Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.

Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact is the interaction between the indigenous peoples of the Americas who settled the Americas before 10,000 B.C.E., and peoples of other continents (Africa, Asia, Europe, or Oceania), which occurred before the arrival of Christopher Columbus in the Caribbean in 1492.

Many such contacts have been proposed, based on historical accounts, archaeological finds, and cultural comparisons. However, claims of such contacts are controversial and hotly debated, due in part to much ambiguous or circumstantial evidence cited by proponents. Only one instance of pre-Columbian European contactTemplate:Ndash the Norse settlement at L'Anse aux Meadows in Newfoundland, Canada c. 1000 C.E. - is regarded by scholars as demonstrated. The scientific responses to other pre-Columbian contact claims range from consideration in peer-reviewed publications to dismissal as fringe science or pseudoarcheology.

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Pre-Columbian trans-oceanic contact" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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