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"Music," writes Philodemus, a contemporary of Cicero, is "irrational and cannot affect the soul or the emotions, and is no more an expressive art [lit. imitative] than cookery." --A History of Aesthetic (1892) by Bosanquet

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Philodemus of Gadara (Φιλόδημος, Philodēmos}}, "love of the people"; Gadara, Coele-Syria, c. 110 BC – probably Herculaneum, c. 40 or 35 BC) was an Epicurean philosopher and poet. He studied under Zeno of Sidon in Athens, before moving to Rome, and then to Herculaneum. He was once known chiefly for his poetry preserved in the Greek anthology, but since the 18th century, many writings of his have been discovered among the charred papyrus scrolls at the Villa of the Papyri at Herculaneum. The task of excavating and deciphering these scrolls is difficult, and work continues to this day. The works of Philodemus so far discovered include writings on ethics, theology, rhetoric, music, poetry, and the history of various philosophical schools.

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