Norms of reaction  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

In ecology and genetics, a norm of reaction describes the pattern of phenotypic expression of a single genotype across a range of environments. One use of norms of reaction is in describing how different species—especially related species—respond to varying environments. But differing genotypes within a single species will also often show differing norms of reaction relative to a particular phenotypic trait and environment variable. For every genotype, phenotypic trait, and environmental variable, a different norm of reaction can exist; in other words, an enormous complexity can exist in the interrelationships between genetic and environmental factors in determining traits. The concept was introduced by Richard Woltereck.

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Norms of reaction" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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