, lots of fine lace and lots of linen petticoats, but nothing to inherit but bread and grapes.” Shows Poncia’s prejudice against Bernarda’s daughters too.

• “Magdalena, stop crying. If you want to cry, get under your bed. Do hear me?”

Magdalena is clearly upset about the death of her father.

• Martirio- “Take mine”.

In offering his mother his fan, it seems he wants her affection, but doesn’t seem to get it.

• Bernarda- “In the meantime you can start to embroider your trousseaus. I have twenty pieces if linen in the chest for cutting out sheets. Magdalena can embroider them”

Magdalena- “It’s all the same to me”

Magdalena does as she is told by her mother, showing her appreciation to her mother, in that ‘she knows best’.

• Magdalena- “I’d rather not embroider any. I know I’ll never get married. I’d rather carry sacks to the mill. Anything but sit here day after day in this dark room”.

It seems Magdalena doesn’t have very much confidence and has low self-esteem. She also gets on with what she’s told to do, even if she doesn’t like it, as she says she doesn’t.

• Martirio- “She wants to cause trouble”

She is worried/anxious about the safety of her grandmother we presume.

• Amelia- “Have you taken your medicine?”

Martirio- “For all the good it’ll do to me”

It seems that the two have a good relationship, and that Amelia has almost taken on the mother role, in the absence of her mothers parenting skills.

• Amelia- “Did you notice? Adelaide wasn’t at the funeral”

Martirio- “I knew she wouldn’t be. Her fiancé won’t let her out the house. She used to be happy. Now she doesn’t even power her face”.

Amelia seems to be the one who tries to get others in trouble, whereas Martirio seems to be wiser. We also learn that Adelaide has escaped her mothers ‘reign’, but seems to have fallen into a similar situation (being controlled by someone else). It also seems ironic that Adelaide isn’t allowed out of the house, similar to Bernarda, who hates things outside her house, enjoying the separation of ‘rich from poor’ as she seems to think.

• Martirio- “God has made me weak and ugly and kept them away form me forever”

Like Magdalena, he has low self-esteem and confidence.

• Amelia- “Your shoe-lace is undone”

Magdalena- “It doesn’t matter!”

Amelia- “You might step on it and fall!”

Magdalena- “One less”

We see again how caring Amelia is, taking on the mother role. An interesting point to look at is the “one less”. Does this refer to herself? Does she feel she is a burden to her mother and family? This again emphasises the low self-esteem she has.

• Magdalena- “Both of you know more than me, Your heads are always together, like two little sheep, but you never confide in anyone else”

We see that there is a strong relationship between Martirio and Amelia which is noticed by some of the other characters. Also, as Magdalena has noticed it, it may signal that she maybe has low self-esteem because she doesn’t have a relationship like they do.

• Magdalena- “Money makes everything possible!”

Magdalena reflecting on the fact she will never have money, and is jealous of those who do (Angustias).



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