Manifesto of Naturalism  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Two texts are usually attributed as being the Manifesto of Naturalism, the first is the "Preface to the second edition of Thérèse Raquin" (1867) and the second the essay "The Experimental Novel" (1880). Both are by Émile Zola. A third text of Zola, "Les Romanciers naturalistes" (1881) , also defends Naturalism as genre, by tracing its precursors.

The preface to the 1888 play by August Strindberg, Miss Julie, is also sometimes labeled as a manifesto of Naturalism.

"The fact that my tragedy makes a sad impression on many is the fault of the many. When we become strong, as were the first French revolutionaries, it will make an exclusively pleasant and cheerful impression to see the royal parks cleared of rotting, superannuated trees which have too long stood in the way of others with equal right to vegetate their full lifetime; it will make a good impression in the same sense as does the sight of the death of an incurable." --tr. via The Social Significance of the Modern Drama

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