Refus Global  

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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
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Train wreck at Montparnasse (October 22, 1895) by Studio Lévy and Sons.
Le Refus Global, or Total Refusal, was an anti-establishment and anti-religious manifesto released on August 9, 1948 in Montreal by a group of sixteen young Quebecois artists and intellectuals that included Paul-Émile Borduas and Jean-Paul Riopelle.

Le Refus Global originated from a group called Les Automatistes, led by Paul-Émile Borduas. This group created abstract paintings inspired by French surrealists of the time and scorned all academic teaching available at the time in Quebec. The signatories were also highly influenced by French poet André Breton's stream-of-consciousness style and extolled the creative force of the subconscious.

Le Refus Global was a manifesto that completely rejected the social, artistic and psychological norms and values of Quebecois society at the time. Calling for "an untamed need for liberation," the manifesto cried out for "resplendent anarchy" and criticized the "cassocks that have remained the sole repositories of faith, knowledge, truth, and national wealth[1]." Pierre Gauvreau, one of the signatories, said that the main message of the manifesto is that "God does not exist [2]." Almost immediately after its launch, all of the 400 copies of Le Refus Global were sold out. This manifesto caused an uproar, and as a result of this manifesto, Borduas lost his job at the Ecole du Meuble[3].

It has been said by commentators that from the publication of this manifesto, "modern French Canada began" [4], while CBC calls it "one of the most important and controversial artistic and social documents in modern Quebec society". [5] Along with the publication of Les insolences du Frère Untel (the impertinences of Brother Somebody), the Asbestos miners' strike of 1949, and the Maurice Richard Riot of 1955, Le Refus Global is widely seen to have been one of the fundamental causes of the Quiet Revolution.

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Unless indicated otherwise, the text in this article is either based on Wikipedia article "Refus Global" or another language Wikipedia page thereof used under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License; or on original research by Jahsonic and friends. See Art and Popular Culture's copyright notice.

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