Mural  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

A mural is a painting on a wall, ceiling, or other large permanent surface.

Murals of sorts, date to prehistoric times, such as the paintings on the Caves of Lascaux in southern France, but the term became famous with the Mexican "muralista" art movement (Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros, or José Orozco). There are many different styles and techniques. The best-known is probably fresco, which uses water soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a rapid use of the resulting mixture over a large surface, and often in parts (but with a sense of the whole). The colors lighten as they dry.

Murals today are painted in a variety of ways, using oil or water based media. The styles can vary from abstract to trompe-l'œil (a French term for "fool" or "trick the eye"). Today, the beauty of a wall mural has become much more widely available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper which is then pasted to a wall surface.

History

Murals of sorts date to Upper Paleolithic times such as the paintings in the Chauvet Cave in Ardèche department of southern France (around 30,000 BC). Many ancient murals have been found within ancient Egyptian tombs (around 3150 BC), the Minoan palaces (Middle period III of the Neopalatial period, 1700–1600 BC) and in Pompeii (around 100 BC – AD 79).

During the Middle Ages murals were usually executed on dry plaster (secco). The huge collection of Kerala mural painting dating from the 14th century are examples of fresco secco. In Italy, circa 1300, the technique of painting of frescos on wet plaster was reintroduced and led to a significant increase in the quality of mural painting.

In modern times, the term became more well-known with the Mexican muralism art movement (Diego Rivera, David Siqueiros and José Orozco). There are many different styles and techniques. The best-known is probably fresco, which uses water-soluble paints with a damp lime wash, a rapid use of the resulting mixture over a large surface, and often in parts (but with a sense of the whole). The colors lighten as they dry. The marouflage method has also been used for millennia.

Murals today are painted in a variety of ways, using oil or water-based media. The styles can vary from abstract to trompe-l'œil (a French term for "fool" or "trick the eye"). Initiated by the works of mural artists like Graham Rust or Rainer Maria Latzke in the 1980s, trompe-l'oeil painting has experienced a renaissance in private and public buildings in Europe. Today, the beauty of a wall mural has become much more widely available with a technique whereby a painting or photographic image is transferred to poster paper or canvas which is then pasted to a wall surface (see wallpaper, Frescography) to give the effect of either a hand-painted mural or realistic scene.

History of Mexican murals

Mexican murals are an important part of Mexican culture and history, murals have been used for political, social, environmental, and cultural representation.

Mayans and Aztecs

Mural painting has deep roots in the history of Mexico. For thousands of years indigenous people of Mexico, like the Mayans and Aztecs, painted on their temples and palaces with scenes of everyday life. Some included human sacrifices, battles, celebrations, dancers, musicians, and the clothing they wore. These murals are important because they show in detail how the Mayans and Aztecs ancient civilization were back then in history.

Mural Movement

Starting in the early 1900s some of the greatest muralist of Mexico were called the Los Tres Grandes, Diego Rivera, Jose Clemente Orozco, and David Siqueiros. Their work had a profound impact on artist internationally. After the Mexican Revolution in the 1920’s, these artist were sensitive to the impact of social and political conditions in Mexico. They used their art as a visual dialogue with their native people.

The Chicano Movement of the 1960’s that stem from the Mexican Muralist found a place in southwest United States. The Chicano muralist had their own unique style. Their inspiration for their murals, document history, express cultural identities, and inspire political social activism that was influenced by the Civil Rights Movement.

Today, Chicano’s still use the walls of public places to place the history, struggles, hopes, needs, and dreams of its people.

See also




Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Mural" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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