Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact  

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Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel
Kunstformen der Natur (1904) by Ernst Haeckel

Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact is the interaction between the indigenous peoples of the Americas who settled the Americas before 10,000 B.C.E., and peoples of other continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, or Oceania), which occurred before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean in 1492.

Many such contacts have been proposed, based on historical accounts, archaeological finds, and cultural comparisons. However, claims of such contacts are controversial and hotly debated, due in part to much ambiguous or circumstantial evidence cited by proponents. Only one instance of pre-Columbian European contactTemplate:Ndash the Norse settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, Canada c. 1000 C.E. - is regarded by scholars as demonstrated. The scientific responses to other pre-Columbian contact claims range from consideration in peer-reviewed publications to dismissal as fringe science or pseudoarcheology.

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