Marxist humanism  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Marxist humanism is a branch of Marxism that primarily focuses on Marx's earlier writings, especially the Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844 in which Marx espoused his theory of alienation, as opposed to his later works, which are considered to be concerned more with his structural conception of capitalist society. The Praxis School, which called for radical social change in Josip Broz Tito's Yugoslavia in the 1960s, was one such Marxist humanist movement.

Marxist humanism was opposed by the "antihumanism" of Marxist philosopher Louis Althusser, who described it as a revisionist movement.


Marxist humanists

Notable thinkers associated with Marxist humanism include:

  • György Lukács (1885-1971) Hungarian Marxist philosopher and literary critic.
  • Ernst Bloch (1885-1977) was a German Marxist philosopher.
  • John Lewis (philosopher) (1889-1976) British Unitarian minister and Marxist philosopher.
  • Antonio Gramsci (1891–1937) an Italian writer, politician, political philosopher, and linguist.
  • Walter Benjamin (1892-1940) German-Jewish Marxist literary critic, essayist, translator, and philosopher.
  • Herbert Marcuse (1898-1979) German philosopher and sociologist, and a member of the Frankfurt School.
  • Erich Fromm (1900-1980) internationally renowned social psychologist, psychoanalyst, and humanistic philosopher.
  • C. L. R. James (1901-1989) Afro-Trinidadian journalist, socialist theorist and writer.
  • Henri Lefebvre (1901-1991) was a French sociologist, intellectual and philosopher who was generally considered a Neo-Marxist.
  • Günther Anders (1902-1992) was a Jewish philosopher and journalist who developed a philosophical anthropology for the age of technology.
  • Jean-Paul Sartre (1905-1980) French existentialist philosopher, playwright, novelist, screenwriter, political activist, biographer, and literary critic.
  • Salvador Allende (1908-1973) Former President of Chile.
  • Raya Dunayevskaya (1910-1987) founder of the philosophy of Marxist Humanism in the United States of America.
  • Christopher Hill (historian) (1912-2003) English Marxist historian.
  • Lucien Goldmann (1913-1970) French philosopher and sociologist of Jewish-Romanian origin.
  • Paulo Freire (1921-1997) Brazilian educator and influential theorist of critical pedagogy.
  • André Gorz (1923-2007) Austrian and French social philosopher.
  • E. P. Thompson (1924-1993) English historian, socialist and peace campaigner.
  • Frantz Fanon (1925-1961) Psychiatrist, philosopher, revolutionary, and author from Martinique.
  • Ivan Sviták (1925-1994) Czech social critic and aesthetic theorist.
  • Karel Kosík (1926-2003) Czech philosopher, synthesized phenomenology and humanistic Marxism.
  • Wang Ruoshui (1926-2002) Chinese journalist and philosopher.
  • John Berger (b. 1926) English art critic, novelist, painter and author.
  • Leszek Kołakowski (1927-2009) Polish philosopher and historian of ideas.
  • Che Guevara (1928-1967) Argentine revolutionary, physician, author, intellectual, guerrilla leader, diplomat and military theorist.
  • David McReynolds (b. 1929) American democratic socialist and pacifist activist.
  • Frankfurt School (1930s onwards) The Frankfurt School is a school of neo-Marxist critical theory, social research, and philosophy.
  • Marshall Berman (1940-2013) American Marxist Humanist writer and philosopher.
  • Peter McLaren (b. 1948) one of the leading architects of critical pedagogy.
  • News and Letters Committees (1950s onwards) is a small, revolutionary-socialist organization in the United States. It is the world's most prominent Marxist-Humanist organization.
  • Lewis Gordon (b. 1962) Black American philosopher.
  • Nigel Gibson British & American philosopher
  • Praxis School (1960s and 1970s) Marxist humanist philosophical movement. It originated in Zagreb and Belgrade in the SFR Yugoslavia.

See also





Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Marxist humanism" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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