Pattern  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

A pattern, from the French patron, is a type of theme of recurring events or objects, sometimes referred to as elements of a set of objects.

The elements of a pattern repeat in a predictable manner. Patterns can be based on a template or model which generates pattern elements, especially if the elements have enough in common for the underlying pattern to be inferred, in which case the things are said to exhibit the unique pattern. There are many different patterns in the world.

The most basic patterns, called Tessellations, are based on repetition and periodicity. In tessellation, a single template, tile, or cell is repeated without change or modification, usually in two dimensions to form a flat patterned surface.

Other patterns, such as Penrose tiling and Pongal or Kolam patterns from India, use symmetry which is a form of finite repetition, instead of translation which can repeat to infinity. Fractal patterns also use magnification or scaling giving an effect known as self-similarity or scale invariance. Some plants, like Ferns, generate a pattern using an affine transformation which combines translation, scaling, rotation and reflection.

A different kind of pattern generator is a simple harmonic oscillator, which produces repeated movements in time.

Pattern matching is the act of checking for the presence of the constituents of a pattern, whereas the detecting for underlying patterns is referred to as pattern recognition. The question of how a pattern emerges is accomplished through the work of the scientific field of pattern formation.

Pattern recognition is more complex when templates are used to generate variants. For example, in English, sentences often follow the "N-VP" (noun - verb phrase) pattern, but some knowledge of the English language is required to detect the pattern. Computer science, ethology, and psychology are fields which study patterns.

"A pattern has an integrity independent of the medium by virtue of which you have received the information that it exists. Each of the chemical elements is a pattern integrity. Each individual is a pattern integrity. The pattern integrity of the human individual is evolutionary and not static."
Buckminster Fuller (1895-1983), U.S.American philosopher and inventor, in Synergetics: Explorations in the Geometry of Thinking (1975), Pattern Integrity 505.201


Contents

See also

Bibliography

Patterns in art and architecture

Patterns in nature

  • Ball, P. The Self-made Tapestry: Pattern Formation in Nature. Oxford, 2001.
  • Edmaier, B. Patterns of the Earth. Phaidon, 2007.
  • Haeckel, E. Art Forms in Nature. Dover, 1974.
  • Stevens, P.S. Patterns in Nature. Penguin, 1974.

Patterns in science and mathematics

  • Adam, J.A. Mathematics in Nature: Modeling Patterns in the Natural World. Princeton, 2006.
  • Resnik, M.D. Mathematics as a Science of Patterns. Oxford, 1999.

Patterns in computing

  • Gamma, E., Helm, R., Johnson, R., Vlissides, J. Design Patterns. Addison-Wesley, 1994.
  • Bishop, C.M. Pattern Recognition and Machine Learning. Springer, 2007.





Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Pattern" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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