Norms of reaction  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

In ecology and genetics, a norm of reaction describes the pattern of phenotypic expression of a single genotype across a range of environments. One use of norms of reaction is in describing how different species—especially related species—respond to varying environments. But differing genotypes within a single species will also often show differing norms of reaction relative to a particular phenotypic trait and environment variable. For every genotype, phenotypic trait, and environmental variable, a different norm of reaction can exist; in other words, an enormous complexity can exist in the interrelationships between genetic and environmental factors in determining traits. The concept was introduced by Richard Woltereck.

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