Manhole  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

A manhole is (alternatively utility hole, cable chamber, maintenance hole, inspection chamber, access chamber or confined space) is the top opening to an underground utility vault used to house an access point for making connections or performing maintenance on underground and buried public utility and other services including sewers, telephone, electricity, storm drains and gas.

The opening is protected by a manhole cover, also known as a "biscuit", a plug designed to prevent accidental or unauthorized access to the manhole. Those plugs are usually made of metal or constructed from precast concrete (especially in Europe). Manholes are usually outfitted with metal or polypropylene steps installed in the inner side of the wall to allow easy descent into the manhole.

Manholes are generally found in urban areas, in streets and occasionally under sidewalks. They are usually circular in shape to prevent accidental fall of the cover into the hole.

In rural and undeveloped areas, services such as telephone and electricity are usually carried on utility poles or even pylons rather than underground.

Hazards caused by stray voltage in manholes

In urban areas, stray voltage issues have become a significant concern for utilities. In 2004, Jodie S. Lane was electrocuted after stepping on a metal manhole cover, while walking her dog in New York City. One solution is the Electrified Cover Safeguard invention, which is an on-site, real-time stray voltage warning system which is being used in the street lights in New York City and is also being tested by ConEd and other utilities and municipalities in England, Europe, and Japan.Template:Citation needed

See also




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Manhole" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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