Orthodox Judaism  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Orthodox Judaism is the approach to religious Judaism which subscribes to a tradition of mass revelation and adheres to the interpretation and application of the laws and ethics of the Torah as legislated in the Talmudic texts by the Tanaim and Amoraim and subsequently developed and applied by later authorities known as the Gaonim, Rishonim, and Acharonim. Orthodox Judaism generally includes Modern Orthodox Judaism and ultra-Orthodox or Haredi Judaism, but complete within is a wide range of philosophies. Orthodox Judaism is a modern self-conscious identification that, for some, distinguishes it from traditional premodern Judaism, although it would probably be considered the mainstream expression of Judaism prior to the 19th century.

As of 2001, Orthodox Jews and Jews affiliated with an Orthodox synagogue accounted for approximately 50% of British Jews (150,000), 26.5% of Israeli Jews (1,500,000) and 13% of American Jews (529,000). Among those affiliated to a synagogue body, Orthodox Jews represent 70% of British Jewry and 27% of American Jewry.

While some claim that the majority of Jews killed during the Holocaust were religiously Orthodox, numbering between 50-70% of those who perished, researchers have shown that Jewish Orthodoxy was nearly extinct at the time, consumed by the Jewish Enlightenment, secular Zionism and Socialist movements of pre-war Europe.

See also

Orthodox diversity
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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Orthodox Judaism" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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