List of Latin words with English derivatives  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

This is a list of Latin words with derivatives in English (and other modern languages).

Ancient orthography did not distinguish between i and j or between u and v. Many modern works distinguish u from v but not i from j. In this article both distinctions are shown as they are helpful when tracing the origin of English words. See also Latin spelling and pronunciation.

Contents

Nouns and adjectives

The citation form for nouns (the one normally shown in Latin dictionaries) is the Latin nominative singular, but this typically does not exhibit the root form from which English nouns are generally derived.

Latin Nouns and Adjectives
Citation form Declining stem Meaning English derivative
acerbus acerb- bitter acerbic
acētum acēt- vinegar acetic
aedificium aedifici- building edifice
alacer alacr- quick alacrity
albus alb- white album, albino
aliusali- otheralien
animaanim-soul, lifeanimate, animal
animusanim-mind, angeranimosity
annusann-yearannual
ānserānser-gooseanserine
aquaaqu-wateraquamarine, aquatic
audāxaudāc-brave, boldaudacious
aurisaur-earaural
avisavi-birdavian, aviary
bellumbell-warbellicose, belligerence, antebellum
bonus
– melior
– optimus
bon-
– melior-
– optim-
good
– better
– best
bonus
– ameliorate
– optimist
bōsbov-cowbovine
caniscan-dogcanine
cervīxcervīc-neckcervix
cīviscīv-citizencivil, civilian
clāviculaclāvicul-little keyclavicle
coniūnxconiug-spouseconjugal
cornūcorn-hornunicorn, capricorn
deusde-goddeity, deification
diēsdiē-daydiary, quotidian
discipulusdiscipul-studentdisciple
dominusdomin-lorddominion, dominate, domain
domusdom-housedomestic, domicile
equus equ- horse equestrian
falx falc- sickle falcate
fēlēs (or fēlis) fēl- cat feline
fēminafēmin-womanfeminine, effeminate
fīliusfīli-sonfilial, affiliation
fīnis fīni- limit infinite, final
flōs flōr- flower floral, florist
folium foli- leaf folio, foliage, portfolio
fōrma fōrm-form, shape, beautyformal, information
fors fort-luckfortuitous
fortis fort-strengthfortitude, fortify, effort
frāterfrātr-brotherfratricide, fraternity
frōns front- forehead front,frontal
frūx frūg- fruit frugal
fūmus fūm- smoke fume
genusgen-birth, offspring, creationgeneration, genuine
homōhomin-man (human being)hominid
ignisign-fireignite
īnsulaīnsul-islandinsulate, peninsula
iūdexiūdic-judgejudge, judicial, adjudicate
iūsiūr-right, lawjustice, jurisdiction
lacrimalacrim-tearlachrymose
lēxlēg-lawlegal, alleged
lūnalūn-moonlunar, lunatic
lupuslup-wolflupine
magistermagistr-mastermagistrate
magnus
– māior
– maximus
magn-
– māior-
– maxim-
big
– bigger
– biggest
magnitude
– major
– maximum
malus
– peior
–pessimus
mal-
– peior-
– pessim
bad
– worse
– worst
malevolence, malice, malignant
–pejorative
–pessimist
manusmanu-hand, band of menmanual
maremar-seamarine, maritime
mātermātr-mothermatron, maternal
moramor-delaymoratorium
nihilnihil-nothingnil, nihilism, annihilate
noxnoct-nightnocturnal
oculusocul-eyeinoculate, ocular
onusoner-loadexonerate, onus
paterpatr-fatherpatron, paternal
pavīmentumpavīment-groundpavement
pēsped-footpedestrian
prior
– prīmus
prior-
– prīm-
former
– first
priority
– prime
pulcherpulchr-beautifulpulchritude
punctumpun(c)t-pointpunctuation, punctual, contrapuntal
rēxrēg-kingregal
rūsrūr-farmrural, rustic
sinistersinistr-leftsinister
terraterr-landterrain, terrestrial
undaund-waveundulate, inundate
urbsurb-cityurban, suburb
ursusurs-bearursine
vehiculumvehicul-wagonvehicle
vērusver-truthveracity, verify
vīllavill-country housevillage, villa
virvir-man (male person)virile
vulpēsvulp-foxvulpine

Verbs

In some Latin verbs, a preposition caused a vowel change in the root of the verb. For example, "capiō" becomes "incipio".

Latin Verbs
Citation form Present stem Perfect stem Participial stem Meaning Typical derivative
agōag-eg-āct-do action, agenda, agent
amōam- amav- amat- like, love amateur, enamor
audiō aud-audiv-audit-hear audible
capiō
-cipiō
cap-cep-
-cip-
capt-
-cept-
takecapable, captive, recipient, reception
cēdō cēd- cess- yield, depart recede, recession
cogitōcogit-cogitav-cogitat-think, pondercogitate
colligo collig- collegi collect- collect collect
claudō
-clūdō
claud-
-clūd-
claus-
-clūs-
close conclude, conclusive
clinō clin- clinat- lean inclination, recline
cubō cub- cubat- lie incubator
currō curr- cucurr- curs- run current, recursion
d- ded- dat-
-dit-
give add, dative, editor
doleō dol-doluidolit- grieve dolor, condolence
dubitōdubit-dubitav-dubitat- doubt indubitable
e- i- it- go ambition, obituary
faciō
-ficiō
fac-fec-
-fic-
fact-
-fect-
make effective, facile, factory
ferōfer-tul-lāt- bring fertile, refer, relate
fīgōfīg-fīx- fix- fix crucifixion
findō find- fiss- cleave, split fission
fingō fing- fict- fashion, invent fiction
flectō flect- flex- bend deflect, reflex
flō fl- flat- blow inflate
fluō flu- flux- flow effluent, influx
for f- fat- say, speak affable, infant
gradior
-gredior
gradi-
-gredi-
gress-
-gress-
nonestep ingredient, progressive
gustō gust- gustav- gustat- taste gustation
iaciō
-iciō
iac-iec-
(j)ic-
jact-
-ject-
throw inject, projectile
laudōlaud-laudav- laudat- praise laud, laudable
linquō linqu- liqu- lict- abandon derelict, relinquish
locōloc-locav-locat-place, putlocation
lūdōlūd-lūs-play collude, collusion
mergōmerg-mers- dip emerge, immerse
mittōmitt-mīs-miss- send commit, missive
moveōmov-mov-mot-move motion, motive, motor, move
nascornascinatusnonebe born nascent, natal, prenatal
necōnec-necav-necat-dead
nōscō
-gnōscō
nōsc-
-gnōsc-
nosc-nōt-
-gnōt-, -gnit-
knownotable
cognitive
nuntiōnunt-nuntiav-nuntiat-bring news of, announceannounce
petōpet-petiv-petit- seek, attack compete, petulant
pōnōpōn-posu-posit- put component, position
portō port- portat- carry deport, portage
premō
-primō
prem-press-press- push imprimatur, oppress, pressure
pugnōpugn-pugnav-pugnat-fightpugnacious
putōput-putav-putat- think compute, putative
rideō ris- laugh, smile derision, ridiculous
rumpō rump-rup-rupt-break interrupt, rupture
sciō sci-sciv-scit-know science
scrībōscrīb-scrips-scrīpt-write describe, scripture, scribble
sedeōsede-sed-sess-sit sedentary, sediment, session
sequor sequ- secut- sum follow consecutive, sequence
sum es- fu- futur- be essence, future
veniō ven- vent- come convene, prevention
vertōvert-vers-vers-turn reverse, revert, version
videōvidē-vid-vīs-see video, vision
vivōviv-vix-vict- live vivacity, victim, victorious
volō vell- volu- wish benevolent, malevolent, volition
volvōvolv- volūt-roll evolve, revolution
voveō vov- vot- vow votive

Prepositions used to form compound words

Latin Prepositions
Word Meaning Prefixes
ā, ab away from ab-, a-, abs-, as-
ad to, toward ad-, a-, ac-, af-, ag-, ar-
(ambi) around ambi-, amb-
ante before ante-, anti-
circum around circum-
cis this side of cis-
contrā against, opposite to contra-, contro-
cum together, with con-, co-, col-, com-, cor-
down from de-
dis- apart dis-, di-, dif-, dir-
ex, ē from, out of ex-, e-, ef-
extrā outside extra-
in in, into in-, il-, im-, ir-
īnfrā below infra-
inter among, between inter-, intel-
intrā within intra-, intro-
iuxtā beside juxta-
ob, obs by reason of ob-, oc-, of-, op-
paene almost pen-
per thorough, through per-
post after, behind post-
prae before pre-
praeter past preter-
prō for, in front of pro-, por-, prod-
(re) again, back re-, red-
without se-, sed-
sub below, under sub-, su-, suc-, suf-, sug-, sum-, sup-, sus-
subter beneath subter
super above, over super-
suprā above, more than supra-
trāns across trans-, tra-, tran-
ultrā beyond ultra-

See also




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "List of Latin words with English derivatives" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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